Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1864 Part II NEXT-1864 Part IV    
1860 - 1869
History at a Glance
1860 Part I
Treaty of Turin
First Taranaki War
Convention of Peking
Secession of South Carolina
Poincare Raymond
The Church Union
1860 Part II
Barrie James Matthew
Boucicault Dion
Dion Boucicault: "The Colleen Bawn"
Collins Wilkie
Wilkie Collins: "The Woman in White"
Wilkie Collins 
"The Moonstone"
"The Woman in White"
George Eliot: "The Mill on the Floss"
Di Giacoma Salvatore
Labiche Eugene-Marin
Multatuli: "Max Havelaar"
Alexander Ostrovski: "The Storm"
Chekhov Anton
Anton Chekhov
"Uncle Vanya"
1860 Part III
Degas: "Spartan Boys and Girls Exercising"
Hunt: "Finding of the Saviour in the Temple"
Manet: "Spanish Guitar Player"
Ensor James
James Ensor
Mucha Alfons
Alfons Mucha
Levitan Isaak
Isaac Levitan
Steer Philip Wilson
Philip Wilson Steer
Mahler Gustav
Mahler - Das Lied von der Erde
Gustav Mahler
Paderewski Ignace
Paderewski - Minuet
Ignace Paderewski
Suppe Franz
Franz von Suppe - Das Pensionat
Franz von Suppe
Wolf Hugo
Hugo Wolf - "Kennst du das Land"
Hugo Wolf
MacDowell Edward
MacDowell - Piano Sonata No. 1 "Tragica"
Edward MacDowell
Albeniz Isaac
Albeniz - Espana
Isaac Albeniz
1860 Part IV
Fechner Gustav Theodor
Lenoir Etienne
Walton Frederick
Across the Continent
Burke Robert O'Hara
Wills William John
Stuart John McDouall
Grant James Augustus
"The Cornhill Magazine"
"The Catholic Times"
Heenan John Camel
Sayers Tom
The Open Championship
Park William
1861 Part I
Confederate States of America
Davis Jefferson
First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
American Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Hatteras
The American Civil War, 1861
1861 Part II
Siege of Gaeta
Emancipation Manifesto
Louis I
1861 Part III
Dal Vladimir
Steiner Rudolf
Whitehead Alfred North
Charles Dickens: "Great Expectations"
Dostoevsky: "The House of the Dead"
George Eliot: "Silas Marner"
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "Elsie Venner"
Tagore Rabindranath
Charles Reade: "The Cloister and the Hearth"
Wood Ellen
Mrs. Henry Wood: "East Lynne"
Spielhagen Friedrich
Friedrich Spielhagen: "Problematische Naturen"
1861 Part IV
Garnier Charles
Anquetin Louis
Louis Anquetin
Godward John William
John William Godward
Bourdelle Antoine
Antoine Bourdelle
Korovin Konstantin
Konstantin Korovin
Maillol Aristide
Aristide Maillol
Melba Nellie
Royal Academy of Music, London
The Paris version "Tannhauser"
1861 Part V
Thallium (Tl)
Hopkins Frederick Gowland
Mort Thomas Sutcliffe
Nansen Fridtjof
Fermentation theory
Baker Samuel
Baker Florence
The Bakers and the Nile
Beeton Isabella
Harden Maximilian
First horse-drawn trams in London
Order of the Star of India
Otis Elisha Graves
1862 Part I
Battle of Fort Henry
Second Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Fredericksburg
Grey Edward
Briand Aristide
The American Civil War, 1862
1862 Part II
Rawlinson George
Ogai Mori
Ivan Turgenev: "Fathers and Sons"
Flaubert: "Salammbo"
Victor Hugo: "Les Miserables"
Barres Maurice
Maeterlinck Maurice
Hauptmann Gerhart
Wharton Edith
Schnitzler Arthur
Uhland Ludwig
1862 Part III
Albert Memorial, London
Manet: "Lola de Valence"
Manet: "La Musique aux Tuileries"
Nesterov Mikhail
Mikhail Nesterov
Klimt Gustav
Gustav Klimt
Rysselberghe Theo
Theo van Rysselberghe
Berlioz: "Beatrice et Benedict"
Debussy Claude
Debussy - Preludes
Claude Debussy
Delius Frederick
Frederick Delius - On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring
Frederick Delius
German Edward
Edward German - Melody in D flat major
Edward German
Kochel Ludwig
Kochel catalogue
Verdi: "La Forza del Destino"
1862 Part IV
Bragg William
Foucault Leon
Gatling Richard Jordan
Lamont Johann
Lenard Pnilipp
Sachs Julius
Palgrave William Gifford
The Arabian Desert
International Exhibition, London
1863 Part I
West Virginia
Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Chancellorsville
Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address"
The American Civil War, 1863
1863 Part II
Isma'il Pasha
January Uprising
George I of Greece
Dost Mohammad Khan
Christian IX  of Denmark
Chamberlain Austen
Lloyd George David
Second Taranaki War
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
1863 Part III
Huxley: "Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature"
Charles Lyell: "The Antiquity of Man"
Massachusetts Agricultural College
D'Annunzio Gabriele
Bahr Hermann
Dehmel Richard
Hale Edward Everett
Edward Everett Hale: "Man without a Country"
Hope Anthony
Charles Kingsley: "The Water Babies"
Longfellow: "Tales of a Wayside Inn"
Quiller-Couch Arthur
Stanislavsky Constantin
Stanislavsky system
1863 Part IV
Stuck Franz
Manet: "Dejeuner sur l'herbe"
Manet: "Olympia"
Meurent Victorine-Louise
The "Salon des Refuses" in Paris
Art in Revolt
Impressionism Timeline
Signac Paul
Paul Signac
Munch Edvard
Edvard Munch
Berlioz: "Les Troyens"
Bizet: "Les Pecheurs de perles"
Mascagni Pietro
Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana
Pietro Mascagni
Weingartner Felix
Felix von Weingartner: Symphony No 6
Felix Weingartner
1863 Part V
Billroth Theodor
Butterick Ebenezer
Ford Henry
Graham Thomas
National Academy of Sciences
Sorby Henry Clifton
The Football Association, London
Grand Prix de Paris
Hearst William Randolph
Yellow journalism
Pulitzer Joseph
History of photography
Alexandra of Denmark
Royce Henry
Cuthbert Ned
Coburn Joe
Mike McCoole
1864 Part I
Schleswig-Holstein Question
First Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
Halleck Henry
Sherman William
Sand Creek massacre
Venizelos Eleutherios
Maximilian II of Bavaria
Louis II
First International Workingmen's Association
Confederate Army of Manhattan
The American Civil War, 1864
1864 Part II
Lombroso Cesare
Newman: "Apologia pro Vita Sua"
Syllabus of Errors
Dickens: "Our Mutual Friend"
Karlfeldt Erik Axel
Trollope: "The Small House at Allington"
Wedekind Frank
Zangwill Israel
1864 Part III
Stieglitz Alfred
History of photography
Dyce William
William Dyce
Jawlensky Alexey
Alexei von Jawlensky
Ranson Paul
Paul Ranson
Serusier Paul
Paul Serusier
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
A More Tolerant Salon
Impressionism Timeline
Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"
Roberts David
David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"
D'Albert Eugen
Eugen d'Albert - Piano Concerto No.2
Eugen d’Albert
Foster Stephen
Stephen Foster - Beautiful Dreamer
Offenbach: "La Belle Helene"
Strauss Richard
Richard Strauss - Metamorphosen
Richard Strauss
Fry William Henry
William Henry Fry - Santa Claus Symphony
William Henry Fry - Niagara Symphony
1864 Part IV
Lake Albert
Bertrand Joseph
Nernst Walther
Wien Wilhelm
Rawat Nain Singh
The Surveyors
First Geneva Convention
Knights of Pythias
"Neue Freie Presse""
De Rossi Giovanni Battista
"In God We Trust"
Travers Stakes
Farragut David
1865 Part I
Union blockade in the American Civil War
Charleston, South Carolina in the American Civil War
Lee Robert Edward
Conclusion of the American Civil War
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Johnson Andrew
Causes of the Franco-Prussian War
Leopold II of Belgium
Harding Warren
George V of Great Britain
Ludendorff Erich
Free State–Basotho Wars
The American Civil War, 1865
1865 Part II
Baudrillart Henri
William Stanley Jevons: "The Coal Question"
Billings Josh
Belasco David
Campbell Patrick
Lewis Carroll: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
Dodge Mary Mapes
Mary Mapes Dodge: "Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates"
Kipling Rudyard
Rudyard Kipling
Merezhkovsky Dmitry
John Henry Newman: "Dream of Gerontius"
Mark Twain: "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"
Walt Whitman: "Drum-Taps"
Yeats William Butler
1865 Part III
Serov Valentin
Valentin Serov
Wiertz Antoine
Antoine Wiertz
Vallotton Felix
Felix Vallotton
"Olympia" - a Sensation
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Nielsen Carl
Carl Nielsen - Aladdin Suite
Carl Nielsen
Glazunov Alexander
Glazunov - The Seasons
Alexander Glazunov
Dukas Paul
Paul Dukas "L'Apprenti Sorcier"
Paul Dukas
Meyerbeer: "L'Africaine"
Sibelius Jean
Jean Sibelius - Finlandia
Jean Sibelius
Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde"
1865 Part IV
Plucker Julius
Hyatt John Wesley
Kekule: structure of benzene
Lowe Thaddeus
Mendelian inheritance
Sechenov Ivan
Whymper Edward
The High Andes
 Bingham Hiram
Rohlfs Friedrich Gerhard
Open hearth furnace
Martin Pierre-Emile
Ku Klux Klan
"The Nation"
Marquess of Queensberry Rules
"San Francisco Examiner"
"San Francisco Chronicle"
Mitchell Maria
1866 Part I
Cuza Alexandru
"Monstrous coalition"
Carol I
Austro-Prussian War
Battle of Custoza
Battle of Trautenau
Battle of Koniggratz
Battle of Lissa
Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869
MacDonald Ramsay
Sun Yat-sen
1866 Part II
Croce Benedetto
Soderblom Nathan
Larousse Pierre
Larousse: Great Universal Dictionary of the 19th Century
Friedrich Lange: "History of Materialism"
Benavente Jacinto
Dostoevsky: "Crime and Punishment"
Hamerling Robert
Ibsen: "Brand"
Kingsley: "Hereward the Wake"
Rolland Romain
Wells Herbert
H.G. Wells
"The War of the Worlds"

