Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1862 Part IV NEXT-1863 Part II    
 
 
     
1860 - 1869
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860-1869
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part I
Treaty of Turin
First Taranaki War
Convention of Peking
Secession of South Carolina
Poincare Raymond
The Church Union
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part II
Barrie James Matthew
Boucicault Dion
Dion Boucicault: "The Colleen Bawn"
Collins Wilkie
Wilkie Collins: "The Woman in White"
Wilkie Collins 
"The Moonstone"
"The Woman in White"
George Eliot: "The Mill on the Floss"
Di Giacoma Salvatore
Labiche Eugene-Marin
Multatuli
Multatuli: "Max Havelaar"
Alexander Ostrovski: "The Storm"
Chekhov Anton
Anton Chekhov
"Uncle Vanya"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part III
Degas: "Spartan Boys and Girls Exercising"
Hunt: "Finding of the Saviour in the Temple"
Manet: "Spanish Guitar Player"
Ensor James
James Ensor
Mucha Alfons
Alfons Mucha
Levitan Isaak
Isaac Levitan
Steer Philip Wilson
Philip Wilson Steer
Mahler Gustav
Mahler - Das Lied von der Erde
Gustav Mahler
Paderewski Ignace
Paderewski - Minuet
Ignace Paderewski
Suppe Franz
Franz von Suppe - Das Pensionat
Franz von Suppe
Wolf Hugo
Hugo Wolf - "Kennst du das Land"
Hugo Wolf
MacDowell Edward
MacDowell - Piano Sonata No. 1 "Tragica"
Edward MacDowell
Albeniz Isaac
Albeniz - Espana
Isaac Albeniz
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part IV
Cesium
Rubidium
Fechner Gustav Theodor
Lenoir Etienne
Walton Frederick
Linoleum
Across the Continent
Burke Robert O'Hara
Wills William John
Stuart John McDouall
Grant James Augustus
"The Cornhill Magazine"
"The Catholic Times"
Heenan John Camel
Sayers Tom
The Open Championship
Park William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part I
Kansas
Confederate States of America
Davis Jefferson
First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
American Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Hatteras
The American Civil War, 1861
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part II
Siege of Gaeta
Emancipation Manifesto
Abduaziz
Louis I
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part III
Dal Vladimir
Steiner Rudolf
Whitehead Alfred North
Charles Dickens: "Great Expectations"
Dostoevsky: "The House of the Dead"
George Eliot: "Silas Marner"
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "Elsie Venner"
Tagore Rabindranath
Charles Reade: "The Cloister and the Hearth"
Wood Ellen
Mrs. Henry Wood: "East Lynne"
Spielhagen Friedrich
Friedrich Spielhagen: "Problematische Naturen"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part IV
Garnier Charles
Anquetin Louis
Louis Anquetin
Godward John William
John William Godward
Bourdelle Antoine
Antoine Bourdelle
Korovin Konstantin
Konstantin Korovin
Maillol Aristide
Aristide Maillol
Melba Nellie
Royal Academy of Music, London
The Paris version "Tannhauser"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part V
Archaeopteryx
Thallium (Tl)
Hopkins Frederick Gowland
Mort Thomas Sutcliffe
Nansen Fridtjof
Fermentation theory
Baker Samuel
Baker Florence
The Bakers and the Nile
Beeton Isabella
Harden Maximilian
First horse-drawn trams in London
Order of the Star of India
Otis Elisha Graves
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part I
Battle of Fort Henry
Second Battle of Bull Run
BATTLE OF ANTIETAM
Battle of Fredericksburg
Grey Edward
Briand Aristide
The American Civil War, 1862
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part II
Rawlinson George
Ogai Mori
Ivan Turgenev: "Fathers and Sons"
Flaubert: "Salammbo"
Victor Hugo: "Les Miserables"
Barres Maurice
Maeterlinck Maurice
Hauptmann Gerhart
Wharton Edith
Schnitzler Arthur
Uhland Ludwig
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part III
Albert Memorial, London
Manet: "Lola de Valence"
Manet: "La Musique aux Tuileries"
Nesterov Mikhail
Mikhail Nesterov
Klimt Gustav
Gustav Klimt
Rysselberghe Theo
Theo van Rysselberghe
Berlioz: "Beatrice et Benedict"
Debussy Claude
Debussy - Preludes
Claude Debussy
Delius Frederick
Frederick Delius - On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring
Frederick Delius
German Edward
Edward German - Melody in D flat major
Edward German
Kochel Ludwig
Kochel catalogue
Verdi: "La Forza del Destino"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part IV
Bragg William
Foucault Leon
Gatling Richard Jordan
Lamont Johann
Lenard Pnilipp
Sachs Julius
Palgrave William Gifford
The Arabian Desert
International Exhibition, London
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part I
Arizona
Idaho
West Virginia
Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Chancellorsville
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address"
The American Civil War, 1863
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part II
Isma'il Pasha
January Uprising
George I of Greece
Dost Mohammad Khan
Christian IX  of Denmark
Chamberlain Austen
Lloyd George David
Second Taranaki War
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part III
Huxley: "Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature"
Charles Lyell: "The Antiquity of Man"
Massachusetts Agricultural College
D'Annunzio Gabriele
Bahr Hermann
Dehmel Richard
Hale Edward Everett
Edward Everett Hale: "Man without a Country"
Hope Anthony
Charles Kingsley: "The Water Babies"
Longfellow: "Tales of a Wayside Inn"
Quiller-Couch Arthur
Stanislavsky Constantin
Stanislavsky system
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part IV
Stuck Franz
Manet: "Dejeuner sur l'herbe"
Manet: "Olympia"
Meurent Victorine-Louise
The "Salon des Refuses" in Paris
Art in Revolt
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Signac Paul
Paul Signac
Munch Edvard
Edvard Munch
Berlioz: "Les Troyens"
Bizet: "Les Pecheurs de perles"
Mascagni Pietro
Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana
Pietro Mascagni
Weingartner Felix
Felix von Weingartner: Symphony No 6
Felix Weingartner
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part V
Billroth Theodor
Butterick Ebenezer
Ford Henry
Graham Thomas
National Academy of Sciences
Sorby Henry Clifton
The Football Association, London
Grand Prix de Paris
Hearst William Randolph
Yellow journalism
Pulitzer Joseph
Nadar
History of photography
Alexandra of Denmark
Royce Henry
Cuthbert Ned
Coburn Joe
Mike McCoole
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part I
Schleswig-Holstein Question
First Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
Halleck Henry
Sherman William
BATTLE OF ATLANTA
Sand Creek massacre
Venizelos Eleutherios
Maximilian II of Bavaria
Louis II
First International Workingmen's Association
Confederate Army of Manhattan
The American Civil War, 1864
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part II
Lombroso Cesare
Newman: "Apologia pro Vita Sua"
Syllabus of Errors
Dickens: "Our Mutual Friend"
Karlfeldt Erik Axel
Trollope: "The Small House at Allington"
Wedekind Frank
Zangwill Israel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part III
Stieglitz Alfred
History of photography
ALFRED STIEGLITZ
Dyce William
William Dyce
Jawlensky Alexey
Alexei von Jawlensky
Ranson Paul
Paul Ranson
Serusier Paul
Paul Serusier
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
A More Tolerant Salon
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"
Roberts David
David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"
D'Albert Eugen
Eugen d'Albert - Piano Concerto No.2
Eugen d’Albert
Foster Stephen
Stephen Foster - Beautiful Dreamer
Offenbach: "La Belle Helene"
Strauss Richard
Richard Strauss - Metamorphosen
Richard Strauss
Fry William Henry
William Henry Fry - Santa Claus Symphony
William Henry Fry - Niagara Symphony
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part IV
Lake Albert
Bertrand Joseph
Calculus
Nernst Walther
Pasteurization
Wien Wilhelm
Rawat Nain Singh
The Surveyors
Kinthup
First Geneva Convention
Knights of Pythias
"Neue Freie Presse""
De Rossi Giovanni Battista
"In God We Trust"
Travers Stakes
Farragut David
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part I
Union blockade in the American Civil War
Charleston, South Carolina in the American Civil War
Lee Robert Edward
Conclusion of the American Civil War
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Johnson Andrew
Causes of the Franco-Prussian War
Leopold II of Belgium
Harding Warren
George V of Great Britain
Ludendorff Erich
Free State–Basotho Wars
The American Civil War, 1865
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part II
Baudrillart Henri
William Stanley Jevons: "The Coal Question"
Billings Josh
Belasco David
Campbell Patrick
Lewis Carroll: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
Dodge Mary Mapes
Mary Mapes Dodge: "Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates"
Kipling Rudyard
Rudyard Kipling
Merezhkovsky Dmitry
John Henry Newman: "Dream of Gerontius"
Mark Twain: "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"
Walt Whitman: "Drum-Taps"
Yeats William Butler
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part III
Serov Valentin
Valentin Serov
Wiertz Antoine
Antoine Wiertz
Vallotton Felix
Felix Vallotton
"Olympia" - a Sensation
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Nielsen Carl
Carl Nielsen - Aladdin Suite
Carl Nielsen
Glazunov Alexander
Glazunov - The Seasons
Alexander Glazunov
Dukas Paul
Paul Dukas "L'Apprenti Sorcier"
Paul Dukas
Meyerbeer: "L'Africaine"
Sibelius Jean
Jean Sibelius - Finlandia
Jean Sibelius
Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part IV
Plucker Julius
Hyatt John Wesley
Kekule: structure of benzene
Antiseptic
Lowe Thaddeus
Mendelian inheritance
Sechenov Ivan
Whymper Edward
The High Andes
 Bingham Hiram
Rohlfs Friedrich Gerhard
Open hearth furnace
Martin Pierre-Emile
Ku Klux Klan
"The Nation"
Marquess of Queensberry Rules
"San Francisco Examiner"
"San Francisco Chronicle"
Mitchell Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part I
Cuza Alexandru
"Monstrous coalition"
Carol I
Austro-Prussian War
Battle of Custoza
Battle of Trautenau
Battle of Koniggratz
Battle of Lissa
Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869
MacDonald Ramsay
Sun Yat-sen
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part II
Croce Benedetto
Soderblom Nathan
Larousse Pierre
Larousse: Great Universal Dictionary of the 19th Century
Friedrich Lange: "History of Materialism"
Benavente Jacinto
Dostoevsky: "Crime and Punishment"
Hamerling Robert
Ibsen: "Brand"
Kingsley: "Hereward the Wake"
Rolland Romain
Wells Herbert
H.G. Wells
"The War of the Worlds"

"The Invisible Man"
 
"A Short History of the World"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part III
Bakst Leon
Leon Bakst
Fry Roger
Kandinsky Vassili
Vassili Kandinsky
A Defender Appears
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Busoni Ferruccio
Ferruccio Busoni - Berceuse Elegiaque
Ferruccio Busoni
Offenbach: "La Vie Parisienne"
Smetana: "The Bartered Bride"
Satie Eric
Erik Satie: Nocturnes
Eric Satie
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part IV
Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
Morgan Thomas Hunt
Nicolle Charles
Werner Alfred
Whitehead Robert
Whitehead torpedo
Doudart de Lagree Ernest
Panic of 1866
Thomas Morris
MacGregor John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part I
Manchester Martyrs
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Nebraska
Constitution Act, 1867
Alaska Purchase
North German Confederation
Reform Act of 1867
Battle of Mentana
Mary of Teck
Baldwin Stanley
Rathenau Walther
Pilsudski Joseph
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part II
Bagehot Walter
Walter Bagehot: "The English Constitution"
Freeman Edward Augustus
Freeman: The History of the Norman Conquest of England
Marx: "Das Kapital"
Thoma Ludwig
Soseki Natsume
Russell George William
Reymont Wladislau
Bennett Arnold
Balmont Konstantin
Pirandello Luigi
Galsworthy John
Charles de Coster: "The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel"
Ouida: "Under Two Flags"
Trollope: "The Last Chronicle of Barset"
Turgenev: "Smoke"
Zola: "Therese Raquin"
Ibsen: "Peer Gynt"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part III
Delville Jean
Jean Delville
Kollwitz Kathe
Kathe Kollwitz
Nolde Emil
Emil Nolde
Bonnard Pierre
Pierre Bonnard
Manet's Personal Exhibition
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "La Jolie Fille de Perth"
Gounod: "Romeo et Juliette"
Offenbach: "La Grande-Duchesse de Gerolstein"
Johann Strauss II: The "Blue Danube"
Toscanini Arturo
Verdi: "Don Carlos"
Granados Enrique
Enrique Granados - Spanish Dances
Enrique Granados
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part IV
Curie Marie
Michaux Pierre
Monier Joseph
Brenner Railway
Mining industry of South Africa
Dynamite
Thurn and Taxis
Chambers John Graham
London Athletic Club
Barnardo Thomas John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part I
British Expedition to Abyssinia
Battle of Magdala
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tenure of Office Act
Province of Hanover
Russian Turkestan
Mihailo Obrenovic III
Milan I of Serbia
Glorious Revolution
Horthy Nicholas
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part II
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy
Charles Darwin: "The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication"
Louisa May Alcott: "Little Women"
Robert Browning: "The Ring and the Book"
Wilkie Collins: "The Moonstone"
Dostoevsky: "The Idiot"
George Stefan
Gorki Maxim
Rostand Edmond
Edmond Rostand
"Cyrano De Bergerac"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part III
Bernard Emile
Emile Bernard
Vollard Ambroise
Slevogt Max
Max Slevogt
Vuillard Edouard
Edouard Vuillard
The Realist Impulse
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bantock Granville
Bantock "Overture The Frogs"
Granville Bantock
Brahms: "Ein deutsches Requiem"
Schillings Max
Max von Schillings: Mona Lisa
Max von Schillings
Wagner: "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part IV
Lartet Louis
Cro-Magnon
Haber Fritz
Millikan Robert Andrews
Richards Theodore William
Scott Robert Falcon
Armour Philip Danforth
Badminton House
Garvin James Louis
Harmsworth Harold
Trades Union Congress
"Whitaker's Almanack"
Sholes Christopher Latham
Typewriter
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part I
Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant
French legislative election, 1869
Prohibition Party
Red River Rebellion
Chamberlain Neville
Gandhi Mahatma
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part II
Matthew Arnold: "Culture and Anarchy"
Eduard Hartmann: "The Philosophy of the Unconscious"
Mill: "On The Subjection of Women"
First Vatican Council
Blackmore Richard Doddridge
Blackmore: "Lorna Doone"
Flaubert: "Sentimental Education"
Gide Andre
Gilbert: "Bab Ballads"
Halevy Ludovic
Bret Harte: "The Outcasts of Poker Flat"
Victor Hugo: "The Man Who Laughs"
Leacock Stephen
Mark Twain: "The Innocents Abroad"
Tolstoy: "War and Peace"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part III
Lutyens Edwin
Poelzig Hans
Carus Carl Gustav
Carl Gustav Carus
Somov Konstantin
Konstantin Somov
Matisse Henri
Henri Matisse
Manet Falls Foul of the Censor
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 0
Pfitzner Hans
Pfitzner - Nachts
Hans Pfitzner
Wagner Siegfried
Siegfried Wagner "Prelude to Sonnenflammen"
Richard Wagner: "Das Rheingold"
Roussel Albert
Albert Roussel - Bacchus et Ariane
Albert Roussel
Wood Henry
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part IV
Francis Galton: "Hereditary Genius"
Celluloid
Periodic law
Nachtigal Gustav
Cincinnati Red Stockings
Girton College, Cambridge
Nihilism
1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game
Co-operative Congress
Lesseps Ferdinand
Suez Canal
 
 
 

The Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1863 Part I
 
 
 
1863
 
 
Arizona and Idaho organized as U.S. territories;
West Virginia becomes a state of the U.S.
 
