Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

Loading
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
     
     
 
1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1865 Part III NEXT-1866 Part I    
 
 
     
1860 - 1869
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860-1869
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part I
Treaty of Turin
First Taranaki War
Convention of Peking
Secession of South Carolina
Poincare Raymond
The Church Union
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part II
Barrie James Matthew
Boucicault Dion
Dion Boucicault: "The Colleen Bawn"
Collins Wilkie
Wilkie Collins: "The Woman in White"
Wilkie Collins 
"The Moonstone"
"The Woman in White"
George Eliot: "The Mill on the Floss"
Di Giacoma Salvatore
Labiche Eugene-Marin
Multatuli
Multatuli: "Max Havelaar"
Alexander Ostrovski: "The Storm"
Chekhov Anton
Anton Chekhov
"Uncle Vanya"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part III
Degas: "Spartan Boys and Girls Exercising"
Hunt: "Finding of the Saviour in the Temple"
Manet: "Spanish Guitar Player"
Ensor James
James Ensor
Mucha Alfons
Alfons Mucha
Levitan Isaak
Isaac Levitan
Steer Philip Wilson
Philip Wilson Steer
Mahler Gustav
Mahler - Das Lied von der Erde
Gustav Mahler
Paderewski Ignace
Paderewski - Minuet
Ignace Paderewski
Suppe Franz
Franz von Suppe - Das Pensionat
Franz von Suppe
Wolf Hugo
Hugo Wolf - "Kennst du das Land"
Hugo Wolf
MacDowell Edward
MacDowell - Piano Sonata No. 1 "Tragica"
Edward MacDowell
Albeniz Isaac
Albeniz - Espana
Isaac Albeniz
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part IV
Cesium
Rubidium
Fechner Gustav Theodor
Lenoir Etienne
Walton Frederick
Linoleum
Across the Continent
Burke Robert O'Hara
Wills William John
Stuart John McDouall
Grant James Augustus
"The Cornhill Magazine"
"The Catholic Times"
Heenan John Camel
Sayers Tom
The Open Championship
Park William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part I
Kansas
Confederate States of America
Davis Jefferson
First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
American Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Hatteras
The American Civil War, 1861
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part II
Siege of Gaeta
Emancipation Manifesto
Abduaziz
Louis I
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part III
Dal Vladimir
Steiner Rudolf
Whitehead Alfred North
Charles Dickens: "Great Expectations"
Dostoevsky: "The House of the Dead"
George Eliot: "Silas Marner"
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "Elsie Venner"
Tagore Rabindranath
Charles Reade: "The Cloister and the Hearth"
Wood Ellen
Mrs. Henry Wood: "East Lynne"
Spielhagen Friedrich
Friedrich Spielhagen: "Problematische Naturen"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part IV
Garnier Charles
Anquetin Louis
Louis Anquetin
Godward John William
John William Godward
Bourdelle Antoine
Antoine Bourdelle
Korovin Konstantin
Konstantin Korovin
Maillol Aristide
Aristide Maillol
Melba Nellie
Royal Academy of Music, London
The Paris version "Tannhauser"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part V
Archaeopteryx
Thallium (Tl)
Hopkins Frederick Gowland
Mort Thomas Sutcliffe
Nansen Fridtjof
Fermentation theory
Baker Samuel
Baker Florence
The Bakers and the Nile
Beeton Isabella
Harden Maximilian
First horse-drawn trams in London
Order of the Star of India
Otis Elisha Graves
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part I
Battle of Fort Henry
Second Battle of Bull Run
BATTLE OF ANTIETAM
Battle of Fredericksburg
Grey Edward
Briand Aristide
The American Civil War, 1862
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part II
Rawlinson George
Ogai Mori
Ivan Turgenev: "Fathers and Sons"
Flaubert: "Salammbo"
Victor Hugo: "Les Miserables"
Barres Maurice
Maeterlinck Maurice
Hauptmann Gerhart
Wharton Edith
Schnitzler Arthur
Uhland Ludwig
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part III
Albert Memorial, London
Manet: "Lola de Valence"
Manet: "La Musique aux Tuileries"
Nesterov Mikhail
Mikhail Nesterov
Klimt Gustav
Gustav Klimt
Rysselberghe Theo
Theo van Rysselberghe
Berlioz: "Beatrice et Benedict"
Debussy Claude
Debussy - Preludes
Claude Debussy
Delius Frederick
Frederick Delius - On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring
Frederick Delius
German Edward
Edward German - Melody in D flat major
Edward German
Kochel Ludwig
Kochel catalogue
Verdi: "La Forza del Destino"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part IV
Bragg William
Foucault Leon
Gatling Richard Jordan
Lamont Johann
Lenard Pnilipp
Sachs Julius
Palgrave William Gifford
The Arabian Desert
International Exhibition, London
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part I
Arizona
Idaho
West Virginia
Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Chancellorsville
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address"
The American Civil War, 1863
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part II
Isma'il Pasha
January Uprising
George I of Greece
Dost Mohammad Khan
Christian IX  of Denmark
Chamberlain Austen
Lloyd George David
Second Taranaki War
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part III
Huxley: "Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature"
Charles Lyell: "The Antiquity of Man"
Massachusetts Agricultural College
D'Annunzio Gabriele
Bahr Hermann
Dehmel Richard
Hale Edward Everett
Edward Everett Hale: "Man without a Country"
Hope Anthony
Charles Kingsley: "The Water Babies"
Longfellow: "Tales of a Wayside Inn"
Quiller-Couch Arthur
Stanislavsky Constantin
Stanislavsky system
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part IV
Stuck Franz
Manet: "Dejeuner sur l'herbe"
Manet: "Olympia"
Meurent Victorine-Louise
The "Salon des Refuses" in Paris
Art in Revolt
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Signac Paul
Paul Signac
Munch Edvard
Edvard Munch
Berlioz: "Les Troyens"
Bizet: "Les Pecheurs de perles"
Mascagni Pietro
Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana
Pietro Mascagni
Weingartner Felix
Felix von Weingartner: Symphony No 6
Felix Weingartner
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part V
Billroth Theodor
Butterick Ebenezer
Ford Henry
Graham Thomas
National Academy of Sciences
Sorby Henry Clifton
The Football Association, London
Grand Prix de Paris
Hearst William Randolph
Yellow journalism
Pulitzer Joseph
Nadar
History of photography
Alexandra of Denmark
Royce Henry
Cuthbert Ned
Coburn Joe
Mike McCoole
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part I
Schleswig-Holstein Question
First Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
Halleck Henry
Sherman William
BATTLE OF ATLANTA
Sand Creek massacre
Venizelos Eleutherios
Maximilian II of Bavaria
Louis II
First International Workingmen's Association
Confederate Army of Manhattan
The American Civil War, 1864
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part II
Lombroso Cesare
Newman: "Apologia pro Vita Sua"
Syllabus of Errors
Dickens: "Our Mutual Friend"
Karlfeldt Erik Axel
Trollope: "The Small House at Allington"
Wedekind Frank
Zangwill Israel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part III
Stieglitz Alfred
History of photography
ALFRED STIEGLITZ
Dyce William
William Dyce
Jawlensky Alexey
Alexei von Jawlensky
Ranson Paul
Paul Ranson
Serusier Paul
Paul Serusier
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
A More Tolerant Salon
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"
Roberts David
David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"
D'Albert Eugen
Eugen d'Albert - Piano Concerto No.2
Eugen d’Albert
Foster Stephen
Stephen Foster - Beautiful Dreamer
Offenbach: "La Belle Helene"
Strauss Richard
Richard Strauss - Metamorphosen
Richard Strauss
Fry William Henry
William Henry Fry - Santa Claus Symphony
William Henry Fry - Niagara Symphony
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part IV
Lake Albert
Bertrand Joseph
Calculus
Nernst Walther
Pasteurization
Wien Wilhelm
Rawat Nain Singh
The Surveyors
Kinthup
First Geneva Convention
Knights of Pythias
"Neue Freie Presse""
De Rossi Giovanni Battista
"In God We Trust"
Travers Stakes
Farragut David
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part I
Union blockade in the American Civil War
Charleston, South Carolina in the American Civil War
Lee Robert Edward
Conclusion of the American Civil War
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Johnson Andrew
Causes of the Franco-Prussian War
Leopold II of Belgium
Harding Warren
George V of Great Britain
Ludendorff Erich
Free State–Basotho Wars
The American Civil War, 1865
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part II
Baudrillart Henri
William Stanley Jevons: "The Coal Question"
Billings Josh
Belasco David
Campbell Patrick
Lewis Carroll: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
Dodge Mary Mapes
Mary Mapes Dodge: "Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates"
Kipling Rudyard
Rudyard Kipling
Merezhkovsky Dmitry
John Henry Newman: "Dream of Gerontius"
Mark Twain: "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"
Walt Whitman: "Drum-Taps"
Yeats William Butler
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part III
Serov Valentin
Valentin Serov
Wiertz Antoine
Antoine Wiertz
Vallotton Felix
Felix Vallotton
"Olympia" - a Sensation
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Nielsen Carl
Carl Nielsen - Aladdin Suite
Carl Nielsen
Glazunov Alexander
Glazunov - The Seasons
Alexander Glazunov
Dukas Paul
Paul Dukas "L'Apprenti Sorcier"
Paul Dukas
Meyerbeer: "L'Africaine"
Sibelius Jean
Jean Sibelius - Finlandia
Jean Sibelius
Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part IV
Plucker Julius
Hyatt John Wesley
Kekule: structure of benzene
Antiseptic
Lowe Thaddeus
Mendelian inheritance
Sechenov Ivan
Whymper Edward
The High Andes
 Bingham Hiram
Rohlfs Friedrich Gerhard
Open hearth furnace
Martin Pierre-Emile
Ku Klux Klan
"The Nation"
Marquess of Queensberry Rules
"San Francisco Examiner"
"San Francisco Chronicle"
Mitchell Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part I
Cuza Alexandru
"Monstrous coalition"
Carol I
Austro-Prussian War
Battle of Custoza
Battle of Trautenau
Battle of Koniggratz
Battle of Lissa
Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869
MacDonald Ramsay
Sun Yat-sen
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part II
Croce Benedetto
Soderblom Nathan
Larousse Pierre
Larousse: Great Universal Dictionary of the 19th Century
Friedrich Lange: "History of Materialism"
Benavente Jacinto
Dostoevsky: "Crime and Punishment"
Hamerling Robert
Ibsen: "Brand"
Kingsley: "Hereward the Wake"
Rolland Romain
Wells Herbert
H.G. Wells
"The War of the Worlds"

"The Invisible Man"
 
