Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1866 Part III NEXT-1867 Part I    
1860 - 1869
History at a Glance
1860 Part I
Treaty of Turin
First Taranaki War
Convention of Peking
Secession of South Carolina
Poincare Raymond
The Church Union
1860 Part II
Barrie James Matthew
Boucicault Dion
Dion Boucicault: "The Colleen Bawn"
Collins Wilkie
Wilkie Collins: "The Woman in White"
Wilkie Collins 
"The Moonstone"
"The Woman in White"
George Eliot: "The Mill on the Floss"
Di Giacoma Salvatore
Labiche Eugene-Marin
Multatuli: "Max Havelaar"
Alexander Ostrovski: "The Storm"
Chekhov Anton
Anton Chekhov
"Uncle Vanya"
1860 Part III
Degas: "Spartan Boys and Girls Exercising"
Hunt: "Finding of the Saviour in the Temple"
Manet: "Spanish Guitar Player"
Ensor James
James Ensor
Mucha Alfons
Alfons Mucha
Levitan Isaak
Isaac Levitan
Steer Philip Wilson
Philip Wilson Steer
Mahler Gustav
Mahler - Das Lied von der Erde
Gustav Mahler
Paderewski Ignace
Paderewski - Minuet
Ignace Paderewski
Suppe Franz
Franz von Suppe - Das Pensionat
Franz von Suppe
Wolf Hugo
Hugo Wolf - "Kennst du das Land"
Hugo Wolf
MacDowell Edward
MacDowell - Piano Sonata No. 1 "Tragica"
Edward MacDowell
Albeniz Isaac
Albeniz - Espana
Isaac Albeniz
1860 Part IV
Fechner Gustav Theodor
Lenoir Etienne
Walton Frederick
Across the Continent
Burke Robert O'Hara
Wills William John
Stuart John McDouall
Grant James Augustus
"The Cornhill Magazine"
"The Catholic Times"
Heenan John Camel
Sayers Tom
The Open Championship
Park William
1861 Part I
Confederate States of America
Davis Jefferson
First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
American Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Hatteras
The American Civil War, 1861
1861 Part II
Siege of Gaeta
Emancipation Manifesto
Louis I
1861 Part III
Dal Vladimir
Steiner Rudolf
Whitehead Alfred North
Charles Dickens: "Great Expectations"
Dostoevsky: "The House of the Dead"
George Eliot: "Silas Marner"
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "Elsie Venner"
Tagore Rabindranath
Charles Reade: "The Cloister and the Hearth"
Wood Ellen
Mrs. Henry Wood: "East Lynne"
Spielhagen Friedrich
Friedrich Spielhagen: "Problematische Naturen"
1861 Part IV
Garnier Charles
Anquetin Louis
Louis Anquetin
Godward John William
John William Godward
Bourdelle Antoine
Antoine Bourdelle
Korovin Konstantin
Konstantin Korovin
Maillol Aristide
Aristide Maillol
Melba Nellie
Royal Academy of Music, London
The Paris version "Tannhauser"
1861 Part V
Thallium (Tl)
Hopkins Frederick Gowland
Mort Thomas Sutcliffe
Nansen Fridtjof
Fermentation theory
Baker Samuel
Baker Florence
The Bakers and the Nile
Beeton Isabella
Harden Maximilian
First horse-drawn trams in London
Order of the Star of India
Otis Elisha Graves
1862 Part I
Battle of Fort Henry
Second Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Fredericksburg
Grey Edward
Briand Aristide
The American Civil War, 1862
1862 Part II
Rawlinson George
Ogai Mori
Ivan Turgenev: "Fathers and Sons"
Flaubert: "Salammbo"
Victor Hugo: "Les Miserables"
Barres Maurice
Maeterlinck Maurice
Hauptmann Gerhart
Wharton Edith
Schnitzler Arthur
Uhland Ludwig
1862 Part III
Albert Memorial, London
Manet: "Lola de Valence"
Manet: "La Musique aux Tuileries"
Nesterov Mikhail
Mikhail Nesterov
Klimt Gustav
Gustav Klimt
Rysselberghe Theo
Theo van Rysselberghe
Berlioz: "Beatrice et Benedict"
Debussy Claude
Debussy - Preludes
Claude Debussy
Delius Frederick
Frederick Delius - On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring
Frederick Delius
German Edward
Edward German - Melody in D flat major
Edward German
Kochel Ludwig
Kochel catalogue
Verdi: "La Forza del Destino"
1862 Part IV
Bragg William
Foucault Leon
Gatling Richard Jordan
Lamont Johann
Lenard Pnilipp
Sachs Julius
Palgrave William Gifford
The Arabian Desert
International Exhibition, London
1863 Part I
West Virginia
Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Chancellorsville
Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address"
The American Civil War, 1863
1863 Part II
Isma'il Pasha
January Uprising
George I of Greece
Dost Mohammad Khan
Christian IX  of Denmark
Chamberlain Austen
Lloyd George David
Second Taranaki War
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
1863 Part III
Huxley: "Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature"
Charles Lyell: "The Antiquity of Man"
Massachusetts Agricultural College
D'Annunzio Gabriele
Bahr Hermann
Dehmel Richard
Hale Edward Everett
Edward Everett Hale: "Man without a Country"
Hope Anthony
Charles Kingsley: "The Water Babies"
Longfellow: "Tales of a Wayside Inn"
Quiller-Couch Arthur
Stanislavsky Constantin
Stanislavsky system
1863 Part IV
Stuck Franz
Manet: "Dejeuner sur l'herbe"
Manet: "Olympia"
Meurent Victorine-Louise
The "Salon des Refuses" in Paris
Art in Revolt
Impressionism Timeline
Signac Paul
Paul Signac
Munch Edvard
Edvard Munch
Berlioz: "Les Troyens"
Bizet: "Les Pecheurs de perles"
Mascagni Pietro
Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana
Pietro Mascagni
Weingartner Felix
Felix von Weingartner: Symphony No 6
Felix Weingartner
1863 Part V
Billroth Theodor
Butterick Ebenezer
Ford Henry
Graham Thomas
National Academy of Sciences
Sorby Henry Clifton
The Football Association, London
Grand Prix de Paris
Hearst William Randolph
Yellow journalism
Pulitzer Joseph
History of photography
Alexandra of Denmark
Royce Henry
Cuthbert Ned
Coburn Joe
Mike McCoole
1864 Part I
Schleswig-Holstein Question
First Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
Halleck Henry
Sherman William
Sand Creek massacre
Venizelos Eleutherios
Maximilian II of Bavaria
Louis II
First International Workingmen's Association
Confederate Army of Manhattan
The American Civil War, 1864
1864 Part II
Lombroso Cesare
Newman: "Apologia pro Vita Sua"
Syllabus of Errors
Dickens: "Our Mutual Friend"
Karlfeldt Erik Axel
Trollope: "The Small House at Allington"
Wedekind Frank
Zangwill Israel
1864 Part III
Stieglitz Alfred
History of photography
Dyce William
William Dyce
Jawlensky Alexey
Alexei von Jawlensky
Ranson Paul
Paul Ranson
Serusier Paul
Paul Serusier
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
A More Tolerant Salon
Impressionism Timeline
Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"
Roberts David
David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"
D'Albert Eugen
Eugen d'Albert - Piano Concerto No.2
Eugen d’Albert
Foster Stephen
Stephen Foster - Beautiful Dreamer
Offenbach: "La Belle Helene"
Strauss Richard
Richard Strauss - Metamorphosen
Richard Strauss
Fry William Henry
William Henry Fry - Santa Claus Symphony
William Henry Fry - Niagara Symphony
1864 Part IV
Lake Albert
Bertrand Joseph
Nernst Walther
Wien Wilhelm
Rawat Nain Singh
The Surveyors
First Geneva Convention
Knights of Pythias
"Neue Freie Presse""
De Rossi Giovanni Battista
"In God We Trust"
Travers Stakes
Farragut David
1865 Part I
Union blockade in the American Civil War
Charleston, South Carolina in the American Civil War
Lee Robert Edward
Conclusion of the American Civil War
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Johnson Andrew
Causes of the Franco-Prussian War
Leopold II of Belgium
Harding Warren
George V of Great Britain
Ludendorff Erich
Free State–Basotho Wars
The American Civil War, 1865
1865 Part II
Baudrillart Henri
William Stanley Jevons: "The Coal Question"
Billings Josh
Belasco David
Campbell Patrick
Lewis Carroll: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
Dodge Mary Mapes
Mary Mapes Dodge: "Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates"
Kipling Rudyard
Rudyard Kipling
Merezhkovsky Dmitry
John Henry Newman: "Dream of Gerontius"
Mark Twain: "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"
Walt Whitman: "Drum-Taps"
Yeats William Butler
1865 Part III
Serov Valentin
Valentin Serov
Wiertz Antoine
Antoine Wiertz
Vallotton Felix
Felix Vallotton
"Olympia" - a Sensation
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Nielsen Carl
Carl Nielsen - Aladdin Suite
Carl Nielsen
Glazunov Alexander
Glazunov - The Seasons
Alexander Glazunov
Dukas Paul
Paul Dukas "L'Apprenti Sorcier"
Paul Dukas
Meyerbeer: "L'Africaine"
Sibelius Jean
Jean Sibelius - Finlandia
Jean Sibelius
Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde"
1865 Part IV
Plucker Julius
Hyatt John Wesley
Kekule: structure of benzene
Lowe Thaddeus
Mendelian inheritance
Sechenov Ivan
Whymper Edward
The High Andes
 Bingham Hiram
Rohlfs Friedrich Gerhard
Open hearth furnace
Martin Pierre-Emile
Ku Klux Klan
"The Nation"
Marquess of Queensberry Rules
"San Francisco Examiner"
"San Francisco Chronicle"
Mitchell Maria
1866 Part I
Cuza Alexandru
"Monstrous coalition"
Carol I
Austro-Prussian War
Battle of Custoza
Battle of Trautenau
Battle of Koniggratz
Battle of Lissa
Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869
MacDonald Ramsay
Sun Yat-sen
1866 Part II
Croce Benedetto
Soderblom Nathan
Larousse Pierre
Larousse: Great Universal Dictionary of the 19th Century
Friedrich Lange: "History of Materialism"
Benavente Jacinto
Dostoevsky: "Crime and Punishment"
Hamerling Robert
Ibsen: "Brand"
Kingsley: "Hereward the Wake"
Rolland Romain
Wells Herbert
H.G. Wells
"The War of the Worlds"

