Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1863 Part V NEXT-1864 Part II    
 
 
     
1860 - 1869
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860-1869
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part I
Treaty of Turin
First Taranaki War
Convention of Peking
Secession of South Carolina
Poincare Raymond
The Church Union
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part II
Barrie James Matthew
Boucicault Dion
Dion Boucicault: "The Colleen Bawn"
Collins Wilkie
Wilkie Collins: "The Woman in White"
Wilkie Collins 
"The Moonstone"
"The Woman in White"
George Eliot: "The Mill on the Floss"
Di Giacoma Salvatore
Labiche Eugene-Marin
Multatuli
Multatuli: "Max Havelaar"
Alexander Ostrovski: "The Storm"
Chekhov Anton
Anton Chekhov
"Uncle Vanya"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part III
Degas: "Spartan Boys and Girls Exercising"
Hunt: "Finding of the Saviour in the Temple"
Manet: "Spanish Guitar Player"
Ensor James
James Ensor
Mucha Alfons
Alfons Mucha
Levitan Isaak
Isaac Levitan
Steer Philip Wilson
Philip Wilson Steer
Mahler Gustav
Mahler - Das Lied von der Erde
Gustav Mahler
Paderewski Ignace
Paderewski - Minuet
Ignace Paderewski
Suppe Franz
Franz von Suppe - Das Pensionat
Franz von Suppe
Wolf Hugo
Hugo Wolf - "Kennst du das Land"
Hugo Wolf
MacDowell Edward
MacDowell - Piano Sonata No. 1 "Tragica"
Edward MacDowell
Albeniz Isaac
Albeniz - Espana
Isaac Albeniz
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part IV
Cesium
Rubidium
Fechner Gustav Theodor
Lenoir Etienne
Walton Frederick
Linoleum
Across the Continent
Burke Robert O'Hara
Wills William John
Stuart John McDouall
Grant James Augustus
"The Cornhill Magazine"
"The Catholic Times"
Heenan John Camel
Sayers Tom
The Open Championship
Park William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part I
Kansas
Confederate States of America
Davis Jefferson
First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
American Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Hatteras
The American Civil War, 1861
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part II
Siege of Gaeta
Emancipation Manifesto
Abduaziz
Louis I
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part III
Dal Vladimir
Steiner Rudolf
Whitehead Alfred North
Charles Dickens: "Great Expectations"
Dostoevsky: "The House of the Dead"
George Eliot: "Silas Marner"
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "Elsie Venner"
Tagore Rabindranath
Charles Reade: "The Cloister and the Hearth"
Wood Ellen
Mrs. Henry Wood: "East Lynne"
Spielhagen Friedrich
Friedrich Spielhagen: "Problematische Naturen"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part IV
Garnier Charles
Anquetin Louis
Louis Anquetin
Godward John William
John William Godward
Bourdelle Antoine
Antoine Bourdelle
Korovin Konstantin
Konstantin Korovin
Maillol Aristide
Aristide Maillol
Melba Nellie
Royal Academy of Music, London
The Paris version "Tannhauser"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part V
Archaeopteryx
Thallium (Tl)
Hopkins Frederick Gowland
Mort Thomas Sutcliffe
Nansen Fridtjof
Fermentation theory
Baker Samuel
Baker Florence
The Bakers and the Nile
Beeton Isabella
Harden Maximilian
First horse-drawn trams in London
Order of the Star of India
Otis Elisha Graves
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part I
Battle of Fort Henry
Second Battle of Bull Run
BATTLE OF ANTIETAM
Battle of Fredericksburg
Grey Edward
Briand Aristide
The American Civil War, 1862
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part II
Rawlinson George
Ogai Mori
Ivan Turgenev: "Fathers and Sons"
Flaubert: "Salammbo"
Victor Hugo: "Les Miserables"
Barres Maurice
Maeterlinck Maurice
Hauptmann Gerhart
Wharton Edith
Schnitzler Arthur
Uhland Ludwig
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part III
Albert Memorial, London
Manet: "Lola de Valence"
Manet: "La Musique aux Tuileries"
Nesterov Mikhail
Mikhail Nesterov
Klimt Gustav
Gustav Klimt
Rysselberghe Theo
Theo van Rysselberghe
Berlioz: "Beatrice et Benedict"
Debussy Claude
Debussy - Preludes
Claude Debussy
Delius Frederick
Frederick Delius - On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring
Frederick Delius
German Edward
Edward German - Melody in D flat major
Edward German
Kochel Ludwig
Kochel catalogue
Verdi: "La Forza del Destino"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part IV
Bragg William
Foucault Leon
Gatling Richard Jordan
Lamont Johann
Lenard Pnilipp
Sachs Julius
Palgrave William Gifford
The Arabian Desert
International Exhibition, London
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part I
Arizona
Idaho
West Virginia
Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Chancellorsville
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address"
The American Civil War, 1863
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part II
Isma'il Pasha
January Uprising
George I of Greece
Dost Mohammad Khan
Christian IX  of Denmark
Chamberlain Austen
Lloyd George David
Second Taranaki War
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part III
Huxley: "Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature"
Charles Lyell: "The Antiquity of Man"
Massachusetts Agricultural College
D'Annunzio Gabriele
Bahr Hermann
Dehmel Richard
Hale Edward Everett
Edward Everett Hale: "Man without a Country"
Hope Anthony
Charles Kingsley: "The Water Babies"
Longfellow: "Tales of a Wayside Inn"
Quiller-Couch Arthur
Stanislavsky Constantin
Stanislavsky system
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part IV
Stuck Franz
Manet: "Dejeuner sur l'herbe"
Manet: "Olympia"
Meurent Victorine-Louise
The "Salon des Refuses" in Paris
Art in Revolt
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Signac Paul
Paul Signac
Munch Edvard
Edvard Munch
Berlioz: "Les Troyens"
Bizet: "Les Pecheurs de perles"
Mascagni Pietro
Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana
Pietro Mascagni
Weingartner Felix
Felix von Weingartner: Symphony No 6
Felix Weingartner
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part V
Billroth Theodor
Butterick Ebenezer
Ford Henry
Graham Thomas
National Academy of Sciences
Sorby Henry Clifton
The Football Association, London
Grand Prix de Paris
Hearst William Randolph
Yellow journalism
Pulitzer Joseph
Nadar
History of photography
Alexandra of Denmark
Royce Henry
Cuthbert Ned
Coburn Joe
Mike McCoole
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part I
Schleswig-Holstein Question
First Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
Halleck Henry
Sherman William
BATTLE OF ATLANTA
Sand Creek massacre
Venizelos Eleutherios
Maximilian II of Bavaria
Louis II
First International Workingmen's Association
Confederate Army of Manhattan
The American Civil War, 1864
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part II
Lombroso Cesare
Newman: "Apologia pro Vita Sua"
Syllabus of Errors
Dickens: "Our Mutual Friend"
Karlfeldt Erik Axel
Trollope: "The Small House at Allington"
Wedekind Frank
Zangwill Israel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part III
Stieglitz Alfred
History of photography
ALFRED STIEGLITZ
Dyce William
William Dyce
Jawlensky Alexey
Alexei von Jawlensky
Ranson Paul
Paul Ranson
Serusier Paul
Paul Serusier
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
A More Tolerant Salon
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"
Roberts David
David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"
D'Albert Eugen
Eugen d'Albert - Piano Concerto No.2
Eugen d’Albert
Foster Stephen
Stephen Foster - Beautiful Dreamer
Offenbach: "La Belle Helene"
Strauss Richard
Richard Strauss - Metamorphosen
Richard Strauss
Fry William Henry
William Henry Fry - Santa Claus Symphony
William Henry Fry - Niagara Symphony
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part IV
Lake Albert
Bertrand Joseph
Calculus
Nernst Walther
Pasteurization
Wien Wilhelm
Rawat Nain Singh
The Surveyors
Kinthup
First Geneva Convention
Knights of Pythias
"Neue Freie Presse""
De Rossi Giovanni Battista
"In God We Trust"
Travers Stakes
Farragut David
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part I
Union blockade in the American Civil War
Charleston, South Carolina in the American Civil War
Lee Robert Edward
Conclusion of the American Civil War
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Johnson Andrew
Causes of the Franco-Prussian War
Leopold II of Belgium
Harding Warren
George V of Great Britain
Ludendorff Erich
Free State–Basotho Wars
The American Civil War, 1865
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part II
Baudrillart Henri
William Stanley Jevons: "The Coal Question"
Billings Josh
Belasco David
Campbell Patrick
Lewis Carroll: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
Dodge Mary Mapes
Mary Mapes Dodge: "Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates"
Kipling Rudyard
Rudyard Kipling
Merezhkovsky Dmitry
John Henry Newman: "Dream of Gerontius"
Mark Twain: "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"
Walt Whitman: "Drum-Taps"
Yeats William Butler
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part III
Serov Valentin
Valentin Serov
Wiertz Antoine
Antoine Wiertz
Vallotton Felix
Felix Vallotton
"Olympia" - a Sensation
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Nielsen Carl
Carl Nielsen - Aladdin Suite
Carl Nielsen
Glazunov Alexander
Glazunov - The Seasons
Alexander Glazunov
Dukas Paul
Paul Dukas "L'Apprenti Sorcier"
Paul Dukas
Meyerbeer: "L'Africaine"
Sibelius Jean
Jean Sibelius - Finlandia
Jean Sibelius
Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part IV
Plucker Julius
Hyatt John Wesley
Kekule: structure of benzene
Antiseptic
Lowe Thaddeus
Mendelian inheritance
Sechenov Ivan
Whymper Edward
The High Andes
 Bingham Hiram
Rohlfs Friedrich Gerhard
Open hearth furnace
Martin Pierre-Emile
Ku Klux Klan
"The Nation"
Marquess of Queensberry Rules
"San Francisco Examiner"
"San Francisco Chronicle"
Mitchell Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part I
Cuza Alexandru
"Monstrous coalition"
Carol I
Austro-Prussian War
Battle of Custoza
Battle of Trautenau
Battle of Koniggratz
Battle of Lissa
Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869
MacDonald Ramsay
Sun Yat-sen
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part II
Croce Benedetto
Soderblom Nathan
Larousse Pierre
Larousse: Great Universal Dictionary of the 19th Century
Friedrich Lange: "History of Materialism"
Benavente Jacinto
Dostoevsky: "Crime and Punishment"
Hamerling Robert
Ibsen: "Brand"
Kingsley: "Hereward the Wake"
Rolland Romain
Wells Herbert
H.G. Wells
"The War of the Worlds"

"The Invisible Man"
 
"A Short History of the World"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part III
Bakst Leon
Leon Bakst
Fry Roger
Kandinsky Vassili
Vassili Kandinsky
A Defender Appears
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Busoni Ferruccio
Ferruccio Busoni - Berceuse Elegiaque
Ferruccio Busoni
Offenbach: "La Vie Parisienne"
Smetana: "The Bartered Bride"
Satie Eric
Erik Satie: Nocturnes
Eric Satie
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part IV
Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
Morgan Thomas Hunt
Nicolle Charles
Werner Alfred
Whitehead Robert
Whitehead torpedo
Doudart de Lagree Ernest
Panic of 1866
Thomas Morris
MacGregor John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part I
Manchester Martyrs
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Nebraska
Constitution Act, 1867
Alaska Purchase
North German Confederation
Reform Act of 1867
Battle of Mentana
Mary of Teck
Baldwin Stanley
Rathenau Walther
Pilsudski Joseph
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part II
Bagehot Walter
Walter Bagehot: "The English Constitution"
Freeman Edward Augustus
Freeman: The History of the Norman Conquest of England
Marx: "Das Kapital"
Thoma Ludwig
Soseki Natsume
Russell George William
Reymont Wladislau
Bennett Arnold
Balmont Konstantin
Pirandello Luigi
Galsworthy John
Charles de Coster: "The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel"
Ouida: "Under Two Flags"
Trollope: "The Last Chronicle of Barset"
Turgenev: "Smoke"
Zola: "Therese Raquin"
Ibsen: "Peer Gynt"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part III
Delville Jean
Jean Delville
Kollwitz Kathe
Kathe Kollwitz
Nolde Emil
Emil Nolde
Bonnard Pierre
Pierre Bonnard
Manet's Personal Exhibition
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "La Jolie Fille de Perth"
Gounod: "Romeo et Juliette"
Offenbach: "La Grande-Duchesse de Gerolstein"
Johann Strauss II: The "Blue Danube"
Toscanini Arturo
Verdi: "Don Carlos"
Granados Enrique
Enrique Granados - Spanish Dances
Enrique Granados
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part IV
Curie Marie
Michaux Pierre
Monier Joseph
Brenner Railway
Mining industry of South Africa
Dynamite
Thurn and Taxis
Chambers John Graham
London Athletic Club
Barnardo Thomas John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part I
British Expedition to Abyssinia
Battle of Magdala
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tenure of Office Act
Province of Hanover
Russian Turkestan
Mihailo Obrenovic III
Milan I of Serbia
Glorious Revolution
Horthy Nicholas
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part II
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy
Charles Darwin: "The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication"
Louisa May Alcott: "Little Women"
Robert Browning: "The Ring and the Book"
Wilkie Collins: "The Moonstone"
Dostoevsky: "The Idiot"
George Stefan
Gorki Maxim
Rostand Edmond
Edmond Rostand
"Cyrano De Bergerac"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part III
Bernard Emile
Emile Bernard
Vollard Ambroise
Slevogt Max
Max Slevogt
Vuillard Edouard
Edouard Vuillard
The Realist Impulse
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bantock Granville
Bantock "Overture The Frogs"
Granville Bantock
Brahms: "Ein deutsches Requiem"
Schillings Max
Max von Schillings: Mona Lisa
Max von Schillings
Wagner: "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part IV
Lartet Louis
Cro-Magnon
Haber Fritz
Millikan Robert Andrews
Richards Theodore William
Scott Robert Falcon
Armour Philip Danforth
Badminton House
Garvin James Louis
Harmsworth Harold
Trades Union Congress
"Whitaker's Almanack"
Sholes Christopher Latham
Typewriter
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part I
Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant
French legislative election, 1869
Prohibition Party
Red River Rebellion
Chamberlain Neville
Gandhi Mahatma
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part II
Matthew Arnold: "Culture and Anarchy"
Eduard Hartmann: "The Philosophy of the Unconscious"
Mill: "On The Subjection of Women"
First Vatican Council
Blackmore Richard Doddridge
Blackmore: "Lorna Doone"
Flaubert: "Sentimental Education"
Gide Andre
Gilbert: "Bab Ballads"
Halevy Ludovic
Bret Harte: "The Outcasts of Poker Flat"
Victor Hugo: "The Man Who Laughs"
Leacock Stephen
Mark Twain: "The Innocents Abroad"
Tolstoy: "War and Peace"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part III
Lutyens Edwin
Poelzig Hans
Carus Carl Gustav
Carl Gustav Carus
Somov Konstantin
Konstantin Somov
Matisse Henri
Henri Matisse
Manet Falls Foul of the Censor
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 0
Pfitzner Hans
Pfitzner - Nachts
Hans Pfitzner
Wagner Siegfried
Siegfried Wagner "Prelude to Sonnenflammen"
Richard Wagner: "Das Rheingold"
Roussel Albert
Albert Roussel - Bacchus et Ariane
Albert Roussel
Wood Henry
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part IV
Francis Galton: "Hereditary Genius"
Celluloid
Periodic law
Nachtigal Gustav
Cincinnati Red Stockings
Girton College, Cambridge
Nihilism
1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game
Co-operative Congress
Lesseps Ferdinand
Suez Canal
 
 
 

Battle of Atlanta. 1864
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1864 Part I
 
 
 
1864
 
 
Austria and Prussia send ultimatum to Denmark;
troops enter Schleswig;
Danmark forces defeated at Duppel;
Denmark invaded;
London conference tries in vain to solve Schleswig-Holstein question, but in Peace of Vienna Denmark cedes Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg to Austria and Prussia
 
 
Schleswig-Holstein Question
 
The Schleswig-Holstein Question (German: Schleswig-Holsteinische Frage; Danish: Spørgsmålet om Sønderjylland og Holsten) was a complex set of diplomatic and other issues arising in the 19th century from the relations of two duchies, Schleswig (Danish: Sønderjylland/Slesvig) and Holstein (Danish: Holsten), to the Danish crown and to the German Confederation. The British statesman Lord Palmerston is reported to have said: “Only three people have ever really understood the Schleswig-Holstein business—the Prince Consort, who is dead—a German professor, who has gone mad—and I, who have forgotten all about it."
 