"A Short History of the World"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part III
Bakst Leon
Leon Bakst
Fry Roger
Kandinsky Vassili
Vassili Kandinsky
A Defender Appears
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Busoni Ferruccio
Ferruccio Busoni - Berceuse Elegiaque
Ferruccio Busoni
Offenbach: "La Vie Parisienne"
Smetana: "The Bartered Bride"
Satie Eric
Erik Satie: Nocturnes
Eric Satie
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part IV
Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
Morgan Thomas Hunt
Nicolle Charles
Werner Alfred
Whitehead Robert
Whitehead torpedo
Doudart de Lagree Ernest
Panic of 1866
Thomas Morris
MacGregor John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part I
Manchester Martyrs
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Nebraska
Constitution Act, 1867
Alaska Purchase
North German Confederation
Reform Act of 1867
Battle of Mentana
Mary of Teck
Baldwin Stanley
Rathenau Walther
Pilsudski Joseph
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part II
Bagehot Walter
Walter Bagehot: "The English Constitution"
Freeman Edward Augustus
Freeman: The History of the Norman Conquest of England
Marx: "Das Kapital"
Thoma Ludwig
Soseki Natsume
Russell George William
Reymont Wladislau
Bennett Arnold
Balmont Konstantin
Pirandello Luigi
Galsworthy John
Charles de Coster: "The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel"
Ouida: "Under Two Flags"
Trollope: "The Last Chronicle of Barset"
Turgenev: "Smoke"
Zola: "Therese Raquin"
Ibsen: "Peer Gynt"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part III
Delville Jean
Jean Delville
Kollwitz Kathe
Kathe Kollwitz
Nolde Emil
Emil Nolde
Bonnard Pierre
Pierre Bonnard
Manet's Personal Exhibition
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "La Jolie Fille de Perth"
Gounod: "Romeo et Juliette"
Offenbach: "La Grande-Duchesse de Gerolstein"
Johann Strauss II: The "Blue Danube"
Toscanini Arturo
Verdi: "Don Carlos"
Granados Enrique
Enrique Granados - Spanish Dances
Enrique Granados
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part IV
Curie Marie
Michaux Pierre
Monier Joseph
Brenner Railway
Mining industry of South Africa
Dynamite
Thurn and Taxis
Chambers John Graham
London Athletic Club
Barnardo Thomas John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part I
British Expedition to Abyssinia
Battle of Magdala
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tenure of Office Act
Province of Hanover
Russian Turkestan
Mihailo Obrenovic III
Milan I of Serbia
Glorious Revolution
Horthy Nicholas
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part II
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy
Charles Darwin: "The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication"
Louisa May Alcott: "Little Women"
Robert Browning: "The Ring and the Book"
Wilkie Collins: "The Moonstone"
Dostoevsky: "The Idiot"
George Stefan
Gorki Maxim
Rostand Edmond
Edmond Rostand
"Cyrano De Bergerac"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part III
Bernard Emile
Emile Bernard
Vollard Ambroise
Slevogt Max
Max Slevogt
Vuillard Edouard
Edouard Vuillard
The Realist Impulse
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bantock Granville
Bantock "Overture The Frogs"
Granville Bantock
Brahms: "Ein deutsches Requiem"
Schillings Max
Max von Schillings: Mona Lisa
Max von Schillings
Wagner: "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part IV
Lartet Louis
Cro-Magnon
Haber Fritz
Millikan Robert Andrews
Richards Theodore William
Scott Robert Falcon
Armour Philip Danforth
Badminton House
Garvin James Louis
Harmsworth Harold
Trades Union Congress
"Whitaker's Almanack"
Sholes Christopher Latham
Typewriter
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part I
Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant
French legislative election, 1869
Prohibition Party
Red River Rebellion
Chamberlain Neville
Gandhi Mahatma
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part II
Matthew Arnold: "Culture and Anarchy"
Eduard Hartmann: "The Philosophy of the Unconscious"
Mill: "On The Subjection of Women"
First Vatican Council
Blackmore Richard Doddridge
Blackmore: "Lorna Doone"
Flaubert: "Sentimental Education"
Gide Andre
Gilbert: "Bab Ballads"
Halevy Ludovic
Bret Harte: "The Outcasts of Poker Flat"
Victor Hugo: "The Man Who Laughs"
Leacock Stephen
Mark Twain: "The Innocents Abroad"
Tolstoy: "War and Peace"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part III
Lutyens Edwin
Poelzig Hans
Carus Carl Gustav
Carl Gustav Carus
Somov Konstantin
Konstantin Somov
Matisse Henri
Henri Matisse
Manet Falls Foul of the Censor
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 0
Pfitzner Hans
Pfitzner - Nachts
Hans Pfitzner
Wagner Siegfried
Siegfried Wagner "Prelude to Sonnenflammen"
Richard Wagner: "Das Rheingold"
Roussel Albert
Albert Roussel - Bacchus et Ariane
Albert Roussel
Wood Henry
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part IV
Francis Galton: "Hereditary Genius"
Celluloid
Periodic law
Nachtigal Gustav
Cincinnati Red Stockings
Girton College, Cambridge
Nihilism
1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game
Co-operative Congress
Lesseps Ferdinand
Suez Canal
 
 
 

The first real Pullman Sleeping Car Introduced, 1865
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1865 Part IV
 
 
 
1865
 
 
Sir Burton Richard: "Pilgrimage to Mecca," travel book
 
 
Burton Richard: A Pictorial Pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina.

Including Some of the More Remarkable Incidents in the Life of Mohammed, the Arab Lawgiver.

by Richard Francis Burton.

First edition of 1865.

 
 
 
 
1865
 
 
German mathematician Julius Plucker  invents line geometry
 
 
Plucker Julius
 

Julius Plucker, (born June 16, 1801, Elberfeld, Duchy of Berg—died May 22, 1868, Bonn), German mathematician and physicist who made fundamental contributions to analytic and projective geometry as well as experimental physics.

 

Julius Plucker
  Plücker attended the universities in Heidelberg, Bonn, Berlin, and Paris. In 1829, after four years as an unsalaried lecturer, he became a professor at the University of Bonn, where he wrote Analytisch-geometrische Entwicklungen, 2 vol. (1828–31; “The Development of Analytic Geometry”). This work introduced abridged notation (a flexible type of mathematical “shorthand”) and exploited the possibility of taking lines rather than points as the fundamental geometric elements. Through this idea, he developed the principle of duality in projective geometry, which states that if a theorem is true, then its dual theorem—obtained by switching dual elements (lines and points) and their corresponding statements—is also true. In 1834 Plücker became a professor of mathematics at the University of Halle before returning to Bonn two years later. In Theorie der algebraischen Curven (1839; “Theory of Algebraic Curves”), he presented the famous “Plücker formulas” relating the number of singularities (points at which a function is not defined or is infinite) on algebraic curves to those of their dual curves. His System der analytischen Geometrie (1835; “System of Analytic Geometry”) introduced the use of linear functions in place of the usual coordinate systems. Plücker’s System der Geometrie des Raumes in neuer analytischer Behandlungsweise (1846; “System of the Geometry of Space in a New Analytical Treatment”) contains a more systematic and polished rendering of his earlier results.
 
 
These geometric investigations ran against the strong current associated with mathematician Jakob Steiner’s synthetic school based in Berlin. Sensing this, Plücker turned away from geometry and concentrated on physics. In 1847 he began research on the behaviour of crystals in a magnetic field, establishing results central to a deeper knowledge of magnetic phenomena. At first alone and later with the German physicist Johann W. Hittorf, Plücker investigated the magnetic deflection of cathode rays. Together they made many important discoveries in spectroscopy, anticipating the German chemist Robert Bunsen and the German physicist Gustav R. Kirchhoff, who later announced that spectral lines were characteristic for each chemical substance. In 1862 Plücker pointed out that the same element may exhibit different spectra at different temperatures. According to Hittorf, Plücker was the first to identify the three lines of the hydrogen spectrum, which a few months after his death were recognized in the spectrum of solar radiation.

Following Steiner’s death in 1863, Plücker returned to the study of mathematics with his pioneering work on line geometry, Neue Geometrie des Raumes gegründet auf die Betrachtung der geraden Linie als Raumelement (1868–69; “New Geometry of Space Founded on the Treatment of the Straight Line as Space Element”). He died before finishing the second volume, which was edited and brought to completion by his gifted young pupil Felix Klein.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1865
 
 
Atlantic cable finally completed
 
 
 
1865
 
 
Hamilton William Roman, Irish mathematician d. (b. 1805)
 
 

Sir William Rowan Hamilton
 
 
 
1865
 
 
John Wesley Hyatt invents composition billiard ball, replacing ivory
 
 
Hyatt John Wesley
 

John Wesley Hyatt, (born Nov. 28, 1837, Starkey, N.Y., U.S.—died May 10, 1920, Short Hills, N.J.), American inventor and industrialist who discovered the process for making celluloid, the first practical artificial plastic.

 
As a young man, Hyatt trained as a printer in Illinois and then in Albany, N.Y. In 1863 he was attracted by a reward of $10,000 offered by a New York billiards company to anyone who could invent a satisfactory substitute for ivory billiard balls. Hyatt experimented with several compositions, none of which produced a successful billiard ball, but he was able to go into business with his brothers making one of the mixtures—a composite of wood pulp and shellac—into embossed checkers and dominoes. Continuing his experiments, Hyatt found that an attractive and practical plastic material could be made by mixing nitrocellulose (a flammable nitrate of common wood or cotton cellulose), camphor (a waxy resin obtained from Asian camphor trees), and alcohol and then pressing the mixture in a heated mold.

Hyatt and his brother Isaiah first attempted to market the plastic, which they patented in 1870 as Celluloid, as a substitute for hard rubber in denture plates.

  In 1872 they moved their Celluloid Manufacturing Company from Albany to Newark, N.J., where they put numerous patents to work in building up what became the premier celluloid company in the world. The Hyatts concentrated on forming celluloid into sheets, rods, and other unfinished shapes, usually leaving their fabrication into practical objects to licensed companies such as the Celluloid Brush Company, the Celluloid Waterproof Cuff and Collar Company, and the Celluloid Piano Key Company.

In the 1880s the Hyatts set up a company that employed a patented process for purifying water through the use of coagulants and filters. John Hyatt went on to invent a number of new or improved industrial devices, including roller bearings, sugarcane mills, and sewing machines.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1865
 
 
German chemist August Kekule von Stradonitz (Kekule August) explains the structure of aromatic compounds through his benzene ring theory
 
 
Kekule: structure of benzene
 

Kekulé's most famous work was on the structure of benzene. In 1865 Kekule August published a paper in French (for he was then still in Francophone Belgium) suggesting that the structure contained a six-membered ring of carbon atoms with alternating single and double bonds. The next year he published a much longer paper in German on the same subject.

 


Kekulé structure of benzene with alternating double bonds

 
The empirical formula for benzene had been long known, but its highly unsaturated structure was a challenge to determine. Archibald Scott Couper in 1858 and Joseph Loschmidt in 1861 suggested possible structures that contained multiple double bonds or multiple rings, but the study of aromatic compounds was in its earliest years, and too little evidence was then available to help chemists decide on any particular structure.

More evidence was available by 1865, especially regarding the relationships of aromatic isomers. Kekulé argued for his proposed structure by considering the number of isomers observed for derivatives of benzene. For every monoderivative of benzene (C6H5X, where X = Cl, OH, CH3, NH2, etc.) only one isomer was ever found, implying that all six carbons are equivalent, so that substitution on any carbon gives only a single possible product. For diderivatives such as the toluidines, C6H4(NH2)(CH3), three isomers were observed, for which Kekulé proposed structures with the two substituted carbon atoms separated by one, two and three carbon-carbon bonds, later named ortho, meta, and para isomers respectively.

