Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1864 Part III NEXT-1865 Part I    
 
 
     
1860 - 1869
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860-1869
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part I
Treaty of Turin
First Taranaki War
Convention of Peking
Secession of South Carolina
Poincare Raymond
The Church Union
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part II
Barrie James Matthew
Boucicault Dion
Dion Boucicault: "The Colleen Bawn"
Collins Wilkie
Wilkie Collins: "The Woman in White"
Wilkie Collins 
"The Moonstone"
"The Woman in White"
George Eliot: "The Mill on the Floss"
Di Giacoma Salvatore
Labiche Eugene-Marin
Multatuli
Multatuli: "Max Havelaar"
Alexander Ostrovski: "The Storm"
Chekhov Anton
Anton Chekhov
"Uncle Vanya"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part III
Degas: "Spartan Boys and Girls Exercising"
Hunt: "Finding of the Saviour in the Temple"
Manet: "Spanish Guitar Player"
Ensor James
James Ensor
Mucha Alfons
Alfons Mucha
Levitan Isaak
Isaac Levitan
Steer Philip Wilson
Philip Wilson Steer
Mahler Gustav
Mahler - Das Lied von der Erde
Gustav Mahler
Paderewski Ignace
Paderewski - Minuet
Ignace Paderewski
Suppe Franz
Franz von Suppe - Das Pensionat
Franz von Suppe
Wolf Hugo
Hugo Wolf - "Kennst du das Land"
Hugo Wolf
MacDowell Edward
MacDowell - Piano Sonata No. 1 "Tragica"
Edward MacDowell
Albeniz Isaac
Albeniz - Espana
Isaac Albeniz
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part IV
Cesium
Rubidium
Fechner Gustav Theodor
Lenoir Etienne
Walton Frederick
Linoleum
Across the Continent
Burke Robert O'Hara
Wills William John
Stuart John McDouall
Grant James Augustus
"The Cornhill Magazine"
"The Catholic Times"
Heenan John Camel
Sayers Tom
The Open Championship
Park William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part I
Kansas
Confederate States of America
Davis Jefferson
First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
American Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Hatteras
The American Civil War, 1861
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part II
Siege of Gaeta
Emancipation Manifesto
Abduaziz
Louis I
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part III
Dal Vladimir
Steiner Rudolf
Whitehead Alfred North
Charles Dickens: "Great Expectations"
Dostoevsky: "The House of the Dead"
George Eliot: "Silas Marner"
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "Elsie Venner"
Tagore Rabindranath
Charles Reade: "The Cloister and the Hearth"
Wood Ellen
Mrs. Henry Wood: "East Lynne"
Spielhagen Friedrich
Friedrich Spielhagen: "Problematische Naturen"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part IV
Garnier Charles
Anquetin Louis
Louis Anquetin
Godward John William
John William Godward
Bourdelle Antoine
Antoine Bourdelle
Korovin Konstantin
Konstantin Korovin
Maillol Aristide
Aristide Maillol
Melba Nellie
Royal Academy of Music, London
The Paris version "Tannhauser"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part V
Archaeopteryx
Thallium (Tl)
Hopkins Frederick Gowland
Mort Thomas Sutcliffe
Nansen Fridtjof
Fermentation theory
Baker Samuel
Baker Florence
The Bakers and the Nile
Beeton Isabella
Harden Maximilian
First horse-drawn trams in London
Order of the Star of India
Otis Elisha Graves
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part I
Battle of Fort Henry
Second Battle of Bull Run
BATTLE OF ANTIETAM
Battle of Fredericksburg
Grey Edward
Briand Aristide
The American Civil War, 1862
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part II
Rawlinson George
Ogai Mori
Ivan Turgenev: "Fathers and Sons"
Flaubert: "Salammbo"
Victor Hugo: "Les Miserables"
Barres Maurice
Maeterlinck Maurice
Hauptmann Gerhart
Wharton Edith
Schnitzler Arthur
Uhland Ludwig
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part III
Albert Memorial, London
Manet: "Lola de Valence"
Manet: "La Musique aux Tuileries"
Nesterov Mikhail
Mikhail Nesterov
Klimt Gustav
Gustav Klimt
Rysselberghe Theo
Theo van Rysselberghe
Berlioz: "Beatrice et Benedict"
Debussy Claude
Debussy - Preludes
Claude Debussy
Delius Frederick
Frederick Delius - On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring
Frederick Delius
German Edward
Edward German - Melody in D flat major
Edward German
Kochel Ludwig
Kochel catalogue
Verdi: "La Forza del Destino"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part IV
Bragg William
Foucault Leon
Gatling Richard Jordan
Lamont Johann
Lenard Pnilipp
Sachs Julius
Palgrave William Gifford
The Arabian Desert
International Exhibition, London
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part I
Arizona
Idaho
West Virginia
Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Chancellorsville
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address"
The American Civil War, 1863
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part II
Isma'il Pasha
January Uprising
George I of Greece
Dost Mohammad Khan
Christian IX  of Denmark
Chamberlain Austen
Lloyd George David
Second Taranaki War
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part III
Huxley: "Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature"
Charles Lyell: "The Antiquity of Man"
Massachusetts Agricultural College
D'Annunzio Gabriele
Bahr Hermann
Dehmel Richard
Hale Edward Everett
Edward Everett Hale: "Man without a Country"
Hope Anthony
Charles Kingsley: "The Water Babies"
Longfellow: "Tales of a Wayside Inn"
Quiller-Couch Arthur
Stanislavsky Constantin
Stanislavsky system
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part IV
Stuck Franz
Manet: "Dejeuner sur l'herbe"
Manet: "Olympia"
Meurent Victorine-Louise
The "Salon des Refuses" in Paris
Art in Revolt
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Signac Paul
Paul Signac
Munch Edvard
Edvard Munch
Berlioz: "Les Troyens"
Bizet: "Les Pecheurs de perles"
Mascagni Pietro
Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana
Pietro Mascagni
Weingartner Felix
Felix von Weingartner: Symphony No 6
Felix Weingartner
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part V
Billroth Theodor
Butterick Ebenezer
Ford Henry
Graham Thomas
National Academy of Sciences
Sorby Henry Clifton
The Football Association, London
Grand Prix de Paris
Hearst William Randolph
Yellow journalism
Pulitzer Joseph
Nadar
History of photography
Alexandra of Denmark
Royce Henry
Cuthbert Ned
Coburn Joe
Mike McCoole
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part I
Schleswig-Holstein Question
First Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
Halleck Henry
Sherman William
BATTLE OF ATLANTA
Sand Creek massacre
Venizelos Eleutherios
Maximilian II of Bavaria
Louis II
First International Workingmen's Association
Confederate Army of Manhattan
The American Civil War, 1864
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part II
Lombroso Cesare
Newman: "Apologia pro Vita Sua"
Syllabus of Errors
Dickens: "Our Mutual Friend"
Karlfeldt Erik Axel
Trollope: "The Small House at Allington"
Wedekind Frank
Zangwill Israel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part III
Stieglitz Alfred
History of photography
ALFRED STIEGLITZ
Dyce William
William Dyce
Jawlensky Alexey
Alexei von Jawlensky
Ranson Paul
Paul Ranson
Serusier Paul
Paul Serusier
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
A More Tolerant Salon
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"
Roberts David
David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"
D'Albert Eugen
Eugen d'Albert - Piano Concerto No.2
Eugen d’Albert
Foster Stephen
Stephen Foster - Beautiful Dreamer
Offenbach: "La Belle Helene"
Strauss Richard
Richard Strauss - Metamorphosen
Richard Strauss
Fry William Henry
William Henry Fry - Santa Claus Symphony
William Henry Fry - Niagara Symphony
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part IV
Lake Albert
Bertrand Joseph
Calculus
Nernst Walther
Pasteurization
Wien Wilhelm
Rawat Nain Singh
The Surveyors
Kinthup
First Geneva Convention
Knights of Pythias
"Neue Freie Presse""
De Rossi Giovanni Battista
"In God We Trust"
Travers Stakes
Farragut David
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part I
Union blockade in the American Civil War
Charleston, South Carolina in the American Civil War
Lee Robert Edward
Conclusion of the American Civil War
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Johnson Andrew
Causes of the Franco-Prussian War
Leopold II of Belgium
Harding Warren
George V of Great Britain
Ludendorff Erich
Free State–Basotho Wars
The American Civil War, 1865
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part II
Baudrillart Henri
William Stanley Jevons: "The Coal Question"
Billings Josh
Belasco David
Campbell Patrick
Lewis Carroll: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
Dodge Mary Mapes
Mary Mapes Dodge: "Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates"
Kipling Rudyard
Rudyard Kipling
Merezhkovsky Dmitry
John Henry Newman: "Dream of Gerontius"
Mark Twain: "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"
Walt Whitman: "Drum-Taps"
Yeats William Butler
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part III
Serov Valentin
Valentin Serov
Wiertz Antoine
Antoine Wiertz
Vallotton Felix
Felix Vallotton
"Olympia" - a Sensation
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Nielsen Carl
Carl Nielsen - Aladdin Suite
Carl Nielsen
Glazunov Alexander
Glazunov - The Seasons
Alexander Glazunov
Dukas Paul
Paul Dukas "L'Apprenti Sorcier"
Paul Dukas
Meyerbeer: "L'Africaine"
Sibelius Jean
Jean Sibelius - Finlandia
Jean Sibelius
Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part IV
Plucker Julius
Hyatt John Wesley
Kekule: structure of benzene
Antiseptic
Lowe Thaddeus
Mendelian inheritance
Sechenov Ivan
Whymper Edward
The High Andes
 Bingham Hiram
Rohlfs Friedrich Gerhard
Open hearth furnace
Martin Pierre-Emile
Ku Klux Klan
"The Nation"
Marquess of Queensberry Rules
"San Francisco Examiner"
"San Francisco Chronicle"
Mitchell Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part I
Cuza Alexandru
"Monstrous coalition"
Carol I
Austro-Prussian War
Battle of Custoza
Battle of Trautenau
Battle of Koniggratz
Battle of Lissa
Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869
MacDonald Ramsay
Sun Yat-sen
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part II
Croce Benedetto
Soderblom Nathan
Larousse Pierre
Larousse: Great Universal Dictionary of the 19th Century
Friedrich Lange: "History of Materialism"
Benavente Jacinto
Dostoevsky: "Crime and Punishment"
Hamerling Robert
Ibsen: "Brand"
Kingsley: "Hereward the Wake"
Rolland Romain
Wells Herbert
H.G. Wells
"The War of the Worlds"