Schleswig was a part of Denmark during the Viking Age, and became a Danish duchy in the 12th century. Denmark repeatedly tried to reintegrate the Duchy of Schleswig into the Danish kingdom. On March 27, 1848, Frederick VII of Denmark announced to the people of Schleswig the promulgation of a liberal constitution under which the duchy, while preserving its local autonomy, would become an integral part of Denmark. This led to an open uprising by Schleswig-Holstein's large German majority in support of independence from Denmark and of close association with the German Confederation. The military intervention of the Kingdom of Prussia supported the uprising: the Prussian army drove Denmark's troops from Schleswig and Holstein in the First Schleswig War of 1848–1851. The second attempt to reintegrate the Duchy of Schleswig into the Danish kingdom, initiated by the signing by King Christian IX of Denmark of the November Constitution in 1863, was seen as a violation of the London Protocol and led to the Second Schleswig War of 1864.

Even though Schleswig, Holstein, and Denmark had all had the same hereditary ruler for some centuries, the inheritance rules in the three territories were not quite the same. The Dukedoms of Schleswig and Holstein were inherited under the Salic law which ignored females: the Kingdom of Denmark had a slightly different inheritance law which included male heirs inheriting through the female line. In the 19th century this slight difference in inheritance law meant that when the childless King Frederick VII of Denmark died the Kingdom of Denmark would be separated from the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein because one man would inherit the Kingship and another the Dukedoms, as happened on the death of Frederick in 1863.

The central question was whether the duchy of Schleswig was or was not an integral part of the dominions of the Danish crown, with which it had been associated in the Danish monarchy for centuries or whether Schleswig should, together with Holstein, become an independent part of the German Confederation. Schleswig itself was a fiefdom of Denmark, as the duchy of Holstein had been a fief of the Holy Roman Empire until 1806, and become a component state of the German Confederation with the Danish king as duke.

 
The Jutland peninsula showing Holstein in yellow, southern Schleswig in brown, northern Schleswig in red, and the other Danish parts of Jutland in terracotta (dark red)
 
 

This involved the question, raised by the death of the last common male heir to both Denmark and the two duchies, as to the proper succession in the duchies, and the constitutional questions arising out of the relations of the duchies to the Danish crown, to each other, and of Holstein to the German Confederation.

Much of the history of Schleswig-Holstein has a bearing on this question: see history of Schleswig-Holstein for details. Following the defeat of Germany in World War I, the Danish majority area of Northern Schleswig was finally unified with Denmark after two plebiscites organised by the Allied powers. A small minority of ethnic Germans still lives in Northern Schleswig, while a Danish minority remains in South Schleswig.

 
 
Constitutional problem
Since 1849 disparate systems of government had co-existed within the Danish state. Denmark proper had become a constitutional democracy. However, absolutism was still the system of Schleswig and Holstein, with advisory assemblies based on the estates system which gave more power to the most affluent members of society. The three units were governed by one cabinet, consisting of liberal ministers of Denmark who urged economic and social reforms, and conservative ministers from the Holstein nobility who opposed political reform. After the uprising in Holstein and Schleswig the monarch had no interest in sharing rule with the people, many formerly rebellious. Estates of the realm, with their fear to be replaced by democratic institutions, were easier to be compromised.
  This caused a deadlock for practical lawmaking, hardened by ethnic tensions, and a complete inability to govern was imminent. Moreover, Danish opponents of this so-called Unitary State (Helstaten) feared that Holstein's presence in the government and, at the same time, Holstein's membership of the German Confederation would lead to increased German interference with Holstein, or even into purely Danish affairs.

In Copenhagen, the palace and most of the administration supported a strict adherence to the status quo. The same applied to foreign powers such as Great Britain, France and Russia, who would not accept a weakened Denmark in favour of a German power, such as Austria or Prussia, acquiring Holstein with the important naval harbour of Kiel or controlling the entrance to the Baltic.

 
 
Language and nationality
There was also the national question: the ancient antagonism between German and Dane, intensified by the tendency, characteristic of the nineteenth century, to consolidate nationalities.

Lastly, there was the international question: the rival ambitions of the German powers involved, and beyond them the interests of other European states, notably that of the United Kingdom in preventing the rise of a German sea-power in the north.

German had been the language of government in Schleswig and Holstein while more-or-less independent Dukes ruled, and stayed so; and had been a language of government of the kingdom of Denmark in several eras. Since the Lutheran Reformation, German had been dominant in church and schools, and Danish was the dominant language among the peasantry in Schleswig.

The Low German dialect was the language of all of Holstein. During the centuries following the Middle Ages, Low German had come to dominate in Southern Schleswig, which had originally been predominantly Danish-speaking.

The Danish language still dominated in Northern Schleswig. Around 1800, German and Danish were spoken in approximately equal proportions throughout what is now Central Schleswig.

The German language had been slowly spreading at the expense of Danish in previous centuries: for example, Danish was still spoken on the peninsula of Schwansen around 1780 (the last known use of Danish was in the villages near the Schlei), but then became extinct.

The language border in the nineteenth century conformed approximately to the current border between Denmark and Germany

 
Language shift in the 19th century in Southern Schleswig.
 
 

It was clear that Danish dominance in Schleswig was vulnerable and weakening. Through its vigorous economic activity, the ethnically German area to the south expanded its geographic domain. Linguistically Low German immigrants constantly arrived, and previously Danish-speaking families often came to find it convenient to change languages. The Low German language, rather than Danish, had become typical of Holstein and much of south Schleswig.

One solution, which afterwards had the support of Napoleon III, would have been to partition Schleswig on the lines of nationality, assigning the Danish part to Denmark, the German to Holstein. This idea, which afterwards had supporters among both Danes and Germans, proved impracticable at the time owing to the intractable temper of the majority on both sides. This solution was subsequently implemented by plebiscites in 1920 as a condition of the treaty of Versailles, and Northern Schleswig was returned to Denmark.

 
 

The Province of Schleswig–Holstein (red), within the Kingdom of Prussia, within the German Empire,
1866–1920.
 
 
Treaty of Ribe
German Schleswig-Holsteiners often cited a clause from the Treaty of Ribe of 1460, stating that Schleswig and Holstein should "always be together and never partitioned (or separated)".

Although this treaty played a minor role at the more formal level of the conflict, its proclamation "Forever Inseparable" (Up ewig ungedeelt) obtained proverbial status during the German nationalist awakening, both among those wishing an independent Schleswig-Holstein, and in the German unification movement in general.

In Denmark it was granted less significance, and the citing widely regarded to be out of context, as it could either hint at the duchies not being separated from each other, or their not being partitioned into smaller shares of inheritance.

This had happened many times anyway, leaving a confusing pattern of feudal units.

Danes also brought forward rulings of a Danish clerical court and a German Emperor, of 1424 and 1421 respectively, stating that Schleswig rightfully belonged to Denmark, because it was a Danish fief and Holstein was a fief of the Holy Roman Empire, wanting Schleswig and Holstein to separate from each other.

The major powers appear to have given the Treaty of Ribe little notice in comparison to the ethnic conflict and worries about the European balance of power.

  Resolution
The Second Schleswig War resolved the Schleswig–Holstein Question violently, by forcing the king of Denmark to renounce (on 1 August 1864) all his rights in the duchies in favour of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria and King William I of Prussia. By Article XIX of the definitive Treaty of Vienna signed on October 30, 1864, a period of six years was allowed during which the inhabitants of the duchies might opt for Danish nationality and transfer themselves and their goods to Denmark; and the rights pertaining to birth in the provinces were guaranteed to all, whether in the kingdom or the duchies, who had been entitled to those rights at the time of the exchange of ratifications of the treaty.
In the Austro–Prussian War of 1866, Prussia took Holstein from Austria and the two duchies subsequently merged into the Province of Schleswig-Holstein. From this point on, the Schleswig-Holstein Question was subsumed by the larger issue of Austro–Prussian relations, which the 1866 war deeply influenced. It survived, however, as between Danes and Germans, though narrowed to the question of the fate of the Danish population of Schleswig. This question is of great interest to students of international law and as illustrating the practical problems involved in asserting the modern principle of nationality.

For the effect on the Danes of Schleswig and events afterwards, see History of Schleswig-Holstein#Danes under German rule.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 

First Schleswig War

 

The First Schleswig War (German: Schleswig-Holsteinischer Krieg) or Three Years' War (Danish: Treårskrigen) was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark and northern Germany rooted in the Schleswig-Holstein Question, contesting the issue of who should control the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The war, which lasted from March 24, 1848 to May 8, 1852, also involved troops from Prussia and Sweden. Ultimately, the war resulted in a Danish victory. A second conflict, the Second Schleswig War, erupted in 1864.



Danish soldiers return to Copenhagen in 1849 by Otto Bache (1894)


Background

At the beginning of 1848, Denmark contained the Duchy of Schleswig and controlled the duchies of Holstein and Saxe-Lauenburg in the German Confederation. These were where the majority of the ethnic Germans in Denmark lived. Germans made up a third of the country's population, and the three duchies were behind a half of Denmark's economic power. The Napoleonic Wars, which ended in 1815, had increased Danish and German nationalism. Pan-German ideology had become highly influential in the decades prior to the war outbreak and writers such as Jacob Grimm argued that the entire Peninsula of Jutland had been populated by Germans before the arrival of the Danes and that therefore it could justifiably be reclaimed by Germany. These claims were countered in pamphlets by Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae, an archaeologist who had excavated parts of Danevirke, who argued that there was no way of knowing the language of the earliest inhabitants of Danish territory, that Germans had more solid historical claims to large parts of France and England, and that Slavs by the same reasoning could annex parts of Eastern Germany.

The conflicting aims of Danish and German nationalists was a cause behind the First Schleswig War. Danish nationalists believed that Schleswig, but not Holstein, should be a part of Denmark, as Schleswig contained a large number of Danes, whilst Holstein did not. German nationalists believed that Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg should remain united, and their belief that Schleswig and Holstein should not be separated led to the two duchies being referred to as Schleswig-Holstein. Schleswig was a particular source of contention, as it contained a large number of Danes, Germans and North Frisians. Another cause of the war was the illegal introduction of a royal law in the duchies.

When King Christian VIII of Denmark died in January 1848, and seeing that his only legitimate son, the future Frederick VII, was apparently unable to beget heirs the duchies could have gone under the rule of the House of Oldenburg,[clarification needed] which might have resulted in a division of Denmark. As a result, a royal law was decreed in the duchies that would allow a female relative of Christian VIII to assume control. The implementation of this law was illegal.

Trigger
The Slesvig-Holsteiners, being inspired from the successes of the French in the Revolution at Paris of February 1848, sent a deputation to Copenhagen to demand the immediate recognition by King Frederick VII of a joint state of Slesvig-Holstein previous to its admittance into the German Confederation. King Frederick's reply, in which he admitted the right of Holstein as a German confederate state to be guided by the decrees of the Frankfort diet, but declared that he had neither "the power, right, nor wish" to incorporate Slesvig into the confederation, was immediately followed, if even it had not been preceded, by an outbreak of open rebellion.

Schleswig-Holsteinian Prince Frederik of Noer took the 5th "Lauenburger" Rifle Corps (Jägerkorps) and some students of Kiel university to take over the fortress of Rendsburg in Schleswig-Holstein. The fortress contained the main armoury of the duchies, and the 14th, 15th, and 16th Infantry Battalions, the 2nd Regiment of Artillery, as well as some military engineers. When Noer's force arrived, they found that the gates to the fortress had been left open for an unknown reason, and promptly walked in, surprising the would-be defenders. After delivering a speech to the defenders, the prince secured the allegiance of the battalions and regiment of artillery to the provisional government. Danish officers who had been serving in the defence of the fortress were allowed to leave for Denmark, but on the assurance that they did not fight against Schleswig-Holstein in the coming

Course of the war

1848

Wishing to defeat Denmark before Prussian, Austrian, and German troops arrived to support them, 7,000 Schleswig-Holsteinish soldiers under General Krohn occupied Flensborg on March 31. Over 7,000 Danish soldiers landed east of the city, and Krohn, fearing he would be surrounded, ordered his forces to withdraw. The Danes were able to reach the Schleswig-Holsteiners before they were able to retreat, and the subsequent Battle of Bov on April 9 was a Danish victory. At the battle, the Prince of Noer, senior commander of the Schleswig-Holsteinish forces, did not arrive until two hours after fighting had started, and the Schleswig-Holsteiners were more prepared for the withdrawal they had intended to make before they were attacked than for an engagement.

April 12: The diet recognized the provisional government of Schleswig and commissioned Prussia to enforce its decrees. General Wrangel was also ordered to occupy Schleswig.
April 23: Prussian victory in battle at Schleswig.
April 23: German victory in battle at Mysunde.
April 24: Prussian victory in battle at Oeversee.
May 27: Battle at Sundeved.
May 28: Battle at Nybøl.
June 5: Danish victory over Germans in battle at Dybbøl Hill.
June 7: Battle at Hoptrup.
June 30: Battle at Bjerning.

The Germans had embarked on this course of participation in the Schleswig-Holstein War alone, without the European powers. The other European powers were united in opposing any dismemberment of Denmark, even Austria refusing to assist in enforcing the German view. Swedish troops landed to assist the Danes; Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, speaking with authority as head of the senior Gottorp line, pointed out to King Frederick William IV of Prussia the risks of a collision. Great Britain, though the Danes had rejected her mediation, threatened to send her fleet to assist in preserving the status quo. The fact that Prussia had entered the war on behalf of the revolutionary forces in Schleswig-Holstein, created a great number of ironies. The newly elected Frankfurt Diet tended to support the incursion into the Schleswig-Holstein War while King Frederick William did not. Indeed, Friedrich William ordered Friedrich von Wrangel, commanding the army of the German Confederation, to withdraw his troops from the duchies; but the general refused, asserting that he was under the command of the Diet of the German Confederation[clarification needed] and not of the King of Prussia but of the regent of Germany. Wrangel proposed that, at the very least, any treaty concluded should be presented for ratification to the Frankfurt Parliament. The Danes rejected this proposal and negotiations were broken off. Prussia was now confronted on the one side by the German nation urging her clamorously to action, on the other side by the European powers threatening dire consequences should she persist. After painful hesitation, Frederick William chose what seemed the lesser of two evils, and, on 26 August, Prussia signed a convention at Malmö which yielded to practically all the Danish demands. The Holstein estates appealed to the German diet, which hotly took up their cause, but it was soon clear that the central government had no means of enforcing its views. In the end the convention was ratified at Frankfurt. The convention was essentially nothing more than a truce establishing a temporary modus vivendi. The main issues, left unsettled, continued to be hotly debated.

In October, at a conference in London, Denmark suggested an arrangement on the basis of a separation of Schleswig from Holstein, which was about to become a member of a new German empire, with Schleswig having a separate constitution under the Danish crown.
 

1849
27 January: The London conference result was supported by Great Britain and Russia and accepted by Prussia and the German parliament. The negotiations broke down, however, on the refusal of Denmark to yield the principle of the indissoluble union with the Danish crown.

23 February: The truce came to an end.
3 April: The war was renewed. At this point Nicholas I intervened in favour of peace. However, Prussia, conscious of her restored strength and weary of the intractable temper of the Frankfurt parliament, determined to take matters into her own hands.[clarification needed]
3 April: Danish victory over Schleswig-Holstein forces in battle at Adsbøl.
6 April: Battles at Ullerup and Avnbøl.
13 April: Danish victory over Saxon forces in battle at Dybbøl.
23 April: Battle at Kolding.
31 May: Danes stop Prussian advance through Jutland in cavalry battle at Vejlby.
4 June: inconclusive Battle of Heligoland (1849), the only naval combat of the war
6 July: Danish victory in sortie from Fredericia.
10 July: Another truce was signed. Schleswig, until the peace, was to be administered separately, under a mixed commission; Holstein was to be governed by a vicegerent of the German empire (an arrangement equally offensive to German and Danish sentiment). A settlement seemed as far off as ever. The Danes still clamoured for the principle of succession in the female line and union with Denmark, the Germans for that of succession in the male line and union with Holstein.


1850

In April 1850, Prussia, which had pulled out of the war after the treaty of Malmö, proposed a definitive peace on the basis of the status quo ante bellum and postponement of all questions as to mutual rights. To Palmerston the basis seemed meaningless and the proposed settlement would settle nothing. Nicholas I, openly disgusted with Frederick William's submission to the Frankfurt Parliament, again intervened. To him Duke Christian of Augustenborg was a rebel.

Russia had guaranteed Schleswig to the Danish crown by the treaties of 1767 and 1773. As for Holstein, if the King of Denmark could not deal with the rebels there, he himself would intervene as he had done in Hungary. The threat was reinforced by the menace of the European situation. Austria and Prussia were on the verge of war, and the sole hope of preventing Russia from entering such a war on the side of Austria lay in settling the Schleswig-Holstein question in a manner desirable to her. The only alternative, an alliance with the hated Napoleon Bonaparte's nephew, Louis Napoleon, who was already dreaming of acquiring the Rhine frontier for France in return for his aid in establishing German sea-power by the ceding of the duchies, was abhorrent to Frederick William.