The counting of possible isomers for diderivatives was however criticized by Albert Ladenburg, a former student of Kekulé, who argued that Kekulé's 1865 structure implied two distinct "ortho" structures, depending on whether the substituted carbons are separated by a single or a double bond.[6] Since ortho derivatives of benzene were never actually found in more than one isomeric form, Kekulé modified his proposal in 1872 and suggested that the benzene molecule oscillates between two equivalent structures, in such a way that the single and double bonds continually interchange positions. This implies that all six carbon-carbon bonds are equivalent, as each is single half the time and double half the time. A firmer theoretical basis for a similar idea was later proposed in 1928 by Linus Pauling, who replaced Kekulé's oscillation by the concept of resonance between quantum-mechanical structures.

  The ouroboros dream
The new understanding of benzene, and hence of all aromatic compounds, proved to be so important for both pure and applied chemistry after 1865 that in 1890 the German Chemical Society organized an elaborate appreciation in Kekulé's honor, celebrating the twenty-fifth anniversary of his first benzene paper.

Here Kekulé spoke of the creation of the theory. He said that he had discovered the ring shape of the benzene molecule after having a reverie or day-dream of a snake seizing its own tail (this is an ancient symbol known as the ouroboros). This vision, he said, came to him after years of studying the nature of carbon-carbon bonds.

A similar humorous depiction of benzene had appeared in 1886 in the Berichte der Durstigen Chemischen Gesellschaft (Journal of the Thirsty Chemical Society), a parody of the Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, only the parody had monkeys seizing each other in a circle, rather than snakes as in Kekulé's anecdote. Some historians have suggested that the parody was a lampoon of the snake anecdote, possibly already well-known through oral transmission even if it had not yet appeared in print.

Others have speculated that Kekulé's story in 1890 was a re-parody of the monkey spoof, and was a mere invention rather than a recollection of an event in his life. Kekulé's 1890 speech, in which these anecdotes appeared, has been translated into English. If one takes the anecdote as the memory of a real event, circumstances mentioned in the story suggest that it must have happened early in 1862.

He told yet another anecdote in 1890, of a vision of dancing atoms and molecules that led to his theory of structure. This happened, he claimed, while he was riding on the upper deck of a horse-drawn omnibus in London. This probably occurred in the late summer of 1855.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1865
 
 
Lister Joseph initiates antiseptic surgery by using carbolic acid on a compound wound
 
 
Antiseptic
 

Antiseptic(s) (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. Antiseptics are generally distinguished from antibiotics by the latter's ability to be transported through the lymphatic system to destroy bacteria within the body, and from disinfectants, which destroy microorganisms found on non-living objects.

 
Disinfectants do not kill bacterial spores e.g., on surgical instruments; a sterilization process is required for that. Even sterilization may not destroy prions.

Some antiseptics are true germicides, capable of destroying microbes (bacteriocidal), while others are bacteriostatic and only prevent or inhibit their growth.

Antibacterials are antiseptics that have the proven ability to act against bacteria. Microbicides which destroy virus particles are called viricides or antivirals.

 
 
Usage in surgery
The widespread introduction of antiseptic surgical methods followed the publishing of the paper Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery in 1867 by
Lister Joseph, inspired by Louis Pasteur's germ theory of putrefaction. In this paper, Lister advocated the use of carbolic acid (phenol) as a method of ensuring that any germs present were killed. Some of this work was anticipated by:

-Ancient Greek physicians Galen (circa 130–200) and Hippocrates (circa 400 BC) and Sumerian clay tablets dating from 2150 BC that advocate the use of similar techniques.

-Medieval surgeons Hugh of Lucca, Theoderic of Servia, and his pupil Henri de Mondeville were opponents of Galen's opinion that pus was important to healing, which had led ancient and medieval surgeons to let pus remain in wounds. They advocated draining and cleaning wound lips with wine, dressing the wound after suturing it if necessary, and leaving the dressing on for ten days, soaking it in warm wine all the while, before changing it.

  Their theories were bitterly opposed by Galenist Guy de Chauliac and others trained in the classical tradition.

-Joseph Smith alluded to the use of alcohol as an antiseptic in February 1833, when he wrote what is now section 89 of the Doctrine and Covenants, popularly known as the "Word of Wisdom". Specifically, verse 7 states: "And, again, strong drinks are not for the belly, but for the washing of your bodies."

-Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., who published The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever in 1843.

-Florence Nightingale, who contributed substantially to the report on the Royal Commission on the Health of the Army (1856–1857), based on her earlier work.

-Ignaz Semmelweis, who published his work The Cause, Concept and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever in 1861, summarizing experiments and observations since 1847

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1865
 
 
Thaddeus Lowe invents ice machine
 
 
Lowe Thaddeus
 

Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (August 20, 1832 - January 16, 1913), also known as Professor T. S. C. Lowe, was an American Civil War aeronaut, scientist and inventor, mostly self-educated in the fields of chemistry, meteorology, and aeronautics, and the father of military aerial reconnaissance in the United States. By the late 1850s he was well known for his advanced theories in the meteorological sciences as well as his balloon building. Among his aspirations were plans for a transatlantic flight.

 

Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe
  Lowe's scientific endeavors were cut short by the onset of the American Civil War. He recognized his patriotic duty in offering his services as an aeronaut for the purposes of performing aerial reconnaissance on the Confederate troops on behalf of the Union Army. In July 1861 Lowe was appointed Chief Aeronaut of the Union Army Balloon Corps by President Abraham Lincoln. Though his work was generally successful, it was not fully appreciated by all members of the military, and disputes over his operations and pay scale forced him to resign in 1863. Lowe returned to the private sector and continued his scientific exploration of hydrogen gas manufacturing. He invented the water gas process by which large amounts of hydrogen gas could be produced from steam and charcoal. His inventions and patents on this process and ice making machines made him a millionaire. In 1887 he moved to Los Angeles, California, and eventually built a 24,000 sq. ft. (2,230 m2) home in Pasadena. He opened several ice making plants and founded Citizen's Bank of Los Angeles. Lowe was introduced to David J. Macpherson, a civil engineer, who had drawn up plans for a scenic mountain railroad. In 1891 they incorporated the Pasadena & Mount Wilson Railroad Co. and began the construction of what would become the Mount Lowe Railway into the hills above Altadena. The railway opened on July 4, 1893 and was met with quick interest and success. Lowe continued construction toward Oak Mountain, renamed Mount Lowe, at an exhaustive rate, both physically and financially. By 1899 Lowe had gone into receivership and eventually lost the railway to Jared S. Torrance. Lowe's fortunes had been all but lost, and he lived out his remaining days at his daughter's home in Pasadena where he died at age 80.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1865
 
 
Maxwell James Clerk: "Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism"
 
 

Clerk Maxwell: "Treatise on
Electricity and Magnetism"
 
 
 
1865
 
 
Gregor Mendel enunciates his Law of Heredity
 
 
Mendelian inheritance
 
Mendelian inheritance is inheritance of biological features that follows the laws proposed by Gregor Johann Mendel (Mendel Gregor ) in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900. It was initially very controversial. When Mendel's theories were integrated with the Boveri–Sutton chromosome theory of inheritance by Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1915, they became the core of classical genetics while Ronald Fisher combined them with the theory of natural selection in his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, putting evolution onto a mathematical footing and forming the basis for Population genetics and the modern evolutionary synthesis.
 
History
The laws of inheritance were derived by Gregor Mendel, a nineteenth-century Austrian monk conducting hybridization experiments in garden peas (Pisum sativum) he planted in the backyard of the church. Between 1856 and 1863, he cultivated and tested some 5,000 pea plants.

From these experiments, he induced two generalizations which later became known as Mendel's Principles of Heredity or Mendelian inheritance. He described these principles in a two-part paper, Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden (Experiments on Plant Hybridization), that he read to the Natural History Society of Brno on February 8 and March 8, 1865, and which was published in 1866.

Mendel's conclusions were largely ignored. Although they were not completely unknown to biologists of the time, they were not seen as generally applicable, even by Mendel himself, who thought they only applied to certain categories of species or traits.

A major block to understanding their significance was the importance attached by 19th-century biologists to the apparent blending of inherited traits in the overall appearance of the progeny, now known to be due to multigene interactions, in contrast to the organ-specific binary characters studied by Mendel. In 1900, however, his work was "re-discovered" by three European scientists, Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, and Erich von Tschermak. The exact nature of the "re-discovery" has been somewhat debated: De Vries published first on the subject, mentioning Mendel in a footnote, while Correns pointed out Mendel's priority after having read De Vries' paper and realizing that he himself did not have priority. De Vries may not have acknowledged truthfully how much of his knowledge of the laws came from his own work, or came only after reading Mendel's paper.
Later scholars have accused Von Tschermak of not truly understanding the results at all.

  Regardless, the "re-discovery" made Mendelism an important but controversial theory. Its most vigorous promoter in Europe was William Bateson, who coined the terms "genetics" and "allele" to describe many of its tenets.

The model of heredity was highly contested by other biologists because it implied that heredity was discontinuous, in opposition to the apparently continuous variation observable for many traits. Many biologists also dismissed the theory because they were not sure it would apply to all species. However, later work by biologists and statisticians such as Ronald Fisher showed that if multiple Mendelian factors were involved in the expression of an individual trait, they could produce the diverse results observed, and thus showed that Mendelian genetics is compatible with natural selection. Thomas Hunt Morgan and his assistants later integrated the theoretical model of Mendel with the chromosome theory of inheritance, in which the chromosomes of cells were thought to hold the actual hereditary material, and created what is now known as classical genetics, which was extremely successful and cemented Mendel's place in history.

Mendel's findings allowed scientists such as Fisher and J.B.S. Haldane to predict the expression of traits on the basis of mathematical probabilities. A large contribution to Mendel's success can be traced to his decision to start his crosses only with plants he demonstrated were true-breeding. He also only measured absolute (binary) characteristics, such as color, shape, and position of the offspring, rather than quantitative characteristics. He expressed his results numerically and subjected them to statistical analysis. His method of data analysis and his large sample size gave credibility to his data. He also had the foresight to follow several successive generations (f2, f3) of pea plants and record their variations. Finally, he performed "test crosses" (back-crossing descendants of the initial hybridization to the initial true-breeding lines) to reveal the presence and proportion of recessive characters.

 
 


A Punnett square for one of Mendel's
pea plant experiments.

 
Mendel's laws
Mendel discovered that, when he crossed purebred white flower and purple flower pea plants (the parental or P generation), the result was not a blend. Rather than being a mix of the two, the offspring (known as the F1 generation) was purple-flowered. When Mendel self-fertilized the F1 generation pea plants, he obtained a purple flower to white flower ratio in the F2 generation of 3 to 1. The results of this cross are tabulated in the Punnett square to the right.

