Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

Loading
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
     
     
 
1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1860 Part IV NEXT-1861 Part II    
 
 
     
1860 - 1869
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860-1869
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part I
Treaty of Turin
First Taranaki War
Convention of Peking
Secession of South Carolina
Poincare Raymond
The Church Union
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part II
Barrie James Matthew
Boucicault Dion
Dion Boucicault: "The Colleen Bawn"
Collins Wilkie
Wilkie Collins: "The Woman in White"
Wilkie Collins 
"The Moonstone"
"The Woman in White"
George Eliot: "The Mill on the Floss"
Di Giacoma Salvatore
Labiche Eugene-Marin
Multatuli
Multatuli: "Max Havelaar"
Alexander Ostrovski: "The Storm"
Chekhov Anton
Anton Chekhov
"Uncle Vanya"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part III
Degas: "Spartan Boys and Girls Exercising"
Hunt: "Finding of the Saviour in the Temple"
Manet: "Spanish Guitar Player"
Ensor James
James Ensor
Mucha Alfons
Alfons Mucha
Levitan Isaak
Isaac Levitan
Steer Philip Wilson
Philip Wilson Steer
Mahler Gustav
Mahler - Das Lied von der Erde
Gustav Mahler
Paderewski Ignace
Paderewski - Minuet
Ignace Paderewski
Suppe Franz
Franz von Suppe - Das Pensionat
Franz von Suppe
Wolf Hugo
Hugo Wolf - "Kennst du das Land"
Hugo Wolf
MacDowell Edward
MacDowell - Piano Sonata No. 1 "Tragica"
Edward MacDowell
Albeniz Isaac
Albeniz - Espana
Isaac Albeniz
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part IV
Cesium
Rubidium
Fechner Gustav Theodor
Lenoir Etienne
Walton Frederick
Linoleum
Across the Continent
Burke Robert O'Hara
Wills William John
Stuart John McDouall
Grant James Augustus
"The Cornhill Magazine"
"The Catholic Times"
Heenan John Camel
Sayers Tom
The Open Championship
Park William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part I
Kansas
Confederate States of America
Davis Jefferson
First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
American Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Hatteras
The American Civil War, 1861
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part II
Siege of Gaeta
Emancipation Manifesto
Abduaziz
Louis I
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part III
Dal Vladimir
Steiner Rudolf
Whitehead Alfred North
Charles Dickens: "Great Expectations"
Dostoevsky: "The House of the Dead"
George Eliot: "Silas Marner"
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "Elsie Venner"
Tagore Rabindranath
Charles Reade: "The Cloister and the Hearth"
Wood Ellen
Mrs. Henry Wood: "East Lynne"
Spielhagen Friedrich
Friedrich Spielhagen: "Problematische Naturen"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part IV
Garnier Charles
Anquetin Louis
Louis Anquetin
Godward John William
John William Godward
Bourdelle Antoine
Antoine Bourdelle
Korovin Konstantin
Konstantin Korovin
Maillol Aristide
Aristide Maillol
Melba Nellie
Royal Academy of Music, London
The Paris version "Tannhauser"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part V
Archaeopteryx
Thallium (Tl)
Hopkins Frederick Gowland
Mort Thomas Sutcliffe
Nansen Fridtjof
Fermentation theory
Baker Samuel
Baker Florence
The Bakers and the Nile
Beeton Isabella
Harden Maximilian
First horse-drawn trams in London
Order of the Star of India
Otis Elisha Graves
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part I
Battle of Fort Henry
Second Battle of Bull Run
BATTLE OF ANTIETAM
Battle of Fredericksburg
Grey Edward
Briand Aristide
The American Civil War, 1862
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part II
Rawlinson George
Ogai Mori
Ivan Turgenev: "Fathers and Sons"
Flaubert: "Salammbo"
Victor Hugo: "Les Miserables"
Barres Maurice
Maeterlinck Maurice
Hauptmann Gerhart
Wharton Edith
Schnitzler Arthur
Uhland Ludwig
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part III
Albert Memorial, London
Manet: "Lola de Valence"
Manet: "La Musique aux Tuileries"
Nesterov Mikhail
Mikhail Nesterov
Klimt Gustav
Gustav Klimt
Rysselberghe Theo
Theo van Rysselberghe
Berlioz: "Beatrice et Benedict"
Debussy Claude
Debussy - Preludes
Claude Debussy
Delius Frederick
Frederick Delius - On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring
Frederick Delius
German Edward
Edward German - Melody in D flat major
Edward German
Kochel Ludwig
Kochel catalogue
Verdi: "La Forza del Destino"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part IV
Bragg William
Foucault Leon
Gatling Richard Jordan
Lamont Johann
Lenard Pnilipp
Sachs Julius
Palgrave William Gifford
The Arabian Desert
International Exhibition, London
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part I
Arizona
Idaho
West Virginia
Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Chancellorsville
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address"
The American Civil War, 1863
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part II
Isma'il Pasha
January Uprising
George I of Greece
Dost Mohammad Khan
Christian IX  of Denmark
Chamberlain Austen
Lloyd George David
Second Taranaki War
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part III
Huxley: "Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature"
Charles Lyell: "The Antiquity of Man"
Massachusetts Agricultural College
D'Annunzio Gabriele
Bahr Hermann
Dehmel Richard
Hale Edward Everett
Edward Everett Hale: "Man without a Country"
Hope Anthony
Charles Kingsley: "The Water Babies"
Longfellow: "Tales of a Wayside Inn"
Quiller-Couch Arthur
Stanislavsky Constantin
Stanislavsky system
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part IV
Stuck Franz
Manet: "Dejeuner sur l'herbe"
Manet: "Olympia"
Meurent Victorine-Louise
The "Salon des Refuses" in Paris
Art in Revolt
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Signac Paul
Paul Signac
Munch Edvard
Edvard Munch
Berlioz: "Les Troyens"
Bizet: "Les Pecheurs de perles"
Mascagni Pietro
Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana
Pietro Mascagni
Weingartner Felix
Felix von Weingartner: Symphony No 6
Felix Weingartner
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part V
Billroth Theodor
Butterick Ebenezer
Ford Henry
Graham Thomas
National Academy of Sciences
Sorby Henry Clifton
The Football Association, London
Grand Prix de Paris
Hearst William Randolph
Yellow journalism
Pulitzer Joseph
Nadar
History of photography
Alexandra of Denmark
Royce Henry
Cuthbert Ned
Coburn Joe
Mike McCoole
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part I
Schleswig-Holstein Question
First Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
Halleck Henry
Sherman William
BATTLE OF ATLANTA
Sand Creek massacre
Venizelos Eleutherios
Maximilian II of Bavaria
Louis II
First International Workingmen's Association
Confederate Army of Manhattan
The American Civil War, 1864
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part II
Lombroso Cesare
Newman: "Apologia pro Vita Sua"
Syllabus of Errors
Dickens: "Our Mutual Friend"
Karlfeldt Erik Axel
Trollope: "The Small House at Allington"
Wedekind Frank
Zangwill Israel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part III
Stieglitz Alfred
History of photography
ALFRED STIEGLITZ
Dyce William
William Dyce
Jawlensky Alexey
Alexei von Jawlensky
Ranson Paul
Paul Ranson
Serusier Paul
Paul Serusier
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
A More Tolerant Salon
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"
Roberts David
David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"
D'Albert Eugen
Eugen d'Albert - Piano Concerto No.2
Eugen d’Albert
Foster Stephen
Stephen Foster - Beautiful Dreamer
Offenbach: "La Belle Helene"
Strauss Richard
Richard Strauss - Metamorphosen
Richard Strauss
Fry William Henry
William Henry Fry - Santa Claus Symphony
William Henry Fry - Niagara Symphony
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part IV
Lake Albert
Bertrand Joseph
Calculus
Nernst Walther
Pasteurization
Wien Wilhelm
Rawat Nain Singh
The Surveyors
Kinthup
First Geneva Convention
Knights of Pythias
"Neue Freie Presse""
De Rossi Giovanni Battista
"In God We Trust"
Travers Stakes
Farragut David
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part I
Union blockade in the American Civil War
Charleston, South Carolina in the American Civil War
Lee Robert Edward
Conclusion of the American Civil War
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Johnson Andrew
Causes of the Franco-Prussian War
Leopold II of Belgium
Harding Warren
George V of Great Britain
Ludendorff Erich
Free State–Basotho Wars
The American Civil War, 1865
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part II
Baudrillart Henri
William Stanley Jevons: "The Coal Question"
Billings Josh
Belasco David
Campbell Patrick
Lewis Carroll: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
Dodge Mary Mapes
Mary Mapes Dodge: "Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates"
Kipling Rudyard
Rudyard Kipling
Merezhkovsky Dmitry
John Henry Newman: "Dream of Gerontius"
Mark Twain: "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"
Walt Whitman: "Drum-Taps"
Yeats William Butler
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part III
Serov Valentin
Valentin Serov
Wiertz Antoine
Antoine Wiertz
Vallotton Felix
Felix Vallotton
"Olympia" - a Sensation
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Nielsen Carl
Carl Nielsen - Aladdin Suite
Carl Nielsen
Glazunov Alexander
Glazunov - The Seasons
Alexander Glazunov
Dukas Paul
Paul Dukas "L'Apprenti Sorcier"
Paul Dukas
Meyerbeer: "L'Africaine"
Sibelius Jean
Jean Sibelius - Finlandia
Jean Sibelius
Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part IV
Plucker Julius
Hyatt John Wesley
Kekule: structure of benzene
Antiseptic
Lowe Thaddeus
Mendelian inheritance
Sechenov Ivan
Whymper Edward
The High Andes
 Bingham Hiram
Rohlfs Friedrich Gerhard
Open hearth furnace
Martin Pierre-Emile
Ku Klux Klan
"The Nation"
Marquess of Queensberry Rules
"San Francisco Examiner"
"San Francisco Chronicle"
Mitchell Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part I
Cuza Alexandru
"Monstrous coalition"
Carol I
Austro-Prussian War
Battle of Custoza
Battle of Trautenau
Battle of Koniggratz
Battle of Lissa
Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869
MacDonald Ramsay
Sun Yat-sen
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part II
Croce Benedetto
Soderblom Nathan
Larousse Pierre
Larousse: Great Universal Dictionary of the 19th Century
Friedrich Lange: "History of Materialism"
Benavente Jacinto
Dostoevsky: "Crime and Punishment"
Hamerling Robert
Ibsen: "Brand"
Kingsley: "Hereward the Wake"
Rolland Romain
Wells Herbert
H.G. Wells
"The War of the Worlds"