 
Arizona
 

Arizona, constituent state of the United States of America. Arizona is the sixth largest state in the country in terms of area. Its population has always been predominantly urban, particularly since the mid-20th century, when urban and suburban areas began growing rapidly at the expense of the countryside. Some scholars believe that the state’s name comes from a Basque phrase meaning “place of oaks,” while others attribute it to a Tohono O’odham (Papago) Indian phrase meaning “place of the young (or little) spring.” Arizona achieved statehood on February 14, 1912, the last of the 48 conterminous United States to be admitted to the union.

 
Arizona is a land of contradictions. Although widely reputed for its hot low-elevation desert covered with cacti and creosote bushes, more than half of the state lies at an elevation of at least 4,000 feet (1,200 metres) above sea level, and it possesses the largest stand of evergreen ponderosa pine trees in the world. Arizona is well known for its waterless tracts of desert, but, thanks to many large man-made lakes, it has many more miles of shoreline than its reputation might suggest. Such spectacular landforms as the Grand Canyon and the Painted Desert have become international symbols of the region’s ruggedness, yet Arizona’s environment is so delicate that in many ways it is more threatened by pollution than are New York City and Los Angeles. Its romantic reputation as a wild desert and a place of old-fashioned close-to-the-earth simplicity is at variance with the fact that after the 1860s the state’s economy became industrial and technological long before it was pastoral or agrarian.

Arizona is located in the southwestern quadrant of the conterminous states, bordered by California to the west, Nevada to the northwest, Utah to the north, New Mexico to the east, and the Mexican state of Sonora to the south. The Colorado River forms the boundary with California and Nevada. Phoenix, situated in the south-central part of the state, is the capital and largest city. Area 113,990 square miles (295,233 square km). Population (2010) 6,392,017; (2014 est.) 6,731,484.

 
 

Arizona
 
 
History

Early settlement

PREHISTORIC PEOPLES

Although the region’s physical environment may appear inhospitable to habitation and subsistence, Arizona contains some of North America’s oldest records of human occupation. Relics of material culture are evidence that humans most likely lived in Arizona more than 25,000 years ago. For most of this prehistoric period, those people lived in caves and hunted animals, many species of which no longer exist. Scholars believe that the Cochise culture, made up of people living in what is now southeastern Arizona, began more than 10,000 years ago and lasted until 500 bce or later.

During the past 2,000 years the prehistoric societies that developed within Arizona were highly organized and advanced. Many of these Native American groups lived in durable masonry villages called pueblos (from the Spanish word meaning “town” or “village”). Arizona has become one of the most intensively excavated parts of the New World for archaeological research on this period. This group of prehistoric cultures, which are better known than their predecessors, includes the Hohokam, Ancestral Pueblo (Anasazi), Mogollon, Sinagua, Salado, Cohonina, and Patayan. The nomadic Apache and Navajo probably arrived in the region sometime between 1100 and 1500 ce.

 
 
THE SPANISH PERIOD
The documented record of the European explorers and settlers of the region began in Mexico in the 1530s with Spaniards who wrote about the legend of Eldorado and the Seven Golden Cities of Cíbola. In 1539 Fray Marcos de Niza, a Franciscan priest, entered Arizona in search of riches and hoping to find Native Americans to convert to Christianity.

Fearful of the hostility he faced from the indigenous people, Fray Marcos returned to Mexico and reported misleadingly about the places he visited. The following year Francisco Vázquez de Coronado led a large well-armed expedition to Arizona in an effort to claim for Spain what is known today as the American Southwest. In contrast to Marcos’s reports, Coronado wrote favorably of the area, notably to the ruler of New Spain, Viceroy Mendoza. Members of Coronado’s expedition visited the Grand Canyon and the Hopi pueblos, while Coronado himself traveled as far as eastern Kansas before returning to Mexico.

In 1583 members of the Hopi tribe guided the Spanish explorer Antonio de Espejo to the site of present-day Jerome. He was disappointed to find copper and other nonprecious metal ores instead of the gold he sought. By 1675 several Franciscan missionaries had established themselves at the Hopi villages, but five years later the Hopi rose up and drove the Spaniards out as part of the regionwide Pueblo Rebellion.
In the early 1700s Roman Catholic missionaries established churches in the upper Santa Cruz valley in southern Arizona. During that period other Hispanics also settled there but were confined to the valley by Apache raiders. In the 18th century priests visited various parts of northern Arizona, including the Hopi villages, but made no serious attempt at religious conversion.

 
Hohokam petroglyphs
Prehistoric Hohokam petroglyphs depicting a hunting scene, South Mountain Park, Phoenix, Arizona.
 
 
After the successful revolution that brought Mexico’s independence from Spain in 1821, the new government ordered the missions in Arizona to close. Arizona was ceded to the United States as part of New Mexico in 1848; it became independent of New Mexico in 1863. Following the Gadsden Purchase in 1853, when Mexico sold Arizona’s southernmost region to the United States, only a few scattered and isolated Mexican American ranches remained, all of them located near the Mexican border.
 
 
Statehood and growth
Until the Mexican-American War (1846–48) only a few Americans—explorers, soldiers, trappers, sheep drivers—visited Arizona. In 1851 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers sent several expeditions into Arizona to find a suitable route on which to build a wagon road to California. To protect travelers, miners, and other settlers from Native Americans, the U.S. government began to locate army posts at key sites. In 1883 workers completed the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway across northern Arizona, thereby linking St. Louis, Missouri, with California; that same year the Southern Pacific Railroad completed a line from New Orleans to Los Angeles by way of Tucson and Yuma.
 
 
THE COPPER ERA
Copper, Arizona’s premier industry until the 1950s, was first mined in Arizona at Ajo in 1854. The Planet mines opened on the banks of the Colorado River about the same time. By 1876 the Clifton-Morenci district in eastern Arizona had two large-scale mining operations. Copper mines in Globe and Jerome, both in central Arizona, also developed rapidly, as did the silver mines at Tombstone. However, the richest copper find of all occurred in 1877 in Bisbee, in southeastern Arizona near the Mexican border. By 1880 national and international advances in electrical engineering and the availability of investment capital had created a vigorous demand for copper, and Arizona began to satisfy a rapidly growing market; the state still mines and processes about two-thirds of the copper produced in the United States.
 
 

The Grand Canyon.
 
 
DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
During the 1870s a few homesteaders, including a number of Mormon immigrants from Utah, attempted to develop farming economies along Arizona’s few streams and rivers. Droughts, floods, and the need for heavy capital investment made it clear that for commercial farming to succeed in the state it would have to be practiced on a large scale, be highly organized, and use the best technology available. To do this, central Arizona agricultural interests developed plans for large water-storage and flood-control systems that included expensive dams and extensive canal systems. The Salt River Project, completed in 1911, delivered water to farmers in the Phoenix area (now the state’s agricultural heartland). Water shortages continued to plague the state, however, and in 1963, after a long and bitter fight with California, Arizona obtained a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court that affirmed Arizona’s right to some 2.8 million acre-feet (3.5 billion square metres) of water annually from the Colorado River, as well as the entire flow of the Gila River. In 1968, after a lengthy and heated debate, the U.S. Congress authorized the Central Arizona Project, a massive system of pumps and canals to conduct water from the Colorado River to the Phoenix and Tucson areas; the project was completed in 1993.

Range cattle constituted a major source of income for Arizona from the 1860s until World War II, when large feedlots became prominent. Those lots, in turn, have begun to disappear; today the cattle raised in Arizona constitute only a small percentage of the country’s edible beef.

  POPULATION INFLUX
After Arizona achieved statehood in 1912, it soon began to tout itself as the place of the “five Cs”: copper, cattle, cotton, citrus, and climate. Health seekers from the rest of the country discovered that the clear, clean, dry air of Arizona brought relief from various respiratory ailments, thus laying the foundation for a growing stream of in-migrants and visitors who continued to infuse money into the state.

During the 1920s “motor courts” (motels), dude ranches, and resorts sprang up to accommodate increasing numbers of tourists, winter residents, and retirees. Arizona, with its favourable climate and its distance from the country’s coasts, became the site of several World War II flight schools and other U.S. government military bases. Following the war, a surge of migration from other states—particularly from the Midwest—changed Phoenix into one of the fastest-growing urban areas in the United States.
Also of great significance was the development and widespread use of refrigeration and air conditioning, which perhaps more than anything else made Arizona attractive and habitable.

Many people think of the state as a romantic getaway fraught with images of Native Americans, cowboys, and a Mexican “mañana” atmosphere. Arizona, however, has never been free from the curses of an urban industrial society. Were it not for such technological developments as railroads, copper smelters, nuclear reactors, automobiles, refrigeration, computers, and hydroelectric turbines, few people would be living in the state today.

 
 
Although many newcomers anticipate a land of personal fulfillment, the state has its share of disillusioning characteristics—for example, notably high rates of bankruptcy, crime, and divorce. It faces the challenge of balancing a modern society built in an arid land with the preservation of as much as possible of its beautiful natural landscape. Arizona’s major problem is the limit of the state’s ability to support a growing population in a way that does not bring deterioration to those characteristics that made Arizona attractive in the first place.

James W. Byrkit
Gregory Lewis McNamee

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Idaho
 

Idaho, constituent state of the United States of America. It ranks 14th among the 50 U.S. states in terms of total area. Its boundaries—with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north and the U.S. states of Montana and Wyoming to the east, Utah and Nevada to the south, and Oregon and Washington to the west—are both historical and geographic in derivation.

The boundary with British Columbia follows the 49th parallel of north latitude, while the border with Utah and Nevada follows the 42nd parallel; both lines were established by treaty—the northern between the United States and Britain in 1846 and the southern between the United States and Spain in 1819.

The border with Montana follows the Continental Divide, while the border with Wyoming incorporates a small slice of Yellowstone National Park. Idaho’s border with Oregon and Washington is a 480-mile (770-km) straight stretch except between the Idaho cities of Weiser and Lewiston, where Hells Canyon of the Snake River serves as a natural boundary. Boise is the state capital.

 
Idaho, admitted as the 43rd state of the union on July 3, 1890, is one of the Mountain states, but it is often classified as part of the Pacific Northwest, a region unified by the Continental Divide as an eastern boundary and by the Columbia River drainage basin, which covers virtually the entire area. The name Idaho is thought to be derived from a Shoshone phrase meaning “gem of the mountains.”

Idaho is shaped much like a logger’s boot, thereby accidentally reflecting the state’s rugged forest and mountain terrain in which logging and mining play major roles. The residents of Idaho enjoy some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States, including about 3,900 square miles (10,000 square km) of wilderness and primitive land in which roads and vehicles are seldom to be found. Since its development in 1936 Sun Valley has become an internationally known area for winter sports. Idaho also has large supplies of groundwater. Hot springs are found in many parts of the state and are used to heat some homes and buildings in Boise, whose name (French boisé, “wooded”) reflects its settlement as an oasis for explorers who once crossed the desolate Snake River Plains. A frontier character is still evident in the individualism of voting that makes the crossing of party lines a frequent occurrence in an otherwise fairly conservative climate. Area 83,569 square miles (216,443 square km). Population (2010) 1,567,582; (2014 est.) 1,634,464.

 
 

Idaho
 
 
History

Early history and settlement

Before the 1840s, when the buffalo herds disappeared and the wagon trains of settlers who were bound for California began to arrive, Native Americans had lived in the Idaho region for at least 10,000 years. In the north were the Kutenai, the Kalispel (a Salish-speaking group), the Coeur d’Alene, and the Nez Percé. Northern Paiute lived in the west-central region, while the western Shoshone and the northern Shoshone occupied most of the southern lands. These peoples generally organized themselves into groups of extended families and friends. Because they relied upon hunting, gathering, and fishing for their subsistence, some groups traveled extensively. Others, particularly those living on major rivers, built substantial settlements that took advantage of annual runs of salmon and other fish. Many tribal members still live in the state.

When the Lewis and Clark Expedition reached Idaho in 1805, about 8,000 Native Americans lived in the region. A trading post was erected at Lake Pend Oreille in the north in 1809, and fur traders were followed by missionaries. Gold seekers by the thousands poured through the area on their way to California in 1848, but many returned eastward after gold was discovered in northern Idaho in 1860. The settlers who followed wanted land and political stability, which had hitherto been uncertain, and slowly agriculture acquired economic dominance.