He then conceived the idea of heredity units, which he called "factors". Mendel found that there are alternative forms of factors—now called genes—that account for variations in inherited characteristics. For example, the gene for flower color in pea plants exists in two forms, one for purple and the other for white. The alternative "forms" are now called alleles. For each biological trait, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent. These alleles may be the same or different. An organism that has two identical alleles for a gene is said to be homozygous for that gene (and is called a homozygote). An organism that has two different alleles for a gene is said be heterozygous for that gene (and is called a heterozygote).
Mendel also hypothesized that allele pairs separate randomly, or segregate, from each other during the production of gametes: egg and sperm.

  Because allele pairs separate during gamete production, a sperm or egg carries only one allele for each inherited trait. When sperm and egg unite at fertilization, each contributes its allele, restoring the paired condition in the offspring. This is called the Law of Segregation. Mendel also found that each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formation. This is known as the Law of Independent Assortment.

The genotype of an individual is made up of the many alleles it possesses. An individual's physical appearance, or phenotype, is determined by its alleles as well as by its environment. The presence of an allele does not mean that the trait will be expressed in the individual that possesses it. If the two alleles of an inherited pair differ (the heterozygous condition), then one determines the organism’s appearance and is called the dominant allele; the other has no noticeable effect on the organism’s appearance and is called the recessive allele. Thus, in the example above dominant purple flower allele will hide the phenotypic effects of the recessive white flower allele. This is known as the Law of Dominance but it is not a transmission law, dominance has to do with the expression of the genotype and not its transmission. The upper case letters are used to represent dominant alleles whereas the lowercase letters are used to represent recessive alleles.

 
 

Mendel's laws of inheritance

Law of segregation: During gamete formation, the alleles for each gene segregate from each other so that each gamete carries only one allele for each gene.

Law of independent assortment: Genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.

Law of dominance: Some alleles are dominant while others are recessive; an organism with at least one dominant allele will display the effect of the dominant allele.

 
 
Law of Segregation (the "First Law")
The Law of Segregation states that every individual contains a pair of alleles for each particular trait which segregate or separate during cell division (assuming diploidy) for any particular trait and that each parent passes a randomly selected copy (allele) to its offspring. The offspring then receives its own pair of alleles of the gene for that trait by inheriting sets of homologous chromosomes from the parent organisms. Interactions between alleles at a single locus are termed dominance and these influence how the offspring expresses that trait (e.g. the color and height of a plant, or the color of an animal's fur). Book definition: The Law of Segregation states that the two alleles for a heritable character segregate (separate from each other) during gamete formation and end up in different gametes.

More precisely, the law states that when any individual produces gametes, the copies of a gene separate so that each gamete receives only one copy (allele). A gamete will receive one allele or the other. The direct proof of this was later found following the observation of meiosis by two independent scientists, the German botanist Oscar Hertwig in 1876, and the Belgian zoologist Edouard Van Beneden in 1883. Paternal and maternal chromosomes get separated in meiosis and the alleles with the traits of a character are segregated into two different gametes. Each parent contributes a single gamete, and thus a single, randomly successful allele copy to their offspring and fertilization.

 
 

Principle of segregation



galactosemia: inheritance pedigree

Pedigree of a family in which the gene for phenylketonuria is segregating. The half-solid circles and squares represent carriers of phenylketonuria; the solid symbols signify affected individuals.





segregation, principle of: Mendel’s laws

Mendel’s law of segregation
Cross of a purple-flowered and a white-flowered strain of peas; R stands for the gene for purple flowers and r for the gene for white flowers.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

 
 
Law of Independent Assortment (the "Second Law")
In short it states that: In the inheritance of more than one pair of traits in a cross simultaneously, the factor responsible for each pair of traits are distributed to the gametes.

The Law of Independent Assortment, also known as "Inheritance Law", states that separate genes for separate traits are passed independently of one another from parents to offspring. That is, the biological selection of a particular gene in the gene pair for one trait to be passed to the offspring has nothing to do with the selection of the gene for any other trait. More precisely, the law states that alleles of different genes assort independently of one another during gamete formation. While Mendel's experiments with mixing one trait always resulted in a 3:1 ratio between dominant and recessive phenotypes, his experiments with mixing two traits (dihybrid cross) showed 9:3:3:1 ratios. But the 9:3:3:1 table shows that each of the two genes is independently inherited with a 3:1 phenotypic ratio. Mendel concluded that different traits are inherited independently of each other, so that there is no relation, for example, between a cat's color and tail length. This is actually only true for genes that are not linked to each other.

Independent assortment occurs in eukaryotic organisms during meiotic metaphase I, and produces a gamete with a mixture of the organism's chromosomes. The physical basis of the independent assortment of chromosomes is the random orientation of each bivalent chromosome along the metaphase plate with respect to the other bivalent chromosomes.

  Along with crossing over, independent assortment increases genetic diversity by producing novel genetic combinations.

Of the 46 chromosomes in a normal diploid human cell, half are maternally derived (from the mother's egg) and half are paternally derived (from the father's sperm). This occurs as sexual reproduction involves the fusion of two haploid gametes (the egg and sperm) to produce a new organism having the full complement of chromosomes. During gametogenesis—the production of new gametes by an adult—the normal complement of 46 chromosomes needs to be halved to 23 to ensure that the resulting haploid gamete can join with another gamete to produce a diploid organism. An error in the number of chromosomes, such as those caused by a diploid gamete joining with a haploid gamete, is termed aneuploidy.

In independent assortment, the chromosomes that result are randomly sorted from all possible combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes. Because gametes end up with a random mix instead of a pre-defined "set" from either parent, gametes are therefore considered assorted independently. As such, the gamete can end up with any combination of paternal or maternal chromosomes. Any of the possible combinations of gametes formed from maternal and paternal chromosomes will occur with equal frequency. For human gametes, with 23 pairs of chromosomes, the number of possibilities is 223 or 8,388,608 possible combinations. The gametes will normally end up with 23 chromosomes, but the origin of any particular one will be randomly selected from paternal or maternal chromosomes. This contributes to the genetic variability of progeny.

 
 

Principle of independent assortment


independent assortment, principle of
Mendel’s law of independent assortment
Cross of peas having yellow round seeds with peas having green wrinkled seeds. A stands for the gene for yellow and a for the gene for green; B stands for the gene for a round surface and b for the gene for a wrinkled surface.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

 
Law of Dominance (the "Third Law")
Mendel's Law of Dominance states that recessive alleles will always be masked by dominant alleles. Therefore, a cross between a homozygous dominant and a homozygous recessive will always express the dominant phenotype, while still having a heterozygous genotype. Law of Dominance can be explained easily with the help of a mono hybrid cross experiment:- In a cross between two organisms pure for any pair (or pairs) of contrasting traits (characters), the character that appears in the F1 generation is called "dominant" and the one which is suppressed (not expressed) is called "recessive." Each character is controlled by a pair of dissimilar factors. Only one of the characters expresses. The one which expresses in the F1 generation is called Dominant. It is important to note however, that the law of dominance is significant and true but is not universally applicable.

According to the latest revisions, only two of these rules are considered to be laws. The third one is considered as a basic principle but not a genetic law of Mendel.
 

Mendelian trait
A Mendelian trait is one that is controlled by a single locus in an inheritance pattern. In such cases, a mutation in a single gene can cause a disease that is inherited according to Mendel's laws. Examples include sickle-cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, cystic fibrosis and xeroderma pigmentosa. A disease controlled by a single gene contrasts with a multi-factorial disease, like arthritis, which is affected by several loci (and the environment) as well as those diseases inherited in a non-Mendelian fashion.

 
 
Non-Mendelian inheritance
Mendel explained inheritance in terms of discrete factors—genes—that are passed along from generation to generation according to the rules of probability. Mendel's laws are valid for all sexually reproducing organisms, including garden peas and human beings. However, Mendel's laws stop short of explaining some patterns of genetic inheritance. For most sexually reproducing organisms, cases where Mendel's laws can strictly account for the patterns of inheritance are relatively rare. Often, the inheritance patterns are more complex.

A similar situation arises from codominance, in which the phenotypes produced by both alleles are clearly expressed. For example, in certain varieties of chicken, the allele for black feathers is codominant with the allele for white feathers. Heterozygous chickens have a color described as "erminette," speckled with black and white feathers. Unlike the blending of red and white colors in heterozygous four o'clocks, black and white colors appear separately in chickens. Many human genes, including one for a protein that controls cholesterol levels in the blood, show codominance, too. People with the heterozygous form of this gene produce two different forms of the protein, each with a different effect on cholesterol levels.

  In Mendelian inheritance, genes have only two alleles, such as a and A. In nature, such genes exist in several different forms and are therefore said to have multiple alleles. A gene with more than two alleles is said to have multiple alleles. An individual, of course, usually has only two copies of each gene, but many different alleles are often found within a population.

One of the best-known examples is coat color in rabbits. A rabbit's coat color is determined by a single gene that has at least four different alleles. The four known alleles display a pattern of simple dominance that can produce four coat colors. Many other genes have multiple alleles, including the human genes for ABO blood type.

Furthermore, many traits are produced by the interaction of several genes. Traits controlled by two or more genes are said to be polygenic traits. Polygenic means "many genes." For example, at least three genes are involved in making the reddish-brown pigment in the eyes of fruit flies. Polygenic traits often show a wide range of phenotypes.
The variety of skin color in humans comes about partly because more than four different genes probably control this trait.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1865
 
 
First oil pipeline (six miles) in Pennsylvania, U.S.
 
 
 
1865
 
 
Pasteur (Pasteur Louis ) succeeds in curing silkworm disease, saving the French silk industry
 
 
 
1865
 
 
Ivan M. Sechenov: "Reflexes of the Brain," on physiological basis of psychic processes
 
 
Sechenov Ivan
 
Ivan Mikhaylovich Sechenov (Russian: Ива́н Миха́йлович Се́ченов; August 13 [O.S. August 1] 1829, Tyoply Stan (now Sechenovo) near Simbirsk, Russia – November 15 [O.S. November 2] 1905, Moscow), was a Russian physiologist, named by Ivan Pavlov as "The Father of Russian physiology". Sechenov authored the classic Reflexes of the Brain introducing electrophysiology and neurophysiology into laboratories and teaching of medicine.
 

Portrait of Ivan Sechenov by Ilya Repin.
  Biography
1843-1848 Main Military Engineering School, now Military engineering-technical university (Russian: Военный инженерно-технический университет), in Saint Petersburg
1850-1856 studies of medicine at Moscow University
1860 M.D. from the Imperial Military Medical Academy of St. Petersburg
1860-1870 professor at the Imperial Military Medical Academy. Foundation of the first Russian school of physiology. Sechenov resigned to protest the rejection of Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (the founder of immunology, the Nobel Prize laureate of 1908)
1870 chemical research in Mendeleev's laboratory in St. Petersburg
1871-1876 chair at the Novorossiysk University at Odessa (where Mechnikov had been appointed Titular Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy)
1876-1888 professor at St. Petersburg University
1889 "Sechenov's equation" is introduced (from experimental evidence) for solubility of gases
1891-1901 professor at Moscow University
1904 elected honorary member of Russian Academy of Sciences

Sechenov's major interest was neurophysiology (the structure of the brain). He showed that brain activity is linked to electric currents and was the first to introduce electrophysiology. Among his discoveries was the cerebral inhibition of spinal reflexes. He also maintained that chemical factors in the environment of the cell are of great importance.
 