8 April: Karl Wilhelm von Willisen became the Supreme Commander of the German Forces
2 July: A treaty of peace between Prussia and Denmark was signed at Berlin. Both parties reserved all their antecedent rights. Denmark was satisfied that the treaty empowered the King of Denmark to restore his authority in Holstein with or without the consent of the German Confederation. Danish troops now marched in to coerce the refractory duchies. While the fighting went on, negotiations among the powers continued.
24–25 July: Danish victory in the Battle of Idstedt.
28 July: Danish victory in cavalry battle at Jagel.
2 August: Great Britain, France, Russia and Sweden-Norway signed a protocol, to which Austria subsequently adhered, approving the principle of restoring the integrity of the Danish monarchy.
12 September: Battle at Missunde.
4 October: Danish forces resist German siege at Friedrichstadt.
24 November: Battle of Lottorf
31 December: Skirmish at Möhlhorst.


1851

May: The Copenhagen government made an abortive attempt to come to an understanding with the inhabitants of the duchies by convening an assembly of notables at Flensburg.
6 December 1851: The Copenhagen government announced a project for the future organization of the monarchy on the basis of the equality of its constituent states, with a common ministry.


1852

28 January: A royal letter announced the institution of a unitary state which, while maintaining the fundamental constitution of Denmark, would increase the parliamentary powers of the estates of the two duchies. This proclamation was approved by Prussia and Austria, and by the German confederal diet insofar as it affected Holstein and Lauenburg. The question of the Augustenborg succession made an agreement between the powers impossible.
31 March: The Duke of Augustenborg resigned his claim in return for a money payment. Further adjustments followed.
8 May: another London Protocol was signed. The international treaty that became known as the "London Protocol" was the revision of the earlier protocol, which had been ratified on August 2, 1850, by the major Germanic powers of Austria and Prussia. The second, actual London Protocol was recognized by the five major European powers (the Austrian Empire, the Second French Republic, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), as well as the two major Baltic Sea powers of Denmark and Sweden.

The Protocol affirmed the integrity of the Danish federation as a "European necessity and standing principle". Accordingly, the duchies of Schleswig (a Danish fief) and Holstein, and Lauenburg (sovereign states within the German Confederation) were joined by personal union with the King of Denmark. For this purpose, the line of succession to the duchies was modified, because Frederick VII of Denmark remained childless and hence a change in dynasty was in order. (The originally conflicting protocols of succession between the duchies and Denmark would have stipulated that, contrary to the treaty, the duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg would have had heads of state other than the King of Denmark.) Further, it was affirmed that the duchies were to remain as independent entities, and that Schleswig would have no greater constitutional affinity to Denmark than Holstein.

This settlement did not resolve the issue, as the German Diet had steadfastly refused to recognize the treaty, and asserted that the law of 1650 was still in force, by which the Duchies were not united to the state of Denmark, but only to the direct line of the Danish kings, and were to revert on its extinction, not to the branch of Glucksburg, but to the German ducal family of Augustenburg. Only fifteen years passed before the Second Schleswig War in 1864 resulted in the incorporation of both duchies into the German Confederation, and later, in 1871, into the German Empire.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

 
 
 
Second Schleswig War
 
The Second Schleswig War (1 February – 30 October 1864) was the second military conflict as a result of the Schleswig-Holstein Question. It began on 1 February 1864, when Prussian forces crossed the border into Schleswig.

Denmark fought Prussia and Austria. Like the First Schleswig War (1848–52), it was fought for control of the duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg due to the succession disputes concerning them when the Danish king died without an heir acceptable to the German Confederation. Decisive controversy arose due to the passing of the November Constitution, which integrated the Duchy of Schleswig into the Danish kingdom in violation of the London Protocol. Reasons for the war were the ethnic controversy in Schleswig and the co-existence of conflicting political systems within the Danish unitary state.

The war ended on 30 October 1864, when the Treaty of Vienna caused Denmark's cession of the Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein, and Saxe-Lauenburg to Prussia and Austria.

 
Background
The secessionist movement of the large German majority in Holstein and southern Schleswig was suppressed in the First Schleswig War (1848–51), but the movement continued throughout the 1850s and 1860s, as Denmark attempted to integrate the Duchy of Schleswig into the Danish kingdom and proponents of German unification expressed the wish to include the Danish-ruled duchies of Holstein and Schleswig in a 'Greater Germany'.

Holstein was a part of the German Confederation and before 1806 a German fief and completely German, whereas Schleswig was a Danish fief and linguistically mixed between German, Danish and North Frisian. The northern and middle parts of Schleswig (up to the Eckernförde Bay) spoke Danish, but over time, the language in the southern half had shifted gradually to German. German culture was dominant among the clergy and nobility; Danish culture had a lower social status. For centuries, while the rule of the king was absolute, these conditions had created few tensions. When ideas of democracy spread and nationalist currents emerged about 1820, identification was mixed between Danish and German.

To that was added a grievance about tolls charged by Denmark on shipping passing through the Danish Straits between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. To avoid that expense, Prussia planned the Kiel Canal, which could not be built so long as Denmark ruled Holstein.

Much of the dispute focused on the heir of King Frederick VII of Denmark.

  In general terms, the Germans of Holstein and Schleswig supported the House of Augustenburg, a cadet branch of the Danish royal family, but the average Dane considered them too German and preferred the rival Glücksburg branch with Prince Christian of Glücksburg as the new sovereign. Prince Christian had served on the Danish side in the First Schleswig War in 1848-1851. At the time, the king of Denmark was also duke of the duchies of Holstein and Schleswig. In 1848, Denmark had received its first free constitution and at the same time (and partly as a consequence) had fought a civil war with the Germans of Schleswig-Holstein in which Prussia had intervened.

The peace treaty stipulated that the duchy of Schleswig should not be treated any differently from the duchy of Holstein in its relations with the Kingdom of Denmark. But, during the revisions of the 1848 constitution in the late 1850s and early 1860s, Holstein refused to acknowledge the revision, creating a crisis in which the parliament in Copenhagen ratified the revision but Holstein did not. That was a clear breach of the 1851 peace treaty and gave Prussia and the German union a casus belli against Denmark. The German situation was now considerably more favorable than it had been fifteen years before, when Prussia had to give in due to the risk of military intervention by Britain, France and Russia on behalf of Denmark. Queen Victoria had lost Albert, her 42-year-old German husband, in 1861 and she became progressively more pro-German in the forty years as a widow that were to follow. France had colonial problems, not least with Britain. Bismarck had effectively neutralized Russia politically and succeeded in obtaining cooperation from Austria which underlined its major power status within the German union.

 
 

Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg before the war.
 
 
Constitutional crisis
The adoption of the Constitution of Denmark in 1849 complicated matters further, as many Danes wished for the new democratic constitution to apply to all Danes, including those in Schleswig.

The constitutions of Holstein and Schleswig were dominated by the Estates system, giving more power to the most affluent members of society, with the result that both Schleswig and Holstein were politically dominated by a predominantly German class of landowners. Thus two systems of government co-existed within the same state: democracy in Denmark, and absolutism in Schleswig and Holstein.

The three units were governed by one cabinet, comprising liberal Danish ministers, who urged economic and social reforms, and conservative ministers of the Holstein nobility, who opposed political reform. This caused a deadlock for practical lawmaking.

Moreover, Danish opponents of this so-called Unitary State (Helstaten) feared that Holstein's presence in the government and simultaneous membership of the German Confederation would lead to increased German interference with Schleswig, and even in purely Danish affairs.

In Copenhagen, the Palace and most of the administration supported a strict adherence to the status quo. The same applied to foreign powers, such as Great Britain, France and Russia, who would not accept a weakened Denmark in favour of Germany, nor a Prussia that had acquired Holstein with the important naval harbour of Kiel that controlled the entrance to the Baltic.

  In 1858, the German Confederation deposed the 'union constitution' of the Danish monarchy concerning Holstein and Lauenburg, which were members of the Confederation. The two duchies were henceforth without any constitution, while the 'union constitution' still applied to Schleswig and Denmark proper.

As the heirless King Frederick VII grew older, Denmark's successive National-Liberal cabinets became increasingly focused on maintaining control of Schleswig following the king's demise.

The king died in 1863 at a particularly critical time: work on the November Constitution for the joint affairs of Denmark and Schleswig had just been completed, with the draft awaiting his signature.

The new King, Christian IX, felt compelled to sign the draft constitution on 18 November 1863, although expressing grave concerns in the process.

This action caused outrage among the duchies' German population and a resolution was passed by the German Confederation at the initiative of the Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck, calling for the occupation of Holstein by Confederate forces. The Danish government abandoned Holstein and pulled the Danish Army back to the border between Schleswig and Holstein. Most of it fortified itself behind the Danevirke. This order to retreat without combat caused adverse comment among some Danish private soldiers, but the military circumstances made it wise to shorten the frontier needed to be defended. Also, as the administrations of Holstein and Lauenburg were members of the German Confederation, not pulling back might have caused a severe political crisis and perhaps war.

 
 

Painting of the Danish attack at the Battle of Dybbøl by Vilhelm Jacob Rosenstand (1894)
 
 
Strategy
There were so-called "flank positions" near Ebeltoft (North), the fortified city of Fredericia (center), and Dybbøl in the south designed to support the strategy of defending the peninsula of Jutland along the north-south axis using naval supremacy to move the army north-south and hence trap an invading army in futile marches between these flank positions. This would deny the (assumed superior) invader the chance of forcing the defenders into a decisive battle, and give the defenders the opportunity to swiftly mass and counter-attack weak enemy positions, besieging forces, or divided forces by shifting weight by sea transport. The political dimension of this strategy was to draw out the war and hence give time and opportunity for the "great powers" to intervene diplomatically—it was assumed that such an intervention would be to the advantage of (neutral) Denmark.

This strategy had been successful in the First Schleswig War.
 
 
Unrealistic expectations of the potency of the Danish army and incompetence at the political level had overruled the command of the army's wishes to defend Jutland according to the above plan, and instead favoured a frontal defense of Jutland on or near the historical defense (and legendary border) line at the Danevirke, near the city of Schleswig in the south. Hence resources had been put into the Danevirke line and not into the flank positions, which stayed akin to battlefield fortifications rather than modern fortifications capable of withstanding a modern bombardment.

The problem with the Danevirke line was that perhaps it was relatively strong against a frontal assault but leaned on bodies of water or marshes at both ends. In early 1864, these waters and marshes froze solid in a hard winter and let the Germans bypass the Danevirke.

The first attempt to bypass the position failed near Missunde, but eventually the Germans appeared in force in the Danevirke's rear, compelling the Danish high command to order the line abandoned.

  As this decision was taken in violation of direct orders from the Danish government and in opposition to public opinion in Denmark, general de Meza was relieved of his command and replaced by the more loyal general Gerlach.

The Danish army then occupied another fortified line called "the old Dybbøl". This position did not bar the entrance to Jutland but only the tip of a peninsula jutting into the Baltic Sea. There is little doubt that the command of the army did not believe that they could successfully repulse a well-prepared German siege and consequent assault on the Dybbøl position, and assumed that the political level would let the army be evacuated by sea and then fight the war on the principles of the north-south axis strategy.

But the political level did not appreciate the gravity of the situation, insisting on maintaining military presence in Schleswig and at the same time refused more modest German demands of peace. Hence the army was ordered to defend the Dybbøl position "to the last man", and consequently the siege of Dybbøl began.

 
 

Communications in the area
The only railways in 1864 in Denmark north of the Kongeå were a line in Sjælland from Copenhagen to Korsør, and one in northern Jutland from Århus to the northwest. Any reinforcements for the Danevirke from Copenhagen would have gone by rail to Korsør and thence by ship to Flensburg, taking two or three days, if not hindered by storm or sea-ice. There was a good railway system in the duchies, but not further north than Flensburg and Husum.

Schleswig city, Flensburg, Sønderborg, and Dybbøl were all connected by a road paved with crushed rock, this being the route the army took. The same road continued from Flensburg to Fredericia and Århus and this was the route later taken by the Prussian army when it invaded Jutland.

 
 

Austrian illustration of the battle for Königshügel
 
 

Events

1863
On 18 November 1863, King Christian IX of Denmark signed the so-called "November constitution" establishing a shared law of succession and a common parliament for both Schleswig and Denmark. This was seen by the German Confederation as a violation of the 1852 London Protocol. In response, on 24 December 1863, Saxon and Hanoverian troops marched into Holstein on behalf of the Confederation (as part as the federal execution (Bundesexekution) against Holstein). Supported by the German soldiers and by loyal Holsteiners, Frederick VIII, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein took control of the government of Holstein.

1864
January

In January the situation remained tense but without fighting; Danish forces controlled the north bank of the Eider River and German forces the south bank. On 14 January 1864, Austria and Prussia declared furthermore to take action against Denmark without regard to decisions of the German Confederation. On 16 January 1864, Bismarck issued an ultimatum to Denmark demanding that the November Constitution should be abolished within 48 hours. This was politically impossible, particularly given the short deadline, and the demand was consequently rejected by the Danish government.

All the inland waters (Eider River, Treene, Schlei, and the marshes east of Husum and around the Rheider Au) that the Danes were relying on as defence to guard the flanks of the Dannevirke, were frozen hard and could be crossed easily.

 
 
February
At the start of the war, the Danish army consisted of about 38,000 men in four divisions. The 8th Brigade consisted of the 9th and 20th Regiments (approximately 1,600 soldiers each), mainly soldiers from the middle and west and north of Jutland. About 36,000 men defended the Dannevirke, a job which it was said would have needed 50,000 men to do properly. The 1st Regiment had been changed from a battalion to a regiment on 1 December 1863.

The Prussian army had 37 battalions, 29 squadrons and 110 guns, approximately 38,400 men. The Austrian army had 20 battalions, 10 squadrons and 48 guns, approximately 23,000 men. During the war the Prussian army was strengthened with 64 guns and 20,000 men. The supreme commander for the Prussian-Austrian army was Field Marshal Friedrich Graf von Wrangel.

Prussian and Austrian troops crossed into Schleswig on 1 February 1864 against the resistance of the Federal Assembly of the German Confederation, and war became inevitable. The Austrians attacked towards the refortified Dannevirke frontally while the Prussian forces struck the Danish fortifications at Mysunde (on the Schlei coast of Schwansen east of Schleswig town), trying to bypass the Danevirke by crossing the frozen Schlei inlet, but in six hours could not take the Danish positions, and retreated.

In the Battle for Königshügel (Danish Kongshøj, translated King's Hill) near Selk on 3 February 1864, Austrian forces commanded by General Gondrecourt pushed the Danes back to the Dannevirke. The Danish 6th Brigade had an important part. The battle was fought in a snowstorm at −10 °C (14 °F). Danish fighting against Austrians at Selk and Kongshøj and Saksarmen on February 3, 1864 is described as follows:

The enemy sharpshooters immediately got reinforcement of a whole battalion, which advanced in a column with a music band which blew a storm-march, the battalion's commander followed on a horse, and after that the battalion's standard. Captain Stockfleth ordered his men to fire on the band and the battalion's commander and the standard-bearer. After that the storm-march sounded not so beautiful now that that lacked quite a few voices. The battalion commander's horse was shot under him. He grasped the standard when the standard-bearer fell, and now it went forward again with great strength.

— This link

  A Danish military report dated 11 February 1864 describes incidents near Königshügel/Kongshøj and Vedelspang as follows:

On the 3 February the Regiment's 1st Battalion occupied the Brigade's forward post line while its 2 Battalion stood as a reserve in Bustrup. The company commanders Daue and Steinmann under Major Schack's command increased its main position near Vedelspang while the Stockfleth Company stood between Niederselk and Alten Mühle as well as the Riise Company behind the dam near Haddeby. During the relief there, 9. Regiment first found its place about 1.30 p.m. and attacked an enemy unit which was coming from Geltorf and Brekendorf. The Stockfleth Company's main position, coming from Vedelspang, had advanced to Kongshøi, and Kastede the same distance behind the Danevirke rampart in front of Bustrup. In Bustrup the shooting was heard about 2 p.m. 2nd Battalion occupied the rampart and covered the withdrawing squads. The enemy pressed intensely in the east towards Haddebyer Noor, but was stopped here and remained fighting in one place until it turned dark. They sent a company to drive away the enemy from Vedelspang, but could not press further on than to towards the north part of the exercise ground.
The regiment's losses in this fighting are: Dead, 1 corporal 1 undercorporal 7 privates; wounded, 2 corporals 3 undercorporals 18 privates; missing 11 privates.