"The Invisible Man"
 
"A Short History of the World"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part III
Bakst Leon
Leon Bakst
Fry Roger
Kandinsky Vassili
Vassili Kandinsky
A Defender Appears
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Busoni Ferruccio
Ferruccio Busoni - Berceuse Elegiaque
Ferruccio Busoni
Offenbach: "La Vie Parisienne"
Smetana: "The Bartered Bride"
Satie Eric
Erik Satie: Nocturnes
Eric Satie
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part IV
Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
Morgan Thomas Hunt
Nicolle Charles
Werner Alfred
Whitehead Robert
Whitehead torpedo
Doudart de Lagree Ernest
Panic of 1866
Thomas Morris
MacGregor John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part I
Manchester Martyrs
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Nebraska
Constitution Act, 1867
Alaska Purchase
North German Confederation
Reform Act of 1867
Battle of Mentana
Mary of Teck
Baldwin Stanley
Rathenau Walther
Pilsudski Joseph
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part II
Bagehot Walter
Walter Bagehot: "The English Constitution"
Freeman Edward Augustus
Freeman: The History of the Norman Conquest of England
Marx: "Das Kapital"
Thoma Ludwig
Soseki Natsume
Russell George William
Reymont Wladislau
Bennett Arnold
Balmont Konstantin
Pirandello Luigi
Galsworthy John
Charles de Coster: "The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel"
Ouida: "Under Two Flags"
Trollope: "The Last Chronicle of Barset"
Turgenev: "Smoke"
Zola: "Therese Raquin"
Ibsen: "Peer Gynt"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part III
Delville Jean
Jean Delville
Kollwitz Kathe
Kathe Kollwitz
Nolde Emil
Emil Nolde
Bonnard Pierre
Pierre Bonnard
Manet's Personal Exhibition
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "La Jolie Fille de Perth"
Gounod: "Romeo et Juliette"
Offenbach: "La Grande-Duchesse de Gerolstein"
Johann Strauss II: The "Blue Danube"
Toscanini Arturo
Verdi: "Don Carlos"
Granados Enrique
Enrique Granados - Spanish Dances
Enrique Granados
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part IV
Curie Marie
Michaux Pierre
Monier Joseph
Brenner Railway
Mining industry of South Africa
Dynamite
Thurn and Taxis
Chambers John Graham
London Athletic Club
Barnardo Thomas John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part I
British Expedition to Abyssinia
Battle of Magdala
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tenure of Office Act
Province of Hanover
Russian Turkestan
Mihailo Obrenovic III
Milan I of Serbia
Glorious Revolution
Horthy Nicholas
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part II
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy
Charles Darwin: "The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication"
Louisa May Alcott: "Little Women"
Robert Browning: "The Ring and the Book"
Wilkie Collins: "The Moonstone"
Dostoevsky: "The Idiot"
George Stefan
Gorki Maxim
Rostand Edmond
Edmond Rostand
"Cyrano De Bergerac"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part III
Bernard Emile
Emile Bernard
Vollard Ambroise
Slevogt Max
Max Slevogt
Vuillard Edouard
Edouard Vuillard
The Realist Impulse
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bantock Granville
Bantock "Overture The Frogs"
Granville Bantock
Brahms: "Ein deutsches Requiem"
Schillings Max
Max von Schillings: Mona Lisa
Max von Schillings
Wagner: "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part IV
Lartet Louis
Cro-Magnon
Haber Fritz
Millikan Robert Andrews
Richards Theodore William
Scott Robert Falcon
Armour Philip Danforth
Badminton House
Garvin James Louis
Harmsworth Harold
Trades Union Congress
"Whitaker's Almanack"
Sholes Christopher Latham
Typewriter
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part I
Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant
French legislative election, 1869
Prohibition Party
Red River Rebellion
Chamberlain Neville
Gandhi Mahatma
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part II
Matthew Arnold: "Culture and Anarchy"
Eduard Hartmann: "The Philosophy of the Unconscious"
Mill: "On The Subjection of Women"
First Vatican Council
Blackmore Richard Doddridge
Blackmore: "Lorna Doone"
Flaubert: "Sentimental Education"
Gide Andre
Gilbert: "Bab Ballads"
Halevy Ludovic
Bret Harte: "The Outcasts of Poker Flat"
Victor Hugo: "The Man Who Laughs"
Leacock Stephen
Mark Twain: "The Innocents Abroad"
Tolstoy: "War and Peace"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part III
Lutyens Edwin
Poelzig Hans
Carus Carl Gustav
Carl Gustav Carus
Somov Konstantin
Konstantin Somov
Matisse Henri
Henri Matisse
Manet Falls Foul of the Censor
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 0
Pfitzner Hans
Pfitzner - Nachts
Hans Pfitzner
Wagner Siegfried
Siegfried Wagner "Prelude to Sonnenflammen"
Richard Wagner: "Das Rheingold"
Roussel Albert
Albert Roussel - Bacchus et Ariane
Albert Roussel
Wood Henry
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part IV
Francis Galton: "Hereditary Genius"
Celluloid
Periodic law
Nachtigal Gustav
Cincinnati Red Stockings
Girton College, Cambridge
Nihilism
1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game
Co-operative Congress
Lesseps Ferdinand
Suez Canal
 