 
 

Shoshone Falls, southern Idaho.
 
 
Territorial period
Idaho originally was in Oregon country, which was claimed first by Spain and then by Russia, Great Britain, and the United States; after the latter two had settled on the 49th parallel as the northern U.S. border, the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. It included the present state of Idaho, as well as what are now Oregon, Washington, and part of Montana. From 1853 to 1859 Idaho was divided between the Oregon and Washington territories. It then was part of Washington until it was organized separately as the Idaho Territory in 1863.

From a population of fewer than 17,000 in 1863, the territory expanded to nearly 90,000 at the time of statehood in 1890. Many new arrivals were Confederate refugees who, in the years following the American Civil War, often dominated the legislature and opposed the Republican governors who were appointed by the federal government. Political strife and vigilante committees were elements of frontier life during the territorial decades. Many events and trends coloured the state’s early political and social life: religious conflicts between the polygamous Mormons (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) and other sects; a strong sectionalism that divided various regions of the territory; a pioneer democracy that emphasized the rights and achievements of the individual; the completion of railroads, which fostered economic and population growth; the beginning of lead and silver mining in the mountains; and the creation of the University of Idaho in 1889 by the last territorial legislature that was convened prior to statehood.

  Statehood and beyond
Labour protests that often erupted into violence were features of the 1890s era in Idaho. Through his unsuccessful prosecution in 1907 of William D. Haywood, an organizer of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), Sen. William E. Borah became Idaho’s major national figure until his death in 1940.

During the 20th century Idaho was engaged in developing its agriculture, forestry, and industry, while maintaining the more satisfying aspects of modern life at the doorstep of a natural wilderness. That wilderness attracted many adherents of the countercultural back-to-the-land movement in the 1960s and ’70s. In the following decade, that movement was succeeded by an influx of survivalists and members of extreme right-wing groups and other organizations attracted by the state’s remoteness and its libertarian attitude. Idaho is now broadly perceived as strongly conservative but inhospitable to extremist elements.

Idaho’s population grew markedly in the last decades of the 20th century with the arrival of more than 100,000 newcomers, mostly from California and the Pacific Northwest. The population continued to grow in the early 21st century, particularly in the areas of Boise and Coeur d’Alene.

Boyd A. Martin
Gregory Lewis McNamee


Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
West Virginia
 

West Virginia, constituent state of the United States of America. Admitted to the union as the 35th state in 1863, it is a relatively small state. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland and Virginia to the east, Kentucky to the southwest, and Ohio to the northwest. The state capital is Charleston.

 
West Virginia justifies in every way its nickname, the Mountain State. With an average elevation of about 1,500 feet (460 metres) above sea level, it is the highest of any U.S. state east of the Mississippi River. It is a region tied economically and socially to the mountain spines that span its length and breadth and to the rivers that enclose it on many sides. Originally it constituted the northwestern portion of Virginia, but its inhabitants defied the state’s secession convention in 1861, choosing instead to remain within the union. Two years later the area formed a new state, its citizenry acting much in the tradition suggested by the motto of West Virginia, “Montani semper liberi” (“Mountaineers are always free”).

In comparison with the national standards and averages of the United States, West Virginia is poor in personal incomes and in overall economic development. For decades the rich coal beds underlying West Virginia have made it a leading producer of bituminous coal in North America. The gnarled terrain long locked West Virginians into their small communities in the narrow valleys and posed both literal and symbolic obstacles to people from the outside world. Since World War II large numbers of the state’s population have left West Virginia for places offering greater employment opportunities. The 1970s marked a brief turning point in out-migration during that decade’s energy crisis and accompanying coal boom. Beginning in the 1980s, population loss from the coalfields and heavy manufacturing was partially offset by an influx of urban professionals and retirees in the eastern panhandle. West Virginians have turned to the development of education and telecommunications, among other strategies, to create a more modern social and economic climate in their state. Area 24,230 square miles (62,756 square km). Population (2010) 1,852,994; (2014 est.) 1,850,326.

 
 

West Virginia
 
 
History
Some 14,000 years ago Native American hunters entered the Ohio and Kanawha valleys in pursuit of mammoths. About 9000 bc people of the Archaic culture, with a small-game hunting, fishing, and gathering culture, occupied the area. Their successors, the Adena, or Mound Builders (c. 500 bc to c. ad 100), created numerous earthworks still visible in the Moundsville and Charleston areas. The Adena were absorbed by the Fort Ancient people, who dominated the territory until they were wiped out by the Iroquois Confederacy about 1650. Except for scattered villages the area that was to become West Virginia remained Native American hunting grounds and battlegrounds when Europeans arrived in the 1700s.
 
 
Colonial period and Virginia’s dominion
The second charter of Virginia in 1609 provided for settlement of that colony’s western frontiers. Exploration and trade were further encouraged by Gov. William Berkeley after 1660. The Blue Ridge was reached in 1670, and in 1671 another expedition encountered the first westward-flowing stream, the New River, in southwestern Virginia. The expedition descended that river to Peter’s Falls on the future Virginia–West Virginia border and claimed for England all the land drained by the New River and its tributaries. Subsequent trans-Allegheny frontier settlement was handicapped by such factors as mountain barriers, Native American resistance, conflicting English and French claims in the Ohio River valley, and disputed land titles.

The French and Indian War settled the British and French claim to the area. In 1763 the French ceded to the victorious British all lands west of the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River. In the same year, the British delimited a Royal Proclamation Line that created an Indian reservation in the trans-Appalachian west and prohibited colonial expansion.

Despite these obstacles, the population expanded westward, and discontent with the government east of the mountains became endemic. A 14th colony, to be named Vandalia, was proposed in 1769, and several years later residents of western lands claimed by Virginia and Pennsylvania moved to establish a 14th state, Westsylvania; these initiatives indicated an early interest in a separate government for the trans-Allegheny country.

 
St. Peter’s Roman Catholic Church, Harpers Ferry, W.Va.
 
 
Dissatisfaction among the pioneers in that region mounted in the cultural, social, economic, and political realms. The frontier residents, who came from many areas, were distinctly different from the aristocratic eastern settlers. Furthermore, topographic, soil, and climatic differences rendered slavery economically unsound, and cultural heritage made it undesirable. In addition, representation in the legislature and taxation policy decidedly favoured eastern Virginia.
 
 
Civil War and statehood
The advent of the American Civil War fueled new desires for a politically separate western area. At the Virginia secession convention of April 1861, a majority of the western delegates opposed secession. Subsequent meetings at Wheeling (May 1861), dominated by the western delegates, declared the Ordinance of Secession to be an illegal attempt to overthrow the federal government, although the ordinance was approved by a majority of Virginia voters. Opponents of secession reconvened for a second Wheeling convention (June), which pronounced the Richmond government void, established a Restored Government of Virginia that was aligned with the Union, and provided for the election of new state officers for western Virginia. In October 1861 the voters in the counties of the proposed new state and in two neighbouring counties overwhelmingly approved the creation of the state by popular vote. They also elected delegates to a constitutional convention, which took place in November. In April 1862 the voters approved the new constitution, again by a huge margin. The governor, Francis H. Pierpont, secured federal recognition and maintained civil jurisdiction over the region until Congress consented to the admission of West Virginia to the Union on June 20, 1863. A condition of entry was the gradual emancipation of slaves in the region. The capital was permanently established at Charleston in 1885.

Civil War engagements were few in the state, although the war itself was in part precipitated by the seizure of the federal armoury at Harpers Ferry in 1859 by a small band of men under the antislavery zeal of John Brown. Brown was captured by federal troops and subsequently was tried and hanged in Charles Town, but his exploits inflamed tensions between the country’s proslavery and antislavery factions. To the abolitionists of the North he became a martyr. West Virginians, as citizens of a border state, had sympathies for both the North and the South. During the war nearly 32,000 soldiers enlisted in the Union army, and about 9,000 served the Confederacy, although some authorities maintain the latter figure to be low.

  Postwar period
West Virginia’s industrial emergence, encouraged by railroad expansion, began in the 1870s. Its natural resources of timber, coal, salt, oil, and natural gas substantially contributed to the establishment of a more modern industrial system. The labour troubles that flared in mining areas between 1912 and 1921 required the intervention of the National Guard (twice) and the U.S. Army (four times) to quell violence, but the right to organize labour unions, which was granted by national statutes in 1933 and 1935, brought a measure of peace to the state.

West Virginia was one of the leading states in the proportion of its population serving in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam. The state received national political recognition in the 1960 Democratic presidential primary when Roman Catholic John F. Kennedy defeated Hubert H. Humphrey in an overwhelmingly Protestant state.

For the remainder of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st, West Virginia was stalwartly Democratic. Most state- and federal-level offices continued to go to Democrats, although the state gave its five presidential electoral votes to Republican George W. Bush in 2000 and 2004.

With the future of the world’s energy supply a growing concern, West Virginia’s coal resources were increasingly valuable both nationally and internationally. In the early 21st century the state mined half of all the coal exported from the United States, mostly via mountaintop removal. West Virginia also still led the country in underground coal production. Tragedies such as the explosions at Sago Mine in January 2006, which killed 12 miners, and at Upper Big Branch Mine in April 2010, which killed 29, were a reminder that mines and mining disasters continued to play a role in West Virginia’s history.

Sam E. Clagg
Kenneth C. Martis

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
     
 



World Countries



United States of America
     
 
 
 
1863
 
 
Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation January 1
 
 
Emancipation Proclamation
 

Emancipation Proclamation, edict issued by U.S. Pres. Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, that freed the slaves of the Confederate states in rebellion against the Union.

 
Before the start of the American Civil War many people and leaders of the North had been primarily concerned merely with stopping the extension of slavery into western territories that would eventually achieve statehood within the Union.

With the secession of the Southern states and the consequent start of the Civil War, however, the continued tolerance of Southern slavery by Northerners seemed no longer to serve any constructive political purpose. Emancipation thus quickly changed from a distant possibility to an imminent and feasible eventuality. Lincoln had declared that he meant to save the Union as best he could—by preserving slavery, by destroying it, or by destroying part and preserving part. Just after the Battle of Antietam (September 17, 1862) he issued his proclamation calling on the revolted states to return to their allegiance before the next year, otherwise their slaves would be declared free men. No state returned, and the threatened declaration was issued on January 1, 1863.

As president, Lincoln could issue no such declaration; as commander in chief of the armies and navies of the United States he could issue directions only as to the territory within his lines; but the Emancipation Proclamation applied only to territory outside of his lines. It has therefore been debated whether the proclamation was in reality of any force. It may fairly be taken as an announcement of the policy that was to guide the army and as a declaration of freedom taking effect as the lines advanced. At all events, this was its exact effect.

  Its international importance was far greater. The locking up of the world’s source of cotton supply had been a general calamity, and the Confederate government and people had steadily expected that the English and French governments would intervene in the war. The conversion of the struggle into a crusade against slavery made European intervention impossible.

The Emancipation Proclamation did more than lift the war to the level of a crusade for human freedom. It brought some substantial practical results, because it allowed the Union to recruit black soldiers. To this invitation to join the army the blacks responded in considerable numbers, nearly 180,000 of them enlisting during the remainder of the war.

By August 26, 1863, Lincoln could report, in a letter to James C. Conkling, that “the emancipation policy, and the use of colored troops, constitute the heaviest blow yet dealt to the rebellion.”

Two months before the war ended—in February 1865—Lincoln told portrait painter Francis B. Carpenter that the Emancipation Proclamation was “the central act of my administration, and the greatest event of the nineteenth century.”
To Lincoln and to his countrymen it had become evident that the proclamation had dealt a deathblow to slavery in the United States, a fate that was officially sealed by the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment in December 1865.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1863
 
 
Confederate victory at Chancellorsville, Va.;
defeats at Gettysburg, Pa., and Vicksburg, Miss.;
Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address" at the dedication of military cemetery
 
 
Battle of Chancellorsville
 
The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War, and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville Campaign. It was fought from April 30 to May 6, 1863, in Spotsylvania County, Virginia, near the village of Chancellorsville. Two related battles were fought nearby on May 3 in the vicinity of Fredericksburg. The campaign pitted Union Army Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's Army of the Potomac against an army less than half its size, Gen. Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. Chancellorsville is known as Lee's "perfect battle" because his risky decision to divide his army in the presence of a much larger enemy force resulted in a significant Confederate victory. The victory, a product of Lee's audacity and Hooker's timid decision making, was tempered by heavy casualties and the mortal wounding of Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson by friendly fire, a loss that Lee likened to "losing my right arm."
 
The Chancellorsville Campaign began with the crossing of the Rappahannock River by the Union army on the morning of April 27, 1863. Union cavalry under Maj. Gen. George Stoneman began a long distance raid against Lee's supply lines at about the same time. This operation was completely ineffectual. Crossing the Rapidan River via Germanna and Ely's Fords, the Federal infantry concentrated near Chancellorsville on April 30. Combined with the Union force facing Fredericksburg, Hooker planned a double envelopment, attacking Lee from both his front and rear.

On May 1, Hooker advanced from Chancellorsville toward Lee, but the Confederate general split his army in the face of superior numbers, leaving a small force at Fredericksburg to deter Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick from advancing, while he attacked Hooker's advance with about four-fifths of his army. Despite the objections of his subordinates, Hooker withdrew his men to the defensive lines around Chancellorsville, ceding the initiative to Lee. On May 2, Lee divided his army again, sending Stonewall Jackson's entire corps on a flanking march that routed the Union XI Corps. While performing a personal reconnaissance in advance of his line, Jackson was wounded by fire from his own men, and Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart temporarily replaced him as corps commander.