"The Invisible Man"
"A Short History of the World"
1866 Part III
Bakst Leon
Leon Bakst
Fry Roger
Kandinsky Vassili
Vassili Kandinsky
A Defender Appears
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Busoni Ferruccio
Ferruccio Busoni - Berceuse Elegiaque
Ferruccio Busoni
Offenbach: "La Vie Parisienne"
Smetana: "The Bartered Bride"
Satie Eric
Erik Satie: Nocturnes
Eric Satie
1866 Part IV
Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
Morgan Thomas Hunt
Nicolle Charles
Werner Alfred
Whitehead Robert
Whitehead torpedo
Doudart de Lagree Ernest
Panic of 1866
Thomas Morris
MacGregor John
1867 Part I
Manchester Martyrs
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Constitution Act, 1867
Alaska Purchase
North German Confederation
Reform Act of 1867
Battle of Mentana
Mary of Teck
Baldwin Stanley
Rathenau Walther
Pilsudski Joseph
1867 Part II
Bagehot Walter
Walter Bagehot: "The English Constitution"
Freeman Edward Augustus
Freeman: The History of the Norman Conquest of England
Marx: "Das Kapital"
Thoma Ludwig
Soseki Natsume
Russell George William
Reymont Wladislau
Bennett Arnold
Balmont Konstantin
Pirandello Luigi
Galsworthy John
Charles de Coster: "The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel"
Ouida: "Under Two Flags"
Trollope: "The Last Chronicle of Barset"
Turgenev: "Smoke"
Zola: "Therese Raquin"
Ibsen: "Peer Gynt"
1867 Part III
Delville Jean
Jean Delville
Kollwitz Kathe
Kathe Kollwitz
Nolde Emil
Emil Nolde
Bonnard Pierre
Pierre Bonnard
Manet's Personal Exhibition
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "La Jolie Fille de Perth"
Gounod: "Romeo et Juliette"
Offenbach: "La Grande-Duchesse de Gerolstein"
Johann Strauss II: The "Blue Danube"
Toscanini Arturo
Verdi: "Don Carlos"
Granados Enrique
Enrique Granados - Spanish Dances
Enrique Granados
1867 Part IV
Curie Marie
Michaux Pierre
Monier Joseph
Brenner Railway
Mining industry of South Africa
Thurn and Taxis
Chambers John Graham
London Athletic Club
Barnardo Thomas John
1868 Part I
British Expedition to Abyssinia
Battle of Magdala
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tenure of Office Act
Province of Hanover
Russian Turkestan
Mihailo Obrenovic III
Milan I of Serbia
Glorious Revolution
Horthy Nicholas
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
1868 Part II
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy
Charles Darwin: "The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication"
Louisa May Alcott: "Little Women"
Robert Browning: "The Ring and the Book"
Wilkie Collins: "The Moonstone"
Dostoevsky: "The Idiot"
George Stefan
Gorki Maxim
Rostand Edmond
Edmond Rostand
"Cyrano De Bergerac"
1868 Part III
Bernard Emile
Emile Bernard
Vollard Ambroise
Slevogt Max
Max Slevogt
Vuillard Edouard
Edouard Vuillard
The Realist Impulse
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bantock Granville
Bantock "Overture The Frogs"
Granville Bantock
Brahms: "Ein deutsches Requiem"
Schillings Max
Max von Schillings: Mona Lisa
Max von Schillings
Wagner: "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1
1868 Part IV
Lartet Louis
Haber Fritz
Millikan Robert Andrews
Richards Theodore William
Scott Robert Falcon
Armour Philip Danforth
Badminton House
Garvin James Louis
Harmsworth Harold
Trades Union Congress
"Whitaker's Almanack"
Sholes Christopher Latham
1869 Part I
Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant
French legislative election, 1869
Prohibition Party
Red River Rebellion
Chamberlain Neville
Gandhi Mahatma
1869 Part II
Matthew Arnold: "Culture and Anarchy"
Eduard Hartmann: "The Philosophy of the Unconscious"
Mill: "On The Subjection of Women"
First Vatican Council
Blackmore Richard Doddridge
Blackmore: "Lorna Doone"
Flaubert: "Sentimental Education"
Gide Andre
Gilbert: "Bab Ballads"
Halevy Ludovic
Bret Harte: "The Outcasts of Poker Flat"
Victor Hugo: "The Man Who Laughs"
Leacock Stephen
Mark Twain: "The Innocents Abroad"
Tolstoy: "War and Peace"
1869 Part III
Lutyens Edwin
Poelzig Hans
Carus Carl Gustav
Carl Gustav Carus
Somov Konstantin
Konstantin Somov
Matisse Henri
Henri Matisse
Manet Falls Foul of the Censor
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 0
Pfitzner Hans
Pfitzner - Nachts
Hans Pfitzner
Wagner Siegfried
Siegfried Wagner "Prelude to Sonnenflammen"
Richard Wagner: "Das Rheingold"
Roussel Albert
Albert Roussel - Bacchus et Ariane
Albert Roussel
Wood Henry
1869 Part IV
Francis Galton: "Hereditary Genius"
Periodic law
Nachtigal Gustav
Cincinnati Red Stockings
Girton College, Cambridge
1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game
Co-operative Congress
Lesseps Ferdinand
Suez Canal