"The Invisible Man"
 
"A Short History of the World"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part III
Bakst Leon
Leon Bakst
Fry Roger
Kandinsky Vassili
Vassili Kandinsky
A Defender Appears
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Busoni Ferruccio
Ferruccio Busoni - Berceuse Elegiaque
Ferruccio Busoni
Offenbach: "La Vie Parisienne"
Smetana: "The Bartered Bride"
Satie Eric
Erik Satie: Nocturnes
Eric Satie
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part IV
Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
Morgan Thomas Hunt
Nicolle Charles
Werner Alfred
Whitehead Robert
Whitehead torpedo
Doudart de Lagree Ernest
Panic of 1866
Thomas Morris
MacGregor John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part I
Manchester Martyrs
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Nebraska
Constitution Act, 1867
Alaska Purchase
North German Confederation
Reform Act of 1867
Battle of Mentana
Mary of Teck
Baldwin Stanley
Rathenau Walther
Pilsudski Joseph
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part II
Bagehot Walter
Walter Bagehot: "The English Constitution"
Freeman Edward Augustus
Freeman: The History of the Norman Conquest of England
Marx: "Das Kapital"
Thoma Ludwig
Soseki Natsume
Russell George William
Reymont Wladislau
Bennett Arnold
Balmont Konstantin
Pirandello Luigi
Galsworthy John
Charles de Coster: "The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel"
Ouida: "Under Two Flags"
Trollope: "The Last Chronicle of Barset"
Turgenev: "Smoke"
Zola: "Therese Raquin"
Ibsen: "Peer Gynt"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part III
Delville Jean
Jean Delville
Kollwitz Kathe
Kathe Kollwitz
Nolde Emil
Emil Nolde
Bonnard Pierre
Pierre Bonnard
Manet's Personal Exhibition
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "La Jolie Fille de Perth"
Gounod: "Romeo et Juliette"
Offenbach: "La Grande-Duchesse de Gerolstein"
Johann Strauss II: The "Blue Danube"
Toscanini Arturo
Verdi: "Don Carlos"
Granados Enrique
Enrique Granados - Spanish Dances
Enrique Granados
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part IV
Curie Marie
Michaux Pierre
Monier Joseph
Brenner Railway
Mining industry of South Africa
Dynamite
Thurn and Taxis
Chambers John Graham
London Athletic Club
Barnardo Thomas John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part I
British Expedition to Abyssinia
Battle of Magdala
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tenure of Office Act
Province of Hanover
Russian Turkestan
Mihailo Obrenovic III
Milan I of Serbia
Glorious Revolution
Horthy Nicholas
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part II
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy
Charles Darwin: "The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication"
Louisa May Alcott: "Little Women"
Robert Browning: "The Ring and the Book"
Wilkie Collins: "The Moonstone"
Dostoevsky: "The Idiot"
George Stefan
Gorki Maxim
Rostand Edmond
Edmond Rostand
"Cyrano De Bergerac"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part III
Bernard Emile
Emile Bernard
Vollard Ambroise
Slevogt Max
Max Slevogt
Vuillard Edouard
Edouard Vuillard
The Realist Impulse
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bantock Granville
Bantock "Overture The Frogs"
Granville Bantock
Brahms: "Ein deutsches Requiem"
Schillings Max
Max von Schillings: Mona Lisa
Max von Schillings
Wagner: "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part IV
Lartet Louis
Cro-Magnon
Haber Fritz
Millikan Robert Andrews
Richards Theodore William
Scott Robert Falcon
Armour Philip Danforth
Badminton House
Garvin James Louis
Harmsworth Harold
Trades Union Congress
"Whitaker's Almanack"
Sholes Christopher Latham
Typewriter
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part I
Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant
French legislative election, 1869
Prohibition Party
Red River Rebellion
Chamberlain Neville
Gandhi Mahatma
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part II
Matthew Arnold: "Culture and Anarchy"
Eduard Hartmann: "The Philosophy of the Unconscious"
Mill: "On The Subjection of Women"
First Vatican Council
Blackmore Richard Doddridge
Blackmore: "Lorna Doone"
Flaubert: "Sentimental Education"
Gide Andre
Gilbert: "Bab Ballads"
Halevy Ludovic
Bret Harte: "The Outcasts of Poker Flat"
Victor Hugo: "The Man Who Laughs"
Leacock Stephen
Mark Twain: "The Innocents Abroad"
Tolstoy: "War and Peace"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part III
Lutyens Edwin
Poelzig Hans
Carus Carl Gustav
Carl Gustav Carus
Somov Konstantin
Konstantin Somov
Matisse Henri
Henri Matisse
Manet Falls Foul of the Censor
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 0
Pfitzner Hans
Pfitzner - Nachts
Hans Pfitzner
Wagner Siegfried
Siegfried Wagner "Prelude to Sonnenflammen"
Richard Wagner: "Das Rheingold"
Roussel Albert
Albert Roussel - Bacchus et Ariane
Albert Roussel
Wood Henry
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part IV
Francis Galton: "Hereditary Genius"
Celluloid
Periodic law
Nachtigal Gustav
Cincinnati Red Stockings
Girton College, Cambridge
Nihilism
1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game
Co-operative Congress
Lesseps Ferdinand
Suez Canal
 
 
 

The signing of the first-ever Geneva Convention by some of the major European powers in 1864.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1864 Part IV
 
 

 

1864
 
 
Sir Samuel White Baker (Baker Samuel) discovers Lake Albert
 
 
Lake Albert
 

Lake Albert, also Albert Nyanza and formerly Lake Mobutu Sese Seko, is one of the African Great Lakes. It is Africa's seventh-largest lake, and the world's twenty-seventh largest lake by volume.

 
Geography
Lake Albert is located in the center of the continent, on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Lake Albert is the northernmost of the chain of lakes in the Albertine Rift, the western branch of the East African Rift.

It is about 160 km (100 mi) long and 30 km (19 mi) wide, with a maximum depth of 51 m (168 ft), and a surface elevation of 619 m (2,030 ft) above sea level.

Lake Albert is part of the complicated system of the upper Nile. Its main sources are the Victoria Nile, ultimately coming from Lake Victoria to the southeast, and the Semliki River, which issues from Lake Edward to the southwest.

The water of the Victoria Nile is much less saline than that of Lake Albert. Its outlet, at the northernmost tip of the lake, is the Albert Nile, which becomes known as the Mountain Nile when it enters South Sudan.

At the southern end of the lake, where the Semliki comes in, there are swamps. Farther south looms the Ruwenzori Range, while a range of hills called the Blue Mountains tower over the northwestern shore. The few settlements along the shore include Butiaba and Pakwach.

 
2002 NASA MODIS satellite picture. The dotted grey line is the border between Congo (DRC) (left) and Uganda (right).
 
 
History
In 1864, the explorers
Baker Samuel and Sass Flóra found the lake and named it after the recently deceased Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria. In the 20th century, Congolese president Mobutu Sese Seko temporarily named the lake after himself.
 
 

Sir Samuel exploring the lake
 
 
European colonialists operated shipping on the lake. The British planned shipping on Lake Albert as part of a network of railway, river steamer, and lake steamer services linking British interests in Egypt, east Africa, and southern Africa.

The John I. Thornycroft & Company shipyard at Woolston, Hampshire built the cargo and passenger ship SS Robert Coryndon for this purpose in 1930. She was named after the British Army officer Robert Thorne Coryndon, who was governor of Uganda 1918-22. Winston Churchill described the ship as "the best library afloat" and Ernest Hemingway called her "magnificence on water". She either was scuttled in 1962 or sank in 1964. She remains unsalvaged and partly submerged in the lake.

Heritage Oil and Tullow Oil have announced major oil finds in the Lake Albert basin, with estimates that the multi-billion barrel field will prove to be the largest onshore field found in sub-saharan Africa for more than twenty years.

In March 2014, a boat carrying Congolese refugees capsized in Lake Albert, killing more than 250 people.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 

Rivers and lakes of Uganda
 
 

Lake Albert Channel, Uganda
 
 
see also: The Bakers and the Nile
 
 
 
1864
 
 
Joseph Bertrand: "Treatise on Differential and Integral Calculus" (—1870)
 
 
Bertrand Joseph
 
Joseph Bertrand, in full Joseph-Louis-François Bertrand (born March 11, 1822, Paris, France—died April 5, 1900, Paris), French mathematician and educator remembered for his elegant applications of differential equations to analytical mechanics, particularly in thermodynamics, and for his work on statistical probability and the theory of curves and surfaces.
 

Joseph Bertrand
  The nephew of the mathematician Jean-Marie-Constant Duhamel, Bertrand was also related by marriage to the mathematicians Paul Appell, Émile Borel, Charles Hermite, and Émile Picard.

Bertrand graduated from the École Polytechnique in 1839 with a doctorate in thermodynamics and continued his work in engineering at the École Nationale Supérieure des Mines while teaching at the Collège Saint-Louis.

He later also taught at the École Normale Supérieure, the École Polytechnique, and the Collège de France.

In 1889 Bertrand’s research on infinitesimal analysis led to his important work, Calcul des probabilités (“Calculus of Probabilities”), which introduced the problem known as Bertrand’s paradox concerning the probability that a “random chord” of a circle will be shorter than its radius. His name is also associated with Bertrand curves in differential geometry.

The author of several mathematical textbooks, Bertrand also wrote the books D’Alembert (1889) and Pascal (1891), as well as a number of biographical essays.