The fiercest fighting of the battle—and the second bloodiest day of the Civil War—occurred on May 3 as Lee launched multiple attacks against the Union position at Chancellorsville, resulting in heavy losses on both sides. That same day, Sedgwick advanced across the Rappahannock River, defeated the small Confederate force at Marye's Heights in the Second Battle of Fredericksburg, and then moved to the west. The Confederates fought a successful delaying action at the Battle of Salem Church and by May 4 had driven back Sedgwick's men to Banks's Ford, surrounding them on three sides. Sedgwick withdrew across the ford early on May 5, and Hooker withdrew the remainder of his army across U.S. Ford the night of May 5–6. The campaign ended on May 7 when Stoneman's cavalry reached Union lines east of Richmond.

 
 

Battle of Chancellorsville by Kurz and Allison
(depicts the wounding of Confederate Lt. Gen. Stonewall Jackson on May 2, 1863)
 
 
Background
Union attempts against Richmond

In the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, the basic offensive plan for the Union had been to advance and seize the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia. In the first two years of the war, four major attempts had failed: the first foundered just miles away from Washington, D.C., at the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas) in July 1861. Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign took an amphibious approach, landing his Army of the Potomac on the Virginia Peninsula in the spring of 1862 and coming within 6 miles (9.7 km) of Richmond before being turned back by Gen. Robert E. Lee in the Seven Days Battles. That summer, Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia was defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run. In December 1862, Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside commanded the Army of the Potomac and attempted to reach Richmond by way of Fredericksburg, Virginia, where he was defeated at the Battle of Fredericksburg. This string of Union defeats was interrupted in September 1862 when Lee moved into Maryland and his campaign was turned back by McClellan at the Battle of Antietam, but this represented no threat to Richmond.
 
 
Shakeup in the Army of the Potomac
In January 1863, the Army of the Potomac, following the Battle of Fredericksburg and the humiliating Mud March, suffered from rising desertions and plunging morale. Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside decided to conduct a mass purge of the Army of the Potomac's leadership, eliminating a number of generals who he felt were responsible for the disaster at Fredericksburg. In reality, he had no power to dismiss anyone without the approval of Congress.

Predictably, Burnside's purge went nowhere, and he offered President Abraham Lincoln his resignation from command of the Army of the Potomac. He even offered to resign entirely from the Army, but the president persuaded him to stay, transferring him to the Western Theater, where he became commander of the Department of the Ohio. Burnside's former command, the IX Corps, was transferred to the Virginia Peninsula, a movement that prompted the Confederates to detach troops from Lee's army under Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, a decision that would be consequential in the upcoming campaign.

Abraham Lincoln had become convinced that the appropriate objective for his Eastern army was the army of Robert E. Lee's, not any geographic features such as a capital city, but he and his generals knew that the most reliable way to bring Lee to a decisive battle was to threaten his capital. Lincoln tried a fifth time with a new general on January 25, 1863—Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, a man with a pugnacious reputation who had performed well in previous subordinate commands.

  With Burnside's departure, Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin left as well. Franklin had been a staunch supporter of George B. McClellan and refused to serve under Hooker, because he disliked him personally and also because he was senior to Hooker in rank. Maj. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner stepped down due to old age (he was 65) and poor health. He was reassigned to a command in Missouri, but died before he could assume it. Brig. Gen. Daniel Butterfield was reassigned from command of the V Corps to be Hooker's chief of staff.

Hooker embarked on a reorganization of the army, doing away with Burnside's grand division system, which Hooker considered unwieldy; he also no longer had sufficient senior officers on hand that he could trust to command multi-corps operations. He organized the cavalry into a separate corps under the command of Brig. Gen. George Stoneman (who had commanded the III Corps at Fredericksburg). But while he concentrated the cavalry into a single organization, he dispersed his artillery battalions to the control of the infantry division commanders, removing the coordinating influence of the army's artillery chief, Brig. Gen. Henry J. Hunt.

During the spring of 1863, Hooker established a reputation as an outstanding administrator and restored the morale of his soldiers, which had plummeted to a new low under Burnside. Among his changes were fixes to the daily diet of the troops, camp sanitary changes, improvements and accountability of the quartermaster system, addition of and monitoring of company cooks, several hospital reforms, an improved furlough system, orders to stem rising desertion, improved drills, and stronger officer training.

 
 
Opposing forces

Union


The Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, had 133,868 men and 413 guns organized as follows:

I Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds, with the divisions of Brig. Gens. James S. Wadsworth, John C. Robinson, and Abner Doubleday.
II Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. Darius N. Couch, with the divisions of Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock and William H. French, and Brig. Gen. John Gibbon.
III Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. Daniel E. Sickles, with the divisions of Brig. Gen. David B. Birney, and Maj. Gens. Hiram G. Berry and Amiel W. Whipple.
V Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, with the divisions of Brig. Gens. Charles Griffin and Andrew A. Humphreys, and Maj. Gen. George Sykes.
VI Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick, with the divisions of Brig. Gens. William T. H. Brooks and Albion P. Howe, Maj. Gen. John Newton, and Col. Hiram Burnham.
XI Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard, with the divisions of Brig. Gen. Charles Devens, Jr., and Adolph von Steinwehr, and Maj. Gen. Carl Schurz.
XII Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum, with the divisions of Brig. Gens. Alpheus S. Williams and John W. Geary.
Cavalry Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. George Stoneman, with the divisions of Brig. Gens. Alfred Pleasonton, William W. Averell, and David M. Gregg.

  Confederate
Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia fielded 60,892 men and 220 guns, organized as follows:

First Corps, commanded by Lt. Gen. James Longstreet. Longstreet and the majority of his corps (the divisions of Maj. Gen. John Bell Hood and Maj. Gen. George E. Pickett, and two artillery battalions) were detached for duty in southeastern Virginia. The divisions present at Chancellorsville were those of Maj. Gens. Lafayette McLaws and Richard H. Anderson.
Second Corps, commanded by Lt. Gen. Stonewall Jackson, with the divisions of Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill, Brig. Gen. Robert E. Rodes, Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early, and Brig. Gen. Raleigh E. Colston.
Cavalry Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart. (Stuart's corps had only two brigades at Chancellorsville, those of Brig. Gens. Fitzhugh Lee and W.H.F. "Rooney" Lee. The brigades of Brig. Gens. Wade Hampton and William E. "Grumble" Jones were detached.)
The Chancellorsville Campaign was one of the most lopsided clashes of the war, with the Union's effective fighting force more than twice the Confederates', the greatest imbalance during the war in Virginia. Hooker's army was much better supplied and was well-rested after several months of inactivity. Lee's forces, on the other hand, were poorly provisioned and were scattered all over the state of Virginia. Some 15,000 men of Longstreet's Corps had previously been detached and stationed near Norfolk in order to block a potential threat to Richmond from Federal troops stationed at Fort Monroe and Newport News on the Peninsula, as well as at Norfolk and Suffolk.

 
 
In light of the continued Federal inactivity, by late March Longstreet's primary assignment became that of requisitioning provisions for Lee's forces from the farmers and planters of North Carolina and Virginia. As a result of this the two divisions of Maj. Gen. John Bell Hood and Maj. Gen. George Pickett were 130 miles (210 km) away from Lee's army and would take a week or more of marching to reach it in an emergency. After nearly a year of campaigning, allowing these troops to slip away from his immediate control was Lee's gravest miscalculation. Although he hoped to be able to call on them, these men would not arrive in time to aid his outnumbered forces.
 
 

Hooker's plan for the Chancellorsville Campaign
Confederate    Union
 
 
Intelligence and plans
Hooker took advantage of improved military intelligence about the positioning and capabilities of the opposing army, superior to that available to his predecessors in army command. His chief of staff, Butterfield, commissioned Col. George H. Sharpe from the 120th New York regiment to organize a new Bureau of Military Intelligence in the Army of the Potomac, part of the provost marshal function under Brig. Gen. Marsena R. Patrick. Previously, intelligence gatherers, such as Allan Pinkerton and his detective agency, gathered information only by interrogating prisoners, deserters, "contrabands" (slaves), and refugees. The new BMI added other sources including infantry and cavalry reconnaissance, spies, scouts, signal stations, and an aerial balloon corps. As he received the more complete information correlated from these additional sources, Hooker realized that if he were to avoid the bloodbath of direct frontal attacks, which were features of the battles of Antietam and, more recently, Fredericksburg, he could not succeed in his crossing of the Rappahannock "except by stratagem."

Hooker's army faced Lee across the Rappahannock from its winter quarters in Falmouth and around Fredericksburg. Hooker developed a strategy that was, on paper, superior to those of his predecessors. He planned to send his 10,000 cavalrymen under Maj. Gen. George Stoneman to cross the Rappahannock far upstream and raid deep into the Confederate rear areas, destroying crucial supply depots along the railroad from the Confederate capital in Richmond to Fredericksburg, which would cut Lee's lines of communication and supply. Hooker assumed that Lee would react to this threat by abandoning his fortified positions on the Rappahannock and withdrawing toward his capital. At that time, Hooker's infantry would cross the Rappahannock in pursuit, attacking Lee when he was moving and vulnerable. Stoneman attempted to execute this turning movement on April 13, but heavy rains made the river crossing site at Sulphur Spring impassable. President Lincoln lamented, "I greatly fear it is another failure already." Hooker was forced to create a new plan for a meeting with Lincoln, Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, and general in chief Henry W. Halleck in Aquia on April 19.
  Hooker's second plan was to launch both his cavalry and infantry simultaneously in a bold double envelopment of Lee's army. Stoneman's cavalry would make a second attempt at its deep strategic raid, but at the same time, 42,000 men in three corps (V, XI, XII Corps) would stealthily march to cross the Rappahannock upriver at Kelly's Ford. They would then proceed south and cross the Rapidan at Germanna and Ely's Ford, concentrate at the Chancellorsville crossroads, and attack Lee's army from the west. While they were under way, 10,000 men in two divisions from the II Corps would cross at the U.S. Ford and join with the V Corps in pushing the Confederates away from the river. The second half of the double envelopment was to come from the east: 40,000 men in two corps (I and VI Corps, under the overall command of John Sedgwick) would cross the Rappahannock below Fredericksburg and threatened to attack Stonewall Jackson's position on the Confederate right flank. The remaining 25,000 men (III Corps and one division of the II Corps) would remain visible in their camps at Falmouth to divert Confederate attention from the turning movement. Hooker anticipated that Lee would either be forced to retreat, in which case he would be vigorously pursued, or he would be forced to attack the Union Army on unfavorable terrain.

One of the defining characteristics of the battlefield was a dense woodland south of the Rapidan known locally as the "Wilderness of Spotsylvania". The area had once been an open broadleaf forest, but during colonial times the trees were gradually cut down to make charcoal for local pig iron furnaces. When the supply of wood was exhausted, the furnaces were abandoned and secondary forest growth developed, creating a dense mass of brambles, thickets, vines, and low-lying vegetation.

Catharine Furnace, abandoned in the 1840s, had recently been reactivated to produce iron for the Confederate war effort. This area was largely unsuitable for the deployment of artillery and the control of large infantry formations, which would nullify some of the Union advantage in military power. It was important for Hooker's plan that his men move quickly out of this area and attack Lee in the open ground to the east. There were three primary roads available for this west-to-east movement: the Orange Plank Road, the Orange Turnpike, and the River Road.

 
 
The Confederate dispositions were as follows: the Rappahannock line at Fredericksburg was occupied by Longstreet's First Corps division of Lafayette McLaws on Marye's Heights, with Jackson's entire Second Corps to their right. Early's division was at Prospect Hill and the divisions of Rodes, Hill, and Colston extended the Confederate right flank along the river almost to Skinker's Neck. The other division present from Longstreet's Corps, Anderson's, guarded the river crossings on the left flank. Stuart's cavalry was largely in Culpeper County near Kelly's Ford, beyond the infantry's left flank.
 
 

Initial movements

April 27–30: Movement to battle

On April 27–28, the initial three corps of the Army of the Potomac began their march under the leadership of Slocum. They crossed the Rappahannock and Rapidan rivers as planned and began to concentrate on April 30 around the hamlet of Chancellorsville, which was little more than a single large, brick mansion at the junction of the Orange Turnpike and Orange Plank Road. Built in the early 19th century, it had been used as an inn on the turnpike for many years, but now served as a home for the Frances Chancellor family. (Some of the family remained in the house during the battle.) Hooker arrived late in the afternoon on April 30 and made the mansion his headquarters. Stoneman's cavalry began on April 30 its second attempt to reach Lee's rear areas. The two II Corps divisions crossed at U.S. Ford on April 30 without opposition. By dawn on April 29, pontoon bridges spanned the Rappahannock south of Fredericksburg and Sedgwick's force began to cross. Pleased with the success of the operation so far, and realizing that the Confederates were not vigorously opposing the river crossings, Hooker ordered Sickles to begin the movement of the III Corps from Falmouth the night of April 30 – May 1. By May 1, Hooker had approximately 70,000 men concentrated in and around Chancellorsville.

In his Fredericksburg headquarters, Lee was initially in the dark about the Union intentions and he suspected that the main column under Slocum was heading towards Gordonsville. Jeb Stuart's cavalry was cut off at first by Stoneman's departure on April 30, but they were soon able to move freely around the army's flanks on their reconnaissance missions after almost all their Union counterparts had left the area. As Stuart's intelligence information about the Union river crossings began to arrive, Lee did not react as Hooker had anticipated. He decided to violate one of the generally accepted principles of war and divide his force in the face of a superior enemy, hoping that aggressive action would allow him to attack and defeat a portion of Hooker's army before it could be fully concentrated against him. He became convinced that Sedgwick's force would demonstrate against him, but not become a serious threat, so he ordered about 4/5 of his army to meet the challenge from Chancellorsville. He left behind a brigade under Brig. Gen. William Barksdale on heavily fortified Marye's Heights behind Fredericksburg and one division under Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early, on Prospect Hill south of the town. These roughly 11,000 men and 56 guns would attempt to resist any advance by Sedgwick's 40,000. He ordered Stonewall Jackson to march west and link up with Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson's division, which had pulled back from the river crossings they were guarding and began digging earthworks on a north-south line between the Zoan and Tabernacle churches. McLaws's division was ordered from Fredericksburg to join Anderson. This would amass 40,000 men to confront Hooker's movement east from Chancellorsville. Fortunately for the Confederates, heavy fog along the Rappahannock masked some of these westward movements and Sedgwick chose to wait until he could determine the enemy's intentions.