— Fredericia 11 February 1864, Scholten, Oberstlieutenant and Regimentscommandeur., report


On 5 February 1864, the Danish commander-in-chief, lieutenant general Christian Julius De Meza, abandoned the Dannevirke by night to avoid being surrounded and withdrew his army to Flensburg; 600 men were captured or killed, ten of them frozen to death; he was also forced to abandon important heavy artillery.

The railway from the south to Flensburg was never properly used during this evacuation and the Danish army only evacuated what men and horses could carry or pull by road, leaving behind much artillery, most importantly heavy artillery.

Some hours later, the Prussians and Austrians discovered the retreat and started to pursue.

This withdrawal to Als and Dybbøl has gone down in Danish history as one of the worst that Danish soldiers have been exposed to. Some of them compared it to Napoleon's retreat from Moscow.

 
 

It was northwards in a north gale with driven snow, and most of the soldiers had had no rest for the last four days and nights: image. The march was burdened with artillery guns and supply carts and had to be as slow as its slowest component. Men and horses had trouble standing. Horses could not carry or pull their loads properly because of the snow and ice; riders had to dismount and lead their horses. Artillery guns and carts overturned. The column of men and horses and vehicles seemed endless. The army had to march from the Danevirke to Flensburg, which took about 14–18 hours. (Schleswig (town) by the east end of the Danevirke is 20 miles from Flensburg as the crow flies, but further by road, plus getting from their positions to Schleswig town first.) They also had to fight rearguard against pursuing Prussians and Austrians. Some men in sight of Flensburg and thankful for the coming rest were ordered to stop or go back to man checkpoints. Many men were missing at the roll call, and it was thought that the many Schleswig men among the soldiers would desert the march on the way and go home; but most of them came in that morning or the next morning.

Near Stolk-Helligbek, about 10 kilometers north of Schleswig, pursuing Austrians reached them, and in heavy fighting near Oversø, the 9th and 20th Regiments of the 8th Brigade lost 600 men dead, injured and captured. On that day ten Danish soldiers died of hypothermia.

In the Battle of Sankelmark (about eight kilometers south of Flensburg) pursuing Austrians caught up with the Danish rear party, which consisted of the 1st and 11th regiments. The Danes were commanded by Colonel Max Müller. A hard fight, where large parts of 1st Regiment were taken prisoner, stopped the Austrians, and the retreat could continue. However, the Danes lost more than 500 men there. After a short rest and some food and drink in Flensburg, the 8th Brigade had to march to Sønderborg, where they were taken by ship to Fredericia; the ship was so loaded that the men could not lie down, and on deck they had no shelter from the winter weather. Other units stayed in Dybbøl; a report says that some were so exhausted on arrival that they lay on the ground in heaps three or four deep to sleep.

The loss of the Dannevirke without a fight, which in the 19th century played a big role in Danish national mythology due to its long history, caused a substantial psychological shock in Denmark and, as a result, de Meza had to resign from supreme command. Denmark never again ruled the Dannevirke. The Austrians, under Ludwig Karl Wilhelm von Gablenz, marched north from Flensburg, while the Prussians advanced east on Sønderborg.

On 18 February 1864, some Prussian hussars, in the excitement of a cavalry skirmish, crossed the north frontier of Schleswig into Denmark proper and occupied the town of Kolding. An invasion of Denmark itself had not been part of the original programme of the allies. Bismarck determined to use this circumstance to revise the whole situation. He urged upon Austria the necessity for a strong policy, so as to settle once and for all not only the question of the duchies but the wider question of the German Confederation; and Austria reluctantly consented to press the war.

The Austrian army decided to stop at the north frontier of Schleswig. Some Prussians moved against Kolding and Vejle. On 22 February 1864, Prussian troops attacked the Danish forward line at Dybbøl, pushing them back to the main defence line.

 
 

Danish illustration showing the Austrian steam frigate Schwarzenberg burning
 
 
March
8 March 1864, Bismarck pushed the Austrians into moving into Denmark proper.
Austrian forces captured Vejle after fierce house-to-house combat. The Danish units involved retreated to Horsens and later to Vendsyssel. In Fredericia, the Danish 8th Brigade's 20th Regiment was involved in a bigger skirmish: the regiment's first Company were captured near Snoghøj, on the mainland near where the (old) Lillebælt bridge is now. The rest of Fredericia's garrison retreated to Fyn.

22 March 1864: A fresh agreement was signed between the powers, under which the compacts of 1852 were declared to be no longer valid, and the position of the duchies within the Danish monarchy as a whole was to be made the subject of a friendly understanding.
15 March 1864: Prussian siege artillery began to bombard the Danish fortifications at Dybbøl from positions at Broager.
17 March 1864: The Prussian army drove back the Danish outposts in front of Dybbøl. In the naval Battle of Jasmund—also known as the Battle of Rügen—a Prussian naval force attempted to break the Danish naval blockade of Schleswig and Holstein, but was pushed back to Swinemünde.
28 March 1864: Dybbøl was again attacked, but in vain.

April

2 April 1864: The Prussian front artillery batteries in front of Dybbøl start to bombard the fortifications and the town of Sønderborg. Until 18 April 1864, about 65,000 shells are fired at the Danish positions.
4 April 1864: A Prussian attack on Dybbøl is thrown back.
18 April 1864: At 10 a.m. at Dybbøl 10,000 Prussian soldiers storm the Danish fortifications after six hours of artillery preparations and take Dybbøl fort. The Danish 8th Brigade counter-attack fails, but is praised for courage. 1,700 Danish casualties; this source says that about 5,000 Danes and about 1,200 Prussians were killed, wounded or captured. See Battle of Dybbøl. (18 April is a military memorial day in Denmark commemorating this defeat, including a ceremony on Dybbøl fort hill.)
  25 April 1864: The Danish army commanded by General Niels Christian Lunding, on direct order from the Minister of War, abandons Fredericia, which was besieged by Austrians.
25 April 1864 – 25 June 1864: A conference in London about the political issues involved. For the discussions there, see London Conference of 1864.

May

9 May 1864: Naval Battle of Helgoland.
12 May 1864: The conference in London led to a ceasefire, which soon broke down, as they could not agree on a clear fixing of the boundaries; partitioning the duchy of Schleswig was seen as possible. War continued. Prussians from beside Dybbøl bombarded Sønderborg.
26 May 1864: Prussian artillery fires on Als.

June

24 June 1864: Seeing that the truce was ending, Austria and Prussia arrived at a new agreement, that the war was to completely separate the duchies from Denmark.
25 June 1864: The conference in London broke up without having arrived at any conclusion.
29 June 1864: The Danish garrison from Dybbøl had taken refuge on the island of Als. Prussians crossed from the mainland on boats on the evening of June 29. Battle of Als. The Prussians carried the Danish entrenchments and captured the island under heavy fire. This was the last major engagement of the war.
30 June 1864: The Prince's Life Regiment was the last unit of the Danish army to leave Schleswig and Holstein.

July

3 July 1864: A Danish force commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Charles Beck attacks a Prussian force at Lundby south of Ålborg in the north of Jutland. See Battle of Lundby. This is the last battle in the Second Schleswig War.
14 July 1864: The Prussian general Eduard Vogel von Falckenstein signed his name in the church book at Skagen at the north tip of Jutland. With this all of Jutland, the Danish mainland, was occupied by the Germans. Now the Danish islands were also endangered, and the Danish government again had to accept armistice and peace negotiations, now however under clearly more difficult conditions.
 
 

Map of the territorial changes, without the royal Danish enclaves (German)
 
 

August and after
The preliminaries of a peace treaty were signed on 1 August 1864: the King of Denmark renounced to all his rights in the duchies in favour of the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia.

In the Treaty of Vienna, 30 October 1864, Denmark ceded Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg to Prussia and Austria. Denmark was also forced to surrender the enclaves in western Schleswig that were legally part of Denmark proper and not part of Schleswig, but was allowed to keep the island of Ærø (which had been administered as part of Schleswig), the town of Ribe and its surrounding land, and eight parishes from Tyrstrup Herred south of Kolding. As a result of the peace settlement, the land area of the Danish monarchy decreased by 40% and the total population reduced from 2.6 million to 1.6 million (about 38.5%). The Danish frontier had retreated about 250 km as measured from the furthest corner of the Duchy of Lauenburg to the new frontier on the Kongeå river.

When the Danish army returned to Copenhagen after this war, they received no cheering or other public acclaim, unlike on their victorious return after the First Schleswig War.

 
 
Aftermath
In the Prussian forces' first clash of arms since reorganization, their effectiveness proved clear, something the Austrians ignored to their cost 18 months later in the Austro-Prussian War, and contributed to a perception in the German states that Prussia was the only state that could defend the other German states against external aggression. Prussia and Austria took over the respective administration of Schleswig and Holstein under the Gastein Convention of 14 August 1865. About 200,000 Danes came under German rule.

Following the loss, Christian IX went behind the backs of the Danish government to contact the Prussians, offering that the whole of Denmark could join the German confederation, if Denmark could stay united with Schleswig and Holstein. This proposal was rejected by Bismarck, who feared that the ethnic strife in Schleswig between Danes and Germans would then stay unresolved. Christian IX's negotiations were not publicly known until published in the 2010 book Dommedag Als by Tom Buk-Swienty, who had been given access to the royal archives by Queen Margrethe II.

The Peace of Prague in 1866 confirmed Denmark's cession of the two duchies, but promised a plebiscite to decide whether north Schleswig wished to return to Danish rule. This provision was unilaterally set aside by a resolution of Prussia and Austria in 1878.

The Second Schleswig War shocked Denmark out of any idea of using war as a political tool. Danish forces were not involved in war outside their frontiers until the 1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

  It became clear that, against the might of Germany, Denmark could not assert her survival with her own arms; this played a crucial role in the "adjustment policy" and later "Cooperation policy" during the Nazi-German occupation in World War II.

Since Sweden-Norway refused to come to Denmark's rescue, although the Swedish-Norwegian king promised troops, this put an end to any dreams of political Scandinavism. As a consequence, the pan-Scandinavian movement after this year focused on literature and language, rather than politics.

From a Danish perspective, perhaps the most grievous consequence of the defeat was that thousands of Danes living in the ceded lands were conscripted into the German army in World War I and suffered huge casualties on the Western Front.

This is still (but waning in time as the children of the conscripted men are dying out) a cause of resentment among many families in the southern parts of Jutland and the direct reason why a German offer of a joint centenary anniversary in 1966 was rejected.

After Germany's defeat in 1918, the Danish government asked the Allied Powers and the Versailles Conference of 1919 to include a plebiscite in the disputed Schleswig region based on Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points as part of the Allied Powers' peace settlement with Germany, and this request was granted by the Allies.

As a result of the plebiscite, North Schleswig was returned to Denmark.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1864
 
 
Archduke Maximilian of Austria accepts Mexican crown, and he and his wife, Charlotta, are made Emperor and Empress of Mexico (Maximilian of Mexico)
 
 

Archduke Maximilian and Archduchess Charlotte
 
 
 
1864
 
 
General Ulysses S. Grant (Grant Ulysses) succeeds General Halleck as Commander-in-Chief of Union armies
 
 
Halleck Henry
 

Henry W. Halleck, (born Jan. 16, 1815, Westernville, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 9, 1872, Louisville, Ky.), Union officer during the American Civil War who, despite his administrative skill as general in chief (1862–64), failed to achieve an overall battle strategy for Union forces.

 

Henry W. Halleck
  A graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y. (1839), Halleck was commissioned in the engineers and sent in 1844 to visit the principal military establishments of Europe. After his return to the United States, he delivered a course of lectures on the science of war, published in 1846 as Elements of Military Art and Science, which was widely used as a textbook by volunteer officers during the Civil War. When the Mexican War broke out (1846), he served with the U.S. expedition to the Pacific Coast and became California’s secretary of state under the military government; in 1849 he helped frame the state constitution. Five years later he resigned his commission and took up the practice of law.

When war erupted between the states (1861), Halleck returned to the army as a major general and was charged with the supreme command of the Western theatre. There he was instrumental in bringing order out of chaos in the hurried formations of large volunteer armies, but the military successes of the spring of 1862 were due mainly to the military skill of such subordinate generals as Ulysses S. Grant and John Pope. In July, however, with some misgivings President Lincoln called Halleck to Washington as his military adviser and general in chief of the armies. Held responsible for subsequent reverses of Union generals in Virginia and frequently at odds with his subordinates and with the secretary of war, Edwin M. Stanton, he was replaced by Grant in March 1864. He then served as chief of staff until the end of the war.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1864
 
 
General Sherman marches his army from Chattanooga, Tenn., through Georgia; defeats Confederate army at
Atlanta, and occupies Savannah
 
 
Sherman William
 

William Tecumseh Sherman, (born February 8, 1820, Lancaster, Ohio, U.S.—died February 14, 1891, New York, New York), American Civil War general and a major architect of modern warfare. He led Union forces in crushing campaigns through the South, marching through Georgia and the Carolinas (1864–65).

 

William Tecumseh Sherman
  Early life and career
Named Tecumseh in honour of the renowned Shawnee chieftain, Sherman was one of eight children of Judge Charles R. Sherman, who died when the boy was only nine. Thomas Ewing, a family friend and a Whig political force in Ohio, adopted the boy, and his foster mother added William to his name. When Sherman was 16, Ewing obtained an appointment to West Point for him. Sherman graduated near the head of his class in 1840.

After graduation Sherman was sent to fight Seminole Indians in Florida and was eventually transferred to Fort Moultrie, South Carolina.

The Mexican War, in which so many future generals of the Civil War received their experience, passed Sherman by; he was stranded in California as an administrative officer. In 1850 he married Ellen Ewing, daughter of his adoptive father, who was then serving as secretary of the interior in Washington.

They settled in St. Louis, Missouri. The lure of gold in California led Sherman to resign from the U.S. Army in 1853 and join a St. Louis banking firm at its branch in San Francisco. The Panic of 1857 interrupted his promising career in business, however, and after several more disappointments, his old friends, the Southerners Braxton Bragg and P.G.T. Beauregard, found him employment (January 1860) as superintendent of a newly established military academy in Louisiana.
 
 
When Louisiana seceded from the Union in January 1861, Sherman resigned his post and returned to St. Louis.

His devotion to the Union was strong, but he was greatly distressed at what he considered an unnecessary conflict between the states. He used the influence of his younger brother, Senator John Sherman, to obtain an appointment in the U.S. Army as a colonel in May 1861.
 
 
Civil War years
Sherman was soon assigned to command a brigade in General Irvin McDowell’s army, and he fought in the disastrous first Battle of Bull Run (July 21, 1861). Though afterward promoted to brigadier general, he was convinced by his experience at Bull Run that he was unfit for such responsibility, and he begged President Abraham Lincoln not to trust him in an independent command. Lincoln nevertheless sent Sherman to Kentucky as second-in-command under General Robert Anderson. In October 1861 Sherman succeeded to the command in Kentucky, but he was nervous and unsure of himself, and his hallucinations concerning opposing Confederate forces led him to request so many reinforcements from his superiors that some newspapers described him as insane. He lost his Kentucky command, but with the support of General Henry Halleck, he then served as a divisional commander under General Ulysses S. Grant. Sherman distinguished himself at the Battle of Shiloh (April 6–7, 1862) and won promotion to the rank of major general.

Grant had a calming influence upon Sherman. Together they fought brilliantly to capture Vicksburg, Mississippi (1862–63), shattering the Confederate defenses and opening the Mississippi River to Northern commerce once more. Though Sherman began his part in the campaign with a defeat at Chickasaw Bluffs, his capture of Fort Hindman, Arkansas, served to restore his reputation. In Grant’s final Vicksburg campaign Sherman commanded the 15th Corps.

Sherman’s star, along with Grant’s, was now in the ascendant, and their careers were thenceforth closely linked as they worked together to bring about a Union victory in the war. When Grant was placed in supreme command in the west, Sherman succeeded to the command of the Army of the Tennessee and in that capacity took part with Grant in the Chattanooga campaign in November 1863.

  In March 1864, when Grant became general-in-chief of the Union armies, Sherman was made commander of the military division of the Mississippi, with three armies under his overall command. Assembling about 100,000 troops near Chattanooga, Tennessee, in May 1864, he began his invasion of Georgia.

The opposing Confederate forces led by General Joseph E. Johnston retreated slowly ahead of him, and on September 2, 1864, Sherman’s forces were able to occupy Atlanta, a vital industrial centre and the hub of the Southern railway network. The Union war effort was not proceeding well in the east, and Sherman’s capture of Atlanta was a much-needed victory that restored Northern morale and helped ensure Lincoln’s reelection that November.