He was the editor of Journal des Savants (1865–1900) and contributed many popular articles on the history of science.

 
 
In 1856 he was elected to the French Academy of Sciences, where as sécrétaire pérpetuel, a position he held from 1874 until his death, his influence in promoting mathematics and mathematicians was strongly felt. In 1884 he became a member of the literary French Academy.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Calculus
 

Calculus, branch of mathematics concerned with the calculation of instantaneous rates of change (differential calculus) and the summation of infinitely many small factors to determine some whole (integral calculus).

 
Two mathematicians, Isaac Newton of England and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz of Germany, share credit for having independently developed the calculus in the 17th century. Calculus is now the basic entry point for anyone wishing to study physics, chemistry, biology, economics, finance, or actuarial science. Calculus makes it possible to solve problems as diverse as tracking the position of a space shuttle or predicting the pressure building up behind a dam as the water rises. Computers have become a valuable tool for solving calculus problems that were once considered impossibly difficult.

Calculating curves and areas under curves
The roots of calculus lie in some of the oldest geometry problems on record. The Egyptian Rhind papyrus (c. 1650 bc) gives rules for finding the area of a circle and the volume of a truncated pyramid. Ancient Greek geometers investigated finding tangents to curves, the centre of gravity of plane and solid figures, and the volumes of objects formed by revolving various curves about a fixed axis.

By 1635 the Italian mathematician Bonaventura Cavalieri had supplemented the rigorous tools of Greek geometry with heuristic methods that used the idea of infinitely small segments of lines, areas, and volumes. In 1637 the French mathematician-philosopher René Descartes published his invention of analytic geometry for giving algebraic descriptions of geometric figures. Descartes’s method, in combination with an ancient idea of curves being generated by a moving point, allowed mathematicians such as Newton to describe motion algebraically. Suddenly geometers could go beyond the single cases and ad hoc methods of previous times. They could see patterns of results, and so conjecture new results, that the older geometric language had obscured.

For example, the Greek geometer Archimedes (c. 285–212/211 bc) discovered as an isolated result that the area of a segment of a parabola is equal to a certain triangle. But with algebraic notation, in which a parabola is written as y = x2, Cavalieri and other geometers soon noted that the area between this curve and the x-axis from 0 to a is a3/3 and that a similar rule holds for the curve y = x3—namely, that the corresponding area is a4/4. From here it was not difficult for them to guess that the general formula for the area under a curve y = xn is an + 1/(n + 1).

Calculating velocities and slopes
The problem of finding tangents to curves was closely related to an important problem that arose from the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei’s investigations of motion, that of finding the velocity at any instant of a particle moving according to some law. Galileo established that in t seconds a freely falling body falls a distance gt2/2, where g is a constant (later interpreted by Newton as the gravitational constant). With the definition of average velocity as the distance per time, the body’s average velocity over an interval from t to t + h is given by the expression [g(t + h)2/2 − gt2/2]/h. This simplifies to gt + gh/2 and is called the difference quotient of the function gt2/2. As h approaches 0, this formula approaches gt, which is interpreted as the instantaneous velocity of a falling body at time t.

This expression for motion is identical to that obtained for the slope of the tangent to the parabola f(t) = y = gt2/2 at the point t. In this geometric context, the expression gt + gh/2 (or its equivalent [f(t + h) − f(t)]/h) denotes the slope of a secant line connecting the point (t, f(t)) to the nearby point (t + h, f(t + h)) (see figure). In the limit, with smaller and smaller intervals h, the secant line approaches the tangent line and its slope at the point t.

Thus, the difference quotient can be interpreted as instantaneous velocity or as the slope of a tangent to a curve. It was the calculus that established this deep connection between geometry and physics—in the process transforming physics and giving a new impetus to the study of geometry.

Differentiation and integration
Independently, Newton and Leibniz established simple rules for finding the formula for the slope of the tangent to a curve at any point on it, given only a formula for the curve. The rate of change of a function f (denoted by f′) is known as its derivative. Finding the formula of the derivative function is called differentiation, and the rules for doing so form the basis of differential calculus. Depending on the context, derivatives may be interpreted as slopes of tangent lines, velocities of moving particles, or other quantities, and therein lies the great power of the differential calculus.

An important application of differential calculus is graphing a curve given its equation y = f(x). This involves, in particular, finding local maximum and minimum points on the graph, as well as changes in inflection (convex to concave, or vice versa). When examining a function used in a mathematical model, such geometric notions have physical interpretations that allow a scientist or engineer to quickly gain a feeling for the behaviour of a physical system.

The other great discovery of Newton and Leibniz was that finding the derivatives of functions was, in a precise sense, the inverse of the problem of finding areas under curves—a principle now known as the fundamental theorem of calculus. Specifically, Newton discovered that if there exists a function F(t) that denotes the area under the curve y = f(x) from, say, 0 to t, then this function’s derivative will equal the original curve over that interval, F′(t) = f(t). Hence, to find the area under the curve y = x2 from 0 to t, it is enough to find a function F so that F′(t) = t2. The differential calculus shows that the most general such function is x3/3 + C, where C is an arbitrary constant. This is called the (indefinite) integral of the function y = x2, and it is written as ∫x2dx. The initial symbol ∫ is an elongated S, which stands for sum, and dx indicates an infinitely small increment of the variable, or axis, over which the function is being summed. Leibniz introduced this because he thought of integration as finding the area under a curve by a summation of the areas of infinitely many infinitesimally thin rectangles between the x-axis and the curve. Newton and Leibniz discovered that integrating f(x) is equivalent to solving a differential equation—i.e., finding a function F(t) so that F′(t) = f(t). In physical terms, solving this equation can be interpreted as finding the distance F(t) traveled by an object whose velocity has a given expression f(t).

The branch of the calculus concerned with calculating integrals is the integral calculus, and among its many applications are finding work done by physical systems and calculating pressure behind a dam at a given depth.

John L. Berggren

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1864
 
 
Nernst Walther
 

Walther Hermann Nernst, (born June 25, 1864, Briesen, Prussia [Ger.]—died Nov. 18, 1941, Muskau, Ger.), German scientist who was one of the founders of modern physical chemistry. His theoretical and experimental work in chemistry, including his formulation of the heat theorem, known as the third law of thermodynamics, gained him the 1920 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

 
Education
Nernst was educated at the University of Zürich in Switzerland, the University of Graz in Austria, and then in Germany at the University of Berlin before earning his doctorate in 1887 from the University of Würzburg. After graduation, he became an assistant to Wilhelm Ostwald, who, with his colleagues at the University of Leipzig, Jacobus van’t Hoff and Svante Arrhenius, was establishing the foundations of a new theoretical and experimental field of inquiry within chemistry. Through their joint investigations of phenomena in solutions, in particular the transport of electricity and matter, these investigators, who became collectively known as the Ioner (Ionists), not only obtained important new insights into chemical reactions but also established the independence of what became known as modern physical chemistry.
 
 

Walther Hermann Nernst
  Early research
In Leipzig, Nernst devoted himself to the calculation of the diffusion coefficient of electrolytes for infinitely dilute solutions and to the establishment of a relationship between ionic mobility, diffusion coefficients, and the electromotive force in concentration cells. He developed this work more fully in his habilitation (university teaching certificate) thesis of 1889, in which he established a fundamental connection between thermodynamics and electrochemical solution theory (the Nernst equation).

As a result, he was appointed associate professor at the University of Göttingen in 1891. During his early years there, Nernst published an important textbook, Theoretische Chemie vom Standpunkte der Avogadroschen Regel und der Thermodynamik (1893; Experimental and Theoretical Applications of Thermodynamics to Chemistry), in which he stressed the central importance of Avogadro’s law, thermodynamics, and both physics and chemistry in the treatment of chemical processes.

In 1894 Nernst was offered academic positions in Munich and Giessen. Instead, he obtained a chair of physical chemistry at the newly created Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Göttingen (the only such institute in Germany at the time), where he launched an ambitious research program into chemical equilibria, solution theory, osmotic pressure, and electrochemistry.

 
 
Significantly, the years in Göttingen were also devoted to the development of a novel electric lightbulb. Immersed in both chemistry and electrotechnology, Nernst spent a decade of intensive research into improving the incandescent lamp. He found that magnesium oxide, which is a nonconductor at room temperature, becomes a perfect electric conductor at higher temperatures, emitting a brilliant white light when employed as a filament. In 1897 he began work on the electric lightbulb, for which he obtained numerous patents in Europe and the United States. The Nernst lamp was manufactured for several years by Allgemeine Elektrizitätsgesellschaft (AEG) in Berlin, and thousands of Nernst lamps decorated a specially constructed German pavilion at the 1900 Paris International Exhibition. Nernst’s work on a number of similar dielectric bulbs and his research on metal filaments greatly spurred the development of modern conventional lightbulbs. Although his own designs, which required a preheating mechanism, had only short-lived and limited success, his “Nernst glower,” or “Nernst globar,” has survived as an important instrument in time-resolved infrared spectrophotometry.
 
 

Nernst 1912, portrait by Max Liebermann
  Third law of thermodynamics
In 1905 Nernst was appointed professor and director of the Second Chemical Institute at the University of Berlin and a permanent member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences.

The next year he announced his heat theorem, or third law of thermodynamics. Simply stated, the law postulates that the entropy (energy unavailable to perform work and a measure of molecular disorder) of any closed system tends to zero as its temperature approaches absolute zero (−273.15 °C, or −459.67 °F). In practical terms, this theorem implies the impossibility of attaining absolute zero, since as a system approaches absolute zero, the further extraction of energy from that system becomes more and more difficult. Modern science has attained temperatures less than a billionth of a degree above absolute zero, but absolute zero itself can never be reached.

The calculation of chemical equilibria from thermal measurements (such as heats of reaction, specific heats, and their thermal coefficients) had been an elusive goal for many of Nernst’s predecessors. It had been hoped that the direction of a chemical reaction and the conditions under which equilibrium is attained could be calculated only on the basis of the first two laws of thermodynamics and thermal measurements.