"The Invisible Man"
"A Short History of the World"
1866 Part III
Bakst Leon
Leon Bakst
Fry Roger
Kandinsky Vassili
Vassili Kandinsky
A Defender Appears
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Busoni Ferruccio
Ferruccio Busoni - Berceuse Elegiaque
Ferruccio Busoni
Offenbach: "La Vie Parisienne"
Smetana: "The Bartered Bride"
Satie Eric
Erik Satie: Nocturnes
Eric Satie
1866 Part IV
Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
Morgan Thomas Hunt
Nicolle Charles
Werner Alfred
Whitehead Robert
Whitehead torpedo
Doudart de Lagree Ernest
Panic of 1866
Thomas Morris
MacGregor John
1867 Part I
Manchester Martyrs
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Constitution Act, 1867
Alaska Purchase
North German Confederation
Reform Act of 1867
Battle of Mentana
Mary of Teck
Baldwin Stanley
Rathenau Walther
Pilsudski Joseph
1867 Part II
Bagehot Walter
Walter Bagehot: "The English Constitution"
Freeman Edward Augustus
Freeman: The History of the Norman Conquest of England
Marx: "Das Kapital"
Thoma Ludwig
Soseki Natsume
Russell George William
Reymont Wladislau
Bennett Arnold
Balmont Konstantin
Pirandello Luigi
Galsworthy John
Charles de Coster: "The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel"
Ouida: "Under Two Flags"
Trollope: "The Last Chronicle of Barset"
Turgenev: "Smoke"
Zola: "Therese Raquin"
Ibsen: "Peer Gynt"
1867 Part III
Delville Jean
Jean Delville
Kollwitz Kathe
Kathe Kollwitz
Nolde Emil
Emil Nolde
Bonnard Pierre
Pierre Bonnard
Manet's Personal Exhibition
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "La Jolie Fille de Perth"
Gounod: "Romeo et Juliette"
Offenbach: "La Grande-Duchesse de Gerolstein"
Johann Strauss II: The "Blue Danube"
Toscanini Arturo
Verdi: "Don Carlos"
Granados Enrique
Enrique Granados - Spanish Dances
Enrique Granados
1867 Part IV
Curie Marie
Michaux Pierre
Monier Joseph
Brenner Railway
Mining industry of South Africa
Thurn and Taxis
Chambers John Graham
London Athletic Club
Barnardo Thomas John
1868 Part I
British Expedition to Abyssinia
Battle of Magdala
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tenure of Office Act
Province of Hanover
Russian Turkestan
Mihailo Obrenovic III
Milan I of Serbia
Glorious Revolution
Horthy Nicholas
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
1868 Part II
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy
Charles Darwin: "The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication"
Louisa May Alcott: "Little Women"
Robert Browning: "The Ring and the Book"
Wilkie Collins: "The Moonstone"
Dostoevsky: "The Idiot"
George Stefan
Gorki Maxim
Rostand Edmond
Edmond Rostand
"Cyrano De Bergerac"
1868 Part III
Bernard Emile
Emile Bernard
Vollard Ambroise
Slevogt Max
Max Slevogt
Vuillard Edouard
Edouard Vuillard
The Realist Impulse
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bantock Granville
Bantock "Overture The Frogs"
Granville Bantock
Brahms: "Ein deutsches Requiem"
Schillings Max
Max von Schillings: Mona Lisa
Max von Schillings
Wagner: "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1
1868 Part IV
Lartet Louis
Haber Fritz
Millikan Robert Andrews
Richards Theodore William
Scott Robert Falcon
Armour Philip Danforth
Badminton House
Garvin James Louis
Harmsworth Harold
Trades Union Congress
"Whitaker's Almanack"
Sholes Christopher Latham
1869 Part I
Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant
French legislative election, 1869
Prohibition Party
Red River Rebellion
Chamberlain Neville
Gandhi Mahatma
1869 Part II
Matthew Arnold: "Culture and Anarchy"
Eduard Hartmann: "The Philosophy of the Unconscious"
Mill: "On The Subjection of Women"
First Vatican Council
Blackmore Richard Doddridge
Blackmore: "Lorna Doone"
Flaubert: "Sentimental Education"
Gide Andre
Gilbert: "Bab Ballads"
Halevy Ludovic
Bret Harte: "The Outcasts of Poker Flat"
Victor Hugo: "The Man Who Laughs"
Leacock Stephen
Mark Twain: "The Innocents Abroad"
Tolstoy: "War and Peace"
1869 Part III
Lutyens Edwin
Poelzig Hans
Carus Carl Gustav
Carl Gustav Carus
Somov Konstantin
Konstantin Somov
Matisse Henri
Henri Matisse
Manet Falls Foul of the Censor
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 0
Pfitzner Hans
Pfitzner - Nachts
Hans Pfitzner
Wagner Siegfried
Siegfried Wagner "Prelude to Sonnenflammen"
Richard Wagner: "Das Rheingold"
Roussel Albert
Albert Roussel - Bacchus et Ariane
Albert Roussel
Wood Henry
1869 Part IV
Francis Galton: "Hereditary Genius"
Periodic law
Nachtigal Gustav
Cincinnati Red Stockings
Girton College, Cambridge
1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game
Co-operative Congress
Lesseps Ferdinand
Suez Canal

Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1864 Part III
Stieglitz Alfred

Alfred Stieglitz, (born January 1, 1864, Hoboken, New Jersey, U.S.—died July 13, 1946, New York, New York), art dealer, publisher, advocate for the Modernist movement in the arts, and, arguably, the most important photographer of his time.


Alfred Stieglitz. Self-portrait
  Early life and work
Stieglitz was the son of Edward Stieglitz, a German Jew who moved to the United States in 1849 and went on to make a comfortable fortune in the clothing business. In 1871 the elder Stieglitz moved his family from Hoboken, New Jersey, to Manhattan’s Upper East Side. Ten years later he sold his business in order to devote himself to the appreciation of the arts and to European travel.

In 1882 Alfred Stieglitz enrolled in Berlin’s Technische Hochschule to study engineering, but the subject apparently did not strike his fancy. He did, however, spend an undetermined amount of time studying with the great photochemist Hermann Vogel, and, during this same period, he committed himself to photography. It would seem that this commitment did not seriously interfere with his role as student prince, as he spent much of his time at the racetrack and in cafés, seeing operas by Wagner, and being entertained by young women of the less affluent classes. Nevertheless, by 1887 he was skilled enough to win both first and second prizes in the “Holiday Work” competition of the leading English journal Amateur Photographer.

In 1890, after eight years of footloose freedom, mostly in Germany, Stieglitz returned to the United States. He was convinced that photography should be considered a fine art—at least potentially the equal of painting and the traditional graphic arts—and he was accustomed to getting his way.

He quickly became a leader of photography’s fine-art movement in the United States (part of an international phenomenon). In 1892 he became editor of Camera Notes, the publication of the Camera Club of New York, a position that allowed him to advance the photographers and policies he favoured. By 1902, however, resentment in the club had reached a point where Stieglitz was forced to resign. He was ready to move on and already had plans for his own organization and journal.
The Photo-Secession
Early in 1902 Stieglitz announced the existence of a new organization called the Photo-Secession, a group dedicated to promoting photography as an art form. The name of the group suggested that it was designed to break away from stodgy and conventional ideas.

In fact, all the Photo-Secessionist photographers were committed in greater or lesser degrees to what was called the Pictorialist style, meaning they favoured traditional genre subjects that had been sanctified by generations of conventional painters and techniques that tended to hide the intrinsic factuality of photography behind a softening mist.

Members of the group were elected by Stieglitz, and eventually its roll included 17 fellows and almost twice as many associates. Founding members included Gertrude Käsebier, Edward Steichen, Clarence H. White, and Joseph Keiley.

It is difficult to describe the character of Stieglitz’s photography from this period without first identifying which selection of early work one is considering. As an active and talented publicist and publisher, Stieglitz was able regularly to revise his own early artistic achievement and to emphasize early work that in retrospect seemed more interesting than it had when new. For example, the negative for Paula was made in 1889, but the first confirmed exhibition of a print of it was in 1921, and the oldest extant print is dated 1916.

Alfred Stieglitz. Winter on Fifth Avenue, New York
If judged from the work that Stieglitz chose to reproduce while editor of Camera Notes, or from the 15 pictures selected by Stieglitz’s frequent collaborator Charles H. Caffin in his important 1901 book Photography as Fine Art, much of Stieglitz’s early work was sentimental, conventional, or both. Little of it compares in vitality—even within the narrow Pictorialist aesthetic—with the contemporary work of Käsebier, Steichen, or White. The exceptions in Stieglitz’s early work—those pictures that seem to respond to the photographer’s own life and place, such as Winter, Fifth Avenue or The Terminal (both 1892)—are almost always answers to difficult technical problems, which Stieglitz loved, and which often trumped his impulses to make photographs that were artistically correct.

To promote his goals (and, presumably, the goals of the Photo-Secession), Stieglitz introduced a quarterly publication called Camera Work; its first issue appeared in January 1903, and a total of 50 issues would be produced before it ceased publication in 1917. The magazine would largely define the artistic ambitions of amateur photographers in the first quarter of the 20th century. The quality of Camera Work’s production was extraordinary, and many of its gravure reproductions—often made directly from a photographer’s negative—are still valued by collectors. (When Stieglitz had returned to the United States in 1890, his father bought him an interest in the Heliochrome Company, a firm working in the then new technology of photoengraving. The business was a failure, perhaps because of Stieglitz’s antibusiness postures, but it is possible that he learned something about the craft of printing that served him well in his subsequent work as a publisher.)

Late in 1905, with the encouragement of his young protégé Steichen, Stieglitz opened the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession, a name soon shortened to 291, the gallery’s address on lower Fifth Avenue in New York City. During the gallery’s first four years it most often functioned as an exhibition space for the Photo-Secession photographers. By the 1909 season, however, the gallery began to promote progressive art in a variety of media, and the work of painters, sculptors, and printmakers almost usurped the gallery space. These exhibitions (many of them arranged by Steichen) included the first shows in the United States of the work of Henri Matisse, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Paul Cézanne, and Pablo Picasso.

As a result of his varied activities, Stieglitz’s reputation in the art world grew quickly, and in 1910 the Albright Gallery of Buffalo, New York, a highly respected institution, offered him its entire gallery space to do an exhibition on the art of photography as he understood it. The exhibition contained about 600 photographs, including 27 by Frank Eugene and 16 by Anne Brigman, but not one by Carleton Watkins, William Henry Jackson, Edward Curtis, nor by Stieglitz’s fellow New Yorkers Jacob A. Riis and Lewis Wickes Hine—all of them alive, and none unknown. Stieglitz told friends that the Buffalo exhibition was the realization of his dream of a quarter century: “The full recognition of photography by an important art museum!”