 
 

Chancellorsville, actions on May 1

Confederate    Union
 
 
Battle
 

May 1: Hooker loses his nerve
Jackson's men began marching west to join with Anderson before dawn on May 1. Jackson himself met with Anderson near Zoan Church at 8 a.m., finding that McLaws's division had already arrived to join the defensive position. But Stonewall Jackson was not in a defensive mood. He ordered an advance at 11 a.m. along two roads toward Chancellorsville: McLaws's division and the brigade of Brig. Gen. William Mahone on the Turnpike, and Anderson's other brigades and Jackson's arriving units on the Plank Road. At about the same time, Hooker ordered his men to advance on three roads to the east: two divisions of Meade's V Corps (Griffin and Humphreys) on the River Road to uncover Banks's Ford, and the remaining division (Sykes) on the Turnpike; and Slocum's XII Corps on the Plank Road, with Howard's XI Corps in close support. Couch's II Corps was placed in reserve, where it would be soon joined by Sickles's III Corps.

The first shots of the Battle of Chancellorsville were fired at 11:20 a.m. as the armies collided. McLaws's initial attack pushed back Sykes's division, but the Union general organized a counterattack that recovered the lost ground. Anderson then sent a brigade under Brig. Gen. Ambrose Wright up an unfinished railroad south of the Plank Road, around the right flank of Slocum's corps. This would normally be a serious problem, but Howard's XI Corps was advancing from the rear and could deal with Wright. Sykes's division had proceeded farther forward than Slocum on his right, leaving him in an exposed position, which forced him to conduct an orderly withdrawal at 2 p.m. to take up a position behind Hancock's division of the II Corps, which was ordered by Hooker to advance and help repulse the Confederate attack. Meade's other two divisions made good progress on the River Road and were approaching their objective, Banks's Ford.

Despite being in a potentially favorable situation, Hooker halted his brief offensive. His actions may have demonstrated his lack of confidence in handling the complex actions of such a large organization for the first time (he had been an effective and aggressive division and corps commander in previous battles), but he had also decided before beginning the campaign that he would fight the battle defensively, forcing Lee, with his small army, to attack Hooker's larger one. At the [First] Battle of Fredericksburg (December 13, 1862), the Union army had done the attacking and met with a bloody defeat. Hooker knew Lee could not sustain such a defeat and keep an effective army in the field, so he ordered his men to withdraw back into the Wilderness and take a defensive position around Chancellorsville, daring Lee to attack him or retreat with superior forces at his back. He confused matters by issuing a second order to his subordinates to hold their positions until 5 p.m., but by the time it was received, most of the Union units had begun their rearward movements.

 

That evening, Hooker sent a message to his corps commanders, "The major general commanding trusts that a suspension in the attack to-day will embolden the enemy to attack him."

Hooker's subordinates were surprised and outraged by the change in plans. They saw that the position they were fighting for near the Zoan Church was relatively high ground and offered an opportunity for the infantry and artillery to deploy outside the constraints of the Wilderness. Meade exclaimed, "My God, if we can't hold the top of the hill, we certainly can't hold the bottom of it!" Viewing through the lens of hindsight, some of the participants and many modern historians judged that Hooker effectively lost the campaign on May 1. Stephen W. Sears observed, however, that Hooker's concern was based on more than personal timidity. The ground being disputed was little more than a clearing in the Wilderness, to which access was available by only two narrow roads. The Confederate response had swiftly concentrated the aggressive Stonewall Jackson's corps against his advancing columns such that the Federal army was outnumbered in that area, about 48,000 to 30,000, and would have difficulty maneuvering into effective lines of battle. Meade's two divisions on the River Road were too far separated to support Slocum and Sykes, and reinforcements from the rest of the II Corps and the III Corps would be too slow in arriving.

As the Union troops dug in around Chancellorsville that night, creating log breastworks, faced with abatis, Lee and Stonewall Jackson met at the intersection of the Plank Road and the Furnace Road to plan their next move. Jackson believed that Hooker would retreat across the Rappahannock, but Lee assumed that the Union general had invested too much in the campaign to withdraw so precipitously. If the Federal troops were still in position on May 2, Lee would attack them. As they discussed their options, cavalry commander J.E.B. Stuart arrived with an intelligence report from his subordinate, Brig. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee. Although Hooker's left flank was firmly anchored by Meade's V Corps on the Rappahannock, and his center was strongly fortified, his right flank was "in the air."

Howard's XI Corps was camped on the Orange Turnpike, extending past Wilderness Church, and was vulnerable to a flanking attack. Investigations of a route to be used to reach the flank identified the proprietor of Catharine Furnace, Charles C. Wellford, who showed Jackson's cartographer, Jedediah Hotchkiss, a recently constructed road through the forest that would shield marchers from the observation of Union pickets. Lee directed Jackson to make the flanking march, a maneuver similar to the one that had been so successful prior to the Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas). An account by Hotchkiss recalls that Lee asked Jackson how many men he would take on the flanking march and Jackson replied, "with my whole command."

 
 

Chancellorsville, actions on May 2
Confederate    Union
 
 
May 2: Jackson's flank attack
Early on the morning of May 2, Hooker began to realize that Lee's actions on May 1 had not been constrained by the threat of Sedgwick's force at Fredericksburg, so no further deception was needed on that front. He decided to summon the I Corps of Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds to reinforce his lines at Chancellorsville. His intent was that Reynolds would form up to the right of the XI Corps and anchor the Union right flank on the Rapidan River. Given the communications chaos of May 1, Hooker was under the mistaken impression that Sedgwick had withdrawn back across the Rappahannock and, based on this, that the VI Corps should remain on the north bank of the river across from the town, where it could protect the army's supplies and supply line. (In fact, both Reynolds and Sedgwick were still west of the Rappahannock, south of the town.) Hooker sent his orders at 1:55 a.m., expecting that Reynolds would be able to start marching before daylight, but problems with his telegraph communications delayed the order to Fredericksburg until just before sunrise. Reynolds was forced to make a risky daylight march. By the afternoon of May 2, when he should have been digging in on the Union right at Chancellorsville, he was still marching to the Rappahannock.

Meanwhile, for the second time, Lee was dividing his army. Jackson would lead his Second Corps of 28,000 men around to attack the Union right flank while Lee exercised personal command of the remaining two divisions, about 13,000 men and 24 guns facing the 70,000 Union troops at Chancellorsville. For the plan to work, several things had to happen. First, Jackson had to make a 12-mile (19 km) march via roundabout roads to reach the Union right, and he had to do it undetected. Second, Hooker had to stay tamely on the defensive. Third, Early would have to keep Sedgwick bottled up at Fredericksburg, despite the four-to-one Union advantage there. And when Jackson launched his attack, he had to hope that the Union forces were unprepared.

All of these conditions were met. Confederate cavalry under Stuart kept most Union forces from spotting Jackson on his long flank march, which started between 7 and 8 a.m. and lasted until midafternoon. Several Confederate soldiers saw the Union observation balloon Eagle soaring overhead and assumed that they could likewise be seen, but no such report was sent to headquarters. When men of the III Corps spotted a Confederate column moving through the woods, their division commander, Brig. Gen. David B. Birney, ordered his artillery to open fire, but this proved little more than harassment. The corps commander, Sickles, rode to Hazel Grove to see for himself and he reported after the battle that his men observed the Confederates passing for over three hours.

When Hooker received the report about the Confederate movement, he thought that Lee might be starting a retreat, but he also realized that a flanking march might be in progress. He took two actions. First, he sent a message at 9:30 a.m. to Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard on his right flank: "We have good reason to suppose the enemy is moving to our right. Please advance your pickets for purposes of observation as far as may be safe in order to obtain timely information of their approach." At 10:50 a.m., Howard replied that he was "taking measures to resist an attack from the west." Hooker's second action was to send orders to Sedgwick ("attack the enemy in his front" at Fredericksburg if "an opportunity presents itself with a reasonable expectation of success") and Sickles ("advance cautiously toward the road followed by the enemy, and harass the movement as much as possible"). Sedgwick did not take action from the discretionary orders. Sickles, however, was enthusiastic when he received the order at noon. He sent Birney's division, flanked by two battalions of Col. Hiram Berdan's U.S. sharpshooters, south from Hazel Grove with orders to pierce the column and gain possession of the road. But the action came too late. Jackson had ordered the 23rd Georgia Infantry to guard the rear of the column and they resisted the advance of Birney and Berdan at Catherine Furnace. The Georgians were driven south and they made a stand at the same unfinished railroad bed used by Wright's Brigade the day before. They were overwhelmed by 5 p.m. and most were captured. Two brigades from A.P. Hill's division turned back from the flanking march and prevented any further damage to Jackson's column, which by now had left the area.

  Most of Jackson's men were unaware of the small action at the rear of their column. As they marched north on Brock Road, Jackson was prepared to turn right on the Orange Plank Road, from which his men would attack the Union lines at around Wilderness Church. However, it became apparent that this direction would lead to essentially a frontal assault against Howard's line. Fitzhugh Lee met Jackson and they ascended a hill with a sweeping view of the Union position and Jackson was delighted to see that Howard's men were resting, unaware of the impending Confederate threat. Although by now it was 3 p.m., Jackson decided to march his men two miles farther and turn right on the Turnpike instead, allowing him to strike the unprotected flank directly. The attack formation consisted of two lines—the divisions of Brig. Gens. Robert E. Rodes and Raleigh E. Colston—stretching almost a mile on either side of the turnpike, separated by 200 yards, followed by a partial line with the arriving division of A.P. Hill.

Significant contributors to the impending Union disaster were the nature of the Union XI Corps and the incompetent performance of its commander, Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard. Howard failed to make any provision for defending against a surprise attack, even though Hooker had ordered him to do so. The Union right flank was not anchored on any natural obstacle, and the only defenses against a flank attack consisted of two cannons pointing out into the Wilderness. Also, the XI Corps was an organization with poor morale. The corps had originally been commanded by Brig. Gen. Franz Sigel, a political general appointed because of his abolitionist views. Although inept as a commander, he was very popular with the Germans and the immigrant soldiers had a saying "I fights mit Sigel". During the spring of 1862, Sigel's corps was detached from the main Army of the Potomac and placed in the Shenandoah Valley, where it was defeated by Stonewall Jackson's forces at Cross Keys. After the Peninsula Campaign, it was attached to Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia where it fared no better, delivering a poor performance at Second Bull Run. The XI Corps did not participate in the Antietam or Fredericksburg campaigns, and after Hooker took command of the army Sigel was dismissed and replaced by Howard. He dismissed a number of popular generals and replaced them with men like Brig. Gen. Francis C. Barlow, a ferocious disciplinarian who was known for swatting stragglers with the blunt end of his sword. Many of the immigrants had poor English language skills and they were subjected to ethnic friction with the rest of the Army of the Potomac, where all non-Irish immigrants were referred to as "Germans". In fact, half the XI Corps consisted of native-born Americans, mostly from the Midwest, but it was the immigrants with whom the corps came to be associated. The corps' readiness was poor as well. Of the 23 regiments, eight had no combat experience, and the remaining 15 had never fought on the winning side of a battle. And although many of the immigrants had served in European armies, they tended to not perform well under the loose discipline of the American volunteer military. Because of these factors, Hooker had placed the XI Corps on his flank and did not have any major plans for it except as a reserve or mopping-up force after the main fighting was over.

Around 5:30 p.m.,[39] Jackson's 21,500 men exploded out of the woods screaming the Rebel Yell. Most of the men of the XI Corps were sitting down for supper and had their rifles unloaded and stacked. Their first clue to the impending onslaught was the observation of numerous animals, such as rabbits and foxes, fleeing in their direction. After the division of Brig. Gen. Charles Devens, Jr., collapsed, Maj. Gen. Carl Schurz ordered his division to shift from an east-west alignment to north-south, which they did with amazing precision and speed. However, they were overlapped significantly on both sides by the Confederate onslaught and Schurz ordered a retreat at 6:30 p.m. General Howard partially redeemed his inadequate performance prior to the battle by his personal bravery in attempting to rally the troops. He stood shouting and waving a flag held under the stump of his amputated arm (lost at the Battle of Seven Pines in 1862), ignoring the danger of the heavy rifle fire, but he could only gather small pockets of soldiers to resist before his corps disintegrated. Several thousand of Howard's men gathered at Fairview, a clearing across the road from the Chancellor mansion, where 37 guns of the XII Corps artillery brought Rodes's now-disorganized division to a standstill at 7:15. Hooker urged the III Corps division of Maj. Gen. Hiram G. Berry to defend a line a half mile from Chancellorsville with their bayonets, but by that time, the momentum of the attack had passed.

 
 

By nightfall, the Confederate Second Corps had advanced more than 1.25 miles, to within sight of Chancellorsville, but darkness and confusion were taking their toll. The attackers were almost as disorganized as the routed defenders. Although the XI Corps had been defeated, it would be incorrect to characterize the action as thousands of men simply fleeing for their lives. The corps suffered nearly 2,500 casualties (259 killed, 1,173 wounded, and 994 missing or captured), about one quarter of its strength, including 12 of 23 regimental commanders, which suggests that they fought fiercely during their retreat. Jackson's force was now separated from Lee's men only by Sickles's corps, which had been separated from the main body of the army after its foray attacking Jackson's column earlier in the afternoon. By 9 p.m., Sickles's men had struggled back to Hazel Grove, but their day was not finished. Between 11 p.m. and midnight, Sickles organized an assault north from Hazel Grove toward the Plank Road, but called it off when his men began suffering artillery and rifle fire from the XII Corps.