These calculations had been hampered, however, by the indeterminate integration constant J, which obtained when integrating the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation relating the free energy change ΔF to the heat content change ΔH and the entropy change ΔS, ΔF = ΔH − TΔS.

 
 
Nernst’s great achievement was to recognize the special behavior of ΔF and ΔH as functions of the change in temperature in the vicinity of absolute zero. From the empirical data, Nernst hypothesized that, as they approach absolute zero, the two curves F and H become asymptotically tangent to each other—that is to say, in the vicinity of absolute zero, ΔF − ΔH → 0 (the difference approaches zero). From this form of the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, it was then possible to calculate the integration constant on the basis of calorimetric measurements carried out in the laboratory.
 
 

Nernst, Einstein, Planck, Millikan und von Laue (1931)
 
 
Originally, Nernst’s heat theorem strictly applied only to condensed phases, such as solids. However, Nernst proceeded to extrapolate the validity of his theorem to gaseous systems. For this purpose, he embarked on a series of difficult and time-consuming experiments at low temperatures, where gaseous substances could be considered to be in a condensed phase. Between 1905 and 1914, Nernst and his many students and collaborators in Berlin designed a number of ingenious instruments, such as a hydrogen liquefier, thermometers, and calorimeters. These were used for the determination of specific heats for a series of substances. In a paper published in 1907, Albert Einstein had shown that the new theory of quantum mechanics, developed initially by the German theoretical physicist Max Planck in 1900, predicts that, in the vicinity of absolute zero temperature, the specific heats of all solids tend toward absolute zero. Thus, Nernst’s heat theorem and his empirical results reinforced the revolutionary quantum theory; conversely, Nernst felt that Einstein’s and Planck’s work confirmed his Wärmetheorem and established it, conceivably, as a new, third law of thermodynamics, despite the fact that it could not be deduced from the other two laws. As a result, Nernst became one of the earliest wholehearted supporters of Einstein and quantum mechanics. In particular, Nernst was instrumental in organizing the First Solvay Congress in Physics, held in Brussels in November 1911, which was devoted to a thorough evaluation of the new quantum hypothesis by a group of leading European physicists.
 
 

Walther Hermann Nernst
  Later years
Nernst was engaged in military and administrative efforts, including chemical warfare research, during World War I, in which his two sons were killed.

Following the war, he returned to academic life and engaged in myriad pursuits, among them studying photosynthesis, astrophysics, and cosmology and constructing an electronic piano with loudspeaker amplification, called the Neo-Bechsteinflügel.

Nernst was the chair of the physical chemistry department at the University of Berlin from 1905, the school’s rector from 1921, and the director of the school’s Institute for Experimental Physics from its founding in 1924, until his retirement in 1933.

Between 1922 and 1924, Nernst was president of the German national bureau of physical standards.

Diana L. Kormos-Buchwald

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1864
 
 
Pasteur Louis invents pasteurization (for wine)
 
 
Pasteurization
 
Pasteurization, heat-treatment process that destroys pathogenic microorganisms in certain foods and beverages. It is named for the French scientist Pasteur Louis, who in the 1860s demonstrated that abnormal fermentation of wine and beer could be prevented by heating the beverages to about 57° C (135° F) for a few minutes.
 
Pasteurization of milk, widely practiced in several countries, notably the United States, requires temperatures of about 63° C (145° F) maintained for 30 minutes or, alternatively, heating to a higher temperature, 72° C (162° F), and holding for 15 seconds (and yet higher temperatures for shorter periods of time). The times and temperatures are those determined to be necessary to destroy the Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other more heat-resistant of the non-spore-forming, disease-causing microorganisms found in milk. The treatment also destroys most of the microorganisms that cause spoilage and so prolongs the storage time of food.

Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) pasteurization involves heating milk or cream to 138°to 150° C (280° to 302° F) for one or two seconds. Packaged in sterile, hermetically sealed containers, UHT milk may be stored without refrigeration for months. Ultrapasteurized milk and cream are heated to at least 138° C for at least two seconds, but because of less stringent packaging they must be refrigerated. Shelf life is extended to 60–90 days. After opening, spoilage times for both UHT and ultrapasteurized products are similar to those of conventionally pasteurized products.

 
Pasteur experimenting in his laboratory
 
 
Pasteurization of some solid foods involves a mild heat treatment, the exact definition of which depends on the food. Radiation pasteurization refers to the application of small amounts of beta or gamma rays to foods to increase their storage time.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
1864
 
 
Wien Wilhelm
 

Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien (German: [ˈviːn]; 13 January 1864 – 30 August 1928) was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to deduce Wien's displacement law, which calculates the emission of a blackbody at any temperature from the emission at any one reference temperature.

He also formulated an expression for the black-body radiation which is correct in the photon-gas limit. His arguments were based on the notion of adiabatic invariance, and were instrumental for the formulation of quantum mechanics. Wien received the 1911 Nobel Prize for his work on heat radiation.

 

Wilhelm Wien
  Wilhelm Wien, in full Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien (born January 13, 1864, Gaffken, Prussia [now Parusnoye, Russia]—died August 30, 1928, Munich, Germany), German physicist who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1911 for his displacement law concerning the radiation emitted by the perfectly efficient blackbody (a surface that absorbs all radiant energy falling on it).

Wien obtained his doctorate at the University of Berlin in 1886 and soon began to work on the problem of radiation. Although the radiation emitted from a blackbody is distributed over a wide range of wavelengths, there is an intermediate wavelength at which the radiation reaches a maximum. In 1893 Wien stated in his law that this maximum wavelength is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature of the body. Because the accuracy of Wien’s law declined for longer wavelengths, Max Planck was led to further investigations culminating in his quantum theory of radiation.

Wien was appointed professor of physics at the University of Giessen in 1899 and at the University of Munich in 1920. He also made contributions in the study of cathode rays (electron beams), X rays, and canal rays (positively charged atomic beams). His autobiography was published under the title Aus dem Leben und Wirken eines Physikers (1930; “From the Life and Work of a Physicist”).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1864
 
 
Rawat Nain Singh
 

Nain Singh Rawat (Hindi: नैन सिंह रावत), 1830–1895, was one of the first of the late 19th century pundits who explored the Himalayas for the British. He hailed from the Johaar Valley of Kumaon. He mapped the trade route through Nepal to Tibet, determined for the first time the location and altitude of Lhasa, and mapped a large section of the Tsangpo, the major Tibetan river.

 

Nain Singh had all the qualities required of a great explorer - resourcefulness, determination, and patience. He adopted several disguises in the course of his work, and during a journey to Lhasa obtained a temporary job in his old profession of teacher in order to obtain enough money to continue his travels.
  Life and career
Rai Bahadur Nain Singh Rawat was born to Lata Burha in 1830 in Milam village, a bhotia village in the valley of Johar, at the foot of the Milam glacier where the river Goriganga originates. The Rawats ruled over the Johar valley, during the reign of Chand dynasty in Kumaon; this was followed by the Gorkha rule. In 1816 the British defeated the Gorkhas but maintained a policy of non-interference and friendship towards the Johar Bhotias. The famous Bhotia explorers mostly belong to the village of Johar. After leaving school, Nain Singh helped his father. He visited different centres in Tibet with him, learned the Tibetan language, customs and manners and became familiar with the Tibetan people. This knowledge of Tibetan language and local customs and protocol came handy in Nain Singh's work as "Spy Explorer". Due to the extreme cold conditions, Milam and other villages of the upper Johar valley are inhabited only for a few months from June to October. During this time the men used to visit Gya'nyima, Gartok and other markets in Western Tibet.

Each Indian trader of Johar, had a 'mitra' or colleague in Tibet. Initially, the splitting of a stone, each keeping one half, marked their partnership in trade. Henceforth, the Indian trader or his representative would carry the token to sell his goods in Tibet market only to his mitra's representative who would fit his half of the stone to the Indian's.

In 1855, Nain Singh Rawat, now a well-disposed and intelligent man of 25 years, of traditional Bhotia stature – short, stocky and stubborn – was first recruited by German geographers the Schalaginweit brothers.

 
 
Baron Humboldt had sent these German scientists to the office of the Survey of India, which reluctantly allowed them to proceed with their survey.

Adolf and Robert Schlagintweit had met Deb Singh Rawat in the Johar valley, who showed them a thanks chit signed by William Moorecroft and inscribed 'Northern foot of the Himanchal Mountains near Daba in Chinese Tartary, 25 August 1812.' On his advice they recruited three members of his family for their expedition: Mani Singh Rawat, Dolpa and Nain Singh Rawat. Nain Singh’s first exploration trip was with the Germans between 1855 and 1857. He travelled to Lakes Manasarovar and Rakas Tal and then further to Gartok and Ladakh.

After the exploration with the Schalaginweit brothers, Nain Singh Rawat joined the Education Department, being appointed as the headmaster of a government vernacular school in his village at Milam from 1858 to 1863.

In 1863, Nain Singh Rawat and his cousin, Mani Singh Rawat, were sent to the Great Trignometric Survey office in Dehradun where they underwent training for two years. This included training on the use of scientific instruments and ingenious ways of measuring and recording and the art of disguise. Nain Singh Rawat was exceptionally intelligent and quickly learned the correct use of scientific instruments like the sextant and compass. He could recognise all major stars and different constellations easily. This was possible due to exhaustive practice and a drive and determination in the hand-picked men.

 
 

A sergeant major drilled them using a pace-stick, to take steps of a fixed length which remained constant even while climbing up, down, or walking on a level surface. They were trained to record the distances by an ingenious method using a modified Buddhist rosary or mala. This rosary, unlike a Hindu or Buddhist one, which has 108 beads, had 100. Every 100 steps the explorer would slip one bead, so a complete length of the rosary represented 10,000 steps. It was easy to calculate the distance as each step was 31½ inches and a mile was calculated to be around 2,000 steps.