John MacGregor (Rob Roy) captured during his exploration of the upper reaches of the River Jordan.
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1866 Part IV
Aeronautical Society of Great Britain

The Royal Aeronautical Society, also known as the RAeS, is a British-founded multidisciplinary professional institution dedicated to the global aerospace community. It is the oldest aeronautical society in the world.

The Society was founded in January, 1866

The objectives of The Royal Aeronautical Society include: to support and maintain high professional standards in aerospace disciplines; to provide a unique source of specialist information and a local forum for the exchange of ideas; and to exert influence in the interests of aerospace in the public and industrial arenas.

The Royal Aeronautical Society is a worldwide society with an international network of 67 branches. Many practitioners of aerospace disciplines use the Society's designatory post-nominals such as FRAeS, CRAeS, MRAeS, AMRAeS, and ARAeS (incorporating the former graduate grade, GradRAeS).

The RAeS headquarters is located in the United Kingdom. The staff of the Royal Aeronautical Society are based at the Society's headquarters at No.4 Hamilton Place, London, W1J 7BQ. The headquarters is on the north-east edge of Hyde Park Corner, with the nearest access being Hyde Park Corner tube station.

Branches and divisions
Branches are the regional embodiment of the Society. They deliver membership benefits and provide a global platform for the dissemination of aerospace information. As of September 2013, branches located in the United Kingdom include: Belfast; Birmingham; Boscombe Down; Bristol; Brough; Cambridge; Cardiff; Chester; Christchurch; Coventry; Cranfield; Cranwell; Derby; FAA Yeovilton; Farnborough; Gatwick; Glouc & Cheltenham; Hatfield; Heathrow; Highland; Isle of Wight; Isle of Man; Loughborough; Manchester; Marham; Medway; Oxford; Preston; Prestwick; Sheffield; Solent; Southend; Stevenage; Swindon; Weybridge; Yeovil

The RAeS international branch network includes: Adelaide; Auckland; Blenheim; Brisbane; Brussels; Canberra; Canterbury; Cyprus; Dublin; Hamburg; Hamilton; Hong Kong; Malaysia; Melbourne; Montreal; Munich; Palmerston North; Paris; Perth; Seattle; Singapore; Sydney; Toulouse; UAE; Divisions of the Society have been formed in countries and regions that can sustain a number of Branches. Divisions operate with a large degree of autonomy, being responsible for their own branch network, membership recruitment, subscription levels, conference and lecture programmes.

Specialist Groups covering all facets of the aerospace industry exist under the overall umbrella of the Society, with the aim of serving the interests of both enthusiasts and industry professionals.

The Society's headquarters at No.4 Hamilton Place in London
The Groups' remit is to consider significant developments in their field, and they attempt to achieve this through their conferences and lectures, with the intention of stimulating debate and facilitating action on key industry issues in order to reflect and respond to the constant innovation and progress in aviation. The Groups also act as focal points for all enquiries to the Society concerning their specialist subject matter, forming a crucial interface between the Society and the world in general.

As of September 2013, the Specialist Group committees are as follows: Aerodynamics; Aerospace Medicine; Aircraft Maintenance Engineers; Air Power; Air Law; Air Transport; Airworthiness & Maintenance; Avionics & Systems; Environment; Flight Operations; Flight Simulation; Flight Test; General Aviation; Greener by Design; Historical; Human Factors; Human Powered Flight; Management Studies; Propulsion; Rotorcraft; Space; Structures & Materials; UAS; Weapons Systems & Technologies; Women in Aviation & Aerospace

In 2009, the Royal Aeronautical Society formed a group of experts to document how to better simulate aircraft upset conditions, and thus improve training programs.

The Society was founded in January, 1866 with the name The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain and is the oldest aeronautical society in the world. Early or founding members included James Glaisher, Francis Wenham, the duke of Argyll, and Frederick Brearey. In the first year, there were 65 members; at the end of the second year, 91 members, and in the third year, 106 members. Annual reports were produced in the first decades. In 1868 the Society held a major exhibition at London's Crystal Palace with 78 entries. John Stringfellow's steam engine was shown there. The Society sponsored the first wind tunnel in 1870-71, designed by Wenham and Browning.

In 1918, the organization's name was changed to the Royal Aeronautical Society. In 1923 its principal journal was renamed from The Aeronautical Journal to The Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society and in 1927 the Institution of Aeronautical Engineers Journal was merged into it.

  In 1940, the RAeS responded to the wartime need to expand the aircraft industry.

The Society established a Technical Department to bring together the best available knowledge and present it in an authoritative and accessible form – a working tool for engineers who might come from other industries and lack the specialised knowledge required for aircraft design.

This technical department became known as the Engineering Sciences Data Unit (ESDU) and eventually became a separate entity in the 1980s.

In 1987 the Society of Licensed Aircraft Engineers and Technologists, previously called the Society of Licensed Aircraft Engineers, was incorporated into the Royal Aeronautical Society.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Haeckel Ernst: "General Morphology" (fundamental law of biogenetics)

THE TREE OF LIFE c. 1866 by Haeckel Ernst
Morgan Thomas Hunt

Thomas Hunt Morgan, (born Sept. 25, 1866, Lexington, Ky., U.S.—died Dec. 4, 1945, Pasadena, Calif.), American zoologist and geneticist, famous for his experimental research with the fruit fly (Drosophila) by which he established the chromosome theory of heredity. He showed that genes are linked in a series on chromosomes and are responsible for identifiable, hereditary traits. Morgan’s work played a key role in establishing the field of genetics. He received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1933.