 
 

Battle of Wilson’s Creek, print by Kurz and Allison, c. 1893.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1861 Part I
 
 
 
1861
 
 
Kansas becomes a state of the U.S.
 
 
Kansas
 

Kansas, constituent state of the United States of America. It is bounded by Nebraska to the north, Missouri to the east, Oklahoma to the south, and Colorado to the west. Lying amid the westward-rising landscape of the Great Plains of the North American continent, Kansas became the 34th state on Jan. 29, 1861. In that year the capital was located in Topeka by popular election, outpolling nearby Lawrence by some 2,700 votes. The state’s name is derived from that of the Kansa, or Kaw, whose name comes from a Siouan-language phrase meaning “people of the south wind.”

 
The geographic centre of the 48 coterminous United States is marked by a limestone shaft and a flag located in a pasture near Lebanon, Kan., close to the Nebraska border. Some 40 miles (65 km) to the south is the magnetic, or geodetic, centre of the terrestrial mass of North America; this is the reference point for all land survey in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.

Kansas was once seen as the country’s agricultural heartland; some nine-tenths of the state’s land area is still used for agricultural purposes. Wichita, the state’s largest city, is known locally as the Air Capital of the World because of its longtime status as a major centre of production for general-aviation aircraft. Tourism, financial services, and government are also major sectors of employment. Area 82,278 square miles (213,100 square km). Population (2010) 2,853,118; (2014 est.) 2,904,021.

 
 

Kansas
 
 
History
 
Native Americans, explorers, and settlers
Archaeological exploration has uncovered evidence of Native American cultures that existed in Kansas for many centuries before the Europeans settled on the land. From about ad1200 to 1500, there had been a thriving agricultural society in the area of the Republican and Big Blue rivers. El Cuartelejo, near Scott City in west-central Kansas, is the site of the northernmost pueblo ruins in North America. By the 1500s, most permanent settlements were abandoned in favour of migratory camps.

The first known European explorers were Spaniards under Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who in 1541 rode northward from Mexico seeking the gold of the legendary Seven Golden Cities of Cíbola. Juan Padilla, a priest with the expedition, founded the first mission in the territory, possibly north of present-day Wichita. The territory was claimed for France in 1682 by René-Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, who explored the upper Mississippi River valley. During the 18th century, French fur traders had a flourishing exchange with the Kansas Indians in what is now the northeastern part of the state, and whose name was given to the region. Spain claimed Kansas briefly in the early 18th century, but after losing a brief but furious battle to the French in what is now Nebraska, Spain abandoned its territorial ambitions there.

The region passed to the United States as a part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.

  The explorer Zebulon Montgomery Pike passed through Kansas in 1806 and described it as the “Great American Desert”—a false image that still persists. Kansas was thoroughly explored during the following decades, but westward-bound settlers and miners passed through it without staying.

From 1830 to 1854, Kansas was in an area designated as Indian Territory, where tribes who had occupied eastern lands wanted by whites were relocated. After 1854 most of those groups were further removed to what is now Oklahoma. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 created two territories and opened both to settlement, allowing residents to determine whether their future states would be free or allow slavery. The rush began, and Kansas became a major breeding ground for the American Civil War, as North and South each attempted to send the most settlers into the new territory. Most early settlement was near the eastern border, and Free Staters were harassed constantly by Border Ruffians (proslavery Missourians who crossed the border to agitate against abolitionism). One notable incident was the sacking of Lawrence by Southern guerrillas in 1856. The abolitionist John Brown, with his sons and a few other men, retaliated by dragging five of their proslavery neighbours from their homes and killing them, an incident known as the Pottawatomie Massacre. Proslavery forces attempting to avenge this massacre were captured by Brown, who became a hero to the Northern sympathizers. Hundreds of such incidents won the territory the name Bleeding Kansas.

 
 

Clash between proslavery and antislavery groups in Fort Scott, Kansas Territory, 1850s.
 
 
Statehood
Kansas entered the Union as a free state in 1861. During the American Civil War, two-thirds of Kansas men of military age enlisted in the Union Army, and, with nearly 8,500 dead or wounded, Kansas suffered the highest rate of casualties (in proportion to its population) of any state in the Union. Before and after the Civil War, sporadic fighting occurred between the settlers and the Indians. In 1867 a peace treaty was signed in which the Indians agreed to sell their land; in return, the United States agreed to build homes for them in what is now Oklahoma and to provide money, food, and clothing. The U.S. Congress did not honour the treaty, and when the Indians returned they found their land occupied by white settlers. Further sporadic battles continued until the last Indian raid, in 1878.
 
 

Pioneer Mother Memorial, sculpture by Robert Merrell Gage, near (background) Kansas State House, Topeka
 
 
Early settlers in wooded eastern Kansas lived in log cabins, but in the west they had only dugouts or sod houses. Unpredictable weather, recurring Indian raids, droughts and dust storms, and periodic grasshopper invasions discouraged many early settlers. One of the heroes of that era was William Mathewson, known as the original “Buffalo Bill” (a nickname also used later to greater fame by William F. Cody), who hunted buffalo for starving settlers for an entire winter without pay, providing meat by the wagonload. The coming of the railroads in the late 1860s and the ’70s made first one village and then another into boisterous cow towns. Texas cattlemen drove herds northward to Caldwell, Wichita, Dodge City, Ellsworth, Newton, and Abilene to reach the railhead. Although this development brought prosperity to Kansas and created a persistent image, the cow-town era lasted less than a decade.

Volga Germans (Germans who had settled in Russia in the 18th century), many of them Mennonites, arrived in 1874, bringing trunks full of hand-selected grains of Turkey Red wheat. This excellent strain was the basis of the abundant winter wheat crops that became an important part of the Kansas economy.

  Many of the Mennonites’ descendants remain as prosperous farmers.

By about 1890, most of the land was occupied, and Kansans settled into a life dominated by agriculture. World War I produced a great demand for food, and more and more prairie was plowed and put into production, which led to temporary prosperity, but such practices contributed directly to the dust storms that devastated the state in the 1930s.

World War II stimulated Kansas’s growing eminence in aircraft production and brought many people from Oklahoma and Arkansas to work in Wichita’s aircraft plants.

The decades of the 1970s and ’80s were characterized by a slow but steady growth in population, one of the lowest unemployment rates in the country, and a steady increase in the number of Kansans employed in mining and in health care and other service activities. This general trend continued in the 1990s, although Kansas was less prosperous than its neighbours, especially the rapidly growing state of Colorado to the west.