Union superiority in manpower was now having its effect, and Sherman was able to detach part of his army and lead the remaining 62,000 troops on the celebrated “March to the Sea” from Atlanta to Savannah on the Atlantic coast. Separated from its supply bases and completely isolated from other Union forces, Sherman’s army cut a wide swath as it moved south through Georgia, living off the countryside, destroying railroads and supplies, reducing the war-making potential of the Confederacy, and bringing the war home to the Southern people. Sherman reached Savannah in time for Christmas and “presented” the city to Lincoln with 150 captured cannons and 25,000 bales of cotton.

By February 1865 he was heading north through the Carolinas toward Virginia, where Grant and the Confederate commander General Robert E. Lee were having a final showdown. The opposing Confederate forces led by Johnston could offer Sherman only token resistance by now. Lee surrendered to Grant in Virginia on April 9, and Johnston surrendered the remnants of his forces to Sherman on April 26 near Durham, North Carolina.

 
 

General William Tecumseh Sherman and staff (from left to right): Generals Oliver O. Howard, John A. Logan, William B. Hazen, Sherman, Jefferson Davis, Henry W. Slocum, and Joseph Mower. Photograph by Mathew B. Brady.
 
 
Sherman remained a soldier to the end, though his view of warfare was succinctly put in his oft-quoted assertion that “war is hell.” When Grant became a full general in 1866, Sherman moved up to the rank of lieutenant general, and when Grant became president in 1869, he made Sherman commanding general of the army, a post he held until 1884. Unlike Grant, Sherman declined all opportunities to run for political office, saying he would not run if nominated and would not serve if elected. He died in New York City in 1891.

Sherman was one of the ablest Union generals in the Civil War. He saw that conflict in its broadest strategic terms, and his March to the Sea is generally regarded as the first example of the use of total war in the modern era.

Charlton W. Tebeau

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
BATTLE OF ATLANTA
 
22 July-22 December 1864

Forces Engaged

Union: 98,000 men of the Army of the Tennessee. Commander: General William T. Sherman.
Confederate: 53,000 men of the Army of Tennessee. Commanders: Generals Joseph E. Johnston and John Bell Hood.

Importance

The Union capture of Atlanta guaranteed Lincoln's reelection in 1864 over peace candidate George McClellan. The March to the Sea introduced total war to the modem world.
 

Battle of Atlanta, by Kurz and Allison (1888).
 
 
Historical Setting

After the city of Vicksburg surrendered to Union General Ulysses Grant on 4 July 1863, the same day that Confederate General Robert E. Lee was retreating from his defeat at Gettysburg, any chance that the Confederacy had to win the Civil War was fading. Vicks-burg's fall meant that the Union controlled the Mississippi River, severing Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas from the remainder of the Confederate States of America. In the eastern theater, although Lee had repeatedly beaten back Union invasions of Virginia, his lack of supplies meant diat his army could not fight in top form. When Grant was transferred from the west to Virginia, Lincoln directed him to do what a half dozen previous commanders had failed to do: defeat Lee and capture Richmond. In early May 1864, Grant led about 100,000 men into northern Virginia to attempt just that.

At the same time, Grant's successor in the western theater, General William T. Sherman, was beginning his own offensive. His Union forces were implementing the Anaconda Plan, designed by senior army General Winfield Scott early in the war. It was designed to squeeze off portions of the Confederacy until it was so hopelessly divided that no section could support another. The capture of Vicksburg had accomplished a phase of that plan, and now Sherman was to enter into the next phase: by marching southeast from Tennessee, he was to reach the Atlantic and sever the Deep South from the upper South. With almost 100,000 men, he marched out of western Tennessee (which he had secured in January 1864) with Adanta his first objective.

Facing Shermans army was General Joseph E. Johnston. He had commanded the Confederate army in Virginia early in the war, until his wounding in June 1862 brought about his replacement by Lee. Like Lee, he was a general well versed in defensive tactics, and he needed all his skill to face a Union army diat outnumbered his Army of Tennessee almost two to one.

Johnston was the right man in the right place, and he proceeded to give Sherman problems. Their first meeting was at Resaca (13—16 May 1864), where Johnston's placement of his army forced Sherman to attack frontally. The war had proven the effectiveness of the defensive because armies still went into battle in lines even diough technology had brought fordi rifles and artillery that made those antiquated tactics futile. In earlier days when armies fought with muskets, whose short range obliged armies to mass their forces to mass their fire, going into battle in lines was necessary. The introduction of rifles, however, meant that soldiers could now kill an enemy at up to 300 yards, more dian five times die effective range of muskets. That meant that advancing armies were exposed to fire longer than ever before, so an entrenched army could decimate an attacking one before ever taking casualties themselves. Thus, Johnston's fewer men could deal Sherman's greater numbers severe damage, and they did.

Sherman's response, logically, was to attempt to hold the Confederates in place while marching men around the flanks, but Johnston had almost a sixth sense about Sherman's moves, and he was consistendy able to withdraw before a flanking maneuver was effective. The problem was that Johnston had to withdraw, which meant saving the lives of his men, but also meant giving up territory to the enemy. Johnston bought time with this ceded territory, but it was not the kind of war Confederate President Jefferson Davis wanted. Davis wanted Sherman pushed out of Georgia, which Johnston's strategy would not accomplish. Further, Johnston's aloof manner and reluctance to share his plans with his superiors infuriated Davis. Although Johnston repeatedly dealt Sherman serious setbacks, at Resaca, New Hope Church (25-28 May), and Kennesaw Mountain (27 June), Sherman continued to try to outflank Johnston, with limited success. When Johnston pulled his army into the prepared defenses of Adanta in early July, Davis had had enough.
 
 

Confederate sappers constructed a number of artillery emplacements covering the avenues of approach to Atlanta. The artillery in this fortification overlooks Peachtree Street.
 
 
The Battle

President Davis and the Confederate government lost confidence in Johnston and decided that a more aggressive commander was needed. Thus, they relieved Johnston of his command on 17 July and replaced him with John Bell Hood. Hood had made a name for himself as a divisional commander under Robert E. Lee, where his forces (including the famous Texas Brigade) were Lee's most dependable troops, detailed to achieve the most difficult objectives. Hood proved his ability on the offensive during the Peninsular Campaign of July 1862 and at the second batde at Bull Run in August 1862, Antietam in September 1862, and Gettysburg in July 1863. Transferred to the Army of Tennessee in the western theater, Hood led troops at the battle of Chickamauga. He was a commander who fought alongside his men, and he had the wounds to prove it. If anyone could be trusted to take the offensive, Hood was the one. His problem was that his aggressiveness was not tempered by wisdom. When told of the decision to place Hood in command, Lee sent a telegram to Davis counseling against it: "Hood is a bold fighter. I am doubtful as to other qualities necessary" (Dowdey and Manarin, The Wartime Papers of Robert E. Lee, p. 821). The men of the Army of Tennessee did not want to see Johnston go either, but the will of the politicians prevailed.

Hood quickly went to work. He attacked the Union army at Peachtree Creek, on the outskirts of Atlanta, on 20 July but was driven back. Forced into the defensive lines, Hood could only send sorties out to harass Sherman's attempts to surround the city. In this, Hood was moderately successful, for a time keeping open the final railroad into Atlanta and stopping a Union cavalry raid intended to liberate prisoners from the camp at Andersonville. These efforts were costly for the Confederacy. In a matter of days, they suffered 15,000 casualties, more than twice what Johnston had suffered in 10 weeks, while inflicting 6,000 killed and wounded on the enemy. Still, Union forces slowly worked their way around both flanks in what forebode a total encirclement.

Hood developed a plan that would have made sense a year earlier, when Confederate and Union forces were more nearly equal in number. Hood decided that, rather than stay in Atlanta and endure a siege, he would instead abandon the city and outflank Sherman. By marching around toward the rear of the Union army, Hood hoped that the threat to the Union supply lines would force Sherman to turn away from Atlanta and follow Hood back toward Tennessee. Sherman forced Hood into action when he marched the bulk of his Union forces around the city on 22 August to destroy Atlanta's last rail link. Therefore, at the beginning of September, Hood led his army out of the city in a wide march around the Union right flank. A smaller army would have been forced to follow him, but Sherman merely divided his forces into two parts. One part, under George Thomas, he sent to follow Hood; the other part, he led into Atlanta on 2 September.

News of Atlanta's fall was celebrated throughout the Nordi, and President Abraham Lincoln breathed a sigh of relief. This slowed the momentum of the peace party in die North and practically guaranteed Lincoln's reelection in November. Although Sherman had little love for Lincoln and disagreed with most of his policies, he kept his army in Atlanta until after die election was over. In die meantime, he ordered all civilians in the city to be evicted. This raised a storm of protest in the Confederacy, but Sherman was determined to turn the city into a supply depot for his men and he would not have civilians impeding his actions. For 10 weeks Sherman stayed in Atlanta, while Hood marched his men into disaster. A frontal assault against well-prepared Union positions at Franklin, Tennessee, virtually destroyed his army, and the remainder failed to successfully besiege Nashville.

On 16 November, Sherman led 68,000 men out of Atlanta, marching southeast for Savannah. With virtually no Confederate forces to oppose him, he stretched his men out in a line some 50 miles wide and they proceeded to destroy everything they found. Although Atlanta was fairly secure, Sherman cut himself off from that city and lived off the land. His forces took what they needed and destroyed the rest: plantations, farms, railroads, anything that could produce or aid in providing supplies for the Confederacy. He did not make war against the citizens themselves; deaths among the civilian population was low. Instead, he made war against their productivity. This not only deprived the Confederate army of whatever supplies it may have received, but it proved to the South that they were thoroughly beaten. It took just over a month to reach his goal. On 22 December, Sherman sent a telegram to Lincoln: "I beg to present you as a Christmas gift, the city of Savannah, with 150 heavy guns and plenty of ammunition, and also about 250,000 bales of cotton" (Fellman, "Lincoln and Sherman," in Boritt, Lincoln's Generals, p. 156).
 
 

Palisades and chevaux de frise in front of the Potter (or Pondor) House, Atlanta, Georgia, 1864
 
 
Results

The autumn of 1864 sounded the death knell of the Confederacy. Although written off as a lost cause by many after the July 1863 defeats at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, in reality the Confederacy had one last chance after that time. When Grant took his army into Virginia in May 1864, he fought a series of bloody battles: Wilderness, Spotsylvania Courthouse, North Anna, and Cold Harbor. Between 5 May and 3 June, Grant lost 50,000 men dead and wounded. That caused an immense outcry in the Union for his removal, but Lincoln refused. He had a general who would not turn and run after a defeat as all those previous to Grant had done, so Lincoln supported him in spite of the terrible losses. Then, in early June, Grant was forced into besieging Petersburg, south of the Confederate capital city of Richmond, Virginia. On the road to Richmond, he had lost men, but at least he was going forward; at Petersburg, he lost men and went nowhere.

Lincoln's continued support of Grant resulted in a peace movement gaining momentum in the North. In the summer of 1864, the Democratic Party nominated former General George McClellan as their candidate and adopted a plank in the platform calling for an immediate truce and negotiations for peace. Lincoln decided in August that if he lost the November election, he would not wait the customary 5 months for die inaugural; he would instead resign immediately and let McClellan take over, for the people would have spoken. Therefore, had Johnston remained in command
of the Confederate army in Georgia, he could possibly have held Atlanta as Lee was holding Petersburg. That could have spelled defeat for Lincoln, which could have given the Confederacy one last chance at independence. Instead, Atlanta's fall convinced the North that victory was imminent, so a peace candidate was unelectable.

In his March to the Sea, Sherman for the first time in modern history made the civilian sector of an enemy nation a legitimate target. This type of warfare had occurred regularly in Europe as late as the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), but had for the most part become a thing of the past. From 1864 onward, civilians were again fair game. Although this has made Sherman's name an object of hatred in the South ever since, it accomplished a positive purpose. "This was war as politics stripped bare.... For the Confederates had to be defeated in devastating fashion, lest they sustain a longer term armed insurrection of the type which has characterized the histories of such peoples as the Irish and the tribes of the Balkans. In his ruthless marches through the Confederate heartland, at least as much ideologically as militarily, Sherman provided essential elements of the Confederate defeat" (Fellman, "Lincoln and Sherman," in Boritt, Lincoln's Generals, pp. 155— 156). This certainly must have had an effect on Lee's decision in April 1865 to surrender completely, rather than encourage an ongoing guerrilla war. Sherman's victory at Atlanta, and his subsequent path of destruction, at once ended a war and ushered in a return to an old style of warfare.

References: Boritt, Gabor. Lincoln's Generals. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994; Dowdey, Clifford, and Louis H. Manarin. The Wartime Papers of Robert E. Lee. Boston: Little, Brown, 1961; Fellman, Michael. Citizen Sherman. New York: Random House, 1995; McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988; Royster, Charles. The Destructive War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991.
 
 
 
1864
 
 
Lincoln Abraham  re-elected President of the U.S.
 
 

Lincoln's second inaugural address in 1865 at the almost completed Capitol building
 
 
     
 
Abraham Lincoln
     
 
 
 
1864
 
 
Sand Creek massacre
 

The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre, the Battle of Sand Creek or the massacre of Cheyenne Indians) was an atrocity in the American Indian Wars that occurred on November 29, 1864, when a 700-man force of Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a peaceful village of Cheyenne and Arapaho in southeastern Colorado Territory, killing and mutilating an estimated 70–163 Native Americans, about two-thirds of whom were women and children. The location has been designated the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site and is administered by the National Park Service.

 
Background
By the terms of the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie between the United States and seven Indian nations, including the Cheyenne and Arapaho, the United States recognized that the Cheyenne and Arapaho held a vast territory encompassing the lands between the North Platte River and Arkansas River and eastward from the Rocky Mountains to western Kansas. This area included present-day southeastern Wyoming, southwestern Nebraska, most of eastern Colorado, and the westernmost portions of Kansas.

In November 1858, however, the discovery of gold in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, then part of the Kansas Territory, brought on the Pikes Peak Gold Rush. There was a flood of European-American migrants across Cheyenne and Arapaho lands. They competed for resources and some settlers tried to stay. Colorado territorial officials pressured federal authorities to redefine the extent of Indian lands in the territory, and in the fall of 1860, A.B. Greenwood, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, arrived at Bent's New Fort along the Arkansas River to negotiate a new treaty.

On February 18, 1861, six chiefs of the Southern Cheyenne and four of the Arapaho signed the Treaty of Fort Wise with the United States, in which they ceded most of the lands designated to them by the Fort Laramie treaty. The Cheyenne chiefs included Black Kettle, White Antelope (Vó'kaa'e Ohvó'komaestse), Lean Bear, Little Wolf, and Tall Bear; the Arapaho chiefs included Little Raven, Storm, Shave-Head, Big Mouth, and Niwot, or Left Hand. The new reserve, less than one-thirteenth the size of the 1851 reserve, was located in eastern Colorado between the Arkansas River and Sand Creek.

  Some bands of Cheyenne, including the Dog Soldiers, a militaristic band of Cheyenne and Lakota that had evolved beginning in the 1830s, were angry at the chiefs who had signed the treaty. They disavowed the treaty and refused to abide by its constraints. They continued to live and hunt in the bison-rich lands of eastern Colorado and western Kansas, becoming increasingly belligerent over the tide of white migration across their lands. Tensions were high particularly in the Smoky Hill River country of Kansas, along which whites had opened a new trail to the gold fields.
Cheyenne who opposed the treaty said that it had been signed by a small minority of the chiefs without the consent or approval of the rest of the tribe; that the signatories had not understood what they signed; and that they had been bribed to sign by a large distribution of gifts. The whites, however, claimed that the treaty was a "solemn obligation". Officials took the position that Indians who refused to abide by it were hostile and planning a war.

The beginning of the American Civil War in 1861 led to the organization of military forces in Colorado Territory. In March 1862, the Coloradans defeated the Texas Confederate Army in the Battle of Glorieta Pass in New Mexico. Following the battle, the First Regiment of Colorado Volunteers returned to Colorado Territory and were mounted as a home guard under the command of Colonel John Chivington. Chivington and Colorado territorial governor John Evans adopted a hard line against Indians, whom white settlers accused of stealing livestock. Without any declaration of war, in April 1864 soldiers started attacking and destroying a number of Cheyenne camps, the largest of which included about 70 lodges, about 10% of the housing capacity of the entire Cheyenne nation.

 
 

A delegation of Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Arapaho chiefs in Denver,
Colorado on September 28, 1864. Black Kettle 2nd from left front row
 
 
On May 16, 1864, a force under Lieutenant George S. Eayre crossed into Kansas and encountered Cheyenne in their summer buffalo-hunting camp at Big Bushes near the Smoky Hill River. Cheyenne chiefs Lean Bear and Star approached the soldiers to signal their peaceful intent, but were shot down by Eayre's troops. This incident touched off a war of retaliation by the Cheyenne in Kansas.