Alfred Stieglitz. Georgia O'Keeffe, Hands, 1918
The exhibition was a political triumph, but not an artistic one, as it represented only a very limited conception— Stieglitz’s own—of what photography’s creative potential might be. In fact, the exhibit revealed that, while claiming to be progressive, the Photo-Secessionist ideals had in some ways become both authoritarian and deeply conservative, ignoring work that pursued anything other than an attenuated aestheticism.

After the Buffalo exhibition, Stieglitz made few photographs for five years. When he returned to creating his own photographs in 1915, his work seems to have become washed clean of the old artistic postures and darkroom manipulations and dedicated instead to the clear observation of fact. The change was perhaps due in part to his recognition that—for the most part—the work in the Buffalo exhibition represented a dead end and would lead only to progressively weaker repetition. In addition, it is impossible to believe that a person of Stieglitz’s artistic intelligence would not be changed by exposure to the work of Rodin, Matisse, Brancusi, Picasso, and Braque, which he had shown at 291 between 1908 and 1914. But perhaps the most direct cause of Stieglitz’s artistic renewal was seeing the first mature work of Paul Strand, which Stieglitz featured in 1917 in the final (double) issue of Camera Work. Stieglitz had always been quick to learn from his protégés, and he was unquestionably challenged by Strand’s work, which he characterized as “brutally direct, pure and devoid of trickery.”


Alfred Stieglitz. Dirigible, 1910
Nevertheless, it must be said that part of what was new in Stieglitz’s work transcended Strand’s youthful bravura inventions and revealed (finally) the values of an adult artist. The first of the new pictures were portraits of the artists who were close to Stieglitz—Francis Picabia, Charles Demuth, Marsden Hartley—and they make his earlier portraits seem, in comparison, to be of characters out of fiction. In 1916 he created an astonishing series depicting Ellen Koeniger in her bathing suit—perhaps the most joyfully sexual pictures that photography has produced.

Stieglitz’s new views were incompatible with those of most amateur photographers, the core of Camera Work’s pool of subscribers, who tended to regard photography as a means not of exploring the world but of hiding from it. When Camera Work began it had about 650 paying subscribers; by the time it stopped being published in 1917 it had about 36. Many of its original subscribers were doubtless disaffected by the magazine’s apparent abandonment (parallel to Stieglitz’s own preferences) of Pictorialist photography in favour of avant-garde painting. With the outbreak of World War I, others were repelled by Stieglitz’s pro-German sentiments. In a larger sense, Camera Work may have died because Stieglitz had lost interest in the aims—promoting photography as a fine art along the lines of painting—that it was founded to advance. People closely associated with Stieglitz became alienated by his arrogance and manipulative strategies: one by one the most important of the Photo-Secession members—Käsebier, Steichen, White—all eventually broke with him, and by 1917 the 291 gallery closed.


Alfred Stieglitz. Equivalent. 1930
Later career
Free at last of the duties of publisher, editor, and (for awhile) gallery proprietor, Stieglitz began, in his early 50s, the most original and productive period of his life as an artist. During the following 20 years, he produced the work that defines his stature as a modern artist. In 1917 he met the painter Georgia O’Keeffe, who would quickly become his lover and finally (in 1924) his wife, after Stieglitz gained a divorce from his first wife, the former Emmeline Obermeyer. His serial portrait of O’Keeffe, made over a period of 20 years, contains more than 300 individual pictures and remains unique and compelling in its ability to capture many facets of a single subject. Until he stopped photographing in 1937, Stieglitz also created series depicting the changing skyline of New York, cloud formations (“equivalents”), and the surroundings of his summer home at Lake George, New York. These later works remain remarkably vital and continue to inspire and challenge photographers and artists in other fields.

Stieglitz also continued his efforts to support and exhibit Modernist art. After closing 291, he opened two additional galleries: the Intimate Gallery, from 1925 to 1929, and An American Place, from 1929 until his death in 1946. These small galleries were dedicated almost exclusively to the exhibition of the American Modernist artists in whom Stieglitz believed most deeply: Demuth, Arthur G. Dove, Hartley, John Marin, and O’Keeffe. (To a lesser extent, he also showed the work of American photographers. In 1936 he showed the work of Ansel Adams, the first new photographer whom he had shown since Strand 20 years earlier. Two years later he showed the work of Eliot Porter.) Through such efforts Stieglitz helped increase the public’s respect for American art.

Alfred Stieglitz’s contributions to the cultural life of his country were thus many and protean, but the judgment made by Steichen in 1963 seems just: “Stieglitz’s greatest legacy to the world is his photographs, and the greatest of these are the things he began doing toward the end of the 291 days.”

John Szarkowski

Encyclopædia Britannica

History of photography

Leo von Klenze (Klenze Leo), German architect, d. (b. 1784)

Leo von Klenze
Leo von Klenze
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Dyce William

William Dyce, (born Sept. 19, 1806, Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scot.—died Feb. 14, 1864, London), Scottish painter and pioneer of state art education in Great Britain.


William Dyce
  Dyce studied at the Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh, and the Royal Academy schools, London. One of the first British students of early Italian Renaissance painting, he visited Italy in 1825 and 1827–28, meeting in Rome a group of young German painters, the Nazarenes.

He exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy, being elected associate of the Royal Academy in 1844 and academician in 1848.
n 1830–37 in Edinburgh he made portraits for a livelihood. But his Italian studies led him to anticipate the English Pre-Raphaelites in the quest for a primitivist simplicity and repose in his painting that harked back to the art of 14th- and 15th-century Italy.

At the time of his death Dyce was engaged in painting a series of frescoes for the Houses of Parliament, of which remain the “Baptism of Ethelbert” in the House of Lords (1846) and the “King Arthur” series (1848; unfinished) in the queen’s robing room.

Encyclopædia Britannica


William Dyce. The Meeting of Jacob and Rache
William Dyce
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Jawlensky Alexey
Alexej Georgewitsch von Jawlensky (13 March 1864 – 15 March 1941) was a Russian expressionist painter active in Germany. He was a key member of the New Munich Artist's Association (Neue Künstlervereinigung München), Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) group and later the Die Blaue Vier (The Blue Four).

Alexej Jawlensky. Self-portrait
  Life and work
Alexej von Jawlensky was born in Torzhok, a town in Tver Governorate, Russia, as the fifth child of Georgi von Jawlensky and his wife Alexandra (née Medwedewa). At the age of ten he moved with his family to Moscow.

After a few years of military training, he became interested in painting, visiting the Moscow World Exposition c. 1880. Thanks to his good social connections, he managed to get himself posted to St. Petersburg and, from 1889 to 1896, studied at the art academy there, while also discharging his military duties. Jawlensky gained admittance to the circle of Ilya Repin, where he met Marianne von Werefkin, one of Repin's former students and a wealthy artist four years Jawlensly's senior who gave up her career to promote his work and provide him with a comfortable lifestyle.

Free to pursue his artistic vision, he moved to Munich in 1894, where he studied in the private school of Anton Ažbe. In 1905 Jawlensky visited Ferdinand Hodler, and two years later he began his long friendship with Jan Verkade and met Paul Sérusier. Together, Verkade and Sérusier transmitted to Jawlensky both practical and theoretical elements of the work of the Nabis, and Synthetist principles of art.

In Munich he met Wassily Kandinsky and various other Russian artists, and he contributed to the formation of the Neue Künstlervereinigung München. His work in this period was lush and richly coloured, but later moved towards abstraction and a simplified, formulaic style.

Between 1908 and 1910 Jawlensky and Werefkin spent summers in the Bavarian Alps with Kandinsky and his companion Gabriele Münter. Here, through painting landscapes of their mountainous surroundings, they experimented with one another’s techniques and discussed the theoretical bases of their art. Following a trip to the Baltic coast, and renewed contact with Henri Matisse in 1911 and Emil Nolde in 1912, Jawlensky turned increasingly to the expressive use of colour and form alone in his portraits.

Expelled from Germany in 1914, he moved to Switzerland. He met Emmy Scheyer in 1916 (Jawlensky gave her the affectionate nickname, Galka, a Russian word for jackdaw), another artist who abandoned her own work to champion his in the United States. After a hiatus in experimentation with the human form, Jawlensky produced perhaps his best-known series, the Mystical Heads (1917–19), and the Saviour’s Faces (1918–20), which are reminiscent of the traditional Russian Orthodox icons of his childhood.

In 1922, after marrying Werefkin’s former maid Hélène Nesnakomoff, the mother of his only son, Andreas, born before their marriage, Jawlensky took up residence in Wiesbaden. In 1924 he organized the Blue Four, whose works, thanks to Scheyer’s tireless promotion, were jointly exhibited in Germany and the USA. From 1929 Jawlensky suffered from progressively crippling arthritis, which necessitated a reduced scale and finally forced a cessation in his painting in 1937. He began to dictate his memoirs in 1938. He died in Wiesbaden, Germany, on 15 March 1941. He and his wife Helene are buried in the cemetery of St. Elizabeth's Church, Wiesbaden.
In November 2003 his Schokko (Schokko mit Tellerhut) sold for US$9,296,000 and in February 2008 for GB£9,450,000 (US$18.43 million).

The 2006 album by the jazz group Acoustic Ladyland, Skinny Grin, features one of his works, Portrait of The Dancer Alexander Sacharoff, as its cover art.

The five CD's issued by CPO with the complete string quartets by the Polish composer Mieczysław Weinberg (1919–1996), and played by the Quatuor Danel, all have a female portrait by von Jawlensky on their cover. Volume 1 shows "Frauenbildnis" (1909).

Volume 2 has "Kind mit blauen Augen". Volume 3 has "Weiblicher Kopf" (1912). Volume 4 has "Spanierin" (1911). And volume 5 shows "Mädchen mit Haube" (1910).

Paintings by von Jawlensky are displayed in galleries and museums around the world.

The Museum Ostwall in Dortmund, Germany, maintains a collection of exceptional depth.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alexej Jawlensky. Head. 1910

Alexej Jawlensky. The Village St. Prex. 1916
Alexei von Jawlensky
  Art of the 20th century

Art of the 20th century Timeline (1900-1999)
Ranson Paul
Paul Ranson (March 29, 1864 – February 20, 1909) was a French painter and writer.

Portrait of Paul Ranson by Paul Sérusier
  b Limoges, 1864; d Paris, 20 Feb 1909.

French painter and designer.

The son of a successful local politician, Ranson was encouraged from the outset in his artistic ambitions.

He studied at the Ecoles des Arts Dicoratifs in Limoges and Paris but transferred in 1886 to the Acadйmie Julian.

There he met Paul Sйrusier and in 1888 became one of the original members of the group known as the NABIS.

From 1890 onwards, Ranson and his wife France hosted Saturday afternoon meetings of the Nabis in their apartment in the Boulevard du Montparnasse, jokingly referred to as ‘Le Temple’.