Stonewall Jackson wanted to press his advantage before Hooker and his army could regain their bearings and plan a counterattack, which might still succeed because of the sheer disparity in numbers. He rode out onto the Plank Road that night to determine the feasibility of a night attack by the light of the full moon, traveling beyond the farthest advance of his men. When one of his staff officers warned him about the dangerous position, Jackson replied, "The danger is all over. The enemy is routed. Go back and tell A.P. Hill to press right on." As he and his staff started to return, they were incorrectly identified as Union cavalry by men of the 18th North Carolina Infantry, who hit Jackson with friendly fire. Jackson's three bullet wounds were not in themselves life-threatening, but his left arm was broken and had to be amputated. He contracted pneumonia and died on May 10. His death was a devastating loss for the Confederacy. Some historians and participants—particularly those of the postbellum Lost Cause movement—attribute the Confederate defeat at Gettysburg two months later to Jackson's absence.

 
 

Chancellorsville, actions on May 3, dawn to 10 a.m.
Confederate    Union
 
 
May 3: Chancellorsville
Despite the fame of Stonewall Jackson's victory on May 2, it did not result in a significant military advantage for the Army of Northern Virginia. Howard's XI Corps had been defeated, but the Army of the Potomac remained a potent force and Reynolds's I Corps had arrived overnight, which replaced Howard's losses. About 76,000 Union men faced 43,000 Confederate at the Chancellorsville front. The two halves of Lee's army at Chancellorsville were separated by Sickles's III Corps, which occupied a strong position on high ground at Hazel Grove. Unless Lee could devise a plan to eject Sickles from Hazel Grove and combine the two halves of his army, he would have little chance of success in assaulting the formidable Union earthworks around Chancellorsville.

Fortunately for Lee, Joseph Hooker inadvertently cooperated. Early on May 3, Hooker ordered Sickles to move from Hazel Grove to a new position on the Plank Road. As they were withdrawing, the trailing elements of Sickles's corps was attacked by the Confederate brigade of Brig. Gen. James J. Archer, which captured about 100 prisoners and four cannons. Hazel Grove was soon turned into a powerful artillery platform with 30 guns under Col. Porter Alexander.

After Jackson was wounded on May 2, command of the Second Corps fell to his senior division commander, Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill. Hill was soon wounded himself, however. He consulted with Brig. Gen. Robert E. Rodes, the next most senior general in the corps, and Rodes acquiesced in Hill's decision to summon Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart to take command, notifying Lee after the fact. Brig. Gen. Henry Heth replaced Hill in division command. Although cavalryman Stuart had never commanded infantry before, he would turn in a very creditable performance at Chancellorsville.
By the morning of May 3, the Union line resembled a giant horseshoe. The center was held by the III, XII, and II Corps. On the left were the remnants of the XI Corps, and the right was held by the V and I Corps. On the western side of the Chancellorsville salient, Stuart organized his three divisions to straddle the Plank Road: Heth's in the advance, Colston's 300–500 yards behind, and Rodes's, whose men had done the hardest fighting on May 2, near the Wilderness Church.

  The attack began about 5:30 a.m. and was aided by the newly installed artillery at Hazel Grove, and by simultaneous attacks by the divisions of Anderson and McLaws from the south and southeast. The Confederates were resisted fiercely by the Union troops behind strong earthworks, and the fighting on May 3 was the heaviest of the campaign. The initial waves of assaults by Heth and Colston gained a little ground, but were beaten back by Union counterattacks.
Rodes sent his men in last and this final push, along with the excellent performance of the Confederate artillery, carried the morning battle. Chancellorsville was the only occasion in the war in Virginia in which Confederate gunners held a decided advantage over their Federal counterparts. Confederate guns on Hazel Grove were joined by 20 more on the Plank Road to duel effectively with the Union guns on neighboring Fairview Hill, causing the Federals to withdraw as ammunition ran low and Confederate infantrymen picked off the gun crews. Fairview was evacuated at 9:30 a.m., briefly recaptured in a counterattack, but by 10 a.m. Hooker ordered it abandoned for good. The loss of this artillery platform doomed the Union position at the Chancellorsville crossroads as well, and the Army of the Potomac began a fighting retreat to positions circling United States Ford. The soldiers of the two halves of Lee's army reunited shortly after 10 a.m. before the Chancellor mansion, wildly triumphant as Lee arrived on Traveller to survey the scene of his victory.

At the height of the fighting on May 3, Hooker suffered an injury when at 9:15 a.m. a Confederate cannonball hit a wooden pillar he was leaning against at his headquarters. He later wrote that half of the pillar "violently [struck me] ... in an erect position from my head to my feet." He likely received a concussion, which was sufficiently severe to render him unconscious for over an hour. Although clearly incapacitated after he arose, Hooker refused to turn over command temporarily to his second-in-command, Maj. Gen. Darius N. Couch, and, with Hooker's chief of staff, Maj. Gen. Daniel Butterfield, and Sedgwick out of communication (again due to the failure of the telegraph lines), there was no one at headquarters with sufficient rank or stature to convince Hooker otherwise. This failure affected Union performance over the next day and directly contributed to Hooker's seeming lack of nerve and timid performance throughout the rest of the battle.
 
 

Chancellorsville, actions on May 3, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., including the Second Battle of Fredericksburg and the Battle of Salem Church
Confederate    Union
 
 
May 3: Fredericksburg and Salem Church
As Lee was savoring his victory at the Chancellorsville crossroads, he received disturbing news: Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick's force had broken through the Confederate lines at Fredericksburg and was headed toward Chancellorsville. On the night of May 2, in the aftermath of Jackson's flank attack, Hooker had ordered Sedgwick to "cross the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg on the receipt of this order, and at once take up your line of march on the Chancellorsville road until you connect with him. You will attack and destroy any force you may fall in with on the road."
Lee had left a relatively small force at Fredericksburg, ordering Brig. Gen. Jubal Early to "watch the enemy and try to hold him." If he was attacked in "overwhelming numbers," Early was to retreat to Richmond, but if Sedgwick withdrew from his front, he was to join with Lee at Chancellorsville. On the morning of May 2, Early received a garbled message from Lee's staff that caused him to start marching most of his men toward Chancellorsville, but he quickly returned after a warning from Brig. Gen. William Barksdale of a Union advance against Fredericksburg. At 7 a.m. on May 3, Early was confronted with four Union divisions: Brig. Gen. John Gibbons of the II Corps had crossed the Rappahannock north of town, and three divisions of Sedgwick's VI Corps—Maj. Gen. John Newton and Brig. Gens. Albion P. Howe and William T. H. Brooks—were arrayed in line from the front of the town to Deep Run. Most of Early's combat strength was deployed to the south of town, where Federal troops had achieved their most significant successes during the December battle. Marye's Heights was defended by Barksdale's Mississippi brigade and Early ordered the Louisiana brigade of Brig. Gen. Harry T. Hays from the far right to Barksdale's left. By midmorning, two Union attacks against the infamous stone wall on Marye's Heights were repulsed with numerous casualties.
  A Union party under flag of truce was allowed to approach ostensibly to collect the wounded, but while close to the stone wall, they were able to observe how sparsely the Confederate line was manned. A third Union attack was successful in overrunning the Confederate position. Early was able to organize an effective fighting retreat. John Sedgwick's road to Chancellorsville was open, but he wasted time forming a marching column. His men, led by Brooks's division, followed by Newton and Howe, were delayed for several hours by successive actions against the Alabama brigade of Brig. Gen. Cadmus M. Wilcox.
His final delaying line was a ridge at Salem church, where he was joined by three brigades from McLaws's division and one from Anderson's, bringing the total Confederate strength to about 10,000 men.

Artillery fire was exchanged by both sides in the afternoon and at 5:30 p.m., two brigades of Brooks's division attacked on both sides of the Plank Road. The advance south of the road reached as far as the churchyard, but was driven back. The attack north of the road could not break the Confederate line. Wilcox described the action as "a bloody repulse to the enemy, rendering entirely useless to him his little success of the morning at Fredericksburg." Hooker expressed his disappointment in Sedgwick: "my object in ordering General Sedgwick forward ... Was to relieve me from the position in which I found myself at Chancellorsville. ... In my judgment General Sedgwick did not obey the spirit of my order, and made no sufficient effort to obey it. ... When he did move it was not with sufficient confidence or ability on his part to manoeuvre his troops."

The fighting on May 3, 1863, was some of the most furious anywhere in the war. The loss of 21,357 men that day in the three battles, divided equally between the two armies, ranks the fighting only behind the Battle of Antietam as the bloodiest day of the war.

 
 

Chancellorsville, actions on May 4, withdrawals on May 5 and 6
Confederate    Union
 
 
May 4–6: Union withdrawals
On the evening of May 3 and all day May 4, Hooker remained in his defenses north of Chancellorsville. Lee observed that Hooker was threatening no offensive action, so felt comfortable ordering Anderson's division to join the battle against Sedgwick.

He sent orders to Early and McLaws to cooperate in a joint attack, but the orders reached his subordinates after dark, so the attack was planned for May 4. By this time Sedgwick had placed his divisions into a strong defensive position with its flanks anchored on the Rappahannock, three sides of a rectangle extending south of the Plank Road.
Early's plan was to drive the Union troops off Marye's Heights and the other high ground west of Fredericksburg. Lee ordered McLaws to engage from the west "to prevent [the enemy] concentrating on General Early."

Early reoccupied Marye's Heights on the morning of May 4, cutting Sedgwick off from the town. However, McLaws was reluctant to take any action. Before noon, Lee arrived with Anderson's division, giving him a total of 21,000 men, slightly outnumbering Sedgwick.

Despite Lee's presence, McLaws continued his passive role and Anderson's men took a few hours to get into position, a situation that frustrated and angered both Early and Lee, who had been planning on a concentrated assault from three directions.

  The attack finally began around 6 p.m. Two of Early's brigades (under Brig. Gens. Harry T. Hays and Robert F. Hoke) pushed back Sedgwick's left-center across the Plank Road, but Anderson's effort was a slight one and McLaws once again contributed nothing.
Throughout the day on May 4, Hooker provided no assistance or useful guidance to Sedgwick, and Sedgwick thought about little else than protecting his line of retreat.

Sedgwick withdrew across the Rappahannock at Banks's Ford during the pre-dawn hours of May 5. When he learned that Sedgwick had retreated back over the river, Hooker felt he was out of options to save the campaign. He called a council of war and asked his corps commanders to vote about whether to stay and fight or to withdraw. Although a majority voted to fight, Hooker had had enough, and on the night of May 5–6, he withdrew back across the river at U.S. Ford. It was a difficult operation. Hooker and the artillery crossed first, followed by the infantry beginning at 6 a.m. on May 6. Meade's V Corps served as the rear guard. Rains caused the river to rise and threatened to break the pontoon bridges. Couch was in command on the south bank after Hooker departed, but he was left with explicit orders not to continue the battle, which he had been tempted to do. The surprise withdrawal frustrated Lee's plan for one final attack against Chancellorsville. He had issued orders for his artillery to bombard the Union line in preparation for another assault, but by the time they were ready Hooker and his men were gone.

 
 
Aftermath
The Union cavalry under Brig. Gen. George Stoneman, after a week of ineffectual raiding in central and southern Virginia in which they failed to attack any of the objectives Hooker established, withdrew into Union lines east of Richmond—the peninsula north of the York River, across from Yorktown—on May 7, ending the campaign.
 
 

Casualties
Lee, despite being outnumbered by a ratio of over two to one, won arguably his greatest victory of the war, sometimes described as his "perfect battle." But he paid a terrible price for it. With only 60,000 men engaged, he suffered 13,303 casualties (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing), losing some 22% of his force in the campaign—men that the Confederacy, with its limited manpower, could not replace. Just as seriously, he lost his most aggressive field commander, Stonewall Jackson. Brig. Gen. Elisha F. Paxton was the other Confederate general killed during the battle. After Longstreet rejoined the main army, he was highly critical of Lee's strategy, saying that battles like Chancellorsville cost the Confederacy more men than it could afford to lose.

Of the 133,000 Union men engaged, 17,197 were casualties (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing), a percentage much lower than Lee's, particularly considering that it includes 4,000 men of the XI Corps who were captured on May 2. When comparing only the killed and wounded, there were almost no differences between the Confederate and Federal losses at Chancellorsville. The Union lost three generals in the campaign: Maj. Gens. Hiram G. Berry and Amiel W. Whipple and Brig. Gen. Edmund Kirby.

 
 

Soldiers of the VI Corps, Army of the Potomac, in trenches before storming Marye's Heights at the Second Battle of Fredericksburg during the Chancellorsville campaign, Virginia, May 1863. This photograph (Library of Congress #B-157) is sometimes mistakenly labeled as taken at the 1864 Siege of Petersburg, Virginia
 
 

Assessment of Hooker
Hooker, who began the campaign believing he had "80 chances in 100 to be successful", lost the battle through miscommunication, the incompetence of some of his leading generals (most notably Howard and Stoneman, but also Sedgwick), but mostly through the collapse of his confidence. Hooker's errors included abandoning his offensive push on May 1 and ordering Sickles to give up Hazel Grove and pull back on May 2. He also erred in his disposition of forces; despite Abraham Lincoln's exhortation, "this time put in all your men," some 40,000 men of the Army of the Potomac scarcely fired a shot. When later asked why he had ordered a halt to his advance on May 1, Hooker is reputed to have responded, "For the first time, I lost faith in Hooker." However, Stephen W. Sears has categorized this as a myth:

Nothing has been more damaging to General Joseph Hooker's military reputation than this, from John Bigelow's The Campaign of Chancellorsville (1910): "A couple of months later, when Hooker crossed the Rappahannock [actually, the Potomac] with the Army of the Potomac in the Campaign of Gettysburg he was asked by General Doubleday: 'Hooker, what was the matter with you at Chancellorsville? ... Hooker answered frankly ... 'Doubleday ... For once I lost confidence in Hooker'."