 
Between 1856 and 1862 Sechenov studied and worked in Europe in laboratories of Johannes Peter Mueller, Emil du Bois-Reymond, Hermann von Helmholtz (Berlin), Felix Hoppe-Seyler (Leipzig), Carl Ludwig (Vienna) and Claude Bernard (Paris).

Like several other Russian scientists of the period Sechenov was often in conflict with the tsarist government and conservative colleagues, but he did not emigrate. In 1866 censorship committee in St.Petersburg attempted judicial procedures accusing Sechenov of spreading materialism and of "debasing of Christian morality".

Impact
Sechenov's work laid the foundations for the study of reflexes, animal and human behaviour, and neuroscience. He was an influence on Vladimir Bekhterev and Vladimir Nikolayevich Myasishchev when they set up the Institute of Brain and Psychic Activity in 1918.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1865
 
 
Edward Whymper climbs the Matterhorn
 
 
Whymper Edward
 

Edward Whymper, (born April 27, 1840, London, England—died September 16, 1911, Chamonix, France), English mountaineer and artist who was associated with the exploration of the Alps and was the first man to climb the Matterhorn (14,691 feet [4,478 metres]).

 

Edward Whymper
  Privately educated, Whymper entered his father’s wood engraving business and ultimately succeeded as head of it.

He was sent to Switzerland in 1860 to make sketches for a book on the Alps and became a mountaineer thereafter.

In the western Alps he climbed Mont Pelvoux (1861) and Les Écrins (1864).

Whymper and the physicist John Tyndall engaged in a race to reach the top of the Matterhorn by way of the Italian side of the mountain for nearly three years.

On his eighth attempt to scale the Matterhorn, on July 14, 1865, Whymper made the ascent by the Swiss ridge, a steep and menacing passage that had previously been thought too perilous to attempt to climb.

On the descent, one member of his party slipped and pulled down three more—all four fell to their deaths. The rope broke, saving Whymper and two guides.

 
 
One of the best known of all mountaineering accidents, this event is recorded in Whymper’s Scrambles Amongst the Alps (1871; condensed as Ascent of the Matterhorn, 1879), which is illustrated with his own engravings.
 
 
The book contains Whymper’s famous words of caution:

Climb if you will, but remember that courage and strength are nought without prudence, and that a momentary negligence may destroy the happiness of a lifetime.

Do nothing in haste; look well to each step, and from the beginning think what may be the end.

While he continued to climb elsewhere, Whymper abandoned mountaineering in the Alps after the Matterhorn accident.

In 1867 and 1872 Whymper visited Greenland with the intention of crossing its ice cap, but he became convinced that the undertaking would prove too costly for him.

In Ecuador (1880) he twice ascended Chimborazo, and he spent a night on the summit of Cotopaxi (19,347 feet [5,897 metres]), the world’s highest continuously active volcano.

He published Travels Amongst the Great Andes of Ecuador (1892), which contained much valuable information for geographers, geologists, and mountaineers.

He also compiled two handbooks on the climbing of Chamonix (1896) and Zermatt (1897; both reprinted 1974). Whymper’s last journeys were in the Canadian Rockies (1901–05).

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
Title page of 6th edition (1936) of Scrambles amongst the Alps
 
 
 
The High Andes
 
 


Edward Whymper climbed most of the outstanding peaks of Ecuador,
but he was most proud of his discoveries about ways of avoiding mountain sickness.

 
Edward Whymper, who had become Europe's most celebrated alpinist in 1865 by reaching the summit of the Matterhorn, arrived at Guayaquil in Ecuador in 1879 to explore the Andes. His particular interest was the problem of mountain sickness, which appeared to afflict mountaineers worse in South America than at comparable heights in Europe.
 
 
Whymper's ascents
 
On his arrival Whymper left directly for Chimborazo, the peak which had so narrowly defeated Baron von Humboldt nearly 80 years earlier. Traveling through this unsettled country, Whymper subsequently wrote in his Travels Amongst the Great Andes of the Equator that he believed in "adopting a policy of non-intervention in all that did not concern us ... trusting more to our wits than to our credentials, and believing that a jest may conquer where force will fail, that a bon-mot is often better than a passport."
By the time Whymper had reached his second camp on the mountain, the altitude was indeed affecting him and his companions far worse than it had in the Alps. Despite feeling feverish and suffering severe headaches, they continued to scale the western summit, only to find that it was lower than the eastern one. They crossed the intervening plateau and conquered the true summit of Chimborazo, finally returning to camp in pitch darkness.
Whymper next turned his attention to the volcano of Cotopaxi. As they ascended the slope, the party found that volcanic ash was penetrating their clothing, ears, eyes, and nostrils. They camped as near the steaming mouth of the volcano as they dared, but found that the rubber sheet of their tent floor was melting on lava at a temperature of 110°F (43°C). Whymper crawled to the rim of the volcano at night and looked at the glowing molten mass below.

He climbed most of the other outstanding peaks of Ecuador, discovered unknown glaciers, took measurements of heights, and collected rare mountain plants, butterflies, and even earthworms. But he saw his most important achievement in the area of his original interest - mountain sickness. He established that this was related to atmospheric pressure - the barometer had dropped to 14 inches (35 centimeters) on the summit of Chimborazo — and made recommendations to aid future climbers.
 
A Edward Whymper captioned this illustration of
his mountain camp in the Andes as his "bedroom "
and his "kitchen."
 
 
Bingham's discovery of Machu Picchu
 
The Andes had a very different appeal for Hiram Bingham, a young American lecturer in Latin American history at Yale University, with a particular interest in the Incas. Following Pizarro's brutal conquest of the Incas in 1532, the Spaniards had installed Manco as a puppet ruler. He, however, had led an unsuccessful rising against the Spaniards in 1537 and then fled to the western watershed of the upper Urubamba River, where he had established the cities of Vilcabamba and Vitcos.
Eventually the Spaniards had succeeded in invading Vilcabamba, and Manco's youngest and only surviving son, Tupac Amaru, had been carried off to Cuzco and beheaded. The Inca civilization had finally come to an end.
In 1908 Bingham and a friend set out to explore the Inca fastnesses on muleback, hoping to find the lost Inca cities of Vilcabamba and Vitcos. After four days' ride from Cuzco, the terrain became more difficult, with the trail sometimes being so steep that they were forced to crawl on hands and knees. They cut through dense undergrowth and bamboo thickets, and eventually found an impressive Inca ruin — but not Vilcabamba or Vitcos.
Bingham returned in 1911 with a larger expedition from Yale. From the Urubamba Valley he was guided to the top of one of the neighboring mountains, where he was rewarded with "an unexpected sight, a great flight of beautifully constructed stone-faced terraces, perhaps a hundred of them, each hundreds of feet long and ten feet high . . . suddenly I found myself confronted with the walls of ruined houses built of the finest quality of Inca stone work . . . hiding in bamboo thickets and tangled vines, appeared here and there walls of white granite ashlars carefully cut and exquisitely fitted together." The ruins were overshadowed by a towering sugar-loaf peak called by the locals Huayna Picchu, and the name Machu Picchu was promptly given to the ruins themselves. Bingham was convinced that he had found the lost Inca capital of Vilcabamba.
 
In the course of his expeditions to find the lost Inca cities, Hiram Bingham had to cross several rope bridges over
deep gorges.
 
Bingham was determined to find Vitcos as "well, which had been originally described as having close by it "a temple of the sun and inside it a white stone above a spring of water." He was taken to sites with smaller white rocks, sites with larger non-white rocks, and other rocks that overlooked caves rather than springs — the whole Urubamba Valley seemed to be riddled with Inca sites.
Bingham persevered. He knew that Vitcos was reputed to have wonderful views and ornate buildings. Eventually, on a high ridge, he found just such a set of Inca ruins, with "the lintels of the doors being of marble and elaborately cut." He was at once convinced that this place, called Rosaspata, was Vitcos. When his Indian guides led him to a gigantic white granite boulder above a dark mysterious pool and ornamented with Inca carvings amid the ruins of a temple, Bingham was sure that this was the sacred spot he sought. Its position so close to the ruins confirmed the identity of Vitcos.
Bingham returned to the Urubamba Valley the following year, where his associates cleared the vegetation from the terraces of Machu Picchu while he continued to explore for fresh sites. He never repeated his extraordinary luck of the previous year, but he did go on to find other Inca remains, notably at Espiritu Pampa.
 
 


Machu Picchu was almost certainly one of the last strongholds
of the Incas in the mountains which, in the 16th century,
the Spaniards found virtually impenetrable. Hiram Bingham
mistakenly thought it was the lost city of Vilcabamba when
he first saw it in 1911.

 
The last Inca capital
 
Another American explorer, Gene Savoy, returned to Espiritu Pampa in 1964 and 1965, and found that it was far more extensive than Bingham had realized. It had to be this site, and not Machu Picchu, which was the last, lost capital of the Incas. The location was correct, and it was at the right altitude (much lower and warmer than Machu Picchu). The ruined buildings fitted more closely to contemporary descriptions, and its sheer size suggested a capital. Lastly - and most macabrely - its position close to a navigable stretch of the river would have made it possible for Pizarro to have floated down it a sinister message in 1539 (as he "was reputed to" have done): the body of Manco's murdered wife, Cura Ocllo, in a basket.

The last capital of the Incas had been found, but exploration in the forests and gulleys around the Urubamba still continues. The hazards that beset Bingham and his predecessors still persist, suggesting that the remaining mysteries of the Incas are not to be revealed to the faint-hearted.
 
 
 
Bingham Hiram
 

Hiram Bingham, (born Nov. 19, 1875, Honolulu, Hawaii—died June 6, 1956, Washington, D.C.), American archaeologist and politician who in 1911 initiated the scientific study of Machu Picchu, an ancient Inca site in a remote part of the Peruvian Andes.

 

Hiram Bingham
  Bingham may have been preceded by the German adventurer Augusto Berns, who, some scholars believe, visited the site in 1867. Whether or not he was preceded by Berns, however, Bingham and his work were the key catalysts for the archaeological investigation of sites in the Andes and other parts of South America.

As a boy, Bingham learned mountaineering from his father, a well-known Pacific missionary. This skill vastly aided his Inca research. In 1906, seeking to enhance his ability to teach Latin American history, he traveled the Andean route taken in 1819 by Simón Bolívar from Venezuela to Colombia. In 1908 he followed the old Spanish trade route through the Andes from Buenos Aires, Argentina, to Lima, Peru.

Bingham was a member of the history faculty at Yale University from 1909 until 1924. In July 1911 he directed a Yale archaeological expedition whose main objective was to find Vilcabamba (Vilcapampa), which was the “lost city of the Incas,” the secret mountain stronghold used during the 16th-century rebellion against Spanish rule. Prospects for locating it were poor: not even the Spanish conquistadores had discovered it.