Ranson acted as linchpin for the sometimes dispersed group.

Noted for his enthusiasm and wit and for his keen interests in philosophy, theosophy and theatre, he brought an element of esoteric ritual to their activities.

For example he introduced the secret Nabi language and the nicknames used familiarly within the group.

He also constructed a puppet theatre in his studio for which he wrote plays that were performed by the Nabis before a discerning public of writers and politicians.


Paul Ranson. 'Nabic' Landscape

Paul Ranson
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
John Leech (Leech John), English caricaturist, d. (b. 1817)

John Leech
John Leech
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Serusier Paul
Paul Serusier, in full Louis-Paul-Henri Sérusier (born November 9, 1864, Paris—died October 6, 1927, Morlaix, France), French Post-Impressionist painter and theorist who was instrumental in the formation of the short-lived, but highly influential, late 19th-century art movement known as the Nabis. The group was noted for its expressive use of colour and pattern in the mode of Paul Gauguin. Sérusier’s early paintings featuring the people and landscapes of Brittany are noteworthy for their muted, contemplative mood, which the artist achieved by using firm contours and blocks of unmodulated colour.

Paul Serusier
  Sérusier’s father was a businessman of Flemish descent. As a boy, Sérusier attended the Lycée Condorcet, a secondary school that placed much emphasis on the study of philosophy, and he received a baccalaureate in letters in 1883. Not much interested in the sales job that his practical father helped him obtain, he determined to become an artist and in 1885 entered the Académie Julian, a noted private art school in Paris. While there he met and befriended the young Maurice Denis, who would become a major influence in the revival of religious art in France. During the summer of 1888 Sérusier traveled to Pont-Aven in Brittany, which was a popular gathering place for artists. There he met French painter and theorist Émile Bernard, who at the time was engaged in translating the theories of the Symbolist poets to the medium of paint. That summer, in conversations and painting sessions, Bernard and his friend Paul Gauguin developed their notions about the freedom to move beyond Impressionism and its studies of light and nature—to simplify, interpret, and arrange nature.
On the last day of his vacation, Sérusier painted with Gauguin, who encouraged him to forgo modeling, perspective, and all such attempts at three-dimensional effects and to use a simplified colour palette. The experience brought about an epiphany. Sérusier produced an unfinished painting—a demonstration of technique, really—that he took back to Paris to show his friends. Formally called Landscape at the Bois d’Amour at Pont-Aven (1888), it was known to the Nabis as The Talisman, and it is considered the first Nabi painting. Although by the summer of 1889 Sérusier’s enthusiasm for Gauguin’s work had begun to subside, he joined Gauguin at Pont-Aven in the summer and later in the year at the Breton village of Le Pouldu. There, in addition to working on a philosophy of painting based on the Synthetism practiced by Gauguin, Sérusier developed his lifelong working method: sketching in plein air and completing the work away from the subject, in the studio. He also felt a growing appreciation for the landscape and isolation of Brittany.

Sérusier returned to Paris in the fall of 1889, but he again joined Gauguin at Le Pouldu in the summer of 1890. That year he quit the Académie Julian, being out of sympathy with its philosophy, and began to work on his own. The Nabis continued to meet on a regular basis, extending their group to include several individuals with Symbolist credentials, writers, musicians, actors, and others. By the mid-1890s, however, the Nabis—most of whom remained friends—had developed individual styles, and Sérusier himself had become deeply involved with theosophy. When his Polish mistress, Gabriela Zapolska, suddenly left him in 1895, Sérusier escaped to the solitude of Châteauneuf-du-Faou in Brittany. In a low state of mind, in 1897 or ’98 he visited, for the first of several times, the Benedictine abbey of Beuron in Germany, which was the site of an influential art school. He was deeply influenced by their concepts of religious symbolism and geometry and sacred proportions in composition. Sérusier continued to develop his philosophy and to paint and sketch according to it, and in 1908 he began teaching colour theory at the newly established Académie Ranson. During this period he crystallized the principles he laid out in his ABC de la peinture (1921).

He married in 1912, but the marriage was unhappy. His wife was confined to an institution in Morlaix for long periods of time. Sérusier retired to Brittany in 1914, though he continued to travel and to see friends. Most critics consider his work beyond this point inferior to that of his early years.

Kathleen Kuiper

Encyclopædia Britannica

Paul Serusier. Celtic Tale
Paul Serusier
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, in full Henri-Marie-Raymonde de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (born Nov. 24, 1864, Albi, France—died Sept. 9, 1901, Malromé), French artist who observed and documented with great psychological insight the personalities and facets of Parisian nightlife and the French world of entertainment in the 1890s. His use of free-flowing, expressive line, often becoming pure arabesque, resulted in highly rhythmical compositions (e.g., In the Circus Fernando: The Ringmaster, 1888). The extreme simplification in outline and movement and the use of large colour areas make his posters some of his most powerful works.


Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

Childhood and education
Toulouse-Lautrec’s family was wealthy and had a lineage that extended without interruption back to the time of Charlemagne. He grew up amid his family’s typically aristocratic love of sport and art. Most of the boy’s time was spent at the Château du Bosc, one of the family estates located near Albi. Henri’s grandfather, father, and uncle were all talented draftsmen, and thus it was hardly surprising that Henri began sketching at the age of 10. His interest in art grew as a result of his being incapacitated in 1878 by an accident in which he broke his left thighbone. His right thighbone was fractured a little more than a year later in a second mishap. These accidents, requiring extensive periods of convalescence and often painful treatments, left his legs atrophied and made walking most difficult. As a result, Toulouse-Lautrec devoted ever greater periods to art in order to pass away the frequently lonely hours.

Toulouse-Lautrec’s first visit to Paris occurred in 1872, when he enrolled in the Lycée Fontanes (now Lycée Condorcet). He gradually moved on to private tutors, and it was only after he had passed the baccalaureate examinations, in 1881, that he resolved to become an artist.


His first professional teacher in painting was René Princeteau, a friend of the Lautrec family. Princeteau’s fame, such as it was, arose from his depiction of military and equestrian subjects, done in a 19th-century academic style. Though Toulouse-Lautrec got on well with Princeteau, he moved on to the atelier of Léon Bonnat at the end of 1882. In Bonnat, Toulouse-Lautrec encountered an artist who fought vehemently against deviation from academic rules, condemned the slapdash approach of the Impressionists, and judged Toulouse-Lautrec’s drawing “atrocious.” His work received a more positive reaction in 1883, when he joined the studio of Fernand Cormon.

In the early 1880s, Cormon enjoyed a moment of celebrity, and his studio attracted such artists as Vincent van Gogh and the Symbolist painter Émile Bernard. Cormon gave Toulouse-Lautrec much freedom in developing a personal style. That Cormon approved of his pupil’s work is proved by his choosing Toulouse-Lautrec to assist him in illustrating the definitive edition of the works of Victor Hugo. In the end, however, Toulouse-Lautrec’s drawings for this project were not used.


Mr. Toulouse paints Mr. Lautrec (ca. 1891) Photo taken by Maurice Guibert
Despite this approval, Toulouse-Lautrec found the atmosphere at Cormon’s studio increasingly restrictive. “Cormon’s corrections are much kinder than Bonnat’s were,” he wrote his uncle Charles on Feb. 18, 1883. “He looks at everything you show him and encourages one steadily. It might surprise you, but I don’t like that so much. You see, the lashing of my former master pepped me up, and I didn’t spare myself.” The academic regimen of copying became insufferable. He made “a great effort to copy the model exactly,” one of his friends later recalled, “but in spite of himself he exaggerated certain details, sometimes the general character, so that he distorted without trying or even wanting to.” Soon Toulouse-Lautrec’s attendance at the studio became infrequent at best. He then rented his own studio in the Montmartre district of Paris and concerned himself, for the most part, with doing portraits of his friends.

Photo taken by Maurice Guibert (1892)

The documenter of Montmartre
Thus it was that in the mid-1880s Toulouse-Lautrec began his lifelong association with the bohemian life of Montmartre. The cafés, cabarets, entertainers, and artists of this area of Paris fascinated him and led to his first taste of public recognition. He focused his attention on depicting popular entertainers such as Aristide Bruant, Jane Avril, Loie Fuller, May Belfort, May Milton, Valentin le Désossé, Louise Weber (known as La Goulue [“the Glutton”]), and clowns such as Cha-U-Kao and Chocolat.

In 1884 Toulouse-Lautrec made the acquaintance of Bruant, a singer and composer who owned a cabaret called the Mirliton. Impressed by his work, Bruant asked him to prepare illustrations for his songs and offered the Mirliton as a place where Toulouse-Lautrec could exhibit his works. By this means and through reproductions of his drawings in Bruant’s magazine Mirliton, he became known in Montmartre and started to receive commissions.

Toulouse-Lautrec sought to capture the effect of the movement of the figure through wholly original means. For example, his contemporary Edgar Degas (whose works, along with Japanese prints, were a principal influence on him) expressed movement by carefully rendering the anatomical structure of several closely grouped figures, attempting in this way to depict but one figure, caught at successive moments in time.


Toulouse-Lautrec, on the other hand, employed freely handled line and colour that in themselves conveyed the idea of movement. Lines were no longer bound to what was anatomically correct; colours were intense and in their juxtapositions generated a pulsating rhythm; laws of perspective were violated in order to place figures in an active, unstable relationship with their surroundings. A common device of Toulouse-Lautrec was to compose the figures so that their legs were not visible. Though this characteristic has been interpreted as the artist’s reaction to his own stunted, almost worthless legs, in fact the treatment eliminated specific movement, which could then be replaced by the essence of movement. The result was an art throbbing with life and energy, that in its formal abstraction and overall two-dimensionality presaged the turn to schools of Fauvism and Cubism in the first decade of the 20th century.

The originality of Toulouse-Lautrec also emerged in his posters. Rejecting the notion of high art, done in the traditional medium of oil on canvas, Toulouse-Lautrec in 1891 did his first poster, Moulin Rouge—La Goulue. This poster won Toulouse-Lautrec increasing fame. “My poster is pasted today on the walls of Paris,” the artist proudly declared. It was one of more than 30 he would create in the 10 years before his death. Posters afforded Toulouse-Lautrec the possibility of a widespread impact for his art, no longer restricted by the limitations of easel painting. They also enhanced the success he had enjoyed in the preceding year when his works were shown in Brussels at the Exposition des XX (the Twenty), an avant-garde association, and in Paris at the Salon des Indépendants.