Early life
Morgan’s father, Charlton Hunt Morgan, was a U.S. consul, and his uncle, John Hunt Morgan, had been a Confederate army general.

Early in life, Morgan showed an interest in natural history. In 1886 he received the B.S. degree from the State College of Kentucky (later the University of Kentucky) in zoology and then entered Johns Hopkins University for graduate work in biology. At Hopkins, Morgan studied under the morphologist and embryologist William Keith Brooks. After being awarded the Ph.D. in 1890, Morgan remained there a year before accepting a teaching post at Bryn Mawr College.


Thomas Hunt Morgan
  Experiments in embryology
During the period 1893–1910, Morgan applied experimental techniques to fundamental problems of embryology. In order to identify causally related events during development, he analyzed such problems as the formation of embryos from separated blastomeres (early embryonic cells) and fertilization in nucleated and nonnucleated egg fragments. As examples of the effects of physical factors, he analyzed the way in which the spatial orientation of eggs affects their future development and the action of salt concentration on the development of fertilized and unfertilized eggs.

In 1904 he married one of his graduate students at Bryn Mawr, Lillian V. Sampson, a cytologist and embryologist of considerable skill. The same year, he accepted an invitation to assume the professorship of experimental zoology at Columbia University, where, during the next 24 years, he conducted most of his important research in heredity.

Like most embryologists and many biologists at the turn of the century, Morgan found the Darwinian theory of evolution lacking in plausibility. It was difficult to conceive of the development of complex adaptations simply by an accumulation of slight chance variations. Moreover, Darwin had provided no mechanism of heredity to account for the origin or transmission of variations, except his early and hypothetical theory of pangenesis. Although Morgan believed that evolution itself was a fact, the mechanism of natural selection proposed by Darwin seemed incomplete because it could not be put to an experimental test.

Morgan had quite different objections to the Mendelian and chromosome theories. Both theories attempted to explain biological phenomena by postulating units or material entities in the cell that somehow control developmental events. To Morgan this was too reminiscent of the preformation theory—the idea that the fully formed adult is present in the egg or sperm—that had dominated embryology in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Although Morgan admitted that the chromosomes might have something to do with heredity, he argued in 1909 and 1910 that no single chromosome could carry specific hereditary traits. He also claimed that Mendelian theory was purely hypothetical: although it could account for and even predict breeding results, it could not describe the true processes of heredity. That each pair of chromosomes separates, with the individual chromosomes then going into different sperm or egg cells in exactly the same manner as Mendelian factors, did not seem to be sufficient proof to Morgan for claiming that the two processes had anything to do with each other.
The work on Drosophila Drosophila in 1908. In 1909 he observed a small but discrete variation known as white-eye in a single male fly in one of his culture bottles. Aroused by curiosity, he bred the fly with normal (red-eyed) females. All of the offspring (F1) were red-eyed. Brother–sister matings among the F1 generation produced a second generation (F2) with some white-eyed flies, all of which were males.

To explain this curious phenomenon, Morgan developed the hypothesis of sex-limited—today called sex-linked—characters, which he postulated were part of the X-chromosome of females. Other genetic variations arose in Morgan’s stock, many of which were also found to be sex-linked. Because all the sex-linked characters were usually inherited together, Morgan became convinced that the X-chromosome carried a number of discrete hereditary units, or factors. He adopted the term gene, which was introduced by the Danish botanist Wilhelm Johannsen in 1909, and concluded that genes were possibly arranged in a linear fashion on chromosomes.
Sex linked inheritance of the white eyed mutation.
Much to his credit, Morgan rejected his skepticism about both the Mendelian and chromosome theories when he saw from two independent lines of evidence—breeding experiments and cytology—that one could be treated in terms of the other.

In collaboration with A.H. Sturtevant, C.B. Bridges, and H.J. Muller, who were graduates at Columbia, Morgan quickly developed the Drosophila work into a large-scale theory of heredity. Particularly important in this work was the demonstration that each Mendelian gene could be assigned a specific position along a linear chromosome “map.” Further cytological work showed that these map positions could be identified with precise chromosome regions, thus providing definitive proof that Mendel’s factors had a physical basis in chromosome structure. A summary and presentation of the early phases of this work was published by Morgan, Sturtevant, Bridges, and Muller in 1915 as the influential book The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity. To varying degrees Morgan also accepted the Darwinian theory by 1916.


Sex-linked inheritance of white eyes in Drosophila flies.
In 1928 Morgan was invited to organize the division of biology of the California Institute of Technology. He was also instrumental in establishing the Marine Laboratory on Corona del Mar as an integral part of Caltech’s biology training program. In subsequent years, Morgan and his coworkers, including a number of postdoctoral and graduate students, continued to elaborate on the many features of the chromosome theory of heredity. Toward the end of his stay at Columbia and more so after moving to California, Morgan himself slipped away from the technical Drosophila work and began to return to his earlier interest in experimental embryology. Although aware of the theoretical links between genetics and development, he found it difficult at that time to draw the connection explicitly and to support it with experimental evidence.

In 1924 Morgan received the Darwin Medal; in 1933 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery of “hereditary transmission mechanisms in Drosophila”; and in 1939 he was awarded the Copley Medal by the Royal Society of London, of which he was a foreign member. In 1927–31 he served as president of the National Academy of Sciences; in 1930 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; and in 1932 of the Sixth International Congress of Genetics. He remained on the faculty at Caltech until his death.

Among Morgan’s most important books are those dealing with (1) evolution: Evolution and Adaptation (1903), in which he strongly criticizes Darwinian theory; and A Critique of the Theory of Evolution, (1916), a more favourable view of the selection process; (2) heredity: Heredity and Sex (1913), his first major exposition of the Mendelian system in relation to Drosophila; and with A.H. Sturtevant, H.J. Muller, and C.B. Bridges, The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity (1915; rev. ed., 1922); and The Theory of the Gene (1926; enlarged and revised ed., 1928); the latter two works firmly established the Mendelian theory as it applied to heredity in all multicellular (and many unicellular) organisms; and (3) embryology: The Development of the Frog’s Egg: An Introduction to Experimental Embryology (1897), a detailed outline of the developmental stages of frogs’ eggs; Experimental Embryology (1927), Morgan’s statement on the value of experimentation in embryology; and Embryology and Genetics (1934), an attempt to relate the theory of the gene to the problem of embryological differentiation and development.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Nicolle Charles

Charles-Jules-Henri Nicolle, (born Sept. 21, 1866, Rouen, France—died Feb. 28, 1936, Tunis, Tunisia), French bacteriologist who received the 1928 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery (1909) that typhus is transmitted by the body louse.