 
 

Arkansas River: Wichita, Kansas
 
 
Kansas remains a Republican stronghold, with several of its conservative politicians attaining national prominence, but Democrats have been increasingly influential in state-level politics. Part of the political shift can be attributed to the growing number of Hispanic voters, with newly arrived Mexicans and Central Americans repopulating almost-abandoned small towns in the west and forming distinctive enclaves in larger towns and cities throughout the state.

Charles G. Pearson
Gregory Lewis McNamee

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
     
 



World Countries



United States of America
     
 
 
 
1861
 
 
Washington Peace Convention tries to preserve Union, but Congress of Montgomery forms Confederate States of America with S. Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, and Louisiana;

Abraham Lincoln inaugurated as 16th President of the U.S.;

Confederates take Fort Sumter, Charleston, Apr. 12-outbreak of Civil War;

Lincoln calls for militia to suppress Confederacy;

Confederate victory at Bull Run;

Union forces later capture Forts Clark and Hatteras
 
 
 
Confederate States of America
 

Confederate States of America, also called Confederacy, in the American Civil War, the government of 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union in 1860–61, carrying on all the affairs of a separate government and conducting a major war until defeated in the spring of 1865.

 
Convinced that their way of life, based on slavery, was irretrievably threatened by the election of Pres. Abraham Lincoln (November 1860), the seven states of the Deep South (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas) seceded from the Union during the following months. When the war began with the firing on Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861), they were joined by four states of the upper South (Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia).

A provisional government, established in February 1861 at Montgomery, Alabama, was replaced by a permanent government at Richmond, Virginia, a year later. The Confederacy, operating under a structure similar to that of the United States, was headed by Pres. Jefferson Davis and Vice Pres. Alexander H. Stephens. (The president and the vice president of the Confederacy were to serve six-year terms, and the president could not be reelected.) The new nation soon acquired other symbols of sovereignty, such as its own stamps and a flag known as the Stars and Bars.

The main concern of the Confederate States was raising and equipping an army. The Southern Congress first voted to permit direct volunteering up to 400,000, but conscription was begun in April 1862. The total number of Confederate soldiers is estimated at 750,000, as opposed to twice that many Federal troops. (Confederate population stood at about 5,500,000 whites and 3,500,000 black slaves, as against 22,000,000 Northerners.) In railroads, the South had only 9,000 miles, the industrial North 22,000.

 
Cover of an August 12, 1861, treaty between the Confederate States of America and several North American Indian tribes and bands west of Arkansas.
 
 
The Confederacy’s early attempts to raise funds centred on printing money, which proved highly inflationary, and issuing bonds that could be paid for in kind. Because of the Federal blockade of Southern ports, tariff revenues proved inadequate. In 1863 a general tax bill was passed, imposing license and occupational taxes, a profits tax, and a 10 percent tax on farm products, collected in kind. Profitable private blockade running was put under strict supervision in 1864. Prices of farm products for the army were eventually fixed to check profiteering.
 
 

On April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee (right) surrendered to
General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, Virginia.
 
 
In foreign affairs, the South had been initially confident of the power and influence of “King Cotton,” the crop that accounted for more than half the value of U.S. exports before the war. Confederates felt that the importance of cotton would force diplomatic recognition from the Federal government and European countries. Neither the commissioners sent abroad in 1861 nor the permanent envoys who replaced them were able to secure recognition from Great Britain, France, or any other European power. The South was able, however, to buy considerable war matériel and several fast ships that destroyed much Federal shipping on the high seas.
 
 

Granite carving of Confederate leaders Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, and Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, Stone Mountain, Ga.
 
 
President Davis took an active part in dictating military policy and major strategy, but the great leader on the battlefield was Gen. Robert E. Lee. Heartened by a series of military victories in the first two years of fighting, the Confederacy was convinced of its ultimate success. But disillusionment set in with almost simultaneous Federal victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg (July 1863). Not even the brilliant tactics of Lee in the East or of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston in the West could indefinitely hold off the stronger Northern armies. After Lee surrendered his dwindling, half-starved army at Appomattox, Virginia, on April 9, 1865, the Confederacy soon collapsed.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Davis Jefferson
 

Jefferson Davis, in full Jefferson Finis Davis (born June 3, 1808, Christian county, Kentucky, U.S.—died December 6, 1889, New Orleans, Louisiana), president of the Confederate States of America throughout its existence during the American Civil War (1861–65). After the war, he was imprisoned for two years and indicted for treason but never tried.

 

Jefferson Davis around age 45, 1853
  Early life and career
Jefferson Davis was the 10th and last child of Samuel Emory Davis, a Georgia-born planter of Welsh ancestry. When he was three his family settled on a plantation called Rosemont at Woodville, Mississippi. At seven he was sent for three years to a Dominican boys’ school in Kentucky, and at 13 he entered Transylvania College, Lexington, Kentucky. He later spent four years at the United States Military Academy at West Point, graduating in 1828.

Davis served as a lieutenant in the Wisconsin Territory and afterward in the Black Hawk War under the future president, then Colonel Zachary Taylor, whose daughter Sarah Knox he married in 1835. According to a contemporary description, Davis in his mid-20s was “handsome, witty, sportful, and altogether captivating.”

In 1835 Davis resigned his commission and became a planter near Vicksburg, Mississippi, on land given him by his rich eldest brother, Joseph. Within three months his bride died of malarial fever. Grief-stricken, Davis stayed in virtual seclusion for seven years, creating a plantation out of a wilderness and reading prodigiously in constitutional law and world literature.

In 1845 Davis was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives and, in the same year, married Varina Howell, a Natchez aristocrat who was 18 years his junior.

 
 

In 1846 he resigned his seat in Congress to serve in the war with Mexico as colonel in command of the First Mississippi volunteers, and he became a national hero for winning the Battle of Buena Vista (1847) with tactics that won plaudits even in the European press.

After returning, severely wounded, he entered the Senate and soon became chairman of the Military Affairs Committee. President Franklin Pierce made him secretary of war in 1853. Davis enlarged the army, strengthened coastal defenses, and directed three surveys for railroads to the Pacific.

During the period of mounting intersectional strife, Davis spoke widely in both North and South, urging harmony between the sections. When South Carolina withdrew from the Union in December 1860, Davis still opposed secession, though he believed that the Constitution gave a state the right to withdraw from the original compact of states. He was among those who believed that the newly elected president, Abraham Lincoln, would coerce the South and that the result would be disastrous.

 
 

Jefferson Davis, 1861
  President of the Confederacy
On January 21, 1861, twelve days after Mississippi seceded, Davis made a moving farewell speech in the Senate and pleaded eloquently for peace. Before he reached his Brierfield plantation, he was commissioned major general to head Mississippi’s armed forces and prepare its defense. But within two weeks the Confederate Convention in Montgomery, Alabama, chose him as provisional president of the Confederacy. He was inaugurated on February 18, 1861, and his first act was to send a peace commission to Washington, D.C., to prevent an armed conflict. Lincoln refused to see his emissaries and the next month decided to send armed ships to Charleston, South Carolina, to resupply the beleaguered Union garrison at Fort Sumter. Davis reluctantly ordered the bombardment of the fort (April 12–13), which marked the beginning of the American Civil War. Two days later Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers, a move that brought about the secession of Virginia and three other states from the Union.