Photo taken by Maurice Guibert

Toulouse-Lautrec is most important for his success in going beyond a representation of superficial reality to a profound insight into the psychological makeup of his subjects. He turned to the lithograph after 1892 as a medium well suited to this goal. Among more than 300 lithographs produced in the final decade of his life were an album of 11 prints titled Le Café Concert (1893); 16 lithographs of the entertainer Yvette Guilbert (1894); and a series of 22 illustrations for Jules Renard’s Les Histoires naturelles (1899). But none of these works is more significant than Elles, a series done in 1896, presenting a sensitive portrayal of brothel life.

Toulouse-Lautrec spent lengthy periods observing the actions and behaviour of prostitutes and their clients. The resulting 11 works revealed these individuals as human beings, with some of the same strengths and many of the weaknesses of other members of society.

A masterpiece of this genre is Au salon de la rue des Moulins (At the Salon). This painting evokes sympathy from the spectator as he observes the women’s isolation and loneliness, qualities which the young Toulouse-Lautrec had so often experienced himself.

At the Salon is a brilliant demonstration, therefore, of his stated desire to “depict the true and not the ideal,” in which truth is based not on a careful representation of detail but rather on capturing, in a few brief brushstrokes, the essential nature of a subject.

The appearance of Elles coincided with a growing deterioration in his physical and mental condition. Toulouse-Lautrec’s figure, even among the great human diversity found in Montmartre, remained unmistakable.


His fully developed torso rested on dwarfish legs. Not quite five feet one inch tall, his size seemed further diminished because of his practice of associating with unusually tall men, such as his fellow students Maxime Dethomas and Louis Anquetin and his cousin and close friend Gabriel Tapié de Céleyran.

His frequently ironic tone failed to mask a fundamental dislike of his physical appearance, and his letters contain many derogatory remarks about his body and references to an increasing number of ailments, including syphilis. Drinking heavily in the late 1890s, when he reputedly helped popularize the cocktail, he suffered a mental collapse at the beginning of 1899. The immediate cause was the sudden, unexplained departure of his mother from Paris on January 3. He was always close to his family, particularly to his mother, who had always supported his ambitions; and he interpreted her leaving as a betrayal. The effect on his weakened system was severe, and he was committed shortly thereafter to a sanatorium in Neuilly-sur-Seine. This decision was made by the artist’s mother, against the advice of relatives and friends of the artist, in the hope of avoiding a scandal.

Toulouse-Lautrec remained formally committed until March 31, 1899, though he chose to stay on at the sanatorium until mid-May. While there he was able to demonstrate his lucidity and power of memory by preparing a number of works on the theme of the circus. These works, however, lack the force and intensity of his earlier compositions. In the spring of 1900 he started drinking heavily again. Less than three months before his 37th birthday, he died at Château de Malromé.


Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

Toulouse-Lautrec greatly influenced French art of the late 19th and early 20th centuries by his use of new kinds of subjects, his ability to capture the essence of an individual with economical means, and his stylistic innovations. Despite his deformity and the effects of alcoholism and mental collapse later in life, Toulouse-Lautrec helped set the course of avant-garde art well beyond his early and tragic death at the age of 36.

Toulouse-Lautrec was not a profound intellectual. Tapié de Céleyran wrote that he read little and when he did it was usually at night, because of insomnia. But he was a great satirist of pretense and convention. In typical fashion, he passed off his initial, unsuccessful attempt at the baccalaureate by having name cards printed “Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, flunker of the arts.” This iconoclasm surfaced also when he parodied Pierre Puvis de Chavannes’s serious Symbolist work The Sacred Grove by turning it into a boisterous scene filled with rowdy friends (1884). Yet he also could push himself in pursuits like swimming and boating, and toward the end of his life he installed a rowing machine in his studio. In his enthusiasm for sports he once accompanied a French bicycling team on a trip through England. Toulouse-Lautrec was, as two observers have concluded, a “sensitive, deeply affectionate man, conscious of his infirmity but wearing a mask of joviality and irony.”

Although recognized today as a major figure in late 19th-century art, Toulouse-Lautrec’s status in his lifetime was disputed.


Indeed, the artist’s father, who took slight interest in his son after his disabling injuries, regarded his son’s work as only “rough sketches” and could never accept the idea of a member of the aristocracy betraying his class by turning from a “gentleman” artist to a professional one. Stung by such criticism and hampered by his infirmities, Toulouse-Lautrec persevered to emerge as a prolific artist whose work eventually helped shape the art of decades to come.

Alan Curtis Birnholz

Encyclopædia Britannica

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. En la sala de la Rue des Moulins. 1894
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
A More Tolerant Salon

As a result of complaints about the Salon of 1863, the number of works rejected by the jury drops by 40 per cent. Manet, Morisot, Pissarro and Renoir exhibit; but Monet and Bazille make no submissions, though both are productive, working together in Honfleur.

Renoir begins his military training — incumbent on all French citizens unable to pay for a substitute.

7th Manet poses for Fantin-Latour's Homage to Delacroix (exhibited at the Salon in May).

FANTIN-LATOUR Homage to Delacroix

When Delacroix died, on August 13th, 1863, Fantin-Latour invited a number of writers and artists to pose for this group portrait as a memorial to him. They are, from left to right: (back row) Louis Cordier, Alphonse Legros, Whistler, Manet, Bracque-mond and Albert de Balle-roy; (front row) Duranty, Fantin-Latour, Champ-fleury and Baudelaire.

Louis Martinet's gallery hosts the first exhibition of the Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts, an organization created by Martinet to boost the credibility of mixed exhibitions.

27th Manet asks for a ten-day extension for his submissions to the Salon.

Study for a portrait of Manet by Degas
(black chalk, с 1864).

Each witty and sharp-tongued, Manet and Degas
maintained a life-long love-hate relationship.

Degas visits Ingres' studio to see an exhibition of his drawings which are described in the publicity as 'done in the style of the Old Masters'.

7th Renoir finishes his military training.

12th Bazille goes to Honfieur with Monet and visits the latter's parents at the nearby village of Ste-Adresse. Bazille finds them 'charming', and they invite him to spend August with them. Pissarro paints on the banks of the Marne.

Banks of the Marne

Exhibited at the Salon of 1864, this view of the banks of the Marne in, winter shows the extent to which Pissarro, despite all his stylistic experiments, remained under the lingering influence of Corot, whom he still acknowledged as his master. The He de France had been Corot's favourite landscape subject, and Pissarro was preoccupied with the same efforts to depict the play of light on water.

Renoir, described as a pupil of Charles Gleyre, comes tenth out of 106 candidates in a sculpture and drawing examination at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.

7th Cezanne obtains permission to copy Poussin's Shepherds in Arcadia at the Louvre.

12th Bazille fails his medical exams and decides to become a full-time artist.

22nd Rene Degas, the painter's youngest brother, writes from Paris to his cousins in America: 'Edgar does an enormous amount of work without seeming to do so. He has not only talents, but genius. Will he ever express it?'

Portrait of the Artist with
Evariste de Valernes
с 1864 (unfinished)

This double portrait shows Degas with his friend Evariste de Valernes, an unsuccessful painter of noble origin who subsisted mainly by copying famous paintings.

Degas' last self-portrait, it was painted in his studio in the rue Laval.

The poses are reminiscent of those used by popular photographers of the time, and X-rays have revealed that originally Degas, like de Valernes, was wearing a top hat.

Charles Gleyre is overwhelmed by financial difficulties. Renoir, Monet, Bazille and Sisley leave his studio - shortly before it closes.

3rd Opening of the Salon.

This year the jury is much more tolerant, the proportion of rejections having dropped to 30 per cent from 70 per cent in 1863. Works exhibited include Dead Christ and Angels and Episode from a Bullfight by Manet; Banks of the Marne, and The Road to Cachalas by Pissarro, who describes himself as 'a pupil of Corot'; and A Souvenir of the Banks of the Oise and Old Roads at Auvers by Morisot. Renoir has only one work, La Esmeralda, accepted (which he subsequently destroys). Meissonier's Napoleon III at the Battle of Solferino is one of the big successes of the exhibition.

25th Manet departs for a holiday in Boulogne, where he sketches the Unionist corvette Kearsage, which is in port there.

Bazille, Monet, Renoir and Sisley paint in the forest of Fontainebleau. Renoir meets Diaz de la Pena, whose influence encourages him to lighten his palette.

19th Manet paints the encounter off the French coast between the Kearsage and the Confederate warship Alabama.

20th Pissarro visits his friend the landscape painter Ludovic Piette at La Roche-Guyon.

27th Manet exhibits The Battle of the Kearsage' and the 'Alabama' at Cadart's gallery in the rue de Richelieu.

The Battle of the 'Kearsage'
and the 'Alabama '

On June 19th, 1864, a corvette of the United States Navy, the Kearsage, attacked and sank confederate raider, the Alabama, off Cherbourg. Manet did not witness the ecounter, but he had sketched and painted the Kearsage while it was in port at Boulogne.
Anxious to produce a painting that would appeal to the Salon jury, he used his own sketches from Boulogne together with newspaper photographs and drawings in order to create what one contemporary critic termed 'a picture of war and aggression'.
Eventually exhibited at the Salon of 1872, it was sold by Durand-Ruel to the American collector John G. Johnson in 1888 for $1500.

Monet departs for Honfleur.

13th Monet writes to Bazille urging him to come to Honfleur.


Monet is joined by Bazille. The two artists work together, painting coast scenes in the Honfleur and Le Havre area. They also paint still lifes of flowers.
The Morisots move to 40 rue Villejust (now rue Paul-Valery), where M. Morisot builds a studio for his daughters in the garden.

Dead Toreador

5th Manet moves into an apartment at 34 boulevard des Batignolles, near his favourite cafe, the Cafe de Bade.


Jules and Edmond de Goncourt visit Manet's studio in search of material for the character of Coriolis in their novel Manette Salomon.


Spring Flowers

c. 1864

In his letter of August 26th to Bazille, Monet enthused about the flowers in the Honfleur area. The influence of Boudin and Jongkind, who worked with him for a while in 1864, is evident in the rich impasto of this painting.


Photograph of the harbour at Honfleur in the 1860s -
the time when Monet most frequently painted there.

There is something rather moving about the camaraderie of the young artists, later to be known as the Impressionists, who had studied under Charles Gleyre - and it was especially strong between Monet and Bazille. Monet's letters from Honfleur to his friend in Paris give an indication of the spirit that existed between them:

July 13th

What on earth can you be doing in Paris in such marvellous weather, for I suppose it must be just as fine down there? It's simply fantastic here, my friend, and each day I find something even more beautiful than the day before. It's enough to drive one crazy. Damn it man, come on the sixteenth. Get packing and come here for a fortnight. You'd be far better off; it can't be all that easy to work in Paris.

Today I have exactly a month left to work in Honfleur, and what is more my studies are almost done; I've even got some others back on the go. On the whole, I'm quite content with my stay here, although my sketches are far from being what I would like. It really is appallingly difficult to do something which is complete in every respect, and I think most people are content with just approximations.