Clues from early chronicles of the Incas were scanty. It was believed to be situated somewhere near Cuzco, Peru, where the problems of crossing the Andes were formidable.

 
 
The expedition owed its success largely to Bingham’s steadfastness and courage. He visited several Inca sites, sometimes risking his life to do so.

After arriving in Cuzco, Bingham was urged by the prefect of Apurímac, J.J. Nuñez, to search the vicinity of the Urubamba River valley for the fabled ruins of Choquequirau (“Cradle of Gold”), and Bingham suspected that site might be Vilcabamba.
 
 

Bingham (upper right) with a local guide on a jungle bridge at Espiritu Pampa in Peru,
hand-colored glass slide, 1911
  On July 24 Bingham was led by a Quechua-speaking resident, Melchor Arteaga, to the ruins of Machu Picchu. There he found well-preserved stonework remains and was particularly struck by the similarity of one of the structures to the Temple of the Sun at Cuzco.

In 1912 Bingham led the expedition that excavated Machu Picchu, and he returned there in 1915. He became convinced that Machu Picchu was Vilcabamba, and it wasn’t until the mid-20th century that his claim was seriously disputed.

Bingham’s additional work in the region revealed the important sites of Vitcos and Espíritu Pampa, a larger ruin that was thoroughly excavated in 1964 by the American archaeologist Gene Savoy, who demonstrated it to be a more likely site for Vilcabamba.

Bingham’s publications on South America include Inca Land (1922), Machu Picchu, a Citadel of the Incas (1930), and Lost City of the Incas (1948).

Bingham entered politics and was elected lieutenant governor of Connecticut (1922–24). After winning the governorship in 1924, he almost immediately resigned to fill a vacancy in the U.S. Senate.

He was reelected to a full term in 1926, after which he devoted himself to business interests.

In 1951 he was appointed to the Civil Service Loyalty Review Board by President Harry S. Truman and helped investigate controversial cases of suspected subversion in the State Department.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1865
 
 
Rohlfs Friedrich Gerhard
 

Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs (April 14, 1831 – June 2, 1896) was a German geographer, explorer, author and adventurer.

 

Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs
  Biography
He was born at Vegesack, now part of Bremen. He was the son of a physician, and there was much pressure on Rohlfs to be in the field of medicine. After the ordinary course at the gymnasium of Osnabrück, he entered the Bremen corps in 1848, and took part as a volunteer in the Schleswig-Holstein campaign, being made an officer after the battle of Idstedt (July 1850). He then became a medical student, and studied at the universities of Heidelberg, Würzburg, and Göttingen. He wanted to travel, joined the French Foreign Legion in a medical capacity, and served during the conquest of Kabylia. He attained the highest rank open to a foreigner, and was decorated for bravery as Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Having learned the Arabic language and the mode of life of the inhabitants, in 1861 he went to Morocco, and was for some time personal physician to a nobleman there.

He then set off on his own, exploring the oases of Morocco. It was on this trip that he was attacked and left for dead, his leg almost severed from his body.

 
 
These injuries would keep him from returning to Europe for most of his life, the cold weather somehow aggravating them. In 1864 he continued his travels in Morocco, and crossed the Atlas Mountains to the oasis of Tuat. His description and map of the country were the first ever made from personal observation and with scientific knowledge.

After this trip, and a short visit to Germany, Rohlfs returned to Africa, and, disguised as an Arab, was the first European to cross Africa from Tripoli across the Sahara desert via Lake Chad and along the Niger River and to present-day Lagos on the Gulf of Guinea from 1865-1867.

 
 

Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs
  He was the second European explorer to visit the region of the Draa River in the south of Morocco. For this work, in 1868 he was awarded the Patron's Medal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. Rohlfs's detailed account of it is contained in the Ergänzungsheft (“Supplement”) No. 34 to Petermann's Geographische Mittheilungen (Gotha, 1872).

At the close of 1867, by order of the king of Prussia, he joined the British punitive expedition to Abyssinia. He returned to Tripoli in 1868, and in 1869 traversed the desert from Tripoli to Alexandria, visiting the oasis of Siwah, site of the ancient city of Ammonium. Returning to Germany, he married and settled down in Weimar.

In 1873, with an expedition of 100 camels and 90 men, organized under the patronage of the khedive of Egypt Isma'il Pasha, he explored the Libyan desert west of the chain of oases which skirt the valley of the Nile, and discovered that the depression called the Bahr Bela-ma (river without water), marked on many maps of the desert at that time, did not exist.

In 1874 Rohlfs set out from Dakhla Oasis intending to reach Kufra. In February he was about 100 kilometres (62 mi) north of Abu Ballas (Pottery Hill) in the Western Desert. Accompanied by Karl Zittel and a surveyor called Jordans, Rohlfs and his colleagues experienced a torrential downpour - a rare occurrence in the desert.

Rohlf's team restocked and watered their camels and left a cairn at the place he had named Regenfeld (“Rain field”). The progress of the expedition was stopped by hills of loose sliding sand which the camels were unable to traverse, and the party turned back.

 
 
In 1875 he visited the United States, and lectured on his travels. In 1878 Rohlfs and Anton Stecker (1855-1888) were commissioned by the German African Society to go to Wadai. They succeeded in reaching the oasis of Kufra, one of the chief centres of the Senussites, but being attacked by Arabs, they were obliged to retreat, making their way to the coast at Benghazi, reached in October 1879. In 1880 Rohlfs accompanied Stecker in an exploring expedition to Abyssinia; but after delivering a letter from the German emperor to the Negus, he returned to Europe.

In 1885, when the rivalry belween the British and Germans in East Africa was very keen, Otto von Bismarck appointed Rohlfs consul at Zanzibar, which island Bismarck desired to secure for Germany. Rohlfs, untrained in diplomacy, was no match for John Kirk, the British agent, and he was soon recalled, and did not again visit Africa.

Rohlfs died at Rüngsdorf, near Bonn.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 
see also: The Desert
 
 
 
1865
 
 
Open-hearth steel furnace developed by Martin brothers in France based on Siemens process
 
 
Open hearth furnace
 
Open hearth furnaces are one of a number of kinds of furnace where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to produce steel. Since steel is difficult to manufacture due to its high melting point, normal fuels and furnaces were insufficient and the open hearth furnace was developed to overcome this difficulty. Compared to Bessemer steel, which it displaced, its main advantages were that it did not expose the steel to excessive nitrogen (which would cause the steel to become brittle), was easier to control, and it permitted the melting and refining of large amounts of scrap iron and steel.
 

Open hearth furnace was first developed by German-born engineer Siemens Charles William. In 1865, the French engineer Pierre-Émile Martin took out a license from Siemens and first applied his regenerative furnace for making steel. Their process was known as the Siemens-Martin process, and the furnace as an "open-hearth" furnace. Most open hearth furnaces were closed by the early 1990s, not least because of their slow operation, being replaced by the basic oxygen furnace or electric arc furnace.

While arguably the first primitive open hearth furnace was the Catalan forge, invented in Spain in the 8th century, it is usual to confine the term to certain 19th-century and later steelmaking processes, thus excluding bloomeries (including the Catalan forge), finery forges, and puddling furnaces from its application.

 
 
Open hearth process
The open hearth process is a batch process and a batch is called a "heat". The furnace is first inspected for possible damage. Once it is ready or repaired, it is charged with light scrap, such as sheet metal, shredded vehicles or waste metal. The furnace is heated using burning gas. Once it has melted, heavy scrap, such as building, construction or steel milling scrap is added, together with pig iron from blast furnaces. Once all the steel has melted, slag forming agents, such as limestone, are added. The oxygen in iron oxide and other impurities decarburize the pig iron by burning excess carbon away, forming steel. To increase the oxygen contents of the heat, iron ore can be added to the heat.

The process is far slower than that of Bessemer converter and thus easier to control and sample for quality assessment. Preparing a heat usually takes 8 h to 8 h 30 min to complete into steel.

  As the process is slow, it is not necessary to burn all the carbon away as in Bessemer process, but the process can be terminated at given point when desired carbon contents has been achieved.

The furnace is tapped the same way a blast furnace is tapped; a hole is drilled on the side of the hearth and the raw steel flows out. Once all the steel has been tapped, the slag is skimmed away. The raw steel may be cast into ingots; this process is called teeming, or it may be used on continuous casting for the rolling mill.

The regenerators are the distinctive feature of the furnace and consist of fire-brick flues filled with bricks set on edge and arranged in such a way as to have a great number of small passages between them.

The bricks absorb most of the heat from the outgoing waste gases and return it later to the incoming cold gases for combustion.

 
 

Siemens furnace from 1895
 
 
History
Sir Carl Wilhelm Siemens developed the Siemens regenerative furnace in the 1850s, and claimed in 1857 to be recovering enough heat to save 70–80% of the fuel. This furnace operates at a high temperature by using regenerative preheating of fuel and air for combustion.
In regenerative preheating, the exhaust gases from the furnace are pumped into a chamber containing bricks, where heat is transferred from the gases to the bricks.

The flow of the furnace is then reversed so that fuel and air pass through the chamber and are heated by the bricks. Through this method, an open-hearth furnace can reach temperatures high enough to melt steel, but Siemens did not initially use it for that.

In 1865, the French engineer Pierre-Émile Martin took out a license from Siemens and first applied his regenerative furnace for making steel.

The most appealing characteristic of the Siemens regenerative furnace is the rapid production of large quantities of basic steel, used for example to construct high-rise buildings. The usual size of furnaces is 50 to 100 tons, but for some special processes they may have a capacity of 250 or even 500 tons.

The Siemens-Martin process complemented rather than replaced the Bessemer process. It is slower and thus easier to control. It also permits the melting and refining of large amounts of scrap steel, further lowering steel production costs and recycling an otherwise troublesome waste material.

  Its worst drawback is the fact that melting and refining a charge takes several hours. This was an advantage in the early 20th century, as it gave plant chemists time to analyze the steel and decide how much longer to refine it. But by about 1975, electronic instruments such as atomic absorption spectrophotometers had made analysis of the steel much easier and faster. The work environment around an open hearth furnace is said to be extremely dangerous, although that may be even more true of the environment around a basic oxygen or electric arc furnace.

Basic oxygen steelmaking eventually replaced the open hearth furnace. It rapidly superseded both the Bessemer process and Siemens-Martin process in Western Europe by the 1950s and in Eastern Europe by the 1980s. The open hearth steelmaking had superseded Bessemer process in UK by 1900, but elsewhere in Europe, especially in Germany, the Bessemer and Thomas processes were used until the late 1960s when they were superseded by basic oxygen steelmaking. The last European open hearth furnace in the former East Germany was stopped in 1993. In the US, steel production using the Bessemer process ended in 1968 and the open hearth furnaces had stopped by 1992. In Hunedoara steel works, Romania the last 420-tonne capacity open hearth furnace was shut down on 12 June 1999, demolished and scrapped between 2001 and 2003, but the eight smokestacks of the furnaces remained until February 2011. The last open hearth shop in China was shut down in 2001. The nation with the highest share of steel produced with open hearth furnaces (almost 50%) is Ukraine. The process is still in use in both India and Russia.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 


Tapping open-hearth furnace, VEB Edelstahlwerk, Germany, 1982

 
 
 
Martin Pierre-Emile
 
Pierre-Emile Martin, (born Aug. 18, 1824, Bourges, Fr.—died May 23, 1915, Fourchambault), French engineer who invented the Siemens–Martin (open-hearth) process, which produced most of the world’s steel until the development of the basic oxygen process.
 