Sears's research has shown that Bigelow was quoting from a letter written in 1903 by an E. P. Halstead, who was on the staff of Doubleday's I Corps division. There is no evidence that Hooker and Doubleday ever met during the Gettysburg Campaign, nor was there any chance of them meeting—they were dozens of miles apart. Finally, Doubleday made no mention of such a confession from Hooker in his history of the Chancellorsville Campaign, published in 1882. Sears concludes:

It can only be concluded that forty years after the event, elderly ex-staff officer Halstead was at best retailing some vaguely remembered campfire tale, and at worst manufacturing a role for himself in histories of the campaign ... Whatever Joe Hooker's failings at Chancellorsville, he did not publicly confess them.

 
 

Confederate dead behind the stone wall of Marye's Heights, Fredericksburg, Virginia, killed during the Chancellorsville Campaign (the Second Battle of Fredericksburg), May 1863. Photograph by A.J. Russell.
 
 
Union reaction
The Union was shocked by the defeat. President Abraham Lincoln was quoted as saying, "My God! My God! What will the country say?" A few generals were career casualties. Hooker relieved Stoneman for incompetence and for years waged a vituperative campaign against Howard, who he blamed for his loss. He wrote in 1876 that Howard was "a hypocrite ... totally incompetent ... a perfect old woman ... a bad man." He labeled Sedgwick as "dilatory."

Couch was so disgusted by Hooker's conduct of the battle (and his incessant political maneuvering) that he resigned and was placed in charge of the Department of the Susquehanna, commanding only Pennsylvania militia. President Lincoln chose to retain Hooker in command of the army, but the friction between Lincoln, general in chief Henry W. Halleck, and Hooker became intolerable in the early days of the Gettysburg Campaign and Lincoln relieved Hooker of command on June 28, just before the Battle of Gettysburg.

One of the consequences of Chancellorsville at Gettysburg was the conduct of Daniel Sickles, who undoubtedly recalled the terrible consequences of withdrawing from Hazel Grove when he decided to ignore the commands of his general and moved his lines on the second day of battle to ensure that a minor piece of high ground, the Peach Orchard, was not available to the enemy's artillery.

Confederate reaction
The Confederate public had mixed feelings about the result, joy at Lee's tactical victory tempered by the loss of their most beloved general, Stonewall Jackson. Following the death of Jackson, Lee reorganized the Army of Northern Virginia from two large corps into three, under James Longstreet, Richard S. Ewell, and A.P. Hill. The new assignments for the latter two generals caused some command difficulties in the upcoming Gettysburg Campaign, which began in June.

Of more consequence for Gettysburg, however, was the attitude that Lee absorbed from his great victory at Chancellorsville, that his army was virtually invincible and would succeed at anything he asked them to do.

  Battlefield preservation
The battlefield was a scene of widespread destruction, covered with dead men and animals. The Chancellor family, whose house was destroyed during the battle, placed the entire 854-acre property for sale four months after the battle. A smaller version of the house was rebuilt using some of the original materials, which served as a landmark for many of the veteran reunions of the late 19th century. In 1927, the rebuilt house was destroyed by fire. That same year, the United States Congress authorized the Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, which preserves some of the land that saw fighting in the 1862 Battle of Fredericksburg, the Chancellorsville Campaign, the Battle of the Wilderness, and the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House (the latter two being key battles in the 1864 Overland Campaign).

In May 2002, a regional developer announced a plan to build 2,300 houses and 2,000,000 square feet of commercial space on the 790-acre Mullins Farm, site of the first day of fighting at the Battle of Chancellorsville. Soon thereafter, the Civil War Trust formed the Coalition to Save Chancellorsville, a network of national and local preservation groups that waged a vocal campaign against the development.

For nearly a year, the Coalition mobilized local citizens, held candlelight vigils and hearings, and encouraged residents to become more involved in preservation. Public opinion polling conducted by the Coalition found that more than two-thirds of local residents opposed the development. The survey also found that 90 percent of local residents believed their county has a responsibility to protect Chancellorsville and other historic resources.

As a result of these efforts, in March 2003 the Spotsylvania County Board of Supervisors denied the rezoning application that would have allowed for the development of the site. Immediately following the vote, the Civil War Trust and other Coalition members began working to acquire the battlefield. By working with county officials and developers, the Civil War Trust acquired 140 acres in 2004 and another 74 acres in 2006.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 

The Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup
 
 
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
 

1-3 July 1863

Forces Engaged

Union: Approximately 115,000 men. Commander: Major General George Gordon Meade.
Confederate: Approximately 76,000 men. Commander: General Robert E. Lee.

Importance

Although the site was a significant Confederate penetration into Union territory, Lee's defeat kept Union morale and political unity sufficiently strong to continue the war effort.

 
Historical Setting

Since Robert E. Lee took command of Confederate forces in June 1862, he had engineered an unbroken string of defensive victories. He had failed to obtain vitally needed foreign aid by being turned back (at Antietam Creek near Sharps-burg, Maryland) from a major incursion into Union territory in September 1862, but still his mystique grew with each successive Union general's failure to defeat him on his home ground. Although Lee was successfully defending Confederate territory from Union invasion, his army was suffering severe supply shortages. Therefore, in June 1863, Lee was determined to try again to attack Union territory. He hoped primarily to live off the production of Northern farms and factories for a time, giving his Virginia base time to recover some of its agricultural output. Strategically, he hoped that by creating havoc in Pennsylvania by pillaging the countryside and disrupting rail traffic he could aid the nascent peace movement in the North, thereby weakening President Abraham Lincoln's government. Finally, Lee had faint hopes of once again interesting European countries in the Confederate cause. Diplomats in European capitals had intimated that a Confederate victory in the North would prove the viability of their military, a necessary condition of European recognition. After Antietam, that viability seemed doubtful, but Lee certainly hoped that a major success in the summer of 1863 could yet bring foreign recognition and military aid.

President Lincoln was increasingly worried about the performance of his army in Virginia. He had hired and fired a series of generals who had failed to win a significant victory in the Union's drive to capture the Confederate capital city of Richmond, Virginia. None of the men he had placed in command had shown sufficient tenacity; after each defeat, they would not hold as forward a position as possible, but instead would return to Washington, D.C., cowed. In the west, Union Major General Ulysses Grant was scoring a string of victories in western Tennessee and along the Mississippi River and had recently invested the city of Vicksburg, Mississippi, the last link between the deep South and the western Confederate states of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas. Unfortunately, the public was more focused on operations in Virginia, and the failures there had encouraged a peace movement in the Northern states that was gaining momentum with each successive victory Lee's Army of Northern Virginia won. Lincoln's political base was never strong, and a severe setback in Union territory could potentially cause a very strong political backlash.

After soundly defeating Major General Joseph Hooker's army at Chancellorsville, Virginia, in early May 1863, Lee felt his army to be at the peak of its fighting prowess. In late June, he left Virginia with some 76,000 men, marched through a surly population in Maryland, and entered southern Pennsylvania. His main target was the east-west railroad line that passed through Harrisburg, a key supply artery of the Union army. He dispersed his army somewhat in order for them to scour the countryside for supplies, and it was one of those scavenging units that initiated the battle.
 
 
 

Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines.
Confederate    Union
 
 
The Battle

Learning of the Union army's proximity, Lee decided to concentrate his scattered forces at die town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. As a shoe factory was located there, a Confederate infantry brigade was sent forward to seize the town, for much of Lee's army was in rags. Lincoln's latest appointee as commander of the Army of die Potomac was Major General George Gordon Meade, who replaced Hooker on 28 June. Meade had units probing the countryside to locate and monitor Lee's army, and a cavalry brigade had recently arrived at Gettysburg. Thus, on the morning of 1 July 1863, these two units almost stumbled into each odier and engaged. Union troops under John Buford deployed just west of Gettysburg astride the road from Chambersburg and met the Confederates under A. P Hill. The opening skirmish lasted for 2 hours, with Buford's outnumbered force holding its own, but finally being forced to retreat into and through the town because of the arrival of more Confederate troops from die north under Richard Ewell.

The retreating Union troops paused just south of town on Cemetery Ridge. Lee realized diat Meade must certainly be marching the bulk of his army forward, so that high ground was vital. Unfortunately, his order to Ewell was to take die ridge "if practicable." Ewell had just replaced Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, one of the most able generals of the entire war. Jackson, unfortunately for the Confederacy, had been killed at Chancellorsville, and Ewell was nowhere near the commander his predecessor had been. Many later commentators remarked that had Jackson been alive, the batde would have been over die first day as a Confederate victory. Ewell, however, hesitated and lost his opportunity. As die sun set on 1 July, Union reinforcements were streaming onto the hill and establishing a strong position.
After occupying Seminary Ridge, parallel and about a mile away from the Union position, Lee pondered his next move. Seeing that Cemetery Ridge and Culp's Hill on its northern end were strongly held, Lee decided to strike the Union left. A corresponding demonstration against Culp's Hill could be strengthened when Meade weakened that flank to deal with the Southern attack. The task of attacking the Union left flank fell to Major General James Longstreet, one of Lee's most trusted subordinates.

Longstreet had argued for a move of die entire army southward, which would threaten Washington and force Meade to come down from his high ground. By this point in the war, he had learned that victory normally went to the army that stood on the defensive and obliged the enemy to attack. Thus, such a move as he envisioned would put on Meade's shoulders the onus of crossing open ground against a prepared position. Rebuffed in that suggestion, Longstreet moved his men to the Union left flank. What happened in this move has been debated since 2 July 1863. Lee wanted the attack to start as early as possible, but it did not begin until 1600. The left of the Union line was being held by Daniel Sickles, who had left Cemetery Ridge and deployed his men about a half mile forward, completely unsupported. When Longstreet moved into position to attack, the Union army was thus not where it was supposed to be. Behind Sickles stood Litde Round Top, an unoccupied promontory from which artillery could easily enfilade the main Union position. A quick seizure of Little Round Top would completely turn the Union flank, but Longstreet's orders were to engage the Union army. Already having failed to convince Lee of his own views, Longstreet apparently decided that he would follow his orders to the letter. While Longstreet's troops engaged Sickles's men, quick-thinking Union officers pushed Joshua Chamberlain's 20th Maine Infantry Regiment on top of the hill. By the time Longstreet's men had defeated Sickles, the opportunity for an easy occupation of Little Round Top no longer existed. Had Longstreet moved more quickly, or seized the opportunity to grab Little Round Top, again the Confederate army would almost certainly have won the battle.



Overview map of the third day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 3, 1863

Confederate    Union


On the evening of 2 July, having failed to turn eidier Union flank, Lee met with his staff. Deciding to stay and fight, Lee proposed a plan that in retrospect was foolhardy. Hoping that the Union army would be weakened in the center by the flanking attacks that day, Lee decided to commit 10,000 men that had just arrived to an assault on the Union center on Cemetery Ridge. This assault, which came to be known to history as Picketts Charge, should be able to punch a hole in the Union lines that follow-up attacks would exploit. As mentioned earlier, the defense owned the advantage in the American Civil War. Meade had received reinforcements on the night of 2 July, and Lee's assumptions were false. "Longstreet once more urged Lee to maneuver around Meade's left. Again Lee refused, and ordered Longstreet to attack the Union center with Picketts division and two of Hill's—fewer than 15,000 men to advance diree-quarters of a mile across open fields and assault dug-in infantry supported by ample artillery. 'General Lee,' Longstreet later reported himself to have said, 'there never was a body of fifteen thousand men who could make mat attack successfully " (McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, p. 661).

Lee's decision here has also been the subject of intense debate. Certainly he had complete confidence in his men, for as stated earlier they were at the height of their morale and experience. Some modern historians argue that Lee was suffering from heart problems and possibly had had a mild heart attack within the previous few days, so he was not thinking as clearly as he might have. Perhaps it was a simple case of overconfidence.
Just after 1300 on 3 July, Confederate artillery began bombarding Union positions to cover the attack. For 2 hours, the opposing artillery batteries fired at each other, with minimal effect. The mile-wide line of Confederate troops began their advance about 1500, marching steadily for 20 minutes across the open ground. Once in range, the Union artillery, which had ceased firing to lure the Confederates on, opened up and began tearing massive holes in the advancing line. At 200 yards, Union infantry began adding to the carnage. In spite of all that, the Confederates crossed the field, went over or through a fence, and closed. For a time, the fighting was hand to hand; a second wave at this point might possibly have made the difference. Instead, die Confederates were too few in number by the time they reached die top of the ridge, and after intense fighting they had to recross that same ground under the same fire. Some 7,500 men in die assault were killed, wounded, or captured.
 
 
 

"The Harvest of Death": Union dead on the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, photographed July 5 or July 6, 1863, by Timothy H. O'Sullivan.
 
 
Results

The following day, the two armies looked at each other without fighting. On the night of 4 July, in a driving rainstorm, Lee withdrew from Seminary Ridge and returned across the Potomac River to Virginia. Meade did not follow. Had he done so, the swollen Potomac would have been an anvil upon which to pound the shattered Confederate army, and the war could have been over in a few days. In the end, the Union army failed to exploit its opportunities as had the Confederates. By sheer coincidence, on the day Lee returned to Virginia for the last time, Grant was accepting the surrender of Vicksburg. That victory gave the Union total control of die Mississippi River, cutting the Confederacy into two parts. If Meade had pursued Lee and crushed him at the Potomac River, the Confederate government would almost certainly have been forced to sue for peace. Thus, for the Union the victory at Gettysburg was not as decisive as it should have been.

The true importance of Gettysburg is the Confederate failure. Lee's mystique could only have been enhanced by a rebel victory, and Meade would certainly have joined the ranks of dismissed commanders of die Army of the Potomac. Lee's goal of living off the land and terrorizing the Union countryside would both have strengthened his army and weakened Lincoln's administration. Whether European governments would have recognized the Confederate States of America on the strength of a Confederate victory is difficult to say because Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation—issued 1 January 1863—had taken the issue of slavery to the forefront. Public opinion in European populations may have kept their governments from recognizing and giving military aid to a country that openly practiced slavery after the Union government had officially announced its destruction as a war aim.