Well, my dear friend, I intend to battle on, scrape off and start again, since one can do something if one can see and understand it, and when I look at nature, I feel as if I'll be able tq paint it all, note it all down - and then you can forget it once you're working.

All this proves you must think of nothing else. It's on the strength of observation and reflection that one finds a way.
So we must dig and delve unceasingly.

The popularity of Monet's The Lighthouse of Honfleur (hung at the Salon of 1865) is
indicated by the fact that this wood engraving of it appeared in the illustrated annual L'autographe аи Salon.

August 26th

I had just spent a day at Ste-Adresse when your letter arrived. It gave me great pleasure, please write nice long ones like that more often. I hope you're working hard, it is important that you devote yourself to it wholeheartedly and seriously now that your family is reconciled to your giving up medicine. I'm still at St-Simeon; it's such a pleasant place and I'm working hard, although what I'm doing is far from being what I should like. We are now quite a crowd here in Honfleur, several painters I did not know - and very bad ones at that - but we form a very pleasant little group of our own. Jongkind and Boudin are here, and we get on extremely well and stick together. Ribot is coming too; he's planning to paint a fishing boat with figures 'en plein air'. I'd be interested to see him do it. I'm sorry you're not here, since there's a good deal to be learnt from such company, and the landscape is growing more beautiful. It's turning yellow and becoming more varied, really lovely in fact, and I think I'm going to be in Honfleur for some time yet.

I must tell you that I'm sending my flower picture to the Rouen exhibition, there are some really lovely flowers about at this time. Why don't you do some yourself, since they're an excellent thing to paint?

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Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"

Symphony in White, No. 2, also known as The Little White Girl is a painting by James Abbott McNeill Whistler (Whistler James McNeill). The work shows a woman in three-quarter figure standing by a fireplace with a mirror over it. She is holding a fan in her hand, and wearing a white dress. The model is Joanna Hiffernan, the artist's mistress. Though the painting was originally called The Little White Girl, Whistler later started calling it Symphony in White, No. 2. By referring to his work in such abstract terms, he intended to emphasize his "art for art's sake" philosophy. In this painting, Heffernan wears a ring on her ring finger, even though the two were not married. By this religious imagery, Whistler emphasizes the aesthetic philosophy behind his work.

Whistler created the painting in the winter of 1864, and it was displayed at the Royal Academy the next year. The original frame carried a poem written by Whistler's friend Algernon Charles Swinburne – titled Before the Mirror – written on sheets of golden paper. The poem was inspired by the painting, and to Whistler this demonstrated that the visual arts need not be subservient to literature. Though there are few clues to the meaning and symbolism of the painting, critics have found allusions to the work of Ingres, as well as oriental elements typical of the popular Japonisme.

Artist and model
James Abbott McNeill Whistler was born in the United States in 1834, the son of George Washington Whistler, a railway engineer. In 1843, his father relocated the family to Saint Petersburg, Russia, where James received training in painting. After a stay in England, he returned to America to attend the US Military Academy at West Point in 1851. In 1855, he made his way back to Europe, determined to dedicate himself to painting. He settled in Paris at first, but in 1859 moved to London, where he would spend most of the remainder of his life. There he met Dante Gabriel Rossetti and other members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, who would have a profound influence on Whistler.

It was also in London that Whistler met Joanna Hiffernan, the model who would become his lover. Their relationship has been referred to as a "marriage without benefit of clergy." By 1861, Whistler had already used her as a model for other paintings. In Wapping, painted between 1860 and 1864, Hiffernan (according to Whistler) portrayed a prostitute. The direct precursor of The Little White Girl was a painting created in the winter of 1861–62, initially called The White Girl and later renamed Symphony in White, No. 1. Hiffernan supposedly had a strong influence over Whistler; his brother-in-law Francis Seymour Haden refused a dinner invitation in the winter of 1863–64 due to her dominant presence in the household.


Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"
  History of the painting and Swinburne's poem
Whistler painted The Little White Girl in 1864, with Hiffernan as his model.
In 1865 it was exhibited at the summer exhibition of the Royal Academy; Whistler had offered The White Girl for the 1862 exhibition, but it had been rejected. English critics were not too impressed by the painting; one in particular called it "bizarre", while another called it "generally grimy grey".

In 1900, however, it was one of the pictures Whistler submitted to the Universal Exhibition in Paris, where he won a grand prix for paintings. The first owner of the painting was the wallpaper manufacturer John Gerald Potter, a friend and patron of Whistler. In 1893 it came into the possession of Arthur Studd, who gave it to the National Gallery in 1919. In 1951 it was transferred to the Tate Gallery.

In 1862 Whistler had met the English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne, with whom he developed a close friendship. The relationship between the two was mutually beneficial. Inspired by Whistler's Little White Girl, Swinburne wrote a poem with the title Before the Mirror. Before the painting went on exhibition at the Royal Academy, Whistler pasted the poem written on gold leaf onto the frame.

The idea of decorating a painting's frame with a poem was one Whistler had gotten from Rossetti, who had similarly pasted a golden paper with one of his poems on the frame of his 1849 painting The Girlhood of Mary. To Whistler, this poem underlined his idea of the autonomous nature of the painted medium. It showed that painters were more than mere illustrators, and that visual art could be an inspiration for poetry, not just the other way around.
A misconception circulated at the time that the painting had been inspired by Swinburne's poem. In a letter to a newspaper, Whistler refuted this, while still showing his respect for Swinburne's work; "those lines" he wrote "were only written, in my studio, after the picture was painted. And the writing of them was a rare and graceful tribute from the poet to the painter – a noble recognition of work by the production of a nobler one." Swinburne repaid the compliment: "...whatever merit my song may have, it is not so complete in beauty, in tenderness and significance, in exquisite execution and delicate strength, as Whistler's picture..."

Women dressed in white was a theme Whistler had treated in his Symphony in White, No. 1,
and would return to in Symphony in White, No. 3.

Composition and interpretation
Whistler, especially in his later career, resented the idea that his paintings should have any meaning beyond what could be seen on the canvas. He is known as a central proponent of the "art for art's sake" philosophy. The development of this philosophy he owed largely to Swinburne, who pioneered it in his 1868 book William Blake: a Critical Essay. Later, Whistler began referring to The Little White Girl as Symphony in White, No. 2. By the musical analogy, he further emphasized his philosophy that the composition was the central thing, not the subject matter.

One of the most conspicuous elements of the painting is the ring on the model's ring finger. Resting on the mantle piece, it becomes a focal point of the composition. The ring was a device of which Whistler was conscious; it had not been present in The White Girl. Though he and Hiffernan were not married, the ring showed a development in how he represented her in his art; from prostitute in Wapping, to mistress in The White Girl, and finally a wife in The Little White Girl. At the same time, this development reflected Whistler's notion of his own position in the English art world: towards greater legitimacy. The ring is also an allusion to the Christian sacrament of marriage, which lends a religious aspect to the aestheticism that he and Swinburne were trying to develop.

In The Little White Girl, Whistler can be seen to clearly move away from the realism of the French painter Gustave Courbet, who had previously been a great influence on him. The painting contrasts soft, round figures with harder geometrical shapes, using "brushy, transparent touches and dense, vigorous strokes." Various artists and styles have been suggested as inspirations for The Little White Girl. The painting has been compared to the work of Ingres. Though Whistler's painting was different from Ingres' art in many ways, he was nevertheless an admirer of the French artist, and was inspired by his work. The fan in the model's hand and the vase on the mantelpiece are oriental elements, and expressions of the Japonisme prevalent in European art at the time. Apart from this, there are few clues for the viewer, and the picture invites a wide variety of individual interpretations. A contemporary review in the newspaper The Times commented that "Thought and passion are under the surface of the plain features, giving them an undefinable attraction." Art critic Hilton Kramer sees in Whistler's portraits a charm and a combination of craft and observational skills that his more radical landscapes lacked.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
James McNeill Whistler
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Roberts David

David Roberts (1796-1864), Scottish painter, was born at Stockbridge, Edinburgh, on the 24th of October 1796. He was apprenticed by his father, a shoemaker, for seven years to a painter and house-decorator; and during this time he employed his evenings in the study of art. In 1820 he formed the acquaintance of Clarkson Stanfield, then painting at the Pantheon, Edinburgh, at whose suggestion he sent three pictures in 1822 to the Exhibition of Works by Living Artists, held in Edinburgh.


David Roberts
  In the same year he removed to London, where he worked for the Coburg Theatre, and was afterwards employed, along with Stanfield, at Drury Lane. In 1824 he exhibited at the British Institution a view of Dryburgh Abbey, and sent two works to the first exhibition of the Society of British Artists, of which he was elected president in 1831. In the same autumn he visited Normandy, and the works which were the results of this excursion began to lay the foundation of the artist's reputation - one of them, a view of Rouen Cathedral, being sold for eighty guineas. His scenes for an opera, The Seraglio, executed two years later, and the scenery for a pantomime dealing with the naval victory of Navarino, and two panoramas executed jointly by him and Stanfield, were among his last work for the theatres. In 1829 he exhibited the "Departure of the Israelites from Egypt," in which his style first becomes apparent; three years afterwards he travelled in Spain and Tangiers, returning in the end of 1833 with a supply of effective sketches, elaborated into attractive and popular paintings. His "Interior of Seville Cathedral" was exhibited in the British Institution in 1834, and sold for £30o; and he executed a fine series of Spanish illustrations for the Landscape Annual of 1836, while in 1837 a selection of his Picturesque Sketches in Spain was reproduced by lithography.
In 1838 Roberts made a long tour in the East, and accumulated a vast collection of sketches of a class of scenery which had hitherto been hardly touched by British artists, and which appealed to the public with all the charm of novelty.
The next ten years of his life were mainly spent i elaborating these materials. An extensive series of drawings was lithographed by Louis Haghe in Sketches in the Holy Land and Syria, 1842-1849. In 1851, and again in 1853, Roberts visited Italy, painting the "Ducal Palace, Venice," bought by Lord Londesborough, the "Interior of the Basilica of St Peter's, Rome," "Christmas Day, 1853," and "Rome from the Convent of St Onofrio," presented to the Royal Scottish Academy. His last volume of illustrations, Italy, Classical, Historical and Picturesque, was published in 1859. He also executed, by command of Queen Victoria, a picture of the opening of the Great Exhibition of 1851. In 1839 he was elected an associate and in 1841 a full member of the Royal Academy; and in 1858 he was presented with the freedom of the city of Edinburgh. The last years of his life were occupied with a series of views of London from the Thames. He had executed six of these, and was at work upon a picture of St Paul's Cathedral, when, on the 25th November 1864, he died suddenly of apoplexy.