To avoid suspicion, these explorers went about their task disguised as monks or traders or whatever suited the situation. Many more ingenious methods were devised. The notes of measurements were coded in the form of written prayers, and these scrolls of paper were hidden in the cylinder of the prayer wheel.

The explorers kept this secret log book up to date. A compass for taking bearings was hidden in the lid of the prayer wheel. Mercury, used for creating an artificial horizon, was kept in cowrie shells and, for use, poured into the begging bowl carried by the pundit. A thermometer was in the topmost part of the monk's staff. There were workshops, where false bottoms were made in provisions chests to hold sextants and other surveying instruments. Hidden pockets were also added to the clothes worn during these secret missions.

Thus prepared and trained, the explorers travelled for months at a stretch, collecting intelligence under the most difficult conditions, travelling closely with the natives in caravans. What was to follow were some of the most glorious years in the exploration and mapping of Tibet and all its river systems and some of the most fascinating explorations.

In 1865–66, Nain Singh travelled 1200 miles from Katmandu to Lhasa and thence to Lake Manasarovar and back to India. His last and greatest journey was from Leh in Ladhak via Lhasa to Assam in 1873–75.

 

For his extraordinary achievements and contributions, Nain Singh was honoured with many awards by the Royal Geographical Society.

In 1865, with his cousin Mani Singh, Nain Singh left Dehra Dun, the Trigonometric Survey of India's northern India headquarters, for Nepal. From there Mani returned to India by way of western Tibet. Nain went on to Tashilhunpo, where he met the Panchen Lama, and Lhasa, where he met the Dalai Lama. During his stay in Lhasa, his true identity was discovered by two Kashmiri Muslim merchants residing there. Not only did they not report him to the authorities, they lent him a small sum of money against the pledge of his watch. Nain Singh returned to India by way of Mansarowar Lake in western Tibet.

On a second voyage, in 1867, Singh explored western Tibet and visited the legendary Thok Jalung[3] gold mines. He noticed that the workers only dug for gold near the surface, because they believed digging deeper was a crime against the Earth and would deprive it of its fertility.

In 1873–75, he travelled from Leh in Kashmir to Lhasa, by a route more northerly than the one along the Tsangpo that he had taken on his first journey.

In recognition of his prodigious feats of exploration, regarding which Colonel Henry Yule commented that "his explorations have added a larger amount of important knowledge to the map of Asia than any other living man", Nain Singh was presented with an inscribed gold chronometer by the Royal Geographic Society (RGS) in 1868. This was followed by the award of the Victoria or Patron's Medal of the RGS in 1877. The Society of Geographers of Paris also awarded Nain Singh an inscribed watch. The Government of India bestowed two villages as a land-grant to him.

Nain Singh Rawat died of a heart attack in 1895, while visiting his Jagir, a plains village granted to him by the British in 1877.

 
 

Legacy
On 27 June 2004, an Indian postage stamp featuring Nain Singh was issued commemorating his role in the Great Trigonometric Survey.

In 2006 Drs. Shekhar Pathak and Uma Bhatt brought out a biography of Nain Singh with three of his diaries and the RGS articles about his travels in three volumes titled Asia ki Peeth Par published by Pahar, Naini Tal: a belated but fitting tribute to the man.

The life of Nain Singh Rawat paraphrases the entire struggle for power not only in the plains of India but through the crucial and strategic plateaus and valleys of Tibet, the high Himalaya and the Hindu Kush.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
The Surveyors
 
 
One of the greatest achievements of British rule in India was the "Great Trigonometrical Survey," begun in 1802, which involved the surveying and mapping of the whole Indian Empire. The surveyors, measuring their angles and distances in often highly unhelpful conditions, were themselves explorers; apart from topographical phenomena, they came upon several remote ethnic groups hitherto unknown outside their own area; Their work remains largely anonymous, although one head of the service gave his name to Mount Everest.

The British interest in Tibet, given an added edge by suspected Russian intentions, had been frustrated by the closing of the border in 1792, which excluded Europeans although Asian merchants and pilgrims were admitted. In the early 1860s Captain Montgomerie of the Survey, who had surveyed much of Kashmir while himself under hostile surveillance by the Maharajah, suggested training men drawn from the local population, who would have a better chance of entering Tibet unopposed.
 
 

Nain Singh 1864-1866
Kishen Singh 1878-1882
Kintup 1880-1883
 
 
The first "Pundit"
 
Montgomerie's secret agents, for that is what they were, were mainly ex-teachers, some of whom had family links in Tibet. They underwent up to a year's training, learning to walk with a consistent stride while counting their paces with the aid of Buddhist prayer beads, thus enabling them to measure distance. As record-keeping would be difficult, they were told to memorize their notes, though they also had slips of paper, plus a compass, concealed in prayer wheels. Thermometers were hidden in hollow walking sticks, sextants in a hidden compartment inside a medicine chest or strongbox.

Several of these men performed astonishing feats, notably the first of them, Nain Singh, whose code name ("the Pundit") came to be adopted for the whole group.
Nain Singh set out in 1864 to survey the route to Lhasa. Disguised as a horse dealer from Kashmir, he traveled through Nepal with his cousin Mani Singh, but at the Tibetan border a suspicious official turned them back. Nain Singh made another attempt on his own, this time posing as a dealer in1 spices from Ladakh, with a false pigtail pinned inside his cap. He was allowed in as long as he promised not to leave the caravan with which he was traveling. Unfortunately that caravan was not going to Lhasa. Where the roads parted, Nain Singh feigned illness and fell out, later joining another caravan on the road to Lhasa. Independent travel was out of the question as the country was infested with bandits, an even worse danger than the appalling roads or the dizzying bridges and fragile ferries across thunderous rivers.

Fearful of being recognized when he reached Lhasa, he stayed indoors, creeping out at night with his sextant to take sightings from the roof (his location of Lhasa was correct to the nearest minute). Although not a Buddhist himself, he was a little afraid of the penetrative mental powers of the Panchen and Dalai Lamas, both of whom he met. He was relieved when they turned out to be children.

Returning via Lake Manasarowar, Nain Singh encountered more trouble at the border, but he found another, unguarded route into Nepal and arrived at the Survey's station at Dehra Dun about 130 miles (2Q0 kilometers) northeast of Delhi after an absence of 21 months.

The following year he was off again, this time to investigate the source of the Indus and the rumored Tibetan goldfields — a clue that there was more to the work of the Pundits than simple surveying. He was unmasked by a chieftain on the upper Indus, who identified Nain Singh and his companions with such precision that the work of a double agent must be suspected. However, nothing adverse came of this, and the goldfields — at a height of 16,000 feet (5000 meters) - were duly reached.
 
 

The Panmah glacier in the Karakorams was painted by Colonel H. H. Godwin-Austen, who led a topographical survey of the region in the 1850s.
 
 
Kishen Singh
 
Nain Singh had all the qualities required of a great explorer, but the longest and most remarkable journey of all was undertaken by one of his successors, Kishen Singh, who began his fourth journey for the Survey in 1878. Proceeding to Lhasa, he joined a Mongolian caravan and crossed the high Tibetan Plateau — surviving attack by bandits — to the fringes of the Gobi Desert. Enterprisingly, he chose to return via a different route, which took him over 700 miles (1100 kilometers) east of Lhasa, though his hope of reaching Assam was thwarted. Having long been given up for dead, he arrived home after more than four years with his clothes in rags but his sextant, carefully wrapped in felt, still safe in its hidden compartment. His calculation of his own position was out by less than 10 miles (16 kilometers), a staggering performance after a journey of some 3000 miles (4800 kilometers), during which he took many sightings in secret and measured distance by his own pace.
 
 
The question of the Brahmaputra
 

Kintup - code name K.P.- showed enormous determination in his efforts to demonstrate that the Tsangpo and Brahmaputra were the same river. This photograph was taken in 1913, some 30 years after his return from Tibet to India.
  Perhaps the most gallant, certainly the most poignant, of the Pundits' stories concerns the search for the source of the Brahmaputra. This mighty river emerges from the Himalayas in Assam and flows westward before turning south toward the Bay of Bengal. It was known that on the other side of the Himalayas a great river, the Tsangpo, ran roughly parallel but flowing east. Was it connected with the Brahmaputra, as stated by the Tibetans?

The plan, drawn up in 1880, was simple. A pundit named Kintup was to descend the Tsangpo as far as possible and throw in some tagged logs. On the other side of the Himalayas, observers would keep watch for the logs on the Brahmaputra.

All went far from well. Kintup entered Tibet posing as bondsman to a Mongolian lama who, once over the border, sold him to a Tibetan official, pocketed the cash and disappeared. After six months Kintup escaped. Pursued, he took refuge in a monastery, but the lamas concluded a deal with his former owner, and he became their servant instead. A few months later he asked to visit a distant shrine but, once out, he made for the Tsangpo. He cut 50 logs, tagged them, and hid them in a cave.

A year behind schedule, he returned to the monastery and, after a decent interval, asked permission to visit Lhasa. From there he sent a message to his chief at the Survey advising him when to start watching for logs on the Brahmaputra. He returned to the monastery and performed his humble tasks there for several more months before applying to go on yet another pilgrimage. This time the lamas, impressed by his devotion, gave him his freedom. He hastened to the Tsangpo, retrieved his logs, and threw them into the river.
In due course, no doubt, they came tumbling through the Himalayas and down the Brahmaputra, but they did so unnoticed. When Kintup returned to India, he learned that his message from Lhasa had never been delivered. There were no observers on the banks of the Brahmaputra.
 
 
 
Kinthup
 

Kinthup, a Lepcha man from Sikkim, was an explorer in the area of Tibet in the 1880s. He is best known for his impressive devotion to duty in surveying a previously unknown area of Tibet.

 
In the 1870s, the destination of the Tsangpo River (sometimes spelled "Sanpo") was unknown. Some hypothesized that it was the same river that flowed into the Bay of Bengal under the name of Brahmaputra (also known as "Dihang"). To solve this mystery, the colonial government of India sent a pundit explorer, known only as "G. M. N." to follow the Tsangpo and determine its ultimate destination. G. M. N. was accompanied by his assistant, a Sikkimese lepcha named Kinthup. After surveying a good portion of the river, the pair returned to India.