In spite of that, the public opinion in the North would have been the most important factor to be considered, and the peace movement, in spite of Vicksburg, may have forced some major changes in the government's actions. Given a Confederate victory, Lee could potentially have marched on Washington, D.C. Although the city was surrounded by strong defenses, the mere sight of an army in gray on the heels of the defeat of the Army of the Potomac could have forced the city's evacuation. With Washington in rebel hands, Maryland, which was a slave state and had many advocates of secession, could have joined the Confederacy. Such a move could also have been the nudge that Missouri and Kentucky needed to secede as well. The possibilities inherent in a rebel victory at Gettysburg, which never came about, indicate die battles decisiveness.

References: Coddington, Edwin B. Gettysburg: A Study in Command. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1968; Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative. New York: Vintage Books, 1986 [1958-1974]; Luvaas, Jay, and Harold W. Nelson, eds. The U.S. Army War College Guide to the Battle of Gettysburg. New York: HarperCollins, 1986; McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988; Stackpole, Edward J. They Met at Gettysburg. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Boob, 1954.
 
 
 
Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address"
 

The Gettysburg Address is a speech by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, one of the best-known in American history. It was delivered by Lincoln during the American Civil War, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the Battle of Gettysburg.

 
Abraham Lincoln's carefully crafted address, secondary to other presentations that day, was one of the greatest and most influential statements of national purpose. In just over two minutes, Lincoln reiterated the principles of human equality espoused by the Declaration of Independence and proclaimed the Civil War as a struggle for the preservation of the Union sundered by the secession crisis, with "a new birth of freedom" that would bring true equality to all of its citizens.

Lincoln also redefined the Civil War as a struggle not just for the Union, but also for the principle of human equality.

Beginning with the now-iconic phrase "Four score and seven years ago"—referring to the Declaration of Independence, written at the start of the American Revolution in 1776—Lincoln examined the founding principles of the United States in the context of the Civil War, and memorialized the sacrifices of those who gave their lives at Gettysburg and extolled virtues for the listeners (and the nation) to ensure the survival of America's representative democracy, that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."

Despite the speech's prominent place in the history and popular culture of the United States, the exact wording and location of the speech are disputed.

The five known manuscripts of the Gettysburg Address differ in a number of details and also differ from contemporary newspaper reprints of the speech. Modern scholarship locates the speakers' platform 40 yards (or more) away from the Traditional Site within Soldiers' National Cemetery at the Soldiers' National Monument and entirely within private, adjacent Evergreen Cemetery.

  Background
Following the Battle of Gettysburg on July 1–3, 1863, reburial of Union soldiers from the Gettysburg Battlefield graves began on October 17. David Wills, of the committee for the November 19 Consecration of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg, invited President Lincoln: "It is the desire that, after the Oration, you, as Chief Executive of the nation, formally set apart these grounds to their sacred use by a few appropriate remarks." Lincoln's address followed the oration by Edward Everett, who subsequently included a copy of the Gettysburg Address in his 1864 book about the event (Address of the Hon. Edward Everett At the Consecration of the National Cemetery At Gettysburg, 19th November 1863, with the Dedicatory Speech of President Lincoln, and the Other Exercises of the Occasion; Accompanied by An Account of the Origin of the Undertaking and of the Arrangement of the Cemetery Grounds, and by a Map of the Battle-field and a Plan of the Cemetery).

During the train trip from Washington, D.C., to Gettysburg on November 18, Lincoln remarked to John Hay that he felt weak. On the morning of November 19, Lincoln mentioned to John Nicolay that he was dizzy. In the railroad car the President rode with his secretary, John G. Nicolay, his assistant secretary, John Hay, the three members of his Cabinet who accompanied him, William Seward, John Usher and Montgomery Blair, several foreign officials and others. Hay noted that during the speech Lincoln's face had 'a ghastly color' and that he was 'sad, mournful, almost haggard.' After the speech, when Lincoln boarded the 6:30 pm train for Washington, D.C., he was feverish and weak, with a severe headache. A protracted illness followed, which included a vesicular rash and was diagnosed as a mild case of smallpox. It thus seems highly likely that Lincoln was in the prodromal period of smallpox when he delivered the Gettysburg address.

 
 


One of the only two confirmed photos of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg, taken about noon, just after Lincoln arrived and some three hours before the speech.
Cropped view of the Bachrach photo, with a red arrow indicating Abraham Lincoln.
To Lincoln's right is his bodyguard, Ward Hill Lamon.
 
 
Text of Gettysburg Address
Shortly after Everett's well-received remarks, Lincoln spoke for only a few minutes. With a "few appropriate remarks", he was able to summarize his view of the war in just ten sentences.

Despite the historical significance of Lincoln's speech, modern scholars disagree as to its exact wording, and contemporary transcriptions published in newspaper accounts of the event and even handwritten copies by Lincoln himself differ in their wording, punctuation, and structure. Of these versions, the Bliss version, written well after the speech as a favor for a friend, is viewed by many as the standard text.[18] Its text differs, however, from the written versions prepared by Lincoln before and after his speech. It is the only version to which Lincoln affixed his signature, and the last he is known to have written.

 
 

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

 

The Lincoln Address Memorial, designed by Louis Henrick, with bust of Abraham Lincoln by Henry Kirke Bush-Brown, erected at the Gettysburg National Cemetery in 1912.
 
 
 
 

The American Civil War, 1863

 
 
 

1863: ATTRITION


It is exhaustion of men and money that finally terminates all modern wars.

Quartermaster-General Montgomery Meigs, 1863; Peter J. Parish The American Civil War (1975) p. 159.

****

Yes, we'll rally round the flag, boys, we'll rally
once again,
Shouting the battle-cry of Freedom.

George F. Root 'The Battle-Cry of Freedom' (1863).

****

I have heard ... of your recently saying that both the Army and the Government needed a dictator ... Only those generals who gain success can set up dictators. What I now ask of you is military success, and I will risk the dictatorship.

President Abraham Lincoln to General Joseph Hooker, 26 Jan. 1863; Ward (1995) p.202. After the Battle of Fredericksburg Hooker had told a newspaper correspondent that the country should place itself under a dictator. Lincoln nonetheless appointed him commander of the Army of the Potomac.

****

Let me know what brand of whiskey Grant uses. For if it makes fighting generals like Grant, I should like to get some of it for distribution.

President Abraham Lincoln to a Congressional delegation,
1863, attrib. Grant had a reputation for hard drinking, and his
enemies in Congress told Lincoln he was not fit for high
command.

****

The Government seems determined to apply the guillotine to all unsuccessful generals. It seems rather hard to do this where a general is not in fault, but perhaps with us now, as in the French Revolution, some harsh measures are required.

General Henry Halleck, general-in-chief since July 1862; War of the Rebellion Vol.16.

****

Captain, my religious belief teaches me to feel as safe in battle as in bed. God has fixed the time for my death.

General Stonewall Jackson to General John Imboden, 1862; Battles and Leaders Vol.I (1887).

****

Let us cross over the river and rest under the trees.

General Stonewall Jackson, last words, 10 May 1863; Douglas Southall Freeman Lee's Lieutenants Vol.2 (1944) p.36. Jackson had been accidentally shot by his own men during the Battle of Chancellorsville on 2 May. In 1950 Ernest Hemingway was to publish a novel entitled Across the River and into the Trees.

****

He could order men to their death as a matter of course. Napoleon's French conscription could not have kept him in awe. He used up his command so rapidly. Hence, while he was alive, there was much fudge in the talk of his soldiers' love for him.

General Alexander Lawton, one of Jackson's officers, on his commander, 5 Dec. 1863; Mary Chesnut's Civil War (1981) p.499. Mary Chesnut of South Carolina recorded this observation in her diary.

****

Must I shoot a simple-minded soldier boy who deserts, while I must not touch a hair of the wily agitator who induces him to desert?

President Abraham Lincoln to Erasmus Corning, 12 June 1863; Tsouras (1998) p.67. The South had its sympathizers in the North, who, like Representative Clement Vallandigham of Ohio, publicly called on Union soldiers to desert. These were the so-called Copperheads, named after a species of poisonous snake.

****

Although we are now engaged in a great war between one another, we are not, as a race, so much disposed to fight and kill one another as our red brethren.

President Abraham Lincoln to the Plains Indians, spring 1863; Geoffrey С Ward The West (1996) p. 197.

****

Thair is a great controversy out hear about the nigger Question ... If thay go to Sending them out hear to fight they will get Enough of it for it Will raise a rebellion in the army that all the abolitionist this side of Hell could not stop. The Southern Peopel are rebels to government but they are White and God never intended a nigger to put White People down.

Sergeant Enoch T. Baker, US army, 1863; Ward (1995) p. 189.

****

Once let the black man get upon his person the brass letters, 'U.S.', let him get an eagle on his buttons and a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pocket, and there is no power on earth which can
deny that he has earned the right to citizenship in the United States.

Frederick Douglass, 1863; Ward (1995) p.246. Douglass, born a slave, was one of the most prominent spokesmen for the black community of the United States.

****

Two months after marching through Boston
half the regiment was dead;
at the dedication,
William James could almost hear the bronze
Negroes breathe.

Robert Lowell 'For the Union Dead' (1964). On 18 July 1863 the all-black 54th Massachusetts, commanded by the white Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, lost half its men, including Shaw, assaulting Fort Wagner, South Carolina. On I May 1897 a memorial to them was unveiled in Boston, on the edge of the Common, close to the Old State House. William James, psychologist and philosopher, was the elder brother of the novelist Henry James. Lowell's 19th-century kinsman, James Russell Lowell, also wrote a tribute in verse to Shaw.

****

One of the grand results of this war is to be the assimilation of all American blood ... their fighting side by side with the descendants of those who laid the foundation of the Republic, will do more to Americanize them and their children than could be effected in a whole generation of peaceful living ... The blood that mixes in the battlefield, in one common sacrifice, will be a cement of American Nationality nothing else could supply.

New York Times, 4 June 1863.

****

My pen is heavy ... O, you dead, who died at Gettysburgh have baptized with your blood the second birth of freedom in America, how you are to be envied! I rise from a grave whose wet clay I have passionately kissed, and I look up to see Christ spanning this battlefield.

Samuel Wilkeson, New York Times, 6 July 1863. Wilkeson, the Times's correspondent, had just lost his son at Gettysburg.

****

A rich man's war and a poor man's fight.

Slogan of the protesters against conscription in New York, 13 July 1863. The phrase originated in the South in 1861. $300 bought exemption from the draft, introduced by Lincoln in the summer to replenish the Union Army.

****

And, by way of pastime, chasing every stray police officer, or solitary soldier, or inoffensive Negro, who crossed the line of their vision; these three objects - the badge of a defender of the law, -the uniform of the Union army, - the skin of a
helpless and outraged race - acted upon these madmen as water acts upon a rabid dog.

Anna Dickinson on the New York draft riots of 13 July 1863; What Answer? (1868) p.249. The Irish community of the city took the lead in the disturbances.

****

No wonder St Patrick drove all the venomous vermin out of Ireland! Its biped mammalia supply that island its full average share of creatures that crawl and eat dirt and poison every community they infest. Vipers were superfluous. But my own theory is that St Patrick's campaign against the snakes is a Popish delusion. They perished of biting the Irish people.

George Templeton Strong, diary entry, 19 July 1863; Allan Nevins (ed.) Diary of the Civil War 1860-1865 (1962) pp.342, 343.

****

You may take fieldworks in which there are small garrisons by assault, but when you have to attack a whole army, well intrenched, you will suffer terribly in getting to them.

General Andrew A. Humphreys; Isaac R. Pennypacker General Meade (1901). Humphreys was chief of staff to General George Meade, commander of the Army of the Potomac from 28 June 1863. Here he underlines the capacity of riflemen in trench emplacements to inflict slaughter on an attacking force, a lesson lost on European armies throughout World War I.

****

Like a witches' prayer - a saintly orison read backwards, the phenomenon of modern warfare presents a horrible parody of the doctrine of compensation. More men can be killed, and they can hold out before they are killed. Soldiers are fain to become earth-clads, as, on the ocean, sailors trust in iron-clads. Analogically, the difference is very slight between plating the sides of your ship and burrowing in the earth like a mole.

George Augustus Sala My Diary in America in the Midst of War {1865) Vol. I, p.391. Sala was war correspondent of the London Daily Telegraph.

****

It is ordered that for every soldier of the United States killed in violation of the laws of war, a rebel soldier shall be executed.

President Abraham Lincoln, proclamation of 30 July 1863, made in response to massacres of black US army troops by Confederate forces.

****

The Father of Waters again goes unvexed to the sea.

President Abraham Lincoln to James C. Conkling, 26 Aug. 1863; The Essential Lincoln (1962) p.436. The fall of Vicksburg on 4 July placed the entire length of the Mississippi in Union hands and cut the Confederacy in two. For the next 80 years Vicksburg refused to celebrate Independence Day, coinciding as it did with the city's surrender.

****

They are the most dangerous set of men that this war has turned loose upon the world. They are splendid riders, first-rate shots, and utterly reckless ... These men must all be killed or employed by us before we can hope for peace.

General William Tecumseh Sherman to General Halleck on the young bloods of the South, 17 Sept. 1863; Edmund Wilson Patriotic Gore (1962) p. 195.

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Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate - we cannot consecrate - we can not hallow - this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

President Abraham Lincoln, the Gettysburg Address, 19 Nov. 1863; Ruhl j. Bartlett, The Record of American Diplomacy (1964 edn) p.523. At Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on I, 2 and 3 July 1863 one of the bloodiest battles of the war was fought. On 19 Nov. at a ceremony to make part of the terrain a national cemetery, the eminent Greek scholar Edward Everett spoke at very great length. Lincoln's contribution, which followed, was so brief as to go virtually unnoticed, but the next day Everett wrote to him: 'I should be glad if I could flatter myself that I came as near the central idea of the occasion in two hours as you did in two minutes.' The final words echoed those of Theodore Parker at the Anti-Slavery Convention on 29 Sept. 1850: 'A government of all the people, by all the people, for all the people.'

 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
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