A Life of Roberts, compiled from his journals and other sources by James Ballantine, with etchings and pen-and-ink sketches by the artist, appeared in Edinburgh in 1866.

1911 Encyclopedia Britannica


David Roberts
Jerusalem. The Damascus Gate

David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"

David Roberts set out from Cairo for the Holy Land on 7 February 1839, with a, small caravan including servants in Arabian and Turkish dress, an armed escort of Bedouins and twenty-one camels which transported provisions and baggage as well as tents for overnight encampments. With Roberts travelled two Englishmen, John Pell and John G. Kinnear, who two years later dedicated his own book of memoirs, Cairo, Petra and Damascus, to Roberts...


D'Albert Eugen

Eugen Francois Charles d'Albert (10 April 1864 – 3 March 1932) was a Scottish-born German pianist and composer.


Eugen Francois Charles d'Albert
  Eugen d’Albert, in full Eugen Francis Charles d’Albert, Eugen also spelled Eugène (born April 10, 1864, Glasgow, Scot.—died March 3, 1932, Riga, Latvia), naturalized German composer and piano virtuoso best remembered for his opera Tiefland (1903) and his arrangements and transcriptions of the music of Johann Sebastian Bach.

After receiving his basic musical training in London, where he enjoyed his first triumphs as a pianist, d’Albert went for further study to Vienna, where he became a friend of Franz Liszt.

D’Albert toured widely and successfully and taught for many years in Berlin, but his chief interest lay in composition.

He wrote 21 operas, 2 piano concerti, chamber music, lieder, piano pieces, and a few orchestral works.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Eugen d'Albert - Piano Concerto No.2
Piano Concerto No.2 Op.12 PART 1 of 2
Played by Michael Ponti (piano) and the Orchestra of Radio Luxembourg conducted by Pierre Cao.
Eugen d’Albert
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Stephen Foster, Amer. songwriter, d. (b. 1826)
Foster Stephen
Stephen Foster, in full Stephen Collins Foster (born July 4, 1826, Lawrenceville [now part of Pittsburgh], Pa., U.S.—died Jan. 13, 1864, New York, N.Y.), American composer whose popular minstrel songs and sentimental ballads achieved for him an honoured place in the music of the United States.

Stephen Foster
  Foster grew up on the urban edge of the Western frontier. Although formally untutored in music, he had a natural musical bent and began to write songs as a young boy. He absorbed musical influences from the popular, sentimental songs sung by his sisters; from black church services he attended with the family’s servant Olivia Pise; from popular minstrel show songs; and from songs sung by black labourers at the Pittsburgh warehouse where he worked for a time.

In 1842 he published his song “Open Thy Lattice, Love.” In 1846 he went to Cincinnati as a bookkeeper, returning to Pittsburgh in 1850 to marry Jane McDowell, a physician’s daughter. In 1848 he sold his song “Oh! Susanna” for $100; together with his “Old Uncle Ned” it brought the publisher about $10,000. In 1849 Foster entered into a contract with Firth, Pond & Co., the New York publishers to whom he had previously given the rights for “Nelly Was a Lady.” He was commissioned to write songs for Edwin P. Christy’s minstrel show. The most famous, “Old Folks at Home” (1851), also called “Swanee River,” appeared originally under Christy’s name; Foster’s name appeared on the song after 1879. In 1852 he made his only visit to the South.

Although he stated that his ambition was to become “the best Ethiopian [i.e., Negro minstrel] song writer,” he vacillated between composing minstrel songs (for which he is largely remembered) and songs in the sentimental “respectable” style then popular.


He was never a sharp entrepreneur for his talents, and in 1857, in financial difficulties, he sold all rights to his future songs to his publishers for about $1,900. The profits from his songs went largely to performers and publishers.

In 1860, already struggling with sinking morale and alcoholism, he moved to New York City. His songs after that date are largely sentimental songs such as “Poor Drooping Maiden.” His wife left him in 1861, except for a brief reconciliation in 1862. He spent the rest of his life in debt.

He left about 200 songs, for most of which he wrote the words as well as the music. They include “Camptown Races,” “Nelly Bly,” “My Old Kentucky Home,” “Massa’s in de Cold, Cold Ground,” “Old Dog Tray,” “Old Black Joe,” “Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair,” and “Beautiful Dreamer.”

Encyclopædia Britannica

Stephen Foster - Beautiful Dreamer
Leslie Guinn, baritone
Gilbert Kalish, piano
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Meyerbeer Giacomo, German composer, d. (b. 1791)

Giacomo Meyerbeer
Giacomo Meyerbeer
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Offenbach: "La Belle Helene"

La belle Helene (The Beautiful Helen), is an opéra bouffe in three acts by Offenbach Jacques  to an original French libretto by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy. The operetta parodies the story of Helen's elopement with Paris, which set off the Trojan War.

Performance history
It was first performed at Paris's Théâtre des Variétés on December 17, 1864, starring Hortense Schneider and José Dupuis.

While some experts (cf Grove) are of the opinion that the creation of La belle Hélène was a "largely untroubled" affair, others (cf Jacob) paint a different picture: Although Offenbach had managed at great cost to persuade Schneider, known by then as "La Snédèr", to accept the role of Helen, the premiere remained in doubt to the very last minute.

During rehearsals, La Snédèr constantly complained that the extravagant Léa Silly (in a male role as Oreste) was trying to upstage her: La Silly extemporized (a privilege reserved for the prima donna); she imitated her; she danced a cancan in her back while she was singing an important aria, etc. etc. La Snédèr not only walked off the set repeatedly, but kept threatening to leave the world, or at least Paris, altogether! It took all of Offenbach's skills at creating harmony to see the production through.

La belle Hélène was an instant success with both the public and the critics and enjoyed an initial run of 700 performances. Premieres in Vienna (1865), Berlin (1865), London (1866), and Chicago (1867) followed shortly. It also had a run in New York City at the Grand Opera House beginning on April 13, 1871. It had its Czech premiere in Prague in 1875, under Adolf Čech.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Paris and Helen from a production of
La belle Hélène at the Mikhaylovsky Theatre.
Offenbach - La belle Helena
Anna Moffo
René Kollo
Hans Kraemmer
Iván Rebroff
Jacques Offenbach
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Strauss Richard

Richard Strauss, in full Richard Georg Strauss (born June 11, 1864, Munich, Germany—died September 8, 1949, Garmisch-Partenkirchen), an outstanding German Romantic composer of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His symphonic poems of the 1890s and his operas of the following decade have remained an indispensable feature of the standard repertoire.


Richard Strauss

Strauss’s father, Franz, was the principal horn player of the Munich Court Orchestra and was recognized as Germany’s leading virtuoso of the instrument. His mother came from the prominent brewing family of Pschorr. During a conventional education, Strauss still devoted most of his time and energy to music.

When he left school in 1882, he had already composed more than 140 works, including 59 lieder (art songs) and various chamber and orchestral works. These juvenilia reflect Strauss’s musical upbringing by his father, who revered the classics and detested Richard Wagner both as a man and as a composer, even though he was a notable performer of the horn passages in performances of Wagner’s operas.

Through his father’s connections, Strauss on leaving school met the leading musicians of the day, including the conductor Hans von Bülow, who commissioned Strauss’s Suite for 13 Winds for the Meiningen Orchestra and invited Strauss to conduct that work’s first performance in Munich in November 1884. Following this successful conducting debut, Bülow offered Strauss the post of assistant conductor at Meiningen.

Thenceforward Strauss’s eminence as a conductor paralleled his rise as a composer. Among the conducting posts he went on to hold were those of third conductor of the Munich Opera (1886–89), director of the Weimar Court Orchestra (1889–94), second and then chief conductor at Munich (1894–98), conductor (and later director) of the Royal Court Opera in Berlin (1898–1919), and musical codirector of the Vienna State Opera (1919–24).


At Meiningen Strauss met the composer Alexander Ritter, who reinforced that admiration for Wagner’s music which Strauss had previously nurtured in secret so as not to upset his father. Ritter urged Strauss to abandon classical forms and to express his musical ideas in the medium of the symphonic, or tone, poem, as Franz Liszt had done. Strauss had to work his way to mastery of this form, a half-way stage being his Aus Italien (1886; From Italy), a “symphonic fantasy” based on his impressions during his first visit to Italy. In Weimar in November 1889, he conducted the first performance of his symphonic poem Don Juan. The triumphant reception of this piece led to Strauss’s acclamation as Wagner’s heir and marked the start of his successful composing career. At Weimar, too, in 1894 he conducted the premiere of his first opera, Guntram, with his fiancée Pauline de Ahna in the leading soprano role. She had become his singing pupil in 1887, and they were married in September 1894. Pauline’s tempestuous, tactless, and outspoken personality was the reverse of her husband’s aloof and detached nature, and her eccentric behaviour is the subject of countless anecdotes, most of them true. Nevertheless the marriage between them was strong and successful; they adored each other and ended their days together 55 years later.

The years 1898 and 1899 saw the respective premieres of Strauss’s two most ambitious tone poems, Don Quixote and Ein Heldenleben (A Hero’s Life). In 1904 he and Pauline, who was the foremost exponent of his songs, toured the United States, where in New York City he conducted the first performance of his Symphonia Domestica (Domestic Symphony). The following year, in Dresden, he enjoyed his first operatic success with Salome, based on Oscar Wilde’s play. Although Salome was regarded by some as blasphemous and obscene, it triumphed in all the major opera houses except Vienna, where the censor forbade Gustav Mahler to stage it.


Richard Strauss

In 1909 the opera Elektra marked Strauss’s first collaboration with the Austrian poet and dramatist Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Strauss wrote the music and Hofmannsthal the libretti for five more operas over the next 20 years. With the 1911 premiere of their second opera together, Der Rosenkavalier, they achieved a popular success of the first magnitude. Their subsequent operas together were Ariadne auf Naxos (1912; Ariadne on Naxos), Die Frau ohne Schatten (1919; The Woman Without a Shadow), and Die ägyptische Helena (1928; The Egyptian Helen). But in 1929 Hofmannsthal died while working on the opera Arabella, leaving Strauss bereft.

After 1908 Strauss lived in Garmisch, in Bavaria, in a villa that he built with the royalties from Salome. He conducted in Berlin until 1919, when he agreed to become joint director, with Franz Schalk, of the Vienna State Opera. His appointment proved unfortunate, since it coincided with a postwar mood that relegated Strauss and similar late Romantic composers to the category of “old-fashioned.” Strauss was neither interested nor skilled in politics, national or musical, and he resigned from his post in Vienna in 1924. This political naïveté tainted Strauss’s reputation when the National Socialists came to power in Germany in 1933. Though able to manipulate grand dukes and kaisers, he proved to be no match for the ruthless totalitarians of the Third Reich and unwittingly allowed himself to be used by them for a time. Thus from 1933 to 1935 he served as president of Germany’s Reichsmusikkammer (Chamber of State Music), which was the state music bureau. But in the latter year he fell foul of the Nazi regime.