Yarlong Tsangpo
 

In 1880, a Chinese lama was employed to continue G. M. N.'s work, and Kinthup was again hired to accompany him. In 1880 Kinthup was sent back with the task of testing the Brahmaputra theory by releasing 500 specially marked logs into the river at a prearranged time at which Captain Henry Harman, his British boss, posted men on the Dihang-Brahmaputra to watch for their arrival. However, in May 1881 the Chinese lama sold Kinthup to a Tibetan lama to become his slave. Kinthup's surveying equipment and notebooks were confiscated and he remained a slave until March 1882, when he finally managed to escape.

 
 
Only then was he able the prepare the logs, send a letter from Lhasa announcing his new intended schedule, and launch the logs. Four years had passed. Unfortunately his note to alert the British got misdirected, his boss had left India, and nobody checked for the appearance of the logs.

To start on his way back home he had to travel east along the Tsangpo and sought sanctuary in a Buddhist monastery where he was welcomed by the head lama. Kinthup continued with his surveying over the course of two and a half years under the guise of religious pilgrimages. He made several long treks recording the extent of the Tsangpo and surrounding region, and determining that the two rivers were indeed one and the same. Finally, in November 1884, he reached India. It was not until two years later that his account was even recorded, and even then his extraordinary accounts were doubted by some geographers. It was only some 30 years later that the Bailey–Morshead exploration of Tsangpo Gorge conclusively confirmed his discovery.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Brahmaputra river
 
 
 
1864
 
 
First salmon cannery in U.S. at Washington, California
 
 
 
1864
 
 
First Geneva Convention
 
The First Geneva Convention, for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, is one of four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. It defines "the basis on which rest the rules of international law for the protection of the victims of armed conflicts." The Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field was adopted in 1864. It was significantly revised and replaced by the 1906 version, the 1929 version, and later the First Geneva Convention of 1949. It is inextricably linked to the International Committee of the Red Cross, which is both the instigator for the inception and enforcer of the articles in these conventions.
 

The signing of the first-ever Geneva Convention by some of the major European powers in 1864.
 
 
History
The 1864 Geneva Convention was instituted at a critical period in European political and military history. Elsewhere, the American Civil War had been raging since 1861 and the Battle of Fort Sumter, and would claim some 750,000 lives. Between the fall of the first Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 and the rise of his nephew in the Italian campaign of 1859, the powers had maintained peace in western Europe. Yet, with the 1853-1856 conflict in the Crimea, war had returned to Europe, and while those troubles were "in a distant and inaccessible region" northern Italy was "so accessible from all parts of western Europe that it instantly filled with curious observers;" while the bloodshed was not excessive the sight of it was unfamiliar and shocking. Despite its intent of ameliorating the ravages of war, the inception of the 1864 Geneva Convention inaugurated "a renewal of military activity on a large scale, to which the people of western Europe…had not been accustomed since the first Napoleon had been eliminated."

The movement for an international set of laws governing the treatment and care for the wounded and prisoners of war began when relief activist Dunant Henri  witnessed the Battle of Solferino in 1859, fought between French-Piedmontese and Austrian armies in Northern Italy. The subsequent suffering of 40,000 wounded soldiers left on the field due to lack of facilities, personnel, and truces to give them medical aid moved Dunant into action. Upon return to Geneva, Dunant published his account Un Souvenir de Solferino and, through his membership in the Geneva Society for Public Welfare, he urged the calling together of an international conference and soon helped found the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1863.

  The International Committee of the Red Cross, while recognising that it is "primarily the duty and responsibility of a nation to safeguard the health and physical well-being of its own people", knew there would always, especially in times of war, be a "need for voluntary agencies to supplement…the official agencies charged with these responsibilities in every country."

To ensure that its mission was widely accepted, it required a body of rules to govern its own activities and those of the involved belligerent parties.

On 22 August 1864, several European states congregated in Geneva, Switzerland and signed the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field:

Grand Duchy of Baden (now Germany)
Kingdom of Belgium
Kingdom of Denmark
French Empire
Grand Duchy of Hesse (now Germany)
Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of Portugal
Kingdom of Prussia (now Germany)
Kingdom of Spain
Swiss Confederation
Kingdom of Württemberg (now Germany)
Norway–Sweden signed in December.

It "derived its obligatory force from the implied consent of the states which accepted and applied them in the conduct of their military operations." Despite its basic mandates, listed below, it was successful in effecting significant and rapid reforms.

 
 
This first effort provided only for:

the immunity from capture and destruction of all establishments for the treatment of wounded and sick soldiers,
the impartial reception and treatment of all combatants,
the protection of civilians providing aid to the wounded, and
the recognition of the Red Cross symbol as a means of identifying persons and equipment covered by the agreement.


Due to significant ambiguities in the articles with certain terms and concepts and even more so to the rapidly developing nature of war and military technology, the original articles had to be revised and expanded, largely at the Second Geneva Conference in 1906 and Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 which extended the articles to maritime warfare.

The 1906 version was updated and replaced by the 1929 version when minor modifications were made to it. It was again updated and replaced by the 1949 version, better known as the First Geneva Convention.

However, as Jean S. Pictet, Director of the International Committee of the Red Cross, noted in 1951, "the law, however, always lags behind charity; it is tardy in conforming with life's realities and the needs of humankind", as such it is the duty of the Red Cross "to assist in the widening the scope of law, on the assumption that…law will retain its value", principally through the revision and expansion of these basic principles of the original Geneva Convention.

 
 

The first-ever Geneva Convention governing the sick and wounded members of armed forces was signed in Geneva in 1864.
 
 
Summary of provisions
The original ten articles of the 1864 treaty have been expanded to the current 64 articles. This lengthy treaty protects soldiers that are hors de combat (out of the battle due to sickness or injury), as well as medical and religious personnel, and civilians in the zone of battle. Among its principal provisions:

Article 12 mandates that wounded and sick soldiers who are out of the battle should be humanely treated, and in particular should not be killed, injured, tortured, or subjected to biological experimentation. This article is the keystone of the treaty, and defines the principles from which most of the treaty is derived, including the obligation to respect medical units and establishments (Chapter III), the personnel entrusted with the care of the wounded (Chapter IV), buildings and material (Chapter V), medical transports (Chapter VI), and the protective sign (Chapter VII).
Article 15 mandates that wounded and sick soldiers should be collected, cared for, and protected, though they may also become prisoners of war.
Article 16 mandates that parties to the conflict should record the identity of the dead and wounded, and transmit this information to the opposing party.
Article 9 allows the International Red Cross "or any other impartial humanitarian organization" to provide protection and relief of wounded and sick soldiers, as well as medical and religious personnel.
For a detailed discussion of each article of the treaty, see the original text[13] and the commentary.[12] There are currently 196 countries party to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, including this first treaty but also including the other three.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1864
 
 
Hill Octavia begins London tenement- dwelling reforms
 
 
 
1864
 
 
Knights of Pythias
 

The Knights of Pythias is a fraternal organization and secret society [2] founded in Washington, D.C., on 19 February 1864.

 
The Knights of Pythias was the first fraternal organization to receive a charter under an act of the United States Congress. It was founded by Justus H. Rathbone, who had been inspired by a play by the Irish poet John Banim about the legend of Damon and Pythias. This legend illustrates the ideals of loyalty, honor and friendship that are the center of the order.

The order has over 2,000 lodges in the United States and around the world, with a total membership of over 50,000 in 2003. Some lodges meet in structures referred to as Pythian Castles.

 
 
History
Early in the group's history, when a man was inducted into the Knights of Pythias he received a ceremonial sword. Such swords might be given to a Pythian by family members, business associates, or others as a token of esteem.

In recent decades, rather than require each member to own a sword, the local chapter maintains a collection of swords for use by its members. Long, narrow swords are generally used in public during parades and drills, while short swords are used in displays.

Markings on swords varied widely. Most swords were inscribed with the acronym "FCB," which stands for the Pythian motto ("Friendship, Charity, Benevolence"). Images on swords were also somewhat common, and included: A man, woman and child (symbolic of Pythias saying good-bye to his family); a man looking out of a building, with a group of people below (symbolic of Damon's pending execution); a man between some pillars, pulling them down (similar to Samson destroying his enemy's temple); or various types of weapons (swords, axes, hammers, etc.).

A full Knight of the Pythian order often inscribed his sword with the image of a knight's helmet with a lion on the crest. Many also carried the image of a sprig of myrtle (the Pythian symbol of love) or a falcon (the Pythian symbol of vigilance).

 
Knights of Pythias membership certificate, 1890
 
 
Organization
The structure of the Knights of Pythias is three tiered. The local units used to be called "Castles", but over time came to be called "Subordinate Lodges". State and provincial organizations are called "Grand Lodges" and the national structure is called the "Supreme Lodge" and meets in convention biennially. The officers of the Supreme Lodge include the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, Prelate, Secretary, Treasurer, Master at Arms, Inner Guard and Outer Guard.

The order's auxiliaries are the Pythian Sisters, and two youth organizations: the Pythian Sunshine Girls and the Junior Order of Princes of Syracuse for boys.

The Knights of Pythias also has a side degree, the Dramatic Order of the Knights of Khorassan, which itself has a female auxiliary, the Nomads of Avrudaka. Finally, members who have obtained the Knight Degree may join the Uniformed Rank, which participated in parades and other processions. Swords owned by a member of the Uniformed Rank might be inscribed with the acronym, "UR," a dove, or a lily. (The Uniformed Rank was banned in the organization in the 1950s.)

 
 

Knights of Pythias in a parade in Racine, Wisconsin, ca. 1910
 
 
Membership
Membership has historically been open to males in good health who believe in a Supreme Being. Maimed individuals were not admitted until 1875. Members are accepted by blackball ballot.