Davis faced a dire crisis. A president without precedent, he had to mold a brand-new nation in the midst of a war. With only one-fourth the white population of the Northern states, with a small fraction of the North’s manufacturing capacity, and with inferior railroads, no navy, no powder mills, no shipyard, and an appalling lack of arms and equipment, the South was in poor condition to withstand invasion. But at Bull Run (Manassas, Virginia), on July 21, 1861, the Confederates routed Union forces.

 
 

In the meantime, with makeshift materials, Davis created factories for producing powder, cannon, side arms, and quartermaster stores. In restored naval yards gunboats were constructed, and the South’s inadequate railroads and rolling stock were patched up repeatedly. Davis sent agents to Europe to buy arms and ammunition, and he dispatched representatives to try to secure recognition from England and France.

Davis made the inspired choice of Robert E. Lee as commander of the Army of Northern Virginia in June 1862. While Davis’s military judgment was occasionally at fault, he wisely gave Lee wide scope in conducting the war over the next three years. Perhaps Davis’s most serious mistake as commander in chief was the excessive importance he attached to defending the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia, at the expense of operations farther west, including the defense of the key Confederate fortress at Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Davis had innumerable troubles during his presidency, including a squabbling Congress, a dissident vice president, and the constant opposition of extreme states’ rights advocates, who objected vigorously to the conscription law he had enacted over much opposition in 1862. But despite a gradually worsening military situation, unrelieved internal political tensions, continuing lack of manpower and armament, and skyrocketing inflation, he remained resolute in his determination to carry on the war, and Lee remained both his most valuable field commander and his most loyal personal supporter.

 
 

Jefferson Davis in prison
 
 
Capture and imprisonment
When Lee surrendered to the North without Davis’s approval, Davis and his cabinet moved south, hoping to reach the trans-Mississippi area and continue the struggle until better terms could be secured from the North. At dawn on May 10, 1865, Davis was captured near Irwinville, Ga. He was imprisoned in a damp casemate at Fort Monroe, Virginia, and was put in leg-irons. Though outraged Northern public opinion brought about his removal to healthier quarters, Davis remained a prisoner under guard for two more years. Finally, in May 1867, he was released on bail and went to Canada to regain his shattered health. Several notable Northern lawyers offered their free services to defend him in a treason trial, which Davis longed for. The government, however, never forced the issue, many believe because it feared that such a trial might establish that the original Constitution gave the states a right to secede. The case was finally dropped on December 25, 1868.

Davis made five trips to Europe in an effort to regain his health, and for a few years he served as president of an insurance company in Memphis, Tennessee. In 1877 he retired to Beauvoir, a small Gulf-side estate near Biloxi, Mississippi, which a patriotic admirer provided for him.

  There he wrote his Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government. Though pressed to enter the U.S. Senate, he declined to “ask for amnesty,” for he felt he had done nothing wrong in fighting for states’ rights under the Constitution, and he never regained his citizenship. He remained the chief spokesman and apologist for the defeated South. Davis’s citizenship was restored posthumously in 1978.

Though dedicated to the principles of democracy, Davis was by nature a benevolent aristocrat. He was diplomatic to a degree, but he did not possess the pliancy of the professional politician.

His sensitivity to criticism stood in stark contrast to the single-minded imperturbability with which his greater counterpart, Abraham Lincoln, pursued his own war aims. Davis died in 1889 in New Orleans of a complicated bronchial ailment. At his temporary interment he was accorded the greatest funeral the South had ever known. On May 31, 1893, he was buried permanently in Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond.

Hudson Strode

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
 

The first inauguration of Abraham Lincoln as the 16th President of the United States took place on March 4, 1861 on the eve of American Civil War. The inauguration marked the commencement of the first four-year term of Abraham Lincoln as President and Hannibal Hamlin as Vice President.

 
Background
Lincoln was chosen to be the Republican candidate in the 1860 presidential election, which he won on November 6 with 180 electoral votes. Between this time and his inauguration on March 4, seven states would secede from the Union.
 
 

Lincoln swearing-in at the partly finished Capitol building.
 
 
Train ride
An entourage of family and friends left Springfield, Illinois with Lincoln on February 11 to travel by train to Washington, D.C. for the inauguration. This group including his wife, three sons, and brother-in-law, as well as John G. Nicolay, John M. Hay, Ward Hill Lamon, David Davis, Norman B. Judd, and Edwin Vose Sumner.

For the next ten days, he traveled widely throughout the country, with stops in Indianapolis, Columbus, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Buffalo, Albany, New York City, and south to Philadelphia, where on the afternoon of February 21, he pulled into Kensington Station. Lincoln took an open carriage to the Continental Hotel, with almost 100,000 spectators waiting to catch a glimpse of the President-elect. There he met Mayor Alexander Henry, and delivered some remarks to the crowd outside from a hotel balcony. Lincoln continued on to Harrisburg.

Because of an alleged assassination conspiracy, Lincoln traveled through Baltimore, Maryland on a special train in the middle of the night before finally completing his journey in Washington.

Beard
This was the first time Lincoln appeared in public with his beard as president, which he had grown in between being elected and his inauguration in response to a written request by 11-year-old Grace Bedell. This effectively made him the first President to have any facial hair beyond sideburns, and he is still the only president to wear a beard with no mustache.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
American Civil War
 

American Civil War, also called War Between the States, four-year war (1861–65) between the United States and 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America.

 
Prelude to war
The secession of the Southern states (in chronological order, South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina) in 1860–61 and the ensuing outbreak of armed hostilities were the culmination of decades of growing sectional friction over slavery.

Between 1815 and 1861 the economy of the Northern states was rapidly modernizing and diversifying. Although agriculture—mostly smaller farms that relied on free labour—remained the dominant sector in the North, industrialization had taken root there. Moreover, Northerners had invested heavily in an expansive and varied transportation system that included canals, roads, steamboats, and railroads; in financial industries such as banking and insurance; and in a large communications network that featured inexpensive, widely available newspapers, magazines, and books, along with the telegraph.

By contrast, the Southern economy was based principally on large farms (plantations) that produced commercial crops such as cotton and that relied on slaves as the main labour force. Rather than invest in factories or railroads as Northerners had done, Southerners invested their money in slaves—even more than in land; by 1860, 84 percent of the capital invested in manufacturing was invested in the free (nonslaveholding) states. Yet, to Southerners, as late as 1860, this appeared to be a sound business decision. The price of cotton, the South’s defining crop, had skyrocketed in the 1850s, and the value of slaves—who were, after all, property—rose commensurately. By 1860 the per capita wealth of Southern whites was twice that of Northerners, and three-fifths of the wealthiest individuals in the country were Southerners.
  The extension of slavery into new territories and states had been an issue as far back as the Northwest Ordinance of 1784. When the slave territory of Missouri sought statehood in 1818, Congress debated for two years before arriving upon the Missouri Compromise of 1820. This was the first of a series of political deals that resulted from arguments between pro-slavery and antislavery forces over the expansion of the “peculiar institution,” as it was known, into the West. The end of the Mexican-American War in 1848 and the roughly 500,000 square miles (1.3 million square km) of new territory that the United States gained as a result of it added a new sense of urgency to the dispute. More and more Northerners, driven by a sense of morality or an interest in protecting free labour, came to believe, in the 1850s, that bondage needed to be eradicated. White Southerners feared that limiting the expansion of slavery would consign the institution to certain death. Over the course of the decade, the two sides became increasingly polarized and politicians less able to contain the dispute through compromise. When Abraham Lincoln, the candidate of the explicitly antislavery Republican Party, won the 1860 presidential election, seven Southern states (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas) carried out their threat and seceded, organizing as the Confederate States of America.