After Hofmannsthal’s death in 1929 he had collaborated with the Jewish dramatist Stefan Zweig on a comic opera, Die schweigsame Frau (1935; The Silent Woman). This collaboration was unacceptable to the Nazis.

The opera was banned after four performances, and Strauss was compelled to work with a non-Jewish librettist, Joseph Gregor. The fact that his son’s wife was Jewish was also held against him. Above all else a family man, Strauss used every shred of his influence as Germany’s greatest living composer to protect his daughter-in-law and her two sons. He spent part of World War II in Vienna, where he was out of the limelight, and in 1945 he went to Switzerland. Allied denazification tribunals eventually cleared his name, and he returned to Garmisch in 1949, where he died three months after his 85th birthday celebrations.

Richard Strauss, by Max Liebermann, 1918

Strauss’s first major achievement was to harness the expressive power of the huge Wagnerian opera orchestra for the concert hall. Although some of his early Mendelssohnian works, such as the violin concerto (composed 1882) and the first horn concerto (1882–83), are still played, the real Strauss emerged with the symphonic poem Don Juan (composed 1889), in which his ardent melodic gifts, descriptive powers, and mastery of instrumentation first became fully evident. Harmonically even richer is the climax of the symphonic poem Tod und Verklärung (1888–89; Death and Transfiguration), in which a dying man surveys his life and ideals. The rondo form is used in the tone poem Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche (1894–95; Till Eulenspiegel’s Merry Pranks), wherein Strauss found the exact instrumental sounds and colours to depict the 14th-century rogue Till’s adventures, from his scattering pots and pans in a market and mocking the clergy to his death-squawk on a D clarinet on the gallows. Also sprach Zarathustra (1896; Thus Spoke Zarathustra) is ostensibly a homage to the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche but is actually a concerto for orchestra in which the entities of man and nature are illustrated and contrasted by opposing tonalities.

To illustrate the exploits of Don Quixote (1897), Strauss employed the variation form in this tone poem. Sheep, windmills, and flying horses are magically described in music that is suffused with poetry.


Don Quixote was followed by the quasi-autobiographical tone poem Ein Heldenleben (1898), in which Strauss’s adversaries are the music critics (characterized by petulant woodwinds) whom he defeats in a battle scene of astonishing power and virtuosity before retiring to the countryside to contemplate his “works of peace” (a string of musical self-quotations) with his wife.

Two other tone poems followed that were dignified by the title symphony. In Symphonia Domestica (1903), a huge orchestra describes 24 hours in the life of the Strauss family household, including bathing the baby, quarrels, and love making. In Eine Alpensinfonie (1911–15; An Alpine Symphony) an even larger orchestra (more than 150 players) describes a day in the Bavarian Alps, with a thunderstorm, a waterfall, and the view from a mountain summit as highlights.

Like his great contemporary Gustav Mahler, Strauss wrote magniloquently for a large orchestra but was also able to achieve textures of chamber-music delicacy. But whereas Mahler’s music explores his own spiritual and psychological obsessions, Strauss’s music is more objective and is concerned with sensuous emotions and everyday life, rather than with spiritual torment and death. The opulence of Strauss’s orchestrations is tempered by harmonic acerbity.


Richard Strauss engraved
by Ferdinand Schmutzer (1922)

Strauss had an unrivaled descriptive power and a remarkable ability to convey psychological detail. This last quality was particularly evident in his operas. His first opera was the Wagnerian-influenced Guntram (1892–94, rev. 1940). His next stage work, the satirical comic opera Feuersnot (1900–01; Fire-Famine), employs impish humour to mock small-town prudery and hypocrisy. With Salome (1903–05), Strauss transferred his mastery of the orchestral tone-poem to an opera that is outstanding for the intensity with which it conveys Salome’s naive lust for John the Baptist and the depravity of her stepfather Herod’s court.

His next opera, Elektra (1906–08), is a second blockbusting one-act study of female obsession, in this case revenge. In this score Strauss went as far toward atonality as he ever desired. Elektra was followed by Der Rosenkavalier (1909–10), a “comedy in music” that is set in 18th-century Vienna and features an anachronistic string of waltzes and characters like the Marschallin, Baron Ochs, Octavian, and Sophie, whom audiences at once took to their hearts. This opera remains Strauss’s most popular stage work, despite its occasional dull passages.

Strauss had two musical gods, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Richard Wagner, and in his work they struggle for possession of his artistic soul.

The battle is fought most persuasively and equally in the opera Ariadne auf Naxos (1912, rev. 1916), in which Strauss’s light, parodistic vein and his heroic style are blended and reconciled. At the opposite extreme is Die Frau ohne Schatten, a Wagnerian version of Mozart’s The Magic Flute that requires singing on a scale to match its grandiose conception and staging. Its portraiture of the lowly dyer Barak and his shrewish wife is a foretaste of Intermezzo (1918–23), where the protagonists are Strauss and Pauline, thinly disguised. Arnold Schoenberg was among the first to recognize the mastery and seriousness of this opera, which was at first lightly regarded but in which Strauss perfected his conversational melodic recitative.

With their last opera together, Arabella (1929–32), Strauss and his librettist Hofmannsthal returned to Vienna and amorous intrigue in their most romantic and lyrical work. Strauss’s opera with Zweig, Die schweigsame Frau (1933–34; The Silent Woman), has finally come into its own as a delightful comedy. Of Strauss’s three operatic collaborations with Gregor, the best is Daphne (1936–37). For his final opera, Capriccio (1940–41), Strauss and the conductor Clemens Krauss wrote an inspired “conversation piece” on the relative importance of words and music in opera. These two media are personified by a poet and a composer who are rivals for the love of a widowed countess, who is herself given the last of Strauss’s marvelously rewarding roles for the female voice.

This last opera initiated the composer’s “Indian summer,” when he recaptured the freshness of his youth in a second horn concerto (1942), an oboe concerto (1945), two wind sonatinas (1943–45), and a concertino for clarinet and bassoon (1947). He also composed, in Metamorphosen (1945–46), a study for 23 solo strings that is an elegy for the German musical life that the Nazis had destroyed. Strauss’s richly scored, poignantly retrospective Vier letzte Lieder (1948; Four Last Songs) for soprano and orchestra crowned a career of which his 200 songs comprise an important part.

As a young composer, Strauss came under the influence of Wagner, Hector Berlioz, and Liszt just when his technique and imagination were sharpened to make the most of their impact. From the tone poem Aus Italien onward, his style became recognizable as the big, bravura, flexible, post-Romantic panoply that dominated audiences in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. But, having achieved fame as an avant-garde composer, Strauss after Der Rosenkavalier became a conservative whose musical evolution was pursued in isolation, unaffected by the advances and experiments going on around him. He spent the last 38 years of his life refining and polishing his style, writing often for smaller orchestras, partly out of practical considerations (to ensure the audibility of sung words in the theatre) and partly because large-scale Romantic musical textures were becoming less and less significant. In later years Strauss’s style became more classical in the Mozartean sense. Indeed, the opera Capriccio and other late works may be said to have achieved a perfect fusion of the late German Romantic and the Neoclassical manner.

Michael Kennedy

Encyclopædia Britannica

Richard Strauss - Metamorphosen
Antoni Wit, Conductor.
Staatskapelle Weimar.
Richard Strauss
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Fry William Henry
William Henry Fry (August 10, 1813 – December 21, 1864) was a pioneering American composer, music critic, and journalist. Fry was the first person born in the United States to write for a large symphony orchestra, and the first to compose a publicly performed opera. He was also the first music critic for a major American newspaper, and he was the first person to insist that his fellow countrymen support American-made music.

William Henry Fry
William Henry Fry was born on August 10, 1813 in Philadelphia. His father, William Fry, was a prominent printer and, along with Roberts Vaux and Robert Walsh, ran the National Gazette and Literary Register, a major American newspaper at the time—edited by Robert Walsh from 1821 to 1836. William Henry had four brothers—Joseph Reese, Edward Plunket, Charles, and Horace Fry. He was educated at what is now Mount Saint Mary's University in Emmitsburg, Maryland. After returning to Philadelphia to work for his father, he studied composition with Leopold Meignen, a former band leader in Napoleon Bonaparte's army and the music director of the Musical Fund Society orchestra. He eventually became secretary of the Musical Fund Society.

Fry's operatic compositions include Aurelia the Vestal, Leonora (based on the 1838 play The Lady of Lyons), and Notre-Dame of Paris (based on the 1831 novel by Victor Hugo). Leonora was a very successful production at its premiere in 1845 and second run the following year. Leonora is also significant as it was the first grand opera written by an American composer.

After a six-year sojourn in Europe (1846–52), where he served as foreign correspondent to the Philadelphia Public Ledger, Horace Greeley's New York Tribune, and The Message Bird (later known as the New York Musical World and Times), Fry gave a series of eleven widely publicized lectures in New York's Metropolitan Hall.


These dealt with subjects such as the history and theory of music as well as the state of American classical music.

In addition to his operas, Fry wrote seven symphonies that have extra-musical themes. His Santa Claus: Christmas Symphony of 1853, which was very well received by audiences but derided by many of Fry's rival critics, may be the first orchestral use of the saxophone, invented barely a decade before. His 1854 Niagara Symphony, written for Louis Jullien's orchestra, uses eleven timpani to create the roar of the waters, snare drums to reproduce the hiss of the spray, and a remarkable series of discordant, chromatic descending scales to reproduce the chaos of the falling waters as they crash onto the rocks.

Fry's other works, including Leonora (New York debut in 1858) and Notre-Dame of Paris (1864, Philadelphia), received mixed reviews along partisan lines: conservatives tended to dislike Fry's music, whereas political progressives highly enjoyed it. His other musical works included the Overture to Macbeth, the Breaking Heart, string quartets and sacred choral music.

From 1852 until his death in 1864, Fry served as music critic and political editor for the New York Tribune.

William Henry Fry died at age 51 on December 21, 1864, in Santa Cruz (Saint Croix) in the Virgin Islands. His death was apparently from tuberculosis "accelerated by exhaustion."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

William Henry Fry - Santa Claus Symphony
Santa Claus Symphony - 1853
Royal Scottish National Orchestra
Tony Rowe, conductor
Glasgow 1999
William Henry Fry - Niagara Symphony
Niagara Symphony (1854)

Orchestra: Royal Scottish National Orchestra

Conductor: Tony Rowe

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