After obtaining his medical degree in Paris in 1893, Nicolle returned to Rouen, where he became a member of the medical faculty and engaged in bacteriological research. In 1902 he was appointed director of the Pasteur Institute in Tunis, and during his 31 years’ tenure in that post, the institute became a distinguished centre for bacteriological research and for the production of serums and vaccines to combat infectious diseases.

Charles-Jules-Henri Nicolle
In Tunis Nicolle noticed that typhus was very contagious outside the hospital, with sufferers of the disease transmitting it to many people who came into contact with them. Once inside the hospital, however, these same patients ceased to be contagious. Nicolle suspected that the key point in this reversal was that of admission to the hospital, when patients were bathed and their clothes were confiscated. The carrier of typhus must be in the patients’ clothes or on their skin and could be removed from the body by washing. The obvious candidate for the carrier was the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus), which Nicolle proved to be the culprit in 1909 in a series of experiments involving monkeys.

Nicolle extended his work on typhus to distinguish between the classical louse-borne form of the disease and murine typhus, which is conveyed to humans by the rat flea. He also made valuable contributions to the knowledge of rinderpest, brucellosis, measles, diphtheria, and tuberculosis.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Werner Alfred

Alfred Werner, (born Dec. 12, 1866, Mulhouse, France—died Nov. 15, 1919, Zürich, Switz.), Swiss chemist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1913 for his research into the structure of coordination compounds.


Alfred Werner
Werner was the fourth and last child of Jean-Adam Werner, a foundry worker and former locksmith, and his second wife, Salomé Jeanette Werner, who was a member of a wealthy family.

Alsace had become part of the second German Empire in 1871, but French continued to be spoken by the family. Although most of Werner’s articles were published in German in German journals, his cultural and political sympathies remained with France.

Although Werner’s later interest in religion was minimal, his family was Roman Catholic, and he attended the École Libre des Frères (1872–78), followed by the École Professionelle, a technical school where he studied chemistry (1878–85).
He spent one year (1885–86) of compulsory military service in the German army at Karlsruhe, where he audited chemistry lectures at the Technische Hochschule.

In 1886 he enrolled in the Eidgenössisches Polytechnikum (now the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule [ETH], or Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) in Zürich, from which he received a technical chemical degree (1889).

Because the Polytechnikum was not empowered to grant the doctorate until 1909, Werner received a doctorate formally from the University of Zürich in 1890.

Early research
Werner’s first publication, a cornerstone of stereochemistry, based on his doctoral dissertation and written with his research supervisor, Arthur Hantzsch, applied Joseph-Achille Le Bel and Jacobus Henricus van ’t Hoff’s concept of the tetrahedral carbon atom (1874) to the nitrogen atom. It explained numerous cases of cis-trans isomerism among trivalent nitrogen compounds such as the oximes, led to the discovery of new isomers, and placed the stereochemistry of nitrogen on a consistent theoretical foundation. During the winter semester of 1891–92, Werner worked on thermochemical studies at the Collège de France in Paris with Marcellin Berthelot.

In 1892 Werner became a Privatdozent (unsalaried lecturer) at the Polytechnikum upon acceptance of his Habilitationsschrift (an original research paper required in order to teach at a university). In this work, which elicited little notice because it was published (1891) in an obscure local journal, he proposed replacing August Kekule’s rigidly directed valence bonds in organic compounds with a more flexible approach of viewing affinity as a variously divisible force acting equally in all directions from the atom’s centre.


Alfred Werner
  Major theoretical work
In 1893 Werner published his third major article on stereochemistry, setting forth his controversial theory of coordination compounds, which had occurred to him in a dream. Although his knowledge of inorganic chemistry was extremely limited, he awoke one night in 1892 at 2:00 am with the solution to the puzzle of what were then called “molecular compounds.” He wrote his most important theoretical paper by 5:00 pm. It brought him almost instant fame and an appointment as extraordinarius (associate) professor at the University of Zürich, where he spent the rest of his career. In 1894 he became a Swiss citizen and married Emma Wilhelmina Giesker, with whom he had two children, Alfred and Charlotte. An enthralling lecturer and prolific researcher, he was promoted to full professor in 1895.

At the time of its inception, Werner’s theory was largely without experimental verification. He had done no work in the field, and the data that he cited in support of his ideas had been obtained by others, especially by his primary scientific adversary, the Danish chemist Sophus Mads Jørgensen. Jørgensen adhered to the rival Blomstrand-Jørgensen “chain theory,” which was eventually superseded by Werner’s theory, the basis for modern coordination chemistry.

Werner discarded Kekule’s artificial distinction between “valence compounds,” amenable to classical valence theory, and “molecular compounds,” those not explainable by this theory. Among the latter were the metal-ammines, which contain a metal salt as well as ammonia (a neutral molecule), both of which were capable of independent existence.

The basic property of the ammonia was “masked” in that it did not react with acids. Also, the nature of the strong bond between the metal salt and the ammonia was unexplained.

Werner proposed a revolutionary approach in which the constitution and configuration of metal-ammines (now colloquially called “Werner complexes”), double salts, and metal salt hydrates were logical consequences of a new concept, the coordination number. He divided metal-ammines into two classes—those with coordination number six, for which he postulated an octahedral configuration, and those with coordination number four, for which he proposed a square planar or tetrahedral configuration. He also postulated two types of valence—primary valence, which bonded the anion to the metal atom, and secondary valence, which bonded the ammonia to the metal atom.

Werner demonstrated the validity of his views by citing numerous reactions, transformations, and cases of isomerism. He showed that loss of ammonia from metal-ammines was not a simple loss but a substitution in which a change in function of the anions occurred simultaneously, resulting in a complete transition from cationic compounds through nonelectrolytes to anionic compounds. He also showed how ammonia could be replaced by water or other groups, and he demonstrated the existence of transition series between ammines, double salts, and metal hydrates. In addition, he speculated on other subjects such as the state of salts in solution and the polarization effects involved in chemical bonding.


Alfred Werner
  Werner not only explained known coordination compounds but also predicted the existence of numerous series of unknown compounds, which were discovered by him and his students during a quarter-century tour de force of synthetic activity that confirmed his theory in almost every particular. His concepts of ionogenic and nonionogenic bonding adumbrated the current distinction between electrostatic and covalent bonding by a full generation. His ideas soon encompassed almost the entire field of inorganic chemistry and even found application in organic, analytical, and physical chemistry, as well as biochemistry, geochemistry, and mineralogy. He was one of the first to show that stereochemistry is not limited to organic chemistry but is a general phenomenon. His coordination theory has had an effect on inorganic chemistry comparable to that exerted on organic chemistry by the ideas of Kekule, Archibald Scott Couper, Le Bel, and van ’t Hoff. Consequently, he is sometimes called “the inorganic Kekule.” Following his resolution of series after series of coordination compounds beginning in 1911, Werner became the first Swiss chemist to win the Nobel Prize for Chemistry, “in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules, by which he has thrown fresh light on old problems and opened new fields of research, particularly in inorganic chemistry.” Shortly thereafter he began to suffer from a general, progressive, degenerative arteriosclerosis, especially of the brain, aggravated by years of excessive drinking and overwork. He died in Burghölzli, a psychiatric hospital. He was not only the founder of modern inorganic stereochemistry but also one of the major chemists of all time.