In the early morning hours of April 12, 1861, rebels opened fire on Fort Sumter, at the entrance to the harbour of Charleston, South Carolina. Curiously, this first encounter of what would be the bloodiest war in the history of the United States claimed no victims. After a 34-hour bombardment, Maj. Robert Anderson surrendered his command of about 85 soldiers to some 5,500 besieging Confederate troops under P.G.T. Beauregard. Within weeks, four more Southern states (Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina) left the Union to join the Confederacy.

 
 
With war upon the land, President Lincoln called for 75,000 militiamen to serve for three months. He proclaimed a naval blockade of the Confederate states, although he insisted that they did not legally constitute a sovereign country but were instead states in rebellion. He also directed the secretary of the treasury to advance $2 million to assist in the raising of troops, and he suspended the writ of habeas corpus, first along the East Coast and ultimately throughout the country. The Confederate government had previously authorized a call for 100,000 soldiers for at least six months’ service, and this figure was soon increased to 400,000.

Jennifer L. Weber

 
 
 

Battle of Wilson’s Creek, print by Kurz and Allison, c. 1893.
 
 
The military background of the war

Comparison of North and South
 
At first glance it seemed that the 23 states that remained in the Union after secession were more than a match for the 11 Southern states. Approximately 21 million people lived in the North, compared with some nine million in the South of whom about four million were slaves. In addition, the North was the site of more than 100,000 manufacturing plants, against 18,000 south of the Potomac River, and more than 70 percent of the railroads were in the Union. Furthermore, the Federals had at their command a 30-to-1 superiority in arms production, a 2-to-1 edge in available manpower, and a great preponderance of commercial and financial resources. The Union also had a functioning government and a small but efficient regular army and navy.

The Confederacy was not predestined to defeat, however. The Southern armies had the advantage of fighting on interior lines, and their military tradition had bulked large in the history of the United States before 1860. Moreover, the long Confederate coastline of 3,500 miles (5,600 km) seemed to defy blockade, and the Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, hoped to receive decisive foreign aid and intervention. Confederate soldiers were fighting to achieve a separate and independent country based on what they called “Southern institutions,” the chief of which was the institution of slavery. So the Southern cause was not a lost one; indeed, other countries—most notably the United States itself in the American Revolution against Britain—had won independence against equally heavy odds.

 
 

American Civil War: division of the United States during the Civil War
The Confederate States of America consisted of 11 states—seven original members and four states that seceded after the fall of Fort Sumter. Four border states held slaves but remained in the Union. West Virginia became the 24th loyal state in 1863.
 
 
The high commands
Command problems plagued both sides. Of the two rival commanders in chief, most people in 1861 thought Davis to be abler than Lincoln. Davis was a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, a hero of the Mexican-American War, a capable secretary of war under Pres. Franklin Pierce, and a U.S. representative and senator from Mississippi. Lincoln—who had served in the Illinois state legislature and as an undistinguished one-term member of the U.S. House of Representatives—could boast of only a brief period of military service in the Black Hawk War, in which he saw no action.

As president and commander in chief of the Confederate forces, Davis revealed many fine qualities, including dignity, firmness, determination, and honesty, but he was flawed by his excessive pride, hypersensitivity to criticism, poor political skills, and tendency to micromanage. He engaged in extended petty quarrels with generals and cabinet members. He also suffered from ill health throughout the conflict. Davis’s effectiveness was further hampered by a political system that limited him to a single six-year term—thereby making him a lame duck immediately upon his election—and that frowned on organized political parties, which Southerners accused of having been at least partly responsible for the coming of the Civil War. The lack of political parties meant that Davis could command no loyalty from a broad group of people such as governors or political appointees when he came under heavy criticism.

To a large extent and by his own preference, Davis was his own secretary of war, although five different men served in that post during the lifetime of the Confederacy. Davis himself also filled the position of general in chief of the Confederate armies until he named Robert E. Lee to that position on February 6, 1865, when the Confederacy was near collapse. In naval affairs—an area about which he knew little—the Confederate president seldom intervened directly, allowing the competent secretary of the navy, Stephen Mallory, to handle the Southern naval buildup and operations on the water. Although his position was onerous and quite likely could not have been filled as well by any other Southern political leader—most of them having come to prominence in a period of growing disinclination to compromise—Davis’s overall performance in office left something to be desired. To the astonishment of many, Lincoln grew in stature with time and experience, and by 1864 he had become a consummate politician and war director.

  Lincoln matured into a remarkably effective president because of his great intelligence, communication skills, humility, sense of purpose, sense of humour, fundamentally moderate nature, and ability to remain focused on the big picture. But he had much to learn at first, especially in strategic and tactical matters and in his choices of army commanders. With an ineffective first secretary of war—Simon Cameron—Lincoln unhesitatingly insinuated himself directly into the planning of military movements. Edwin M. Stanton, a well-known lawyer appointed to the secretaryship on January 20, 1862, was equally untutored in military affairs, but he was fully as active a participant as his superior.

Winfield Scott was the Federal general in chief when Lincoln took office. The 75-year-old Scott—a hero of the War of 1812 and the Mexican-American War—was a magnificent and distinguished soldier whose mind was still keen, but he was physically incapacitated and had to be retired from the service on November 1, 1861. Scott was replaced by young George B. McClellan, who was an excellent organizer. McClellan, however, lacked tenacity, persistently overestimated the Confederates’ strength (and therefore stalled his attacks), and was openly disdainful of the president. Because he wanted McClellan to focus his attentions on the Army of the Potomac, Lincoln relieved McClellan as general in chief on March 11, 1862. Henry W. Halleck, who proved to be a strong administrator but did little in the way of strategic planning, succeeded McClellan on July 11 and held the position until he was replaced by Ulysses S. Grant on March 9, 1864. Halleck then became chief of staff under Grant in a long-needed streamlining of the Federal high command. Grant served efficaciously as general in chief throughout the remainder of the war.

After the initial call by Lincoln and Davis for troops, and as the war lengthened indeterminately, both sides turned to raising massive armies of volunteers. Local citizens of prominence and means would organize regiments that were uniformed and accoutred at first under the aegis of the states and then mustered into the service of the Union and Confederate governments. On each side, the presidents appointed so-called “political generals,” men who had little or no military training or experience but had important political connections (for example, Northern Democrats) or had ties to immigrant communities. Although successful politically, most of these appointments did not yield happy military results. As the war dragged on, the two governments had to resort to conscription to fill the ranks being so swiftly thinned by battle casualties.

 
 

An 1861 cartoon map illustrating Gen. Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan.
Library of Congress Geography and Map Division Washington, D.C.
 
 
Strategic plans
In the area of grand strategy, Davis persistently adhered to the defensive, permitting only occasional “spoiling” forays into Northern territory. Perhaps the Confederates’ best chance of winning would have been an early grand offensive into the Union states before the Lincoln administration could find its ablest generals and bring the preponderant resources of the North to bear against the South. On the other hand, protecting the territory the Confederacy already controlled was of paramount importance, and a defensive position allowed the rebels to husband their resources somewhat better. To crush the rebellion and reestablish the authority of the Federal government, Lincoln had to direct his blue-clad armies to invade, capture, and hold most of the vital areas of the Confederacy. His grand strategy was based on Scott’s so-called Anaconda Plan, a design that evolved from strategic ideas discussed in messages between Scott and McClellan on April 27, May 3, and May 21, 1861. It called for a Union blockade of the Confederacy’s coastline as well as a decisive thrust down the Mississippi River and an ensuing strangulation of the South by Federal land and naval forces. But it was to take four years of grim, unrelenting warfare and enormous casualties and devastation before the Confederates could be defeated and the Union preserved.
 