Pierre-Emile Martin
  While the chemistry of steelmaking was already familiar in 1856, the only practical method, the Bessemer process, had many serious drawbacks.

In that year the English engineer Sir William Siemens invented the open-hearth furnace, which could produce and sustain much higher temperatures than any other furnace.

Martin obtained a license to build such furnaces and developed a method of producing steel by using scrap steel and pig iron. His steel products were awarded a Gold Medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1867. Although Siemens developed his own method of steel production with his open-hearth furnace, the Siemens-Martin process eventually became the most widespread.

Martin’s patents on his process were challenged, and the ensuing litigation reduced him to virtual poverty. Others were making large profits using his process, however, and finally, when Martin was 83 years old, the Comité des Forges de France (“Ironworkers Guild of France”) instituted a fund for him that was supported by all of the principal steelmaking countries.
Barely one week before Martin’s death, the Iron and Steel Institute, London, honoured him with its Bessemer Gold Medal.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1865
 
 
Baseball Convention, representing 91 baseball clubs, held in New York; at the same time professionalism appears
 
 
 
1865
 
 
Nottingham pawnbroker Booth William  (1829-1912) moves to London to organize the Christian Revival Association, renamed (1878) The Salvation Army (Salvation Army)
 
 
 
1865
 
 
First carpet sweeper comes into use
 
 
 
1865
 
 
Debut of Grace William Gilbert as cricketer in Gentlemen vs. Players
 
 
Gentlemen v Players
 
In 1864, having scored 5 and 38 for the South Wales club in his first match at The Oval, Grace William Gilbert was outstanding in the next match and scored 170 and 56 not out against the Gentlemen of Sussex at the Royal Brunswick Ground in Hove. His innings of 170 was his first-ever century in a serious match. The third match, against Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) was Grace's debut at Lord's and he was joined by E. M. who had just disembarked from his voyage.[88] Grace scored 50 in the first innings only three days after his sixteenth birthday.

His name now well known in cricketing circles, Grace played for Gentlemen of the South v Players of the South in June 1865 when he was still only 16 but already 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m) tall and weighing 11 st (70 kg). This match is regarded by Cricket Archive as his first-class debut. He bowled extremely well and had match figures of 13 for 84. It was this performance that earned him his first selection for the prestigious Gentlemen v Players fixture.

During this period, before the start of Test cricket in 1877, Gentlemen v Players was the most prestigious fixture in which a player could take part.

 
 
This is apart from North v South which was technically a fixture of higher quality given that the amateur Gentlemen were usually (until Grace took a hand) outclassed by the professional Players. Grace represented the Gentlemen in their matches against the Players from 1865 to 1906.

It was he who enabled the amateurs to meet the paid professionals on level terms and to defeat them more often than not. His ability to master fast bowling was the key factor. Before Grace's debut in the fixture, the Gentlemen had lost 19 consecutive games; of the next 39 games they won 27 and lost only 4. In consecutive innings against the Players from 1871 to 1873, Grace scored 217, 77 and 112, 117, 163, 158 and 70. In his whole career, he scored a record 15 centuries in the fixture.
 
Gentlemen, captained by W. G. Grace, versus Players, Lords 1899
 
 
Grace's 1865 debut in the fixture did not turn the tide as the Players won at The Oval by 118 runs. He played quite well and took seven wickets in the match but could only score 23 and 12 not out. In the second 1865 match, this time at Lord's, the Gentlemen finally ended their losing streak and won by 8 wickets, but it was E. M. Grace, not W. G., who was the key factor with 11 wickets in the match. Even so, Grace made his mark by scoring 34 out of 77–2 in the second innings to steer the Gentlemen to victory.

In 1870, Grace scored 215 for the Gentlemen which was the first double century achieved in the Gentlemen v Players fixture.

Grace last played at Lord's for the Gentlemen in 1899 though he continued to represent the team at other venues until 1906.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1865
 
 
Ku Klux Klan founded, Pulaski, Tenn.
 
 
Ku Klux Klan
 

Ku Klux Klan, either of two distinct U.S. hate organizations that have employed terror in pursuit of their white supremacist agenda. One group was founded immediately after the Civil War and lasted until the 1870s; the other began in 1915 and has continued to the present.

1st Klan 1865–1870s
2nd Klan 1915–1944
3rd Klan 1946–present

 
The 19th-century Klan was originally organized as a social club by Confederate veterans in Pulaski, Tenn., in 1866. They apparently derived the name from the Greek word kyklos, from which comes the English “circle”; “Klan” was added for the sake of alliteration and Ku Klux Klan emerged. The organization quickly became a vehicle for Southern white underground resistance to Radical Reconstruction. Klan members sought the restoration of white supremacy through intimidation and violence aimed at the newly enfranchised black freedmen. A similar organization, the Knights of the White Camelia, began in Louisiana in 1867.

In the summer of 1867, the Klan was structured into the “Invisible Empire of the South” at a convention in Nashville, Tenn., attended by delegates from former Confederate states. The group was presided over by a grand wizard (Confederate cavalry general Nathan Bedford Forrest is believed to have been the first grand wizard) and a descending hierarchy of grand dragons, grand titans, and grand cyclopses. Dressed in robes and sheets designed to frighten superstitious blacks and to prevent identification by the occupying federal troops, Klansmen whipped and killed freedmen and their white supporters in nighttime raids.

The 19th-century Klan reached its peak between 1868 and 1870. A potent force, it was largely responsible for the restoration of white rule in North Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia.

 
Three Ku Klux Klan members arrested in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, September 1871, for the attempted murder of an entire family
 
 
But Forrest ordered it disbanded in 1869, largely as a result of the group’s excessive violence. Local branches remained active for a time, however, prompting Congress to pass the Force Act in 1870 and the Ku Klux Act in 1871.

These bills authorized the president to suspend the writ of habeas corpus, suppress disturbances by force, and impose heavy penalties upon terrorist organizations. President Grant was lax in utilizing this authority, although he did send federal troops to some areas, suspend habeas corpus in nine South Carolina counties, and appoint commissioners who arrested hundreds of Southerners for conspiracy. In United States v. Harris in 1882, the Supreme Court declared the Ku Klux Act unconstitutional, but by that time the Klan had practically disappeared.

It disappeared because its original objective—the restoration of white supremacy throughout the South—had been largely achieved during the 1870s. The need for a secret antiblack organization diminished accordingly.

 
 

Cross burning was introduced by William J. Simmons, the founder of the second Klan in 1915.
 
 
The 20th-century Klan had its roots more directly in the American nativist tradition. It was organized in 1915 near Atlanta, Ga., by Colonel William J. Simmons, a preacher and promoter of fraternal orders who had been inspired by Thomas Dixon’s book The Clansman (1905) and D.W. Griffith’s film The Birth of a Nation (1915). The new organization remained small until Edward Y. Clarke and Mrs. Elizabeth Tyler brought to it their talents as publicity agents and fund raisers. The revived Klan was fueled partly by patriotism and partly by a romantic nostalgia for the old South, but, more importantly, it expressed the defensive reaction of white Protestants in small-town America who felt threatened by the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and by the large-scale immigration of the previous decades that had changed the ethnic character of American society.
 
 

Three Ku Klux Klan members standing at a 1922 parade
 
 
This second Klan peaked in the 1920s, when its membership exceeded 4,000,000 nationally, and profits rolled in from the sale of its memberships, regalia, costumes, publications, and rituals. A burning cross became the symbol of the new organization, and white-robed Klansmen participated in marches, parades, and nighttime cross burnings all over the country. To the old Klan’s hostility toward blacks the new Klan—which was strong in the Midwest as well as in the South—added bias against Roman Catholics, Jews, foreigners, and organized labour. The Klan enjoyed a last spurt of growth in 1928, when Alfred E. Smith, a Catholic, received the Democratic presidential nomination.
 
 

Ku Klux Klan members march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. in 1928
 
 
During the Great Depression of the 1930s the Klan’s membership dropped drastically, and the last remnants of the organization temporarily disbanded in 1944. For the next 20 years the Klan was quiescent, but it had a resurgence in some Southern states during the 1960s as civil-rights workers attempted to force Southern communities’ compliance with the Civil Rights Act of 1964. There were numerous instances of bombings, whippings, and shootings in Southern communities, carried out in secret but apparently the work of Klansmen. President Lyndon B. Johnson publicly denounced the organization in a nationwide television address announcing the arrest of four Klansmen in connection with the slaying of a civil-rights worker, a white woman, in Alabama.

The Klan was unable to stem the growth of a new racial tolerance in the South in the years that followed. Though the organization continued some of its surreptitious activities into the late 20th century, cases of Klan violence became more isolated, and its membership had declined to a few thousand. The Klan became a chronically fragmented mélange made up of several separate and competing groups, some of which occasionally entered into alliances with neo-Nazi and other right-wing extremist groups.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1865
 
 
"The Nation"
 

The Nation, American weekly journal of opinion, the oldest such continuously published periodical still extant. It is generally considered the leading liberal magazine of its kind. It was founded in 1865 by Edwin L. Godkin (Garrison William Lloyd) at the urging of Frederick Law Olmsted.

 
The Nation under Godkin was an eloquent and increasingly influential voice against Reconstruction excesses, graft and corruption in government, civil service abuses, and the like. In 1881 Godkin sold the magazine to the New York Evening Post, beginning a long association between the two publications. Godkin became an editor of the Post and Wendell Phillips Garrison editor of The Nation, which became a weekly edition of the paper until 1914. The journal began to increase its international coverage and its attention to the arts.
 
 

Screenshot of the online home page of The Nation.
 
 

In 1918 Oswald Garrison Villard became editor, and The Nation ended its affiliation with the New York Evening Post and began moving steadily toward the political left. Its circulation dwindled to a few thousand but then, when one issue was refused mailing by the postmaster general, began a recovery. The magazine became vocal in its admiration of the Bolsheviks in Russia and ardently advocated U.S. recognition of the Soviet government, which took place in 1933. Subsequent changes in ownership and editorship kept the journal’s staff and readers in some suspense about its location on the spectrum of the left, with occasional periods of general accord, as during The Nation’s outspoken opposition to the tactics of U.S. Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy in the 1950s and to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. It received grants from supporters to augment its modest circulation and advertising revenues.

In 1995 Victor Navasky, who had been The Nation’s editor since 1978, became its publisher. He held the position until 2005, when he was succeeded by Katrina vanden Heuvel

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1865
 
 
London Metropolitan Fire Service established
 
 
 
1865
 
 
The first railroad sleeping cars, designed by Pullman George Mortimer, appear in U.S.
 