Damn any man who sympathizes with Indians! ... I have come to kill Indians, and believe it is right and honorable to use any means under God's heaven to kill Indians. ... Kill and scalp all, big and little; nits make lice.

— Col. John Milton Chivington

As conflict between Indians and white settlers and soldiers in Colorado continued, many of the Cheyenne and Arapaho, including bands under Cheyenne chiefs Black Kettle and White Antelope, were resigned to negotiate peace. The chiefs had sought to maintain peace in spite of pressures from whites. In July 1864, Colorado governor, John Evans, sent a circular to the Plains Indians, inviting those who remained friendly to go to a place of safety at Fort Lyon on the eastern plains, and that their people would be given provisions, as well as protection by the United States troops.

 
 
Attack
Black Kettle, leading chief of a band of around 800 mostly Southern Cheyenne, had led his band, joined by some Arapahos under Chief Niwot, to Fort Lyon in accordance with provisions of a peace parley held in Denver in September 1864. After a while, the natives were requested to relocate to Big Sandy Creek, less than 40 miles northwest of Fort Lyon, with still guaranteed "perfect safety". The Dog Soldiers, who had been responsible for many of the attacks and raids on whites, were not part of this encampment. On the 29th of November, assured by promises of protection by the commander of Fort Lyon, most of the warriors left to hunt buffalo, leaving only around 75 men, and all the women and children in the village; the males that stayed were those mostly too old or too young to hunt. Black Kettle flew an American flag, with a white flag beneath it, over his lodge, as the Fort Lyon commander had advised him, to show he was friendly and forestall attack by U.S. forces.

Meanwhile, Chivington and his 700 soldiers of the 1st Colorado Cavalry, 3rd Colorado Cavalry and a company of the 1st Regiment New Mexico Volunteer Cavalry went to Fort Lyon, then set out for Black Kettle's encampment. James Beckwourth, noted frontiersman, acted as guide for Chivington. On the evening of November 28, soldiers and militia drank heavily and celebrated their anticipated victory. The following morning, November 29, Chivington ordered his troops to attack. Two officers, Captain Silas Soule and Lieutenant Joseph Cramer, commanding the First Colorado Cavalry companies D and K, respectively, refused to obey Chivington's order and told their men to hold fire.

 
 

Some of the identifications of Natives are uncertain. Front row, kneeling, left to right: Major Edward W. Wynkoop, commander at Fort Lyon and later agent for the Cheyennes and Arapahoes; Captain Silas S. Soule, provost marshal, later murdered in Denver. Middle row, seated, left to right: White Antelope (or perhaps White Wolf), Bull Bear, Black Kettle, One Eye, Natame (Arapaho). Back row, standing, left to right: Colorado militiaman, unknown civilian, John H. Smith (interpreter), Heap of Buffalo (Arapaho), Neva (Arapaho), unknown civilian, sentry. Another identification states that Neva is seated on the left and the man next to Smith is White Wolf (Cheyenne)."
 
 
Other soldiers in Chivington's force, however, immediately attacked the village. Disregarding the American flag, and a white flag that was run up shortly after the soldiers commenced firing, Chivington's soldiers massacred many of its inhabitants.
 
 

I saw the bodies of those lying there cut all to pieces, worse mutilated than any I ever saw before; the women cut all to pieces ... With knives; scalped; their brains knocked out; children two or three months old; all ages lying there, from sucking infants up to warriors ... By whom were they mutilated? By the United States troops ...

— John S. Smith, Congressional Testimony of Mr. John S. Smith, 1865

I saw one squaw lying on the bank, whose leg had been broken. A soldier came up to her with a drawn sabre. She raised her arm to protect herself; he struck, breaking her arm. She rolled over, and raised her other arm; he struck, breaking that, and then left her with out killing her. I saw one squaw cut open, with an unborn child lying by her side.

— Robert Bent, New York Tribune, 1879

There was one little child, probably three years old, just big enough to walk through the sand. The Indians had gone ahead, and this little child was behind, following after them. The little fellow was perfectly naked, travelling in the sand. I saw one man get off his horse at a distance of about seventy-five yards and draw up his rifle and fire. He missed the child. Another man came up and said, 'let me try the son of a b-. I can hit him.' He got down off his horse, kneeled down, and fired at the little child, but he missed him. A third man came up, and made a similar remark, and fired, and the little fellow dropped.

— Major Anthony, New York Tribune, 1879

Fingers and ears were cut off the bodies for the jewelry they carried. The body of White Antelope, lying solitarily in the creek bed, was a prime target. Besides scalping him the soldiers cut off his nose, ears, and testicles-the last for a tobacco pouch ...

— Stan Hoig

Jis to think of that dog Chivington and his dirty hounds, up thar at Sand Creek. His men shot down squaws, and blew the brains out of little innocent children. You call sich soldiers Christians, do ye? And Indians savages? What der yer 'spose our Heavenly Father, who made both them and us, thinks of these things? I tell you what, I don't like a hostile red skin any more than you do. And when they are hostile, I've fought 'em, hard as any man. But I never yet drew a bead on a squaw or papoose, and I despise the man who would.

— Kit Carson

 
The natives, due to being required to hand over their guns to the United States officers, but keeping a few, could not make much resistance. Some of the natives cut horses from the camp's herd and fled up Sand Creek or to a nearby Cheyenne camp on the headwaters of the Smoky Hill River. Others, including trader George Bent, fled upstream and dug holes in the sand beneath the banks of the stream. They were pursued by the troops and fired on, but many survived. Cheyenne warrior Morning Star said that most of the Indian dead were killed by cannon fire, especially those firing from the south bank of the river at the people retreating up the creek.

In testimony before a Congressional committee investigating the massacre, Chivington claimed that as many as 500–600 Indian warriors were killed. Historian Alan Brinkley wrote that 133 Indians were killed, 105 of whom were women and children. White eye-witness John S. Smith reported that 70–80 Indians were killed, including 20–30 warriors, which agrees with Brinkley's figure as to the number of men killed. George Bent, the son of the American William Bent and a Cheyenne mother, who was in the village when the attack came and was wounded by the soldiers, gave two different accounts of the natives' loss. On March 15, 1889, he wrote to Samuel F. Tappan that 137 people were killed: 28 men and 109 women and children. However, on April 30, 1913, when he was very old, he wrote that "about 53 men" and "110 women and children" were killed and many people wounded. Bent's first figures are in close accord with those of Brinkley and agree with Smith as to the number of men who were killed.

Although initial reports indicated 10 soldiers killed and 38 wounded, the final tally was 4 killed and 21 wounded in the 1st Colorado Cavalry and 20 killed or mortally wounded and 31 other wounded in the 3rd Colorado Cavalry; adding up to 24 killed and 52 wounded. Dee Brown wrote that some of Chivington's men were drunk and that many of the soldiers' casualties were due to friendly fire but neither of these claims is supported by Gregory F. Michno or Stan Hoig in their books devoted to the massacre.

Before Chivington and his men left the area, they plundered the tipis and took the horses. After the smoke cleared, Chivington's men came back and killed many of the wounded. They also scalped many of the dead, regardless of whether they were women, children or infants. Chivington and his men dressed their weapons, hats and gear with scalps and other body parts, including human fetuses and male and female genitalia. They also publicly displayed these battle trophies in Denver's Apollo Theater and area saloons. Three Indians who remained in the village are known to have survived the massacre: George Bent's brother Charlie Bent, and two Cheyenne women who were later turned over to William Bent.

 
 
Aftermath
The Sand Creek Massacre resulted in a heavy loss of life, mostly among Cheyenne and Arapaho women and children. Hardest hit by the massacre were the Wutapai, Black Kettle's band. Perhaps half of the Hevhaitaniu were lost, including the chiefs Yellow Wolf and Big Man. The Oivimana, led by War Bonnet, lost about half their number. There were heavy losses to the Hisiometanio (Ridge Men) under White Antelope. Chief One Eye was also killed, along with many of his band. The Suhtai clan and the Heviqxnipahis clan under chief Sand Hill experienced relatively few losses. The Dog Soldiers and the Masikota, who by that time had allied, were not present at Sand Creek. Of about ten lodges of Arapaho under Chief Left Hand, representing about fifty or sixty people, only a handful escaped with their lives.

After hiding all day above the camp, in holes dug beneath the bank of Sand Creek, the survivors there, many of whom were wounded, moved up the stream and spent the night on the prairie. Trips were made to the site of the camp but very few survivors were found there. After a cold night without shelter, the survivors set out toward the Cheyenne camp on the headwaters of the Smoky Hill River. They soon met up with other survivors who had escaped with part of the horse herd, some returning from the Smoky Hill camp where they had fled during the attack. They then proceeded to the camp, where they received assistance.

The massacre disrupted the traditional Cheyenne power structure, because of the deaths of eight members of the Council of Forty-Four. White Antelope, One Eye, Yellow Wolf, Big Man, Bear Man, War Bonnet, Spotted Crow, and Bear Robe were all killed, as were the headmen of some of the Cheyenne military societies.

  Among the chiefs killed were most of those who had advocated peace with white settlers and the U.S. government. The net effect of the murders and ensuing weakening of the peace faction exacerbated the developing social and political rift. On the one hand, the traditional council chiefs, mature men who sought consensus and looked to the future of their people, and their followers, were opposed on the other hand by the younger and more militaristic Dog Soldiers.

Beginning in the 1830s, the Dog Soldiers had evolved from a Cheyenne military society of that name into a separate band of Cheyenne and Lakota warriors. They took as their territory the area around the headwaters of the Republican and Smoky Hill rivers in southern Nebraska, northern Kansas, and the northeastern Colorado Territory.

By the 1860s, as conflict between Indians and encroaching whites intensified, the Dog Soldiers and military societies within other Cheyenne bands countered the influence of the traditional Council of Forty-Four chiefs who, as more mature men, took a larger view and were more likely to favor peace with the whites. To the Dog Soldiers, the Sand Creek massacre illustrated the folly of the peace chiefs' policy of accommodating the whites through treaties such as the first Treaty of Fort Laramie and the Treaty of Fort Wise. They believed their militant position toward the whites was justified by the massacre.

The events at Sand Creek dealt a fatal blow to the traditional Cheyenne clan system and the authority of its Council of Chiefs. It had already been weakened by the numerous deaths due to the 1849 cholera epidemic, which killed perhaps half the Southern Cheyenne population, especially the Masikota and Oktoguna bands. It was further weakened by the emergence of the separate Dog Soldiers band.

 
 
Retaliation
After this event, many Cheyenne, including the great warrior Roman Nose, and Arapaho joined the Dog Soldiers. They sought revenge on settlers throughout the Platte valley, including an 1865 attack on what became Fort Caspar, Wyoming.

Following the massacre, the survivors joined the camps of the Cheyenne on the Smokey Hill and Republican rivers. There the war pipe was smoked and passed from camp to camp among the Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho warriors in the area. In January 1865, they planned and carried out an attack with 1,000 warriors on the stage station and fort, then called Camp Rankin, at present-day Julesburg, Colorado. They followed up with numerous raids along the South Platte both east and west of Julesburg, and a second raid on Julesburg in early February. The associated bands captured much loot and killed many whites, including women and children. The bulk of the Indians then moved north into Nebraska on their way to the Black Hills and the Powder River Country.

Black Kettle continued to want peace and did not join in the second raid or in the journey north to the Powder River country. He left the camp and returned with 80 lodges to the Arkansas River to seek peace.

 
 
Official investigations
Initially, the Sand Creek engagement was reported as a victory against a brave opponent. Within weeks, however, witnesses and survivors raised a controversy about possible massacre. Several investigations were conducted – two by the military, and one by the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War. The panel declared:

As to Colonel Chivington, your committee can hardly find fitting terms to describe his conduct. Wearing the uniform of the United States, which should be the emblem of justice and humanity; holding the important position of commander of a military district, and therefore having the honor of the government to that extent in his keeping, he deliberately planned and executed a foul and dastardly massacre which would have disgraced the veriest savage among those who were the victims of his cruelty. Having full knowledge of their friendly character, having himself been instrumental to some extent in placing them in their position of fancied security, he took advantage of their in-apprehension and defenceless condition to gratify the worst passions that ever cursed the heart of man.

Whatever influence this may have had upon Colonel Chivington, the truth is that he surprised and murdered, in cold blood, the unsuspecting men, women, and children on Sand creek, who had every reason to believe they were under the protection of the United States authorities, and then returned to Denver and boasted of the brave deed he and the men under his command had performed.

In conclusion, your committee are of the opinion that for the purpose of vindicating the cause of justice and upholding the honor of the nation, prompt and energetic measures should be at once taken to remove from office those who have thus disgraced the government by whom they are employed, and to punish, as their crimes deserve, those who have been guilty of these brutal and cowardly acts.

Statements taken by Major Edward W. Wynkoop and his adjutant substantiated the later accounts of survivors. These statements were filed with his reports and can be found in the Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, copies of which were submitted as evidence in the Joint Committee of the Conduct of the War and in separate hearings conducted by the military in Denver. Lieutenant James D. Cannon describes the mutilation of human genitalia by the soldiers, "men, women, and children's privates cut out.

  I heard one man say that he had cut a woman's private parts out and had them for exhibition on a stick. I heard of one instance of a child, a few months old, being thrown into the feed-box of a wagon, and after being carried some distance, left on the ground to perish; I also heard of numerous instances in which men had cut out the private parts of females and stretched them over their saddle-bows, and some of them over their hats."

During these investigations, numerous witnesses came forward with damning testimony, almost all of which was corroborated by other witnesses. One witness, Captain Silas Soule, who had ordered the men under his command not to fire their weapons, was murdered in Denver just weeks after offering his testimony. However, despite the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the Wars' recommendation, no charges were brought against those who committed the massacre. The closest thing to a punishment Chivington suffered was the effective end of his political aspirations.

In his autobiographical Memories of a Lifetime in the Pike's Peak Region, Irving Howbert, an 18-year-old cavalryman who was later one of the founders of Colorado Springs, defended Chivington, having argued instead that the Indian women and children were not attacked, but a few who did not leave the camp were killed once the fighting began. He claimed that the number of warriors in the village was about equal to the force of the Colorado cavalry.

Chivington, claimed Howbert, was retaliating for Indian attacks on wagon trains and settlements in Colorado and for the torture and the killings of citizens during the preceding three years. Howbert said the evidence of the previous Indian attacks on the settlers was shown by their confiscation of "more than a dozen scalps of white people, some of them from the heads of women and children." Howbert claimed that the account of the battle to the United States Congress made by Lieutenant Col. Samuel F. Tappan was inaccurate, accusing Tappan of giving a false view of the battle because Tappan and Chivington had been military rivals.

A monument installed on the Colorado State Capitol grounds in 1909 lists Sand Creek as one of the "battles and engagements" fought by Colorado troops in the American Civil War. In 2002, the Colorado Historical Society (now History Colorado), authorized by the Colorado General Assembly, added an additional plaque to the monument, which states that the original designers of the monument "mischaracterized" Sand Creek by calling it a battle.

 
 
Little Arkansas Treaty
After the actual details of the massacre became widely known, the United States federal government sent a blue ribbon commission whose members were respected by the Indians, and the Treaty of the Little Arkansas was signed in 1865. It promised the Indians free access to the lands south of the Arkansas River, excluded them from the Arkansas River north to the Platte River, and promised land and cash reparations to the surviving descendants of Sand Creek victims.

The treaty was abrogated by the government less than two years later, all major provisions ignored, and instead the Medicine Lodge Treaty reduced the reservation lands by 90%, located in much less desirable sites in Oklahoma. Later government actions further reduced the size of the reservations.

 
 

Depiction of the Sand Creek Massacre by Cheyenne eyewitness and artist Howling Wolf
 
 
Remembrance
The site, on Big Sandy Creek in Kiowa County, is now preserved by the National Park Service. The Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site was dedicated on April 28, 2007, almost 142 years after the massacre.

The Sand Creek Massacre Trail in Wyoming follows the paths of the Northern Arapaho and Cheyenne in the years after the massacre. It traces them to their supposed wintering on the Wind River Indian Reservation near Riverton in central Wyoming, where the Arapaho remain today. The trail passes through Cheyenne, Laramie, Casper, and Riverton en route to Ethete in Fremont County on the reservation. In recent years, Arapaho youth have taken to running the length of the trail as endurance tests to bring healing to their nation. Alexa Roberts, superintendent of the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, has said that the trail represents a living portion of the history of the two tribes.