 
The land war
 
The war in 1861

The first military operations took place in northwestern Virginia, where nonslaveholding pro-Union Virginians sought to secede from the Confederacy. McClellan, in command of Federal forces in southern Ohio, advanced on his own initiative in the early summer of 1861 into western Virginia with about 20,000 men. He encountered smaller forces sent there by Lee, who was then in Richmond in command of all Virginia troops. Although showing signs of occasional hesitation, McClellan quickly won three small but significant battles: on June 3 at Philippi, on July 11 at Rich Mountain, and on July 13 at Carrick’s (or Corrick’s) Ford (all now in West Virginia). McClellan’s casualties were light, and his victories went far toward eliminating Confederate resistance in northwestern Virginia, which had refused to recognize secession, and toward paving the way for the admittance into the Union of the new state of West Virginia in 1863.
 

Bull Run, battles of: Catharpin Run and Sudley Church
Catharpin Run, Sudley Church, and the remains of the Sudley Sulphur Spring house, Bull Run, Virginia, photograph by George N. Barnard.
 
 
Meanwhile, sizable armies were gathering around the Federal capital of Washington, D.C., and the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, which was about 100 miles (160 km) south of Washington. Federal forces abandoned positions in Virginia, including, on April 18, Harpers Ferry (now in West Virginia), which was quickly occupied by Southern forces, who held it for a time, and the naval base at Norfolk, which was prematurely abandoned to the Confederacy on April 20.

On May 6 Lee ordered a Confederate force—soon to be commanded by P.G.T. Beauregard—northward to hold the rail hub of Manassas Junction, Virginia, some 26 miles (42 km) southwest of Washington. With Lincoln’s approval, Scott appointed Irvin McDowell to command the main Federal army that was being hastily collected near Washington. But political pressure and Northern public opinion impelled Lincoln, against Scott’s advice, to order McDowell’s still-untrained army to push the Confederates back from Manassas. Meanwhile, Federal forces were to hold Confederate soldiers under Joseph E. Johnston in the Shenandoah Valley near Winchester, Virginia, thus preventing them from reinforcing Beauregard along the Bull Run near Manassas.

McDowell advanced from Washington on July 16 with some 32,000 men and moved slowly toward Bull Run.
  Two days later a reconnaissance in force (an attack by a large force to determine the size and strength of the enemy) was repulsed by the Confederates at Mitchell’s Ford and Blackburn’s Ford. When McDowell attacked on July 21 in the First Battle of Bull Run (which came to be known in the South as First Manassas), he discovered that Johnston had escaped the Federals in the valley and had joined Beauregard near Manassas just in time, bringing the total Confederate force to around 28,000. McDowell’s sharp attacks with green troops forced the equally untrained Southerners back a bit, but a strong defensive stand by Thomas Jonathan Jackson (who thereby gained the nickname “Stonewall”) enabled the Confederates to check and finally throw back the Federals in the afternoon. The Federal retreat to Washington soon became a rout. McDowell lost 2,708 men—killed, wounded, and missing (including prisoners)—against a Southern loss of 1,981. Both sides now settled down to a long war, but the First Battle of Bull Run left a lasting impression on both the Confederacy and the Union. Confederates took their victory as confirmation of their belief that a single rebel soldier was worth 10 Yankees, an overconfident and dangerously unrealistic mindset. On the Union side, the loss seems to have infected the high command of the Army of the Potomac with both an inferiority complex and a wary fear of Southern military proficiency. This attitude was in evidence until Grant became the general in charge of all the armies in the spring of 1864.
 
 
 
The war in 1862

The year 1862 marked a major turning point in the war, especially the war in the East, as Lee took command of the Confederate army, which he promptly renamed the Army of Northern Virginia. With Lee’s ascent the Army of the Potomac found itself repeatedly battered. While the Army of the Potomac was beleaguered by less-than-visionary leadership, Union forces in the West experienced far greater success under more-aggressive generals. Paradoxically, Lee kept the Confederate war effort going long enough for Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, which struck at the very institution the South had gone to war to protect.
 

Twin houses on the battlefield, with a 32-pound field howitzer in the foreground,
at Seven Pines (Fair Oaks), Virginia, photograph by George N. Barnard, June 1862.
 
 
THE WAR IN THE EAST
Fresh from his victories in western Virginia, McClellan was called to Washington to replace Scott. There he began to mold the Army of the Potomac into a resolute, effective shield and sword of the Union. But personality clashes and unrelenting opposition to McClellan from the Radical Republicans in Congress hampered the sometimes tactless general, who was a Democrat. It took time to drill, discipline, and equip this force of considerably more than 100,000 men, but, as fall blended into winter, loud demands arose that McClellan advance against Johnston’s Confederate forces at Centreville and Manassas in Virginia. McClellan fell seriously ill with typhoid fever in December, and when he had recovered weeks later he found that Lincoln, desperately eager for action, had ordered him to advance on February 22, 1862. Long debates ensued between president and commander. These disagreements led the obstreperous and balky McClellan to make statements and take actions that would have been—and indeed were—considered insubordinate by almost anyone other than the extremely patient Lincoln. When in March McClellan finally began his Peninsular Campaign, he discovered that Lincoln and Stanton had withheld large numbers of his command in front of Washington for the defense of the capital—forces that actually were not needed there. Upon taking command of the army in the field, McClellan was relieved of his duties as general in chief.
  THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN
Advancing up the historic peninsula between the York and James rivers in Virginia, McClellan began a monthlong siege of Yorktown and captured that stronghold on May 4, 1862. A Confederate rearguard action at Williamsburg the next day delayed the blue-clads, who then slowly moved up through heavy rain to within 4 miles (6 km) of Richmond. Striving to seize the initiative, Johnston attacked McClellan’s left wing at Seven Pines (Fair Oaks) on May 31 and, after scoring initial gains, was checked. Johnston was severely wounded, and, in a major though often overlooked development of the war, Lee, who had been serving as Davis’s military adviser, succeeded him. Lee promptly renamed the command the Army of Northern Virginia. McClellan counterattacked on June 1 and forced the Southerners back into the environs of Richmond. The Federals suffered a total of 5,031 casualties out of a force of nearly 100,000, while the Confederates lost 6,134 of about 74,000 men.

As McClellan inched forward toward Richmond in June, Lee prepared a counterstroke. He recalled from the Shenandoah Valley Jackson’s forces—which had threatened Harpers Ferry and had brilliantly defeated several scattered Federal armies—and, with about 90,000 soldiers, attacked McClellan on June 26 to begin the fighting of the Seven Days’ Battles (usually dated June 25–July 1).

 
 
In the ensuing days at Mechanicsville, Gaines’s Mill, Savage’s Station, Frayser’s Farm (Glendale), and Malvern Hill, Lee tried unsuccessfully to crush the Army of the Potomac, which McClellan was moving to another base on the James River, but the Confederate commander had at least saved Richmond. McClellan inflicted 20,614 casualties on Lee while suffering 15,849 himself. McClellan felt that he could not move upon Richmond without considerable reinforcement, and his estimates of the men he needed went up and up and up. Against his protests his army was withdrawn from the peninsula to Washington by Lincoln and the new general in chief, Halleck—a man McClellan scornfully considered to be his inferior. Many of McClellan’s units were given to a new Federal army commander, John Pope, who was directed to move overland against Richmond.
 