In the early 1920s the Order had nearly a million members. By 1979, however, this number had declined to fewer than 200,000.

 
 

Knights of Pythias c.1890
 
 
Ritual
The degrees of Pythian Knighthood in a subordinate lodge (or "Castle") are:

Page
Esquire
Knight

In 1877 the Order adopted an optional fourth degree, called the Endowment Rank, which provided fraternal insurance benefits. In 1930 this department split from the Knights of Pythias and became a mutual life insurance company, later known as the American United Insurance Company.

A member must be at least 18 years of age. He cannot be a professional gambler or involved with illegal drugs or alcohol, and he must have a belief in a Supreme Being. The oath taken by members:

I declare upon honor that I believe in a Supreme Being, that I am not a professional gambler, or unlawfully engaged in the wholesale or retail sale of intoxicating liquors or narcotics, and that I believe in the maintenance of the order and the upholding of constituted authority in the government in which I live. Moreover, I declare upon honor that I am not a Communist or Fascist; that I do not advocate nor am I a member of any organization that advocates the overthrow of the Government of the Country of which I am a Citizen, by force or violence or other unlawful means; and that I do not seek by force or violence to deny to other persons their rights under the laws of such country.

 
 
Philanthropy
The Order provides for "worthy Pythians in distress" and has given aid to victims of national or sectional disasters. It runs camps for underprivileged youth and homes for aged members. It has sponsored scholarship funds, blood drives, highway safety programs and the Cystic Fibrosis Research Foundation.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1864
 
 
Lasalle Ferdinand, German socialist leader, d. (b. 1825)
 
 

Ferdinand Lassalle
 
 
 
1864
 
 
"Neue Freie Presse"
 

Neue Freie Presse ("New Free Press") known locally as "Die Presse" was a Viennese newspaper founded by Adolf Werthner together with the journalists Max Friedländer and Michael Etienne on 1 September 1864. It existed until 1938.

 
Werthner was president of Oesterreichischen Journal-Aktien-Gesellschaft, the business entity behind the newspaper.

The editor from 1908 to 1920, and eventual owner, of the NFP was Moriz Benedikt.

Journalists employed by the paper included "Sil-Vara" (pseudonym of Geza Silberer).

In Paris, its correspondent was Max Nordau, and from 1891, Theodor Herzl, both founders of the Zionist movement. Its music critics included Eduard Hanslick (1864–1904) and Julius Korngold (1904–1934).[1]

The paper was the frequent target of satirist Karl Kraus.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1864
 
 
Italian archaeologist, Giovanni B. de Rossi publishes the results of his exploration of Roman catacombs
 
 
De Rossi Giovanni Battista
 

Giovanni Battista (Carlo) de Rossi (23 February 1822 – 20 September 1894) was an Italian archaeologist, famous even outside his field for rediscovering early Christian catacombs.

 

Giovanni Battista de Rossi
  Life and works
Born in Rome, he applied the sciences of archaeology and epigraphy, and leveraged his thorough knowledge of the topography of Rome, not to mention the resources of the Vatican Library, where he was employed cataloguing manuscripts. These skills he brought to Early Christian sites and guided the development of a new field, Christian archaeology. He travelled widely, knew all the museum collections intimately and was at the center of a network of professional friendships with all the European scholars of his fields.

In 1849 he rediscovered the lost Catacombs of Callixtus along the Via Appia Antica, with Alexander de Richemont. The catacombs were opened in the early 3rd century, as the principal Christian cemetery in Rome, where nine 3rd-century popes were buried. He published illustrations by Gregorio Mariani.

In 1877 he became foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.

In 1888 de Rossi discovered that the Codex Amiatinus, the earliest surviving manuscript of the complete Bible in the Latin Vulgate version, was related to the Bibles mentioned by Bede. It was also established that the Codex Amiatinus was related to the Greenleaf Bible fragment in the British Library.

 
 
For a thousand years the Codex Amiatinus was believed to be Italian in origin. It was only at that time that de Rossi discovered that the original inscription was that of Ceolfrith of the English.

He died at Castel Gandolfo.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1864
 
 
"In God We Trust" first appears on U.S. coins
 
 
"In God We Trust"
 

"In God We Trust" is the official motto of the United States. It was adopted as the nation's motto in 1956 as an alternative or replacement to the unofficial motto of E pluribus unum, which was adopted when the Great Seal of the United States was created and adopted in 1782. Many people (including Atheists) have expressed objections to its use, and have sought to have the religious reference removed from the currency, claiming that it violates the First Amendment.

"In God we trust" first appeared on U.S. coins in 1864 and has appeared on paper currency since 1957. A law passed in a Joint Resolution by the 84th Congress (P.L. 84-140) and approved by President Dwight Eisenhower on July 30, 1956 declared IN GOD WE TRUST must appear on currency. This phrase was first used on paper money in 1957, when it appeared on the one-dollar silver certificate. The first paper currency bearing the phrase entered circulation on October 1, 1957.

It is also the motto of the U.S. state of Florida. Its Spanish equivalent, En Dios Confiamos, is the motto of the Republic of Nicaragua.

 
History
The phrase appears to have originated in "The Star-Spangled Banner", written during the War of 1812. The fourth stanza includes the phrase, "And this be our motto: 'In God is our Trust.'"

According to Ted Alexander, Chief Historian at Antietam National Battlefield, the contracted "In God We Trust" was first used by the 125th Pennsylvania Infantry as a battle cry on September 17, 1862, during the Battle of Antietam of the American Civil War.

The Reverend M. R. Watkinson, in a letter dated November 13, 1861, petitioned the Treasury Department to add a statement recognizing "Almighty God in some form in our coins" in order to "relieve us from the ignominy of heathenism." At least part of the motivation was to declare that God was on the Union side of the Civil War. Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase acted on this proposal and directed the then-Philadelphia Director of the Mint, James Pollock, to begin drawing up possible designs that would include the religious phrase. Chase chose his favorite designs and presented a proposal to Congress for the new designs in late 1863.
  As Chase was preparing his recommendation to Congress, it was found that the Act of Congress dated January 18, 1837 prescribed the mottoes and devices that should be placed upon the coins of the United States. This meant that the mint could make no changes without the enactment of additional legislation by the Congress. Such legislation was introduced and passed on April 22, 1864, allowing the Secretary of the Treasury to authorize the inclusion of the phrase on one-cent and two-cent coins.

An Act of Congress passed on March 3, 1865, allowed the Mint Director, with the Secretary's approval, to place the motto on all gold and silver coins that "shall admit the inscription thereon." In 1873, Congress passed the Coinage Act, granting that the Secretary of the Treasury "may cause the motto IN GOD WE TRUST to be inscribed on such coins as shall admit of such motto."

The use of "In God we trust" has been interrupted. The motto disappeared from the five-cent coin in 1883, and did not reappear until production of the Jefferson nickel began in 1938. However, at least one other coin minted in every year in the interim still bore the motto, including the Morgan dollar and the Seated Liberty half dollar.

 
 
In 1908, Congress made it mandatory that the phrase be printed on all coins upon which it had previously appeared. This decision was motivated after a public outcry following the release of a $20 coin which did not bear the motto. The motto has been in continuous use on the one-cent coin since 1909, and on the ten-cent coin since 1916. It also has appeared on all gold coins and silver dollar coins, half-dollar coins, and quarter-dollar coins struck since July 1, 1908. Since 1938, all US coins have borne the motto.

In 1956, the nation was at a particularly tense time in the Cold War, and the United States wanted to distinguish itself from the Soviet Union, which promoted state atheism. As a result, the 84th Congress passed a joint resolution "declaring IN GOD WE TRUST the national motto of the United States." The law was signed by President Eisenhower on July 30, 1956, and the motto was progressively added to paper money over a period from 1957 to 1966. (Public Law 84-851) The United States Code at 36 U.S.C. § 302, now states: "'In God we trust' is the national motto."

In 2006, on the 50th anniversary of its adoption, the Senate reaffirmed "In God we trust" as the official national motto of the United States of America. In 2011 the House of Representatives passed an additional resolution reaffirming "In God we trust" as the official motto of the United States, in a 396-9 vote. According to a 2003 joint poll by USA Today, CNN, and Gallup, 90% of Americans support the inscription "In God We Trust" on U.S. coins.
 
 
The phrase has been incorporated in many hymns and religio-patriotic songs. During the American Civil War, the 125th Pennsylvania Infantry for the Union Army assumed the motto "In God we trust" in early August 1862.

In Judaism and Christianity, the official motto "In God we trust" resounds with several verses from the Bible, including Psalm 118:8, Psalm 40:3, Psalm 73:28, and Proverbs 29:25. In Islam the phrase's equivalent is Tawakkul 'ala Allah. Melkote Ramaswamy, an Hindu American scholar, writes that the presence of the phrase "In God we trust" on American currency is a reminder that "there is God everywhere, whether we are conscious or not."

After the September 11 attacks in 2001, many public schools across the United States posted "In God We Trust" framed posters in their "libraries, cafeterias and classrooms." The American Family Association supplied several 11-by-14-inch posters to school systems and vowed to defend any legal challenges to the displaying of the posters.

 
A quarter dollar with the United States' official motto
"In God we trust" on the obverse side
 
 
Controversy
Advocate of separation of church and state have questioned the legality of this motto, asserting that it is a violation of the United States Constitution, prohibiting the government from passing any law respecting the establishment of religion. Religious accommodationists state that this entrenched practice has not historically presented any constitutional difficulty, is not coercive, and does not prefer one religious denomination over another.

"In God we trust" as a national motto and on U.S. currency has been the subject of numerous unsuccessful lawsuits. The motto was first challenged in Aronow v. United States in 1970, but the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled: "It is quite obvious that the national motto and the slogan on coinage and currency 'In God We Trust' has nothing whatsoever to do with the establishment of religion. Its use is of patriotic or ceremonial character and bears no true resemblance to a governmental sponsorship of a religious exercise." The decision was cited in Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow, a 2004 case on the Pledge of Allegiance. These acts of "ceremonial deism" are "protected from Establishment Clause scrutiny chiefly because they have lost through rote repetition any significant religious content." In Zorach v. Clauson (1952), the Supreme Court also held that the nation's "institutions presuppose a Supreme Being" and that government recognition of God does not constitute the establishment of a state church as the Constitution's authors intended to prohibit.