George B. Kauffman

Encyclopædia Britannica

Eng. engineer Robert Whitehead invents underwater torpedo
Whitehead Robert

Robert Whitehead (3 January 1823 – 14 November 1905) was an English engineer, most famous for developing the first effective self-propelled naval torpedo.


Robert Whitehead
  Robert Whitehead, (born Jan. 3, 1823, Bolton-le-Moors, Lancashire, Eng.—died Nov. 14, 1905, Beckett, Berkshire), British engineer who invented the modern torpedo.

In 1856, after serving an apprenticeship in Manchester and working in Marseille, Milan, and Trieste, he organized, with local capital, a marine-engineering works, Stabilimento Tecnico Fiumano, in Fiume (now Rijeka, Croatia).
There he successfully designed and built engines for Austrian warships and began to work on a torpedo, which he completed in 1866.

In 1872 he bought the firm and turned it into a manufacturer of torpedoes and accessories.

In 1876 he improved his vehicles by using a servo-motor that gave them a truer course through the water, and he gradually increased their speed to 29 knots for 1,000 yards.

In 1896 he used a gyroscope to control the course of a torpedo.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Whitehead torpedo

The Whitehead torpedo was the first self-propelled or "locomotive" torpedo ever developed. It was perfected in 1866 by Robert Whitehead from a design conceived by Giovanni Luppis of the Austro-Hungarian Navy. Many naval services procured the Whitehead torpedo during the 1870s, including the US Navy. This early torpedo proved itself in combat during the Russo-Turkish War when, on January 16, 1878, the Turkish ship Intibah was sunk by Russian torpedo boats carrying Whiteheads.

The term "torpedo" comes from the Torpedo fish, which is a type of ray that delivers an electric shock to stun its prey.


Withehead torpedo mecanism
During the 19th century, an anonymous officer of the Austrian Marine Artillery conceived the idea of using a small boat laden with explosives, propelled by a steam or an air engine and steered by cables to be used against enemy ships; his papers came into the possession of Captain Giovanni Luppis upon his death. Luppis had a model of the device built; it was powered by a spring-driven clockwork mechanism and steered remotely by cables from land. Dissatisfied with the device, which he called the "coast-saver", Luppis turned to Robert Whitehead, who then worked for Stabilimento Tecnico Fiumano, a factory in Fiume, Austria. In about 1850 the Austrian Navy asked Whitehead to develop this design into a self-propelled underwater torpedo.

Whitehead developed what he called the Minenschiff (mine ship): an 11-foot long (3.3 m), 14-inch diameter (35.5 cm) torpedo propelled by compressed air and carrying an explosive warhead, with a speed of 7 knots (13 km/h) and the ability to hit a target up to 700 yards (640 m) away.[8] In 1868, Whitehead introduced a solution to the stability problem for his torpedo: Pendulum-and-hydrostat control. The Austrian Navy bought the manufacturing rights to the Whitehead torpedo in 1869. By 1870 Whitehead's torpedoes were running at 17 knots (31.5 km/h). Still, there remained the problem of course correction: returning the torpedo to its correct course after it had deviated due to wind or wave action. The solution was in the form of the gyroscope gear, which was patented by Ludwig Obry, the rights to which was bought by Whitehead in 1896.


Robert Whitehead with a battered test torpedo, Rijeka (Croatia), c.1875
In 1868, Whitehead offered two types of torpedoes to the world's navies: one was 11 feet, seven inches (3.5 m) in length with a diameter of 14 inches (35.5 cm). It weighed 346 pounds (157 kg) and carried a 40-pound (18.1 kg) warhead. The other was 14 feet (4.3 m) long with a 16-inch (40.6 cm) diameter. It weighed 650 pounds (295 kg) and carried a 60-pound (27.2 kg) warhead. Both models could do 8-10 knots (17 km/h) with a range of 200 yards (183 m).

The United States Navy started using the Whitehead torpedo in 1892 after an American company, E. W. Bliss, secured manufacturing rights.[9] As manufactured for the US Navy, the Whitehead torpedo was divided into four sections: the head, the air flask, the after-body and the tail. The head contained the explosive charge of guncotton; the air flask contained compressed air at 1350 pounds per square inch, or 90 atmospheres; the after-body contained the engine and the controlling mechanism, and the propellers and rudder were in the tail. The air flask was constructed from heavy forged steel. The other parts of the shell of the torpedo were made of thin sheet steel. The interior parts were generally constructed out of bronze. The torpedo was launched above or below the waterline from a tube, using air or gunpowder discharge.


Whitehead torpedo's general profile, as illustrated in The Whitehead Torpedo manual, published by the US Navy in 1898: A. war-head B. air-flask. B'. immersion-chamber CC'. after-body C. engine-room DDDD. drain-holes E. shaft-tube F. steering-engine G. bevel-gear box H. depth-index I. tail K. charging and stop-valves L. locking-gear M. engine bed-plate P. primer-case R. rudder S. steering-rod tube T. guide-stud UU. propellers V. valve-group W. war-nose Z. strengthening-band

Argentinian sailors with a Whitehead torpedo, Fiume, Austria, 1888
In 1871, the Royal Navy bought manufacturing rights, and started producing the torpedo at the Royal Laboratories at Woolwich, England. The Royal Navy fitted the Whitehead torpedo on its earliest submarines, from the HMS Holland 1 onwards. The French, German, Italian, Russian, and Chinese navies soon followed suit and began acquiring the Whitehead torpedo. By 1877, the Whitehead torpedo was attaining speeds of 18 mph for ranges of 830 yards.

By the 1880s, more of the world's navies acquired the Whitehead and began deploying torpedo boats to carry them into battle and engineers began to envision submarines armed with Whitehead torpedoes. In 1904, British Admiral Henry John May commented, "but for Whitehead, the submarine would remain an interesting toy and little more".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Mk3 Whitehead torpedo fired from East Dock, Goat Island, Newport Torpedo Station, Rhode Island, 1894
Ernest-Marc-Louis Doudart de Lagree and Marie-Joseph-Francois Garmier (Garnier Frangois):
exploration 1866-1868
Doudart de Lagree Ernest

Ernest Marc Louis de Gonzague Doudart de Lagrée (March 31, 1823 – March 12, 1868) was the leader of the French Mekong Expedition of 1866-1868.


Banteay Sei, whose chief entrance is shown here surrounded by jungle vegetation, is some 20 miles (30 kilometers) from the main ruins of Angkor Wat-a vast temple complex dating from the 12th century. Doudart de Lagree was the first European to provide a detailed and accurate description of the ruins.
The expedition left Saigon on June 5, 1866. In addition to his ulcers, Doudart de Lagrée suffered from fever, amoebic dysentery and infected wounds caused by leeches, as the expeditioners had to walk barefoot once they had worn out their supply of shoes. By the time the expedition reached Dongchuan, in Yunnan, China, he was too sick to be moved, and his second-in-command Francis Garnier took command. Garnier led the expedition to Dali, leaving Doudart de Lagrée in the care of the doctor. He died from an abscess on his liver. The doctor removed his heart to return it to France, while Doudart de Lagrée was buried in Dongchuan.