 

In the climactic year of 1863, Union armies knifed deep into the South to open the Mississippi River and to win control of all the Chattanooga area. At the same time, Lee’s chief northern thrust was turned back at Gettysburg. These Union victories doomed the Confederacy. Contributing to the Union triumph was the naval blockade of major Southern ports and the inadequacies of the Confederate railroads.
 
 
SECOND BATTLE OF BULL RUN (MANASSAS) AND ANTIETAM
Pope advanced confidently toward the Rappahannock River with his Army of Virginia while Lee, once McClellan had been pulled back from near Richmond, moved northward to confront Pope before he could be joined by all of McClellan’s troops. Daringly splitting his army, Lee sent Jackson to destroy Pope’s base at Manassas, while he himself advanced via another route with James Longstreet’s half of the army. Pope opened the Second Battle of Bull Run (in the South, Second Manassas) on August 29 with heavy but futile attacks on Jackson. The next day Lee arrived and crushed the Federal left with a massive flank assault by Longstreet, which, combined with Jackson’s counterattacks, drove the Northerners back in rout upon Washington. Pope lost 16,054 men out of a force of about 70,000, while Lee lost 9,197 out of about 55,000. With the Federal soldiers now lacking confidence in Pope, Lincoln relieved him and merged his forces into McClellan’s Army of the Potomac.

Lee followed up his advantage with his first invasion of the North, pushing as far as Frederick, Maryland. His hope was to bring Maryland (a slave state that had remained in the Union) into the Confederacy. He also felt that if he could continue to grind down civilian will on the Union side, the North would grant the Confederacy its independence. McClellan had to reorganize his army on the march, a task that he performed capably. But McClellan could not overcome his own worst impulses. He overestimated the size of Lee’s army by a factor of about two and a half. Worse, he failed to capitalize on an astonishing stroke of luck: the capture of Lee’s orders, discovered on the ground wrapped around three cigars. Rather than striking immediately against Lee’s scattered forces, McClellan waited 18 hours before moving. Finally, McClellan pressed forward and wrested the initiative from Lee by attacking and defeating a Confederate force at three gaps of the South Mountain between Frederick and Hagerstown on September 14. Lee fell back into a cramped defensive position along Antietam Creek, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, where he was reinforced by Jackson, who had just captured about 11,500 Federals at Harpers Ferry. After yet another delay, McClellan struck the Confederates on September 17 in the bloodiest day of the war. Although gaining some ground, the Federals were unable to drive the Confederate army into the Potomac, but Lee was compelled to retreat back into Virginia. At Antietam, McClellan lost 12,410 of some 69,000 engaged, while Lee lost 13,724 of perhaps 52,000. When McClellan did not pursue Lee as quickly as Lincoln and Halleck thought he should, he was replaced in command by Ambrose E. Burnside, an acolyte of McClellan who had been an ineffective corps commander at Antietam.

 
 

The main area of the eastern campaigns, 1861–65.
 
 
FREDERICKSBURG
Burnside delayed for a number of weeks before marching his reinforced army of 120,281 men to a point across the Rappahannock River from Fredericksburg, Virginia. On December 13 he ordered a series of 16 hopeless, piecemeal frontal assaults across open ground against Lee’s army of 78,513 troops, drawn up in an impregnable position atop high ground and behind a stone wall. The Federals were repelled with staggering losses: Burnside lost 12,653 men, compared with Lee’s 5,309. “If there is a worse place than hell, I am in it,” Lincoln reportedly said. Morale in the Army of the Potomac fell further in January, when Burnside ordered a flanking maneuver against rebel forces. After an auspicious start to the march on January 20, 1863, a driving rain began that night. The Yankees quickly bogged down in what became known as the “Mud March.” Burnside turned back on January 23. As Federal confidence plunged, desertions rose. On January 25, 1863, Lincoln replaced Burnside with a proficient corps commander, Joseph (“Fighting Joe”) Hooker, who was a harsh critic of other generals and even of the president. Both armies went into winter quarters near Fredericksburg.

Warren W. Hassler, Jr.
Jennifer L. Weber

 
 
 
THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
Despite its shocking casualty figures, the most important consequence of Antietam was off the field. From the outset of the war, slaves had been pouring into Federal camps seeking safety and freedom. Early in the war, Lincoln had slapped the wrists of commanders who tried to issue emancipation edicts in areas under their control. Trying to balance political and military necessity against moral imperatives, Lincoln believed that keeping the slave-owning border states—Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, and particularly Kentucky—in the Union was critical and that making any move toward freeing slaves could incite those states to secede. Moreover, the Constitution protected slavery in several ways, most importantly through its defense of property rights. Finally, Lincoln believed for the first year or so of the war that a significant number of Unionists existed in the seceded states and that, given time, those people would rise up and revolt against the Confederate government.

As early as August 1861, though, slaveholders’ claims to property rights had begun to erode when Congress passed its First Confiscation Act, which allowed Union troops to seize rebels’ property, including slaves who fought with or worked for the Confederate military.
 
 
One Union general, Benjamin Butler, a prominent attorney and politician in civilian life, read up on military law and used confiscation laws to the Union’s benefit by turning the slave owner’s claim to property rights on its head. Armies had always been able to confiscate property of military value, Butler argued, and slaves were instrumental in supporting the Confederate cause. With so many slaves manning factories and working fields, about 80 percent of eligible white Southern men wound up serving in the military. Butler declared slaves who came into his lines to be “contrabands” of war and therefore not liable for return to their masters. The name contrabands was used for the remainder of the war to describe slaves who ran from their masters to the Union army.

In April 1862 Congress abolished slavery in the District of Columbia and paid owners in the district about $300 on average for each slave. Three months later Congress passed the Second Confiscation Act, which mandated that any Confederate civilian or military official who did not surrender within 60 days would have his slaves freed. Two days after that, Congress banned slavery from the territories.

Lincoln, meanwhile, was meeting with men from the border states, especially Kentucky, hoping to persuade them to agree to a compensated emancipation. Over the course of these encounters, it became clear to him that the broad Unionist sentiment he thought existed in the South was a chimera. When talks with the Kentucky delegates broke off in July, Lincoln immediately sat down and drafted the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. In its final form, the Emancipation Proclamation would free the slaves in areas that were not under Union control as of January 1, 1863, when it went into effect. This meant it did not apply in the border states or places such as New Orleans, which were already under Union military occupation by that time. Lincoln realized that such a move would strike a serious blow militarily to the Confederates, who relied on bondsmen for the bulk of their labour during the war, by both demoralizing white Southerners and giving additional incentive to slaves to run away.

However, the summer of 1862 had been a bleak one for Federal forces, and Lincoln did not want to issue the proclamation when the North appeared to be losing. He did not want other countries to consider it an act of desperation. So he put the document in his desk drawer and waited for a victory. Antietam, while technically a draw, was close enough that Lincoln claimed it as a Union win and announced the proclamation. This was an important turning point. The war was now a contest not just about saving the Union but also about freeing four million bondsmen and bondswomen. This new moral element to the war persuaded the British and French to stay out of the conflict and to never offer the Confederates the diplomatic recognition they desperately sought.

  AFRICAN AMERICAN TROOPS
The Emancipation Proclamation also allowed black men to serve in the Union army. This had been illegal under a federal law enacted in 1792 (although African Americans had served in the army in the War of 1812 and the law had never applied to the navy).