 

The first real Pullman Sleeping Car Introduced, 1865
 
 
 
1865
 
 
The Queensberry Rules governing boxing are first outlined
 
 
Marquess of Queensberry Rules
 
The Marquess of Queensberry rules is a code of generally accepted rules in the sport of boxing.
 
They were named so because John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry publicly endorsed the code, although they were written by a sportsman named John Graham Chambers. The code of rules on which modern boxing is based, the Queensberry rules were the first to mention gloves in boxing. The Queensberry rules are intended for use in both professional and amateur boxing matches, thus separating it from the less popular American Fair Play Rules, which were strictly intended for amateur matches. In popular culture the term is sometimes used to refer to a sense of sportsmanship and fair play.   History
The boxing code was written by John Graham Chambers, a Welshman, and drafted in London in 1865, before being published in 1867 as "the Queensberry rules for the sport of boxing".

This code of rules superseded the Revised London Prize Ring rules (1853), which had themselves replaced the original London Prize Ring rules (1743) of Jack Broughton. This version persuaded boxers that "you must not fight simply to win; no holds barred is not the way; you must win by the rules".
 
 
One early prize fighter who fought under Marquess of Queensberry rules was Jem Mace, former English heavyweight champion, who defeated Bill Davis in Virginia City, Nevada under these rules in 1876. In 1889, the Queensberry rules came into use in the United States and Canada.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1865
 
 
"San Francisco Examiner" and "San Francisco Chronicle" founded
 
 
"San Francisco Examiner"
 

The San Francisco Examiner is a longtime daily newspaper distributed in and around San Francisco, California. The Examiner is one of the pioneers in the industry and has been published continuously since the late 19th century.

The longtime "Monarch of the Dailies" and flagship of the Hearst Corporation chain, the Examiner converted to free distribution early in the 21st century and is now owned by the San Francisco Media Company LLC.

 
History
19th century

The Examiner was founded in 1863 as the Democratic Press, a pro-Confederacy, pro-slavery, pro-Democrat party paper opposed to Abraham Lincoln, but after his assassination in 1865, the paper's offices were destroyed by a mob, and starting on June 12, 1865, it was called the Daily Examiner.

Hearst acquisition
In 1880, mining engineer and entrepreneur George Hearst bought the Examiner. Seven years later, after being elected to the U.S. Senate, he gave it to his son, William Randolph Hearst, who was then 23 years old. The elder Hearst "was said to have received the failing paper as partial payment of a poker debt."

William Randolph Hearst hired S.S. (Sam) Chamberlain, who had started the first American newspaper in Paris, as managing editor and Arthur McEwen as editor, and changed the Examiner from an evening to a morning paper. Under him, the paper's popularity increased greatly, with the help of such writers as Ambrose Bierce, Mark Twain, and the San Francisco-born Jack London, and also through the Examiner‍‍ '​‍s version of yellow journalism, with ample use of foreign correspondents and splashy coverage of scandals such as two entire pages of cables from Vienna about the Mayerling Incident; satire; and patriotic enthusiasm for the Spanish–American War and the 1898 annexation of the Philippines.

  20th century
William Randolph Hearst created the masthead with the "Hearst Eagle" and the slogan Monarch of the Dailies.
After the great earthquake and fire of 1906 destroyed much of San Francisco, the Examiner and its rivals — the San Francisco Chronicle and the San Francisco Call — brought out a joint edition. The Examiner offices were destroyed on April 18, 1906,[6] but when the city was rebuilt, a new structure, the Hearst Building, arose in its place at Third and Market streets. It opened in 1909, and in 1937 the facade, entranceway and lobby underwent an extensive remodeling designed by architect Julia Morgan.

Through the middle third of the twentieth century, the Examiner was one of several dailies competing for the city's and the Bay Area's readership; the San Francisco News, the San Francisco Call-Bulletin, and the Chronicle all claimed significant circulation, but ultimately attrition left the Examiner one chief rival — the Chronicle. Strident competition prevailed between the two papers in the 1950s and 1960s; the Examiner boasted, among other writers, such columnists as veteran sportswriter Prescott Sullivan, the popular Herb Caen, who took an eight-year hiatus from the Chronicle (1950–1958), and Kenneth Rexroth, one of the best-known men of California letters and a leading San Francisco Renaissance poet, who contributed weekly impressions of the city from 1960 to 1967. Ultimately, circulation battles ended in a merging of resources between the two papers.

 
 
For 35 years starting in 1965, the San Francisco Chronicle and Examiner operated under a Joint Operating Agreement whereby the Chronicle published a morning paper and the Examiner published in the afternoon. The Examiner published the Sunday paper's news sections and glossy magazine, and the Chronicle contributed the features. Circulation was approximately 100,000 on weekdays and 500,000 on Sundays. By 1995, discussion was already brewing in print media about the possible shuttering of the Examiner due to low circulation and an extremely disadvantageous revenue sharing agreement for the Chronicle.

In its stylebook, the Examiner has traditionally referred to San Francisco as "The City", capitalized, both in headlines and text of stories, and continues to do so. San Francisco slang has traditionally referred to the Examiner in abbreviated slang form as "the Ex" (and the Chronicle as "the Chron").

 
 

The Examiner, 2013
 
 
21st century

Fang acquisition

When the Chronicle Publishing Company divested its interests, the Hearst Corporation purchased the Chronicle. To satisfy antitrust concerns, Hearst sold the Examiner to ExIn, LLC, a corporation owned by the politically connected Fang family, publishers of the San Francisco Independent and the San Mateo Independent. San Francisco political consultant Clint Reilly filed a lawsuit against Hearst, charging that the deal did not ensure two competitive newspapers and was instead a sweetheart deal designed to curry approval. However, on July 27, 2000 a federal judge approved the Fangs' assumption of the Examiner name, its archives, 35 delivery trucks, and a subsidy of $66 million, to be paid over three years. From their side, the Fangs paid Hearst $100.00 for the Examiner. On February 24, 2003, the Examiner became a free daily newspaper and is now printed Sunday through Friday.
 
 
Anschutz acquisition
On February 19, 2004, the Fang family sold the Examiner and its printing plant, together with the two Independent newspapers, to Philip Anschutz of Denver, Colorado.

His new company, Clarity Media Group, launched The Washington Examiner in 2005 and published The Baltimore Examiner from 2006 to 2009. In 2006, Anschutz donated the archives of the Examiner to the University of California, Berkeley Bancroft Library, the largest gift ever to the library.

Under Clarity ownership, the Examiner pioneered a new business model for the newspaper industry. Designed to be read quickly, the Examiner is presented in a compact, tabloid size without story jumps.

It focuses on local news, business, entertainment and sports with an emphasis on content relevant to local readers.

It is delivered free to select neighborhoods in San Francisco and San Mateo counties, and to single-copy outlets throughout San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, and Alameda counties, California.

By February 2008, the company had transformed the newspaper's examiner.com domain into a national hyperlocal brand with local websites throughout the United States.

  Independent ownership
Clarity Media sold the Examiner to San Francisco Newspaper Company LLC in 2011. The company's investors included then-President and Publisher Todd Vogt, Chief Financial Officer Pat Brown, and David Holmes Black. Early, incorrect media reports stated that the paper was purchased by Black's company Black Press. In 2014, Vogt sold his shares to Black Press. Contemporary issues of the Examiner are as short as 12 pages total, front and back pages included.

Editions
In the early 20th century, an edition of the Examiner circulated in the East Bay under the Oakland Examiner masthead. Into the late 20th century, the paper circulated well beyond San Francisco. In 1982, for example, the Examiner's zoned weekly supplements within the paper were titled "City, "Peninsula," "Marin/Sonoma" and "East Bay." Additionally, during the late 20th Century, an edition of the Examiner was made available in Nevada which, coming out in the morning rather than in the afternoon as the mothership San Francisco edition did, would feature news content from the San Francisco edition of the day before ~ For instance, Tuesday's news in the Nevada edition that came out on Wednesday ~ but with dated non-hard news content ~ comic strips, feature columnists ~ for Wednesday.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 
 
 
 
"San Francisco Chronicle"
 

The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California, but distributed throughout the state from the Sacramento area and Emerald Triangle south to Santa Barbara County. It was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young.

 

San Francisco Chronicle cover, April 22, 1906
 
 
The paper is currently owned by the Hearst Corporation, having bought it from the de Young family in 2000.

The paper benefited from the growth of San Francisco and was the largest circulation newspaper on the West Coast of the United States by 1880. Like many newspapers, it has experienced a rapid fall in circulation in the early 21st century, and was ranked 24th by circulation nationally for the six months to March 2010. The newspaper publishes two web sites: SFGate, which has a mixture of online news and web features, and sfchronicle.com which more closely reflects the type of articles that typically appear in print.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1865
 
 
Union stockyards open at Chicago
 
 
 
1865
 
 
First woman, Maria Mitchell, appointed as professor of astronomy, Vassar College
 
 
Mitchell Maria
 

Maria Mitchell, (born Aug. 1, 1818, Nantucket, Mass., U.S.—died June 28, 1889, Lynn, Mass.), first professional woman astronomer in the United States.

 

Maria Mitchell, US astronomer and pioneer of women's rights, from a portrait by H. Dassell, 1851
  Mitchell was educated in schools on her native Nantucket, Massachusetts, including the one conducted by her father. Her interest in astronomy was stimulated by her father, who let her assist in his work of rating chronometers for the Nantucket whaling fleet and who encouraged her independent use of his telescope.
From 1836 to 1856 she worked as a librarian in the Nantucket Atheneum during the day (often acting as an informal teacher) and became a regular observer of the skies at night.

In October 1847 Mitchell succeeded in establishing the orbit of a new comet. The discovery gained her immediate recognition in scientific circles; the following year she became the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

In 1849 she was appointed a computer for the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, and the next year she was elected to the American Association for the Advancement of Science. A gift of a large equatorial telescope was arranged by a group of prominent American women led by Elizabeth Peabody in 1858.

Mitchell’s accomplishments were subsequently kept in the public eye by feminists, and from 1857 to 1858 she traveled in Europe, meeting many leading scientists. In 1861 she moved with her widowed father to Lynn, Massachusetts.

 
 
Reluctantly, but encouraged by her father, Mitchell accepted an appointment in 1865 to Vassar Female College, which opened that year in Poughkeepsie, New York. As director of the observatory and professor of astronomy there, she was, in those early days, the most prominent member of the faculty. Several of her students, who included Christine Ladd-Franklin and Ellen Swallow (Richards), later testified to the great influence she had as a teacher and as an example.

Mitchell pioneered in the daily photography of sunspots; she was the first to find that they were whirling vertical cavities rather than clouds, as had been earlier believed. She also studied comets, nebulae, double stars, solar eclipses, and the satellites of Saturn and Jupiter. Elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1869, she helped found the Association for the Advancement of Women (1873) and served as its president (1875–76). Mitchell retired from Vassar in failing health in 1888 and died the next year.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1865 Part III NEXT-1866 Part I