Ernest Doudart de Lagrée, from Voyage d'exploration en Indo-Chine
  Ernest-Marc-Louis Doudart de Lagrée, (born March 31, 1823, Saint-Vincent-de-Mercuze, Fr.—died March 12, 1868, T’ung-ch’uan, Yunnan Province, China), French explorer and diplomat who secured French hegemony over Cambodia.

Doudart de Lagrée entered the French Navy in 1845. In 1863 he became the first French representative to Cambodia, when he was sent from Saigon, in Vietnam, to Oudong to urge King Norodom to accept French protection. Cambodia was shared as a vassal by Siam and Vietnam, and the Siamese seemed ready to invade the country.

Norodom’s position was also threatened by his two half brothers, Sisowath and Si Votha. The former hesitated to make an open challenge, but the latter went into dissidence in 1860.

As the French representative in Cambodia, Doudart gained Norodom’s reluctant agreement to a treaty of protection in 1863, threatening to depose Norodom in the following year when the Cambodian king seemed ready to return himself to Siamese (Thai) protection. The French justified their actions in Cambodia by claiming to have succeeded to Vietnam’s role as one of Cambodia’s suzerains.

Doudart became a commander in the French Navy in 1864 and was appointed French resident at Phnom Penh. In 1866 he led a geographic survey and exploration of the Mekong River into Laos and China. He died in northern Yunnan.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Mekong Exploration Commission. Marie-Joseph-Francois Garmier (Garnier Frangois) at the left

Doudart de Lagree and Marie Joseph Francois Garmier: exploration 1866-1868
see also: Southeast Asia
"Black Friday" on London Stock Exchange
Panic of 1866

The Panic of 1866 was an international financial downturn that accompanied the failure of Overend, Gurney and Company in London, and the corso forzoso abandonment of the silver standard in Italy.

In Britain the economic impacts are held partially responsible for public agitation for political reform in the months leading up to the 1867 Reform Act. The crisis led to a sharp rise in unemployment to 8% and a subsequent fall in wages across the country. Similar to the "knife and fork" motives of Chartism in the late 1830s and 1840s, the financial pressure on the British working class led to rising support for greater representation of the people. Groups such as the Reform League saw rapid increases in membership and the organisation spearheaded multiple demonstrations against the political establishment such as the Hyde Park riot of 1866. Ultimately the popular pressure that arose from the banking crisis and the recession that followed can be held partly responsible for the enfranchisement of 1.1 million people as a result of Disraeli's reform bill.

The Panic decimated shipbuilding in London, and the Millwall Iron Works collapsed.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tom Morris of St. Andrews wins his first professional golf championship
Thomas Morris

Thomas Morris (20 April 1851 – 25 December 1875), known as Young Tom Morris, was a Scottish professional golfer. He is considered one of the pioneers of professional golf, and was the first young prodigy in golf history. He won four consecutive titles in the Open Championship, an unmatched feat, and did this by the age of 21.


Young Tom Morris
  Morris was born in St Andrews, the "Home of Golf", and died there on Christmas Day, 1875, aged 24.

His father, Old Tom Morris, was the greenkeeper and professional of the St Andrews Links, and himself won four of the first eight Open Championships. Young Tom's first Open Championship win, in 1868 aged 17, made him the youngest major champion in golf history, a record which still stands.


For many years it was thought on the basis of a baptismal certificate that Morris was born on 10 May 1851, but in 2006 his birth certificate was discovered in Edinburgh. Young Tom moved with his family as an infant from St Andrews to Prestwick, where his father took a new position as golf professional and greenkeeper. Young Tom studied at the prestigious Ayr Academy up to his early teens. The Morris family was becoming more prosperous, and hence able to afford the expensive private school fees, in the range of 15 pounds per year; this sum was the equivalent of perhaps 1,000 pounds in the year 2000. At the Academy, Young Tom studied with the sons of noblemen and wealthy businessmen, and would put his schooling to good use in his golf game and in his personal relationships.
Early golf development
Morris learned golf from a young age over the Prestwick Golf Club links, which had been laid out by his father, the Club's professional and greenkeeper, in 1851. He bypassed the caddying and clubmaking roles, which were the usual entry to golf for young players at that time; he was the first future top player to do this.

Morris beat his father for the first time at the age of 13 in 1864 in a friendly game at St Andrews; at the time his father was Open Champion. Young Tom, just before his 13th birthday, travelled with his father to a tournament at Perth in April 1864, but was not allowed to compete in either the professional or amateur sections. The organisers instead arranged a match with a local youth champion. Young Tom won this match decisively and was awarded a prize of five pounds, a significant amount at the time; the two young stars had been followed by a large gallery. His match score would have won the professional tournament.

Young champion
Young Tom made his debut aged 14 in the Open Championship in 1865, performing creditably, but dropped out and failed to complete the event. He was placed 9th in 1866, 18 shots behind the winner, and in 1867 Young Tom was placed fourth in the Open Championship. Also in 1867, the Morris duo travelled to Carnoustie for a significant open tournament, which attracted a strong field of 32 players, the largest seen anywhere up to that time. Young Tom, at the age of 16, finished in a tie for first place, and then won the playoff over Willie Park, Sr. (who would eventually win four Open Championships) and Robert "Bob" Andrew. With this win, he came to general notice and acclaim for the first time.

Old Tom Morris with Young Tom Morris
ca. 1870-75
  Champion of Scotland
Young Tom won the Open Championship in 1868, 1869, 1870, and 1872 (there was no Open Championship in 1871). No one else has since repeated this feat of four straight Open Championships. All four championships were played at Prestwick Golf Club, the course where he had learned golf as a youth. His 1868 win, at the age of 17, made him the youngest major champion in golf history, a record which still stands. That same year, his father finished second to him, a unique family occurrence in the Championship. In 1869, Young Tom achieved the tournament's first ever hole-in-one by holing out at the 166-yard 8th hole: the scorecard is on display in Prestwick's clubhouse. In keeping with the Rules of the Tournament, Young Tom was allowed to keep the original Championship Belt, made of red Moroccan leather with an engraved golf scene on its front silver buckle and funded by Prestwick's members, after his hat-trick of victories. The famous Claret Jug was purchased for the tournament in 1873, and his became the first name to be engraved on it, as he had won the Open Championship in 1872. During his 1870 win, he began the tournament by scoring a 3 on the first hole of 578 yards, using hickory shafts and a guttie ball, holing a long fairway shot of about 200 yards; given the distances which were possible at that time, this may have been the first-ever albatross (double eagle), assuming a par of 6 for that hole; the term 'par' had not yet been formally invented. His first-round Open score in 1870 of 47 over the 12-hole Prestwick course was the first competitive round anywhere which averaged under four strokes per hole.