An exhibit about Sand Creek, titled Collision: The Sand Creek Massacre 1860s-Today, opened in 2012 with the new History Colorado Center in Denver. The exhibit immediately drew criticism from members of the Northern Cheyenne tribe. In April 2013, History Colorado agreed to close the exhibit to public view while consultations were made with the Northern Cheyenne.

On December 3, 2014, Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper formally apologized to descendants of Sand Creek massacre victims gathered in Denver to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the event. Hickenlooper stated, "We should not be afraid to criticize and condemn that which is inexcusable. ... On behalf of the state of Colorado, I want to apologize. We will not run from this history."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1864
 
 
Italy renounces its claims to Rome; Florence is made the capital (— 1870) in place of Turin
 
 
 
1864
 
 
Venizelos Eleutherios
 

Eleutherios Venizelos, in full Eleuthérios Kyriakos Venizélos (born Aug. 23, 1864, Mourniés, Crete, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece]—died March 18, 1936, Paris, France), prime minister of Greece (1910–15, 1917–20, 1924, 1928–32, 1933), the most prominent Greek politician and statesman of the early 20th century. Under his leadership Greece doubled in area and population during the Balkan Wars (1912–13) and also gained territorially and diplomatically after World War I in negotiations with Italy, Bulgaria, and Turkey.

 
Early career
His father, Kyriakos Venizélos, was a Cretan revolutionary who had been deported by Turkey (Crete being then a part of the Ottoman Empire) to the island of Síros for 19 years. At the age of two Eleuthérios left his native village to go to Síros with his family, who had been deported there for a second time after an insurrection against the Ottoman sultan in 1866. Eventually he went to Athens (Modern Greek: Athína), where he graduated from the Athens University law school.

As leader of the Cretan students in his last year at the university, Venizélos first attracted public attention with his vivid interview of the British statesman Joseph Chamberlain, during his visit to Athens in 1886. On returning to Crete (Kríti), Venizélos became a lawyer, a journalist, and, a year later, a member of the island’s National Assembly and leader of the local parliament’s newly formed Liberal Party. During the 1897 Greco-Turkish War, with the support of an army under Colonel Timóleon Vássos, dispatched from Greece, he led an unsuccessful insurrection in Cape Akrotírion, near Chaniá, to secure the union of Crete with Greece. After the intervention of the European great powers, however, Crete’s government became autonomous, under the suzerainty of the sultan. When Prince George, second son of King George I of Greece, was made high commissioner of the great European powers in autonomous Crete, Venizélos, at the age of 35, was appointed his minister of justice (1899–1901). He was soon in conflict with the absolutist prince George, however, and, four years later, organized an armed insurrection against his rule, forcing him to leave Crete. Under the new high commissioner, Aléxandros Zaímis, a former premier of Greece, Venizélos again became a member of the Cretan government.

 
 

Eleutherios Venizelos
  Prime minister
In Greece, meanwhile, a group known as the Military League had formed a revolutionary movement and invited Venizélos to Athens to lead it. Venizélos persuaded the league and King George to revise the Greek constitution. In the elections held in August 1910 Venizélos won a seat as a deputy from Athens. In October he became prime minister, embarking immediately on a program of reform. He reorganized the armed forces, created an alliance of the Balkan Christian peoples (Balkan League), and, in the ensuing Balkan Wars of 1912–13, contributed to the final expulsion of the Ottoman Empire from the Balkan Peninsula. Greece, under his premiership, doubled its territory and population by the acquisition of southern Macedonia (Thessaloníki and the hinterland), south Epirus (Ioánnina Préveza and Árta), Crete, and the Aegean Islands.

At the outbreak of World War I, Prime Minister Venizélos proposed that the Greek army fight the Turks, who were allies of Germany. King Constantine, however, was in sympathy with the Central Powers and opposed him. For two years Venizélos struggled to change the king’s mind, but, after the invasion of Greek Macedonia (Makedonía) by German-Austrian-Bulgarian armies (1916), he assumed the leadership of an anti-Constantine insurrection in Macedonia, Crete, and the islands.

He organized a new panhellenic army in the Macedonian allied front and, following Franco-British intervention, forced Constantine into exile (1917). Greece, reunited under King Alexander, second son of Constantine, and Prime Minister Venizélos, declared war against the Central Powers.

 
 
As soon as hostilities ended, Venizélos went to Paris to participate in the peace conferences. During his absence from Greece for almost two years, he acquired a reputation as an international statesman of considerable stature. In July 1919 he reached agreement with the Italians on the cession of the Dodecanese (Dodekánisa) and secured an extension of the Greek area of occupation in Anatolia. The Treaty of Neuilly with Bulgaria (November 1919) and the Treaty of Sèvres with Turkey (August 1920) were triumphs both for Venizélos and for Greece.

Venizélos returned to Athens in September 1920, and King Alexander suddenly died in October. Despite Venizélos’ international triumph, the Greek people, in the November 1920 elections, gave a parliamentary majority to a coalition of monarchist parties, and King Constantine was recalled by a plebiscite. The defeat may perhaps be attributed to Venizélos’ loss of popularity during his long absence, the continued maintenance of martial law, and the continuing hostilities with Turkey, the government of which was holding out against the impositions of the Treaty of Sèvres. Venizélos abruptly left Greece and exiled himself in Paris.

 
 

The council of Crete in which Venizelos participated. He is the second from the left.
 
 
Following the defeat of the royal army by the Turks (1922) and the subsequent armed insurrection, led by General Nikólaos Plastíras and General Stilianos Gonatas, King Constantine was dethroned (and succeeded by his eldest son, George), and six royalist leaders were executed. Venizélos assumed the leadership of the Greek delegation that negotiated the peace treaty of Lausanne (1923) with the Turks. Within a few months, another insurrection, led by General Ioannis Metaxas, forced George into exile, and Venizélos returned to Greece to become premier again. He fell into disagreement, however, with some Republican leaders who wished to abolish the monarchy, and he exiled himself again (1924). During the second Hellenic Republic (1924–35) he returned to Greece and reassumed leadership of the Liberal Party. In the general election of 1928, he obtained a huge majority, forming his third, and last, four-year cabinet. During this period Venizélos succeeded in restoring normal relations with all of Greece’s Balkan neighbours. His domestic position was weakened, however, by the effects of the Great Depression in the early 1930s; and in the elections of 1932 he was defeated.

After his defeat he continued to lead the Liberals, but the end of his political career came in March 1935, when, after the failure of an attempt to prevent the restoration of the monarchy, he went to Paris, where he died in 1936.

Dimitris Pournaras

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1864
 
 
King Maximilian II of Bavaria d.; succeeded by Louis II
 
 
Maximilian II of Bavaria
 

Maximilian II, (born Nov. 28, 1811, Munich—died March 10, 1864, Munich), king of Bavaria from 1848 to 1864, whose attempt to create a “third force” in German affairs by an alliance of smaller states led by Bavaria, foundered on the opposition of the two dominant states, Prussia and Austria, and of the German parliament.

 

Maximilian II of Bavaria
  Maximilian, the eldest son of King Louis I and Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen, received a thorough education at Göttingen and Berlin. He inclined to intellectual pursuits for the rest of his life, surrounding himself with scholars and artists, most notable among them the historian Leopold von Ranke.

With the abdication of his father (March 1848), Maximilian succeeded to the throne at a time of revolutionary fervour throughout Germany. His proposal of a triad, a league of smaller territories as a counterweight to the two large conservative German states, was opposed not only by Austria and Prussia, but by the Frankfurt National Assembly, whose efforts were directed toward a single, unified German state.

Although Prussia aided Bavaria in the suppression of a revolt in the Palatinate (1849), Maximilian refused an alliance with the northern power. In fact, with the elevation of Ludwig von der Pfordten to the post of chief minister (1849), Bavaria assumed a pro-Austrian stance.

On his accession, the King liberalized Bavarian life through the introduction of freedom of the press and ministerial responsibility, although he preferred to leave politics in the hands of his ministers. He made Munich a centre of Germany’s intellectual and artistic life, calling many notable scholars to the Bavarian capital. Departments of the sciences, technology, and history were established at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and research projects initiated.

 
 
The King kept in close personal touch with his intellectual acquaintances, the latter even occasionally serving as advisers on policy matters.

Maximilian firmly backed the hereditary prince Frederick of Augustenburg in the long dispute over the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, which again erupted in the early 1860s between Denmark and Prussia. His aggressive stand was not supported by the other European powers. He died before the German states were able to settle the issue by force.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Louis II
 

Louis II, byname Mad King Ludwig, German Der Verrückte König Ludwig (born August 25, 1845, Nymphenburg Palace, Munich—died June 13, 1886, Starnberger See, Bavaria), eccentric king of Bavaria from 1864 to 1886 and an admirer and patron of the composer Richard Wagner. He brought his territories into the newly founded German Empire (1871) but concerned himself only intermittently with affairs of state, preferring a life of increasingly morbid seclusion and developing a mania for extravagant building projects.

 

Louis II
  Louis was the elder son of King Maximilian II of Bavaria and Marie of Prussia. Politically a romantic conservative, he came to the throne after his father’s death in 1864 before he had completed his studies. Louis entered the Seven Weeks’ War (1866) on the side of Austria but, on his defeat, signed an alliance with Prussia (1867) and, through his prime minister, Chlodwig, Fürst von Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, worked for a reconciliation between Germany’s two great powers. A German patriot, he resisted the overtures of Napoleon III for a Franco-Austrian-Bavarian alliance and immediately joined Prussia in the war of 1870–71 against France. In December 1870, on the initiative of Bismarck, Louis addressed a letter to Germany’s princes calling for the creation of a new empire. His fears for the independence of his crown were allayed by a number of special privileges for Bavaria, although his demands for a substantial territorial increase and the alternation of the imperial title between Prussia and Bavaria remained unfulfilled. Disappointed with the empire, alarmed by the Bavarian population’s Pan-German enthusiasm, and weary of feuding with his ministers over his moves to strengthen the church, he retired more and more from politics, devoting himself increasingly to his private pursuits.

Soon after his accession, the king called Richard Wagner to Munich. After little more than a year, however, he was forced to expel the composer because of governmental and popular objection to the friendship and Wagner’s own improprieties, though Louis remained a lifelong patron of the musician. The king worshiped the theatre and the opera, and henceforth concerned himself almost exclusively with his artistic endeavours, developing an extravagant mania for building in the Bavarian mountains that he loved.

 
 

The palace at Herrenchiemsee (Herrn-Insel), constructed from 1878 to 1885 and never completed, was a copy of Versailles; the Linderhof Palace (1869–78) was patterned after the Trianon palace; and Neuschwanstein, the most fantastic, was a fairy-tale castle precariously situated on a crag and decorated with scenes from Wagner’s romantic operas.

In the early 1880s the king withdrew from society almost completely. Finally, on June 10, 1886, he was declared insane by a panel of doctors. His uncle Prince Luitpold became regent. Removed to Schloss Berg near the Starnberger See by the psychiatrist Bernhard von Gudden, he drowned himself in the lake on June 13. Gudden also perished attempting to save the king’s life.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1864
 
 
First International Workingmen's Association
 

The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, 1864–1876), often called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. It was founded in 1864 in a workmen's meeting held in Saint Martin's Hall, London. Its first congress was held in 1866 in Geneva.

In Europe, a period of harsh reaction followed the widespread Revolutions of 1848. The next major phase of revolutionary activity began almost twenty years later with the founding of the IWA in 1864. At its peak, the IWA reported having 8 million members, while police reported 5 million.

 
Origins
Following the January Uprising in Poland in 1863, French and British workers started to discuss developing a closer working relationship. Henri Tolain, Perrachon, and Limousin visited London in July 1863, attending a meeting held in St. James’ Hall in honour of the Polish uprising. Here there was discussion of the need for an international organization, which would, amongst other things, prevent the import of foreign workers to break strikes. In September, 1864, some French delegates again visited London with the concrete aim of setting up a special committee for the exchange of information upon matters of interest to the workers of all lands.
 
 
St. Martin's Hall Meeting, London, 1864
On September 28, a great international meeting for the reception of the French delegates took place in St. Martin’s Hall in London. The meeting was attended by a wide array of European radicals, including English Owenites, French followers of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Louis Auguste Blanqui, Irish and Polish nationalists, Italian republicans, and German socialists. Included among the last-mentioned of this eclectic band was a somewhat obscure 46-year-old émigré journalist, Karl Marx, who would soon come to play a decisive role in the organisation.

The positivist historian Edward Spencer Beesly, a professor at London University, was in the chair. His speech pilloried the violent proceedings of the governments and referred to their flagrant breaches of international law and advocated a union of the workers of the world for the realisation of justice on earth. George Odger, Secretary of the London Trades Council, read a speech calling for international co-operation.

The meeting unanimously decided to found an international organisation of workers. The centre was to be in London, directed by a committee of 21, which was instructed to draft a programme and constitution. Most of the British members of the committee were drawn from the Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious Classes and were noted trade-union leaders like Odger, George Howell (former secretary of the London Trades Council (LTC) which itself declined affiliation to the IWA (although remaining close to it)), Osborne, and Lucraft and included Owenites and Chartists.

 
St. Martin's Hall
 
 
The French members were Denoual, Victor Le Lubez, and Bosquet. Italy was represented by Fontana. Other members were: Louis Wolff, Johann Eccarius, and at the foot of the list, Karl Marx. Marx participated in his individual capacity, and did not speak during the meeting.

This executive committee in turn selected a subcommittee to do the actual writing of the organisational programme — a group which included Karl Marx and which met at his home about a week after the conclusion of the St. Martin's Hall assembly. This subcommittee deferred the task of collective writing in favor of sole authorship by Marx, and it was he who ultimately drew up the fundamental documents of the new organisation.

On October 5, the General Council was formed with co-opted additional members representing other nationalities. It was based at the headquarters of the Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious Classes at 18 Greek Street. Different groups offered proposals for the organisation: Louis Wolff (Mazzini's secretary) offered a proposal based on the rules and constitution of the Italian Workingmen’s Association (a Mazzinist organisation) and John Weston, an Owenite, also tabled a programme. Wolff left for Italy, and Lubez rewrote it in a way which appalled Marx. Through deft manipulation of the sub-committee Marx was left with all the papers, and set about writing the Address to the Working Classes to which was attached a simplified set of rules.

 
 

Karl Marx (1818–1883).
  Internal tensions
At first the IWA had mostly male membership, although in April 1865 it was agreed that women could become members. The initial leadership was exclusively male. At the IWA General Council meeting on 16 April 1867 a letter from the secularist speaker Harriet Law about Women's Rights was read, and it was agreed to ask her if she would be willing to attend council meetings. On 25 June 1867 Law was admitted to the General Council, and for the next five years was the only woman representative.

Due to the wide variety of philosophies present in the First International, there was conflict from the start. The first objections to Marx's influence came from the Mutualists who opposed communism and statism. However, shortly after Mikhail Bakunin and his followers (called Collectivists while in the International) joined in 1868, the First International became polarised into two camps, with Marx and Bakunin as their respective figureheads.
 
 
Perhaps the clearest differences between the groups emerged over their proposed strategies for achieving their visions of socialism. The anarchists grouped around Bakunin favoured (in Kropotkin's words) "direct economical struggle against capitalism, without interfering in the political parliamentary agitation." Marxist thinking, at that time, focused on parliamentary activity. For example, when the new German Empire of 1871 introduced male suffrage, many German socialists became active in the Marxist Social Democratic Party of Germany.
 
 
The Geneva Congress, 1866
During the Geneva Congress the Paris group of Proudhonians dominated the discussions. Six Blanquists from Paris came to the Congress to denounce the French representatives as emissaries of Bonaparte, but they were thrown out. A significant decision at this event was the adoption of the 8-hour work day as one of the Association's fundamental demands.
 
 
The Lausanne Congress, 1867
The Lausanne Congress of the International was held on September 2–8, 1867. Marx was unable to attend, as he was working on the final proofs of Das Kapital.

The Congress was attended by 64 delegates from Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy and Switzerland. The reports delivered recorded the increased influence of the International on the working classes in various countries.

The Proudhonist delegates, primarily from France, influenced the orientation of the International’s activity and its programmatic principles. Despite the efforts of the General Council’s delegates, they succeeded in revising the resolutions of the Geneva Congress, passing a number of their resolutions, in particular on cooperation and credit.

However, the Congress confirmed the Geneva Congress resolutions on the economic struggle and strikes and passed a resolution on political freedom which emphasised that the social emancipation of workers was inseparable from political liberation. The Proudhonists also failed to seize the leadership of the International, as the Congress re-elected the General Council in its former composition and retained London as its seat.

However, the Lausanne Congress ignored the General Council’s resolution and resolved officially to take part in the Congress of the League of Peace and Freedom.