Aside from constitutional objections, President Theodore Roosevelt took issue with using the motto on coinage as he considered using God's name on money to be sacrilege.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1864
 
 
Travers Stakes established at first racetrack in Saratoga, New York.
 
 
Travers Stakes
 

The Travers Stakes is an American Grade I Thoroughbred horse race held at Saratoga Race Course in Saratoga Springs, New York. First held in 1864, it was named for William R. Travers, the president of the old Saratoga Racing Association.

 
His horse, Kentucky, won the first running of the Travers. The race was not run in 1896, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1911, and 1912.

The field for the Travers is limited to three-year-olds, Colts and geldings carrying 126 pounds (57 kg) and fillies carrying 123 pounds (56 kg) and since 1999 the purse has been $1,000,000. The race is the highlight of the summer race meeting at Saratoga, just as the Belmont Stakes is the highlight of the spring meeting at Belmont Park.

The Travers has been run at four different distances:

1 3⁄4 miles (2.8 km): 1864 to 1889
1 1⁄2 miles (2.4 km): 1890 to 1892
1 1⁄4 miles (2.0 km): 1893, 1894, 1897 and 1904 to present
1 1⁄8 miles (1.8 km): 1895 and 1901 to 1903

 
 
Notable moments
In 1941, Whirlaway became the only horse ever to win the "superfecta" of the United States Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing and the Travers.

In 1962, arguably the greatest Travers in history took place. Jaipur won by a nose-bob in track record time over the arguably more talented Ridan after a long, head-to-head battle over the entire mile and a quarter. Still written and talked about today, the race is listed in the 2006 book Horse Racing's Top 100 Moments written by the staff of Blood-Horse Publications. The race result determined which colt would be named the 1962 U.S. Champion 3-Year-Old Horse.

In 1982, Runaway Groom, the Champion Canadian Three year old, trained by John DiMario, arrived at the Saratoga backstretch after a grueling season competing in the Canadian Triple Crown, winning the Prince of Wales Stakes, the Breeders' Stakes, and finishing second in the Queen's Plate. At the Travers that year, Runaway Groom became the 2nd horse in racing history to beat the Kentucky Derby winner Gato Del Sol, the Preakness Stakes winner Aloma's Ruler, and the Belmont Stakes winner Conquistador Cielo in the same race. Sun Briar was the first in the 1918 Travers Stakes.

  The 1997 Travers was another of the memorable races in its history, as it saw U.S. Racing Hall of Fame jockeys Jerry Bailey and Chris McCarron (aboard Behrens and Deputy Commander respectively) in a home-stretch duel wherein Deputy Commander prevailed. Adding to the drama was a thunderstorm which produced hail 24 hours before the race, and the uncertainty around whether or not McCarron would be present after the recent death of his mother.

On the day that Point Given won the Travers (August 25, 2001), it was a record Travers Stakes day attendance of 60,486. The race, dubbed the "Midsummer Derby," achieved a total betting handle of $34,529,273. This was also a Saratoga record.

On August 25, 2012, two horses, Alpha and Golden Ticket, tied for first place, making the race a dead heat. Following the race, two jockey statues were painted and two canoes were put in the pond.

The 146th Travers Stakes was run on August 29, 2015. Because Triple Crown winner American Pharoah was in the race the purse was raised to $1.6 million and NYRA capped attendance at 50,000, making the event a sellout for the first time ever. The 2015 race reaffirmed Saratoga's reputation as the "graveyard of champions" when Keen Ice defeated American Pharoah.

 
 
1921 Travers Stakes
The 1921 Travers Stakes is known for a betting scandal. In those days, bookmaking rather than parimutuel wagering was the primary method of taking bets on horse races.

The original field was fairly light with the favorite, the filly Prudery, owned by Harry Payne Whitney, facing no serious competition. Then Arnold Rothstein entered his colt, Sporting Blood, ostensibly to pick up second place. A few days before the race, however, Rothstein had learned that Prudery was off her feed. He knew he might have a real chance to win.

Initially, the odds on the filly were 1-4 while Rothstein's colt was at 5-2. On the day of the race, however, a leading three-year old, Grey Lag, was entered by trainer Sam Hildreth. Grey Lag immediately became the favorite, with Prudery the second choice, driving the odds on Sporting Blood up to 3-1. Rothstein bet $150,000 on his horse.

Just before post time, Grey Lag was scratched with no explanation. During the race, Sporting Blood overtook the ailing Prudery gaining his owner nearly a half million dollars, including wagers and the purse.

Although many smelled foul play, it was never proven that Hildreth received any payoff or that there was a conspiracy between him and Rothstein.

  Travers Trophy
The trophy, known as the Man o' War Cup, was designed by Tiffany and Co. Its namesake, Man o' War, won this race in 1920.

The wife of owner Samuel Riddle donated the trophy as the permanent award for winning the race.
A gold-plated replica, manufactured by the Craig Frankenhoffer Association for Jib Artistry, is presented to the winner each year by a member of the Riddle family.

Travers Canoe
Since 1961, the colors of the Travers winner have been painted onto a canoe which sits on a pond in the infield.

The canoe itself has been a fixture at the track since 1926.

Sponsorship
On July 18, 2006, the New York State Lottery announced its sponsorship of the Travers Stakes.

On March 20, 2008 NYRA announced that Shadwell Farm was going to sponsor for 2008 and 2009 the Travers Stakes and Suburban Handicap  Accordingly the event was listed for 2008 as 139th Travers as presented by Shadwell Farm

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1864
 
 
Admiral Farragut, attacking Confederate forces in Mobile Bay, Ala., says, "Damn the torpedoes! Full speed ahead!"
 
 
Farragut David
 

David Farragut, in full David Glasgow Farragut (born July 5, 1801, near Knoxville, Tenn., U.S.—died Aug. 14, 1870, Portsmouth, N.H.), U.S. admiral who achieved fame for his outstanding Union naval victories during the American Civil War (1861–65).

 

David Farragut
  Farragut was befriended as a youth in New Orleans by Captain (later Commodore) David Porter (of the U.S. Navy), who adopted him. Farragut served under Porter aboard the frigate Essex in the War of 1812; this vessel captured so many British whaling vessels that Farragut, then age 12, was put in charge of one of the prize ships. By the age of 20 he was already an accomplished ship’s officer. In 1823 he served under Porter in a squadron that suppressed pirates in the Caribbean. He was given his first independent command in 1824.

In December 1861, after many years of routine service, Farragut was assigned to command the Union blockading squadron in the western Gulf of Mexico with orders to enter the Mississippi River and capture New Orleans, a port through which the South was receiving much of its war supplies from abroad. Although the War Department had recommended that he first reduce the two forts that lay some distance downstream of the city by mortar fire, he successfully carried out his own, bolder plan of running past them with guns blazing in the dark (April 24, 1862). His naval force then destroyed most of the Confederate river squadron that was stationed just upstream of the forts. Troops from Union transports could then land almost under Farragut’s protecting batteries, resulting in the surrender of both forts and city.

The following year, when General Ulysses S. Grant was advancing toward Vicksburg, Miss., Farragut greatly aided him by passing the heavy defensive works at Port Hudson below the Red River and stopping Confederate traffic below that tributary. Vicksburg fell in July 1863, and the entire Mississippi River was soon in Federal control.

 
 
Farragut next turned his attention to Mobile Bay, Ala., which was defended by several forts, the largest of which was Fort Morgan. A line of mines (“torpedoes”) on one side of the bay’s channel obliged any attacking ships to pass close to Fort Morgan on the other side of the channel, and the Confederate ironclad Tennessee was also stationed in the bay. Farragut’s force entered the bay in two columns (Aug. 5, 1864), with armoured monitors leading and a fleet of wooden frigates following. When the lead monitor Tecumseh was demolished by a mine, the leading wooden ship Brooklyn stopped in alarm, and the whole line of ships drifted in confusion under the very guns of Fort Morgan. As disaster seemed imminent, Farragut shouted his famous words, “Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!” to the hesitating Brooklyn. He swung his own ship, the Hartford, clear and headed across the mines, which failed to explode. The rest of the fleet followed and anchored above the forts. Then the Tennessee emerged from the shelter of the fort and, after a hard fight during which it was repeatedly rammed, surrendered. The forts were now isolated and surrendered one by one, with Fort Morgan the last to do so. This battle was the capstone of Farragut’s career, but poor health precluded further active service. Having become a rear admiral in 1862 and a vice admiral in 1864, he was made a full admiral in 1866. He went the next year to Europe and paid ceremonial visits to the seaports of the great powers.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 

Admiral David Farragut.
Farragut as he appears in the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.
  On August 5, 1864, Farragut won a great victory in the Battle of Mobile Bay. Mobile, Alabama, was then the Confederacy's last major open port on the Gulf of Mexico. The bay was heavily mined (tethered naval mines were then known as "torpedoes"). Farragut ordered his fleet to charge the bay. When the monitor USS Tecumseh struck a mine and sank, the others began to pull back.

Farragut could see the ships pulling back from his high perch, where he was lashed to the rigging of his flagship, USS Hartford. "What's the trouble?", he shouted through a trumpet to USS Brooklyn. "Torpedoes", was the shouted reply. "Damn the torpedoes.", said Farragut, "Four bells, Captain Drayton, go ahead. Jouett, full speed."

The bulk of the fleet succeeded in entering the bay. Farragut triumphed over the opposition of heavy batteries in Fort Morgan and Fort Gaines to defeat the squadron of Admiral Franklin Buchanan.

On December 21, 1864, Lincoln promoted Farragut to vice admiral.

 
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1864 Part III NEXT-1865 Part I