The Tom Morrises, father and son, frequently competed as partners against all challengers for match stakes, winning most of the time, although their success rate dropped once Old Tom passed 50, as he sometimes struggled with his putting.
Young Tom also toured Scotland and parts of England, both on his own and with fellow golfer Davie Strath, playing exhibition matches on their own account, without official sanction; this was the first time this had been done. Young Tom and Strath received some criticism for this, as it challenged the established structure of competition at that time. They were also the first players to insist on receiving money up front before a match was to be held; this was the foundation of appearance money, and prior to this the players were at the mercy of the result and the match's patrons. Morris also bet against members and other takers at St Andrews that he could score below a given standard over the Old Course, and won seven times straight. This form of betting was also an innovation at the time.
Breaks record over Old Course
Young Tom broke the course record over the Old Course at St Andrews by two strokes with a score of 77, to win an extended playoff over Musselburgh's star Bob Ferguson for the 1869 St Andrews Professional Tournament; this score then stood as the course record for 20 years. The previous mark of 79 (first set in 1858) had been scored by Allan Robertson and Old Tom Morris.
Playing style
Morris stood about 5'8" with a sturdy, wiry build, and had very strong wrists. He gripped the club with hands about one finger-width apart; this being a common technique at the time. He had a lengthy backswing, and generally swung quite hard on most of his longer shots, but kept some power in reserve. His long shots were usually low to medium in trajectory, and ran out to very good distances, comparable with most of his main rivals; this technique kept the ball in play, minimised trouble, and fought the wind very well. He was among the first players to intentionally shape shots, to curve in flight for shotmaking strategy. He invented a new use for the rut iron, a club designed to escape ruts from cart tracks on the course, not an unusual situation in the days before courses were extensively groomed. Morris used the rut iron, a lofted club similar to the modern sand wedge, as a pitching club for short approaches, hitting high shots over hazards, which sometimes landed with backspin, another innovation. This was a very difficult shot requiring great skill. Prior to this, the pure running approach, together with the chip-and-run, were the usual methods. He used the niblick (like a modern 9-iron) for similar purposes from further away; iron play evolved significantly by his examples, which were taken up by rivals. Morris was also an exceptional putter and chipper, virtually always giving the hole a chance, and won many encounters with clutch short shots. One golf historian wrote that Morris missed fewer short putts than any player he had ever seen. His putting method was unusual: he took an open stance and played the ball very close to his right (back) foot. Morris managed his game well, generally choosing high-percentage shots and routes over more risky options (akin to his father's style), but was rarely afraid to take a calculated risk (being more daring than his father). Morris often was able to raise his game when the pressure increased. When on form, his game was complete and without weaknesses. He was the first golfer in that category, and one of no more than a handful throughout golf history.
  Personal life and death
In a team match on 11 September 1875 at North Berwick, with the Morrises facing brothers Willie and Mungo Park, Young Tom received a telegram from home requesting his immediate return; his pregnant wife, Margaret Drinnen, had gone into a difficult labour.

Only two holes remained in the match; Old Tom and Young Tom finished the match, winning, and hurried home by ship across the Firth of Forth and up the coast, but when Young Tom got there both his wife and newborn baby were dead. Young Tom was broken-hearted and died almost four months later on Christmas Day. He was only 24. A heart attack was the official cause of death; Young Tom had also played and won a marathon challenge match in terrible weather a few weeks earlier, and this may have weakened him.

Morris was a tremendous golf innovator who raised the playing standard significantly, and this, together with his aggressive promotion of his own skills, led to an enormous increase in the popularity of golf for spectators. Some of his challenge matches attracted thousands of spectators from all over Scotland.

Such was the interest that major London newspapers and magazines sent correspondents to Scotland, a 400-mile trip by rail, to cover his challenge matches in the 1870s. Although Morris won a very high percentage of his matches and tournaments, he managed to minimise animosity among rivals, who had to improve their own games to stay competitive. He had a friendly personality, and was widely respected.

Morris was ranked the 14th best golfer of all time in a survey published in Golf Magazine, September 2009. He was the top player whose career was entirely in the 19th century. His father, Old Tom, was ranked 19th.

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Eng. barrister John Macgregor pioneers canoeing as a sport
MacGregor John
John MacGregor (24 January 1825 Gravesend – 16 July 1892 Boscombe, Bournemouth), nicknamed Rob Roy after a renowned relative, was a Scottish explorer, travel writer and philanthropist. He is generally credited with the development of the first sailing canoes and with popularising canoeing as a sport in Europe and the United States. He founded the British Royal Canoe Club (RCC) in 1866 becoming its first Captain.

MacGregor worked as a barrister in London, and was an accomplished artist and drew all the art in his travel books.

Early life
The son of General Sir Duncan MacGregor. His schooling followed his fathers postings which included Canterbury and Dublin he graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge, having shown a talent for mathematics. His ambition to become a missionary was blocked and he began a career in law but being of independent means he was able to follow his passion for travel. In 1849 he spent nine months exploring southern Europe, Palestine and Egypt. He was introduced to canoeing during a trip to the United States and Canada in 1858.

John MacGregor (Rob Roy) captured during his exploration of the upper reaches of the River Jordan.

Boat designer
MacGregor was a champion marksman but turned to boating when a railroad accident left him unable to hold a rifle steady.

The boat he designed was 'double-ended', (modeled after Indian canoes), but built in Lambeth of lapstrake oak planking, decked in cedar covered with rubberised canvas with an open cockpit in the center. It measured 15 feet long, 28 inches wide, nine inches deep and weighed 80 pounds (36 kg) and was designed to be used with a double-bladed paddle. He named the boat Rob Roy after the celebrated Scottish outlaw of the same name, to whom he was related.

During the 1860s, he had at least seven similar boats built and he sailed and paddled them in Europe, the Baltic and the Middle East. One of those canoes is now based at the National Maritime Museum Cornwall.

The version he used for his expedition to Egypt, Syria and Palestine in 1868/69 was slightly smaller but was designed so that he could sleep in it. He was accompanied by a dragoman, Hany, and two retainers who maintained the various base camps on the journey. He visited the Nile Delta, the rivers of Damascus, as well as parts of the River Jordan and Kishon River. Whilst exploring the water courses above Lake Hula he was taken prisoner by villagers from Al-Salihiyya who lifted both him and the Rob Roy out of the river whilst he kept them at bay with his paddle. He was responsible for the first scientific survey of the area.

In 1866, he published A Thousand Miles in the Rob Roy Canoe, which popularised the design and, more importantly, the concept: "in walking you are bounded by every sea and river, and in a common sailing-boat you are bounded by every shallow and shore; whereas, ...a canoe [can] be paddled or sailed, or hauled, or carried over land or water".

The book was internationally successful; with subsequent books and public appearances, it earned MacGregor more than ten thousand pounds. Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson's 1876 voyage by canoe through the canals and rivers of France and Belgium, published in 1878 as An Inland Voyage, used "Rob Roy" canoes.


Died 1892 in Bournemouth.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Map of upper reaches of the Jordan River made by John Macgregor from data gathered during his visit in January 1869.

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