However, this Congress was attended by several General Council and some other International members and failed to resolve its political differences.

  The Brussels Congress, 1868
The Brussels Congress of the International in 1868, approved Marx’s tactics in regard to the League, opposing official affiliation to the League but calling upon the working class to combine efforts with all progressive anti-military forces.

The Basle Congress, 1869
The Basle Congress took place from September 6 to 12, 1869. According to G. M. Stekloff's account, in attendance were:

Seventy-five delegates assembled: from Great Britain, the 6 members of the General Council, Applegarth, Eccarius, Cowell Stepney, Lessner, Lucraft, and Jung; from France, which sent 26 delegates, among whom we may mention Dereure, Landrin, Chémalé, Murat, Aubry, Tolain, A. Richard, Palix, Varlin, and Bakunin: Belgium sent 5 delegates, among whom were Hins, Brismée, and De Paepe; Austria 2 delegates, Neumayer and Oberwinder; Germany sent 10 delegates, among whom were Becker, Liebknecht, Rittinghausen, and Hess; Switzerland had 22 representatives, among whom were Burkly, Greulich, Fritz Robert, Guillaume, Schwitzguébel, and Perret; Italy sent but one delegate, Caporusso; from Spain there came Farga-Pellicer and Sentinon; and the United States of America was represented by Cameron. Jung was elected chairman of the congress.

The conference was mainly noted for the confrontation between the Proudhonist mutualists and the collectivist position, defended by Marx's envoy for the General Council and Bakunin both. But the Belgian socialist de Paepe played a decisive role in bringing the Belgian delegation across to the collectivist side and isolating the mainly French Proudhonists.

 
 
The Hague Congress, 1872
After the Paris Commune (1871), Bakunin characterised Marx's ideas as authoritarian, and argued that if a Marxist party came to power its leaders would end up as bad as the ruling class they had fought against (notably in his Statism and Anarchy). In 1872, the conflict in the First International climaxed with a final split between the two groups at the Hague Congress. This clash is often cited as the origin of the long-running conflict between anarchists and Marxists.

The Hague Congress was notable for the attempted expulsion of Bakunin and Guillaume and for the decision to relocate the General Council to New York City. The main resolutions passed, however, centred on committing the International to building political parties, aimed at capturing state power as an indispensable condition for socialist transformation.

 
 

Mikhail Bakunin.
  After 1872: two First Internationals
From then on, the Marxist and anarchist currents of socialism had distinct organisations, at various points including rival "internationals".
This split is sometimes called the "red" and "black" divide, red referring to the Marxists and black referring to the anarchists. Otto von Bismarck remarked, upon hearing of the split at the First International, "Crowned heads, wealth and privilege may well tremble should ever again the Black and Red unite!"

The anarchist wing of the First International held a separate congress at St. Imier, in September 1872, Switzerland. The anarchists rejected the claim that Bakunin and Guillaume had been expelled, and repudiated The Hague congress as unrepresentative and improperly conducted. Over two days, at Saint-Imier, September 15 and 16, 1872, they declared themselves to be the true heirs of the International.

Bakunin's programme was adopted, Marx was implicitly excluded, and the anarchist First International ran until 1877, with some early growth in areas like Egypt and Turkey.

 
 
The sixth Congress of the Marxist wing of the International was held in Geneva in September 1873, but was generally considered to be a failure. The Marxist wing hobbled on until it disbanded three years later, at the 1876 Philadelphia conference. Attempts to revive the organization over the next five years failed.

Since scholarship on the International is heavily shaped by different assesments of the importance and the effects of the Marx/ Bakunin conflict, different accounts emphasise different wings of the International and give different dates of its final closure (1876 or 1877).

The Second International was established in 1889 as a successor. Both anarchists and Marxists were involved in the new body in its early years.

Meanwhile,there was a separate attempt to refound an anarchist International in 1881, with the International Working People's Association. This so-called "Black International" gradually passed out of existence after the late 1880s, and was mainly influential in the United States and Mexico.

In 1922, the anarcho-syndicalists decided to re-found the "First International" in a congress held at Berlin in 1922 as the International Workers Association. The IWA still exists.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1864
 
 
Confederate Army of Manhattan
 
The Confederate Army of Manhattan was a group of eight Southern operatives who attempted to burn New York City on Evacuation Day, November 25, 1864, during the final stages of the American Civil War.
 
In a plot orchestrated by Jacob Thompson, the operatives infiltrated Union territory from Canada and made their way to New York. On Friday night, November 25, beginning around 8:45pm, the group attempted to simultaneously start fires in 19 hotels, a theater, and P.T. Barnum's museum. The objective was to overwhelm the city's firefighting resources by distributing the fires around the city.

Most of the fires either failed to start or were contained quickly. All the operatives escaped prosecution except for one, Robert Cobb Kennedy, who was apprehended in January 1865 while trying to travel from Canada to the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia.

 
 
History
An article from February 28, 1865 describes Kennedy as follows:
 

Mr. Kennedy is a man of apparently 30 years of age, with an exceedingly unprepossessing countenance. His head is well shaped, but his brow is lowering, his eyes deep sunken and his look unsteady. Evidently a keen-witted, desperate man, he combines the cunning and the enthusiasm of a fanatic, with the lack of moral principle characteristic of many Southern Hotspurs, whose former college experiences, and most recent hotel-burning plots are somewhat familiar to our readers. Kennedy is well connected at the South, is a relative, a nephew we believe, of Howell Cobb, and was educated at the expense of the United States, at West Point, where he remained two years, leaving at that partial period of study in consequence of mental or physical inability. While there he made the acquaintance of Ex. Brig. Gen. E.W. Stoughton, who courteously proffered his services as counsel for his ancient friend in his present needy hour. During Kennedy’s confinement here, while awaiting trial, he made sundry foolish admissions, wrote several letters which have told against him, and in general did, either intentionally or indiscreetly, many things, which seem to have rendered his conviction almost a matter of entire certainty.

 
A Louisiana native and Confederate officer, Kennedy escaped from Johnson's Island Military Prison on October 4, 1864, and made his way to Canada. There, he joined with a small group of Confederate officers who had been dispatched to Canada by Confederate President Jefferson Davis to plan military raids that could be launched at the Union from politically neutral Canadian soil.

Prior to his execution he claimed that the attempt to set fire to the American Museum was “simply a reckless joke… There was no fiendishness about it. The Museum was set on fire by merest accident, after I had been drinking, and just for the fun of a scare.” He and his fellow “incendiaries” escaped to Canada after their plan failed, and Kennedy alone was captured when he tried to slip back into the United States at Detroit. He was tried, convicted, and executed on March 25, 1865, at Fort Lafayette in New York harbor.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1864
 
 
Taiping Rebellion ends
 
see also: Taiping Rebellion
 
 
The Taiping Rebellion or Taiping Civil War (simplified Chinese: 太平天国运动; traditional Chinese: 太平天國運動; pinyin: Taìpíng Tīanguó Yùndòng) was a massive civil war in China that lasted from 1850 to 1864, which was fought between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Christian millenarian movement of the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace. The Taiping Civil War began in the southwestern province of Guangxi when local officials launched a campaign of persecution against a Christian sect known as the God Worshipping Society led by Hong Xiuquan, who believed himself to be the younger brother of Jesus Christ. The Taiping Civil War was mostly fought in the provinces of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, and Hubei, but over 14 years of war, the Taiping Army had marched through every regularized province of China proper except Gansu. The war was the largest in China since the Qing conquest in 1644, and ranks as one of the bloodiest wars in human history, the bloodiest civil war, and the largest conflict of the nineteenth century with estimates of war dead ranging from 20 to 70 million dead, as well as millions more displaced.



A scene of the Taiping Rebellion, 1850-1864
 

Hostilities began on January 1, 1851 when the Qing Green Standard Army launched an attack against the God Worshipping Society at the town of Jintian, Guangxi. Hong declared himself the Heavenly King of the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace (or Taiping Heavenly Kingdom), from which the term Taipings has often been applied to them in the English language. The Taipings began marching north in September 1851 to escape Qing forces closing in on them. On March 19, 1853, the Taipings captured the city of Nanjing and Hong declared it the Heavenly Capital of his kingdom.



A battle of the Panthay Rebellion

 

For a decade, the Taiping occupied and fought across much of the mid and lower Yangzi valley, some of the wealthiest and most productive lands in the Qing empire. The Taiping nearly managed to capture the Qing capital of Beijing with a northern expedition launched in May 1853, and were quite successful in capturing large parts of Anhui, Jiangxi, and Hubei provinces with a western expedition launched in June 1853. Qing imperial troops proved to be largely ineffective in halting Taiping advances, focusing on a perpetually stalemated siege of Nanjing. In Hunan Province, a local irregular army, called the Xiang Army or Hunan Army, under the personal leadership of Zeng Guofan, became the main armed force fighting for the Qing against the Taiping. Zeng’s Xiang Army proved effective in gradually turning back the Taiping advance in the western theater of the war.

In 1856, the Taiping were weakened after infighting after an attempted coup led by the East King, Yang Xiuqing. During this time, the Xiang Army managed to gradually retake much of Hubei and Jiangxi province. In May 1860, the Taiping defeated the imperial forces that had been besieging Nanjing since 1853, eliminating imperial forces from the region and opening the way for a successful invasion of southern Jiangsu and Zhejiang province, the wealthiest region of the Qing Empire. While Taiping forces were preoccupied in Jiangsu, Zeng’s forces moved down the Yangzi River capturing Anqing on September 5, 1861.



A scene of the Taiping Rebellion
 

In May 1862, the Xiang Army began directly sieging Nanjing and managed to hold firm despite numerous attempts by the Taiping Army to dislodge them with superior numbers. Hong died on June 1, 1864, and Nanjing fell shortly after on July 19. After the fall of Nanjing, Zeng Guofan and many of his protégées, such as Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongtang, were celebrated as saviors of the Qing empire and were some of the most powerful men in late-nineteenth century China. A small remainder of loyal Taiping forces continued to fight in northern Zhejiang, rallying behind Hong’s teenage son Tianguifu, but after Tianguifu’s capture on October 25, 1864, Taiping resistance was gradually pushed into the highlands of Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian, and finally Guangdong, where the last Taiping loyalist, Wang Haiyang, was defeated in January 29, 1866.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
 
The American Civil War, 1864
 
 

 
 

1864: ENDGAME

We propose ... that we immediately commence training a large reserve of the most courageous of our slaves, and further that we guarantee freedom within a reasonable time to every slave in the South who shall remain true to the Confederacy in this war.

General Patrick Cleburne, 2 Jan. 1864; Tsouras (1998) p. 160. A token of the growing desperation of the South, the proposal was vetoed by President Jefferson Davis, who by the end of 1864 had, however, changed his mind.

****

Father Hamilton said that at one time the prisoners died at the rate of a hundred and fifty a day, and he saw some of them die on the ground without a rag to lie on or a garment to cover them ... It is dreadful. My heart aches for the poor wretches, Yankees though they are, and I am afraid God will suffer some terrible retribution to fall upon us for letting such things happen.

Eliza Andrews on the Confederate prisoner-of-war camp for Union soldiers at Andersonville, Georgia; The War-Time journal of a Georgia Girt (1908) pp.78-9. The commandant of the camp, Henry Win, was executed on 10 Nov. 1865. Conditions in Northern POW camps were often no better.

****

Gentlemen, suppose all the property you were worth was in gold, and you had put it in the hands of Blondin to carry across the Niagara River on a rope, would you shake the cable or keep shouting out to him - 'Blondin, stand up a little straighter -Blondin, stoop a little more - go a little faster - lean a little more to the North - lean a little more to the South'?

President Abraham Lincoln, 1864; Francis Carpenter The Life and Public Services of Abraham Lincoln (1865) p.752. The French tightrope walker, Charles Blondin, crossed over the Niagara Falls in 1859.

****

I do the very best I know how - the very best I can; and I mean to keep doing so until the end. If the end brings me out all right, what is said against me won't amount to anything. If the end brings me out wrong, ten angels swearing I was right would make no difference.

President Abraham Lincoln, 1864; Francis Carpenter Six Months at the White House with Abraham Lincoln (1866). Carpenter was an artist commissioned to paint scenes at the White House during the first half of 1864.

****

I could as easily bail out the Potomac River with a teaspoon as attend to all the details of the army.

 President Abraham Lincoln, 1864; Allen Thorndike Rice Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln (1886).

****

I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me.

President Abraham Lincoln to Colonel Albert G. Hodges of Kentucky, 4 April 1864; The Essential Lincoln (1962) p.452. Hodges was one of a deputation protesting against the enrolment of slaves in the Union army.

****

In God We Trust.

Although the United States was founded as a secular state, this religious motto was ordered to be put on US currency by Lincoln's secretary of the treasury, Salmon P. Chase, and first appeared in 1864. This at the prompting of a clergyman who felt that the defeats the Union had suffered stemmed from 'our national shame in disowning God'. The inscription remains to this day.

****

Just before the battle, mother,
I am thinking most of you;
While upon the field we are watching,
With the enemy in view.

George F. Root 'Just before the Battle, Mother' (1864).

****

Don't duck! They couldn't hit an elephant at this dis...

General John Sedgwick, last words before being shot by a Confederate sniper at the Battle of Spotsylvania, 9 May 1864; Jonathon Green Famous Last Words (1979) p.27.

****

I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer.

General Ulysses S. Grant to General Halleck, 11 May 1864; Perret (1997) p.318. Grant originally wrote 'if it takes me all summer' but struck out 'me' as it sounded too egocentric.

****

I He is a scientific Goth, resembling Alaric, destroying the country as he goes and delivering the people over to starvation. Nor does he bury his dead, but leaves them to rot on the battlefield.

John Tyler on General Grant, 7 June 1864. After a costly failure at the Battle of Cold Harbor on 2 June, Grant was familiarly known as 'Butcher Grant'.

****

In glades they meet skull after skull
Where pine cones lay - the rusted gun,
Green shoes full of bones, the moldering coat
And cuddled-up skeleton; And scores of such. Some start as in dreams,
And comrades lost bemoan:
By the edge of these wilds Stonewall had
charged -
But the year and the Man were gone.

The writer Herman Melville on the macabre debris of civil war battle; Ward (1995) p.288.

****

For thirty days now it has been one funeral procession past me, and it is too much.

General Gouverneur K. Warren, June 1864. Warren was the Union Army's chief engineer.

****

Damn the torpedoes! Full speed ahead!

The veteran US navy admiral David Farragut at the Battle of Mobile Bay, 5 Aug. 1864. The Union victory in this engagement secured the coast of Alabama. Torpedo was the contemporary name for a floating mine.

****

Eat out Virginia clear and clean, so far as they go crows flying over it will have to carry their provender with them.

General Ulysses S. Grant to General Halleck, transmitting orders for the Army of the Shenandoah to lay waste to the Shenandoah Valley, Aug. 1864; Perret (1997) p.346.

****

The main thing in true strategy is simply this: first deal as hard a blow at the enemy's soldiers as possible, and then cause so much suffering to the inhabitants of a country that they will long for peace and press their Government to make it. Nothing should be left to the people but eyes to lament the war.

General Philip Sheridan, on the scorched-earth policy now brought into play, 1864; Tsouras (1998) p.235.

****

Until we can repopulate Georgia, it is useless for us to occupy it; but the utter destruction of its roads, houses and people will cripple their military resources. I can make this march, and make Georgia howl.

General William Tecumseh Sherman to General Grant, 9 Sept. 1864, before beginning his devastating march 'from Atlanta to the sea'.

****

You cannot qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it.


General William Tecumseh Sherman to the mayor of Atlanta, 12 Sept. 1864; Memoirs of General William Tecumseh Sherman (1887) Vol.2, pp. 125-7.

****

I have had the question put to me often: 'Is not a negro as good as a white man to stop a bullet?' Yes, and a sand-bag is better; but can a negro do our skirmishing and picket duty? Can they improvise roads, bridges, sorties, flank movements & c, like the white man? I say no ... Negroes are not equal to this.

General William Tecumseh Sherman to General Halleck, 14 Sept. 1864; War of the Rebellion Series I, Vol.38.

****

Good, now we shall have news from Hell before breakfast.

General William Tecumseh Sherman, on hearing that three war correspondents had been killed by artillery fire.

****

'Hurrah! Hurrah! We bring the jubilee!
Hurrah! Hurrah! The flag that makes you free!'
So we sang the chorus from Atlanta to the sea,
While we were marching through Georgia.

Henry Clay Work 'Marching through Georgia' (Dec. 1864), portraying Sherman as a liberator of Georgia's blacks. The port of Savannah fell to the Union on 21 Dec. 1864.

 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1863 Part V NEXT-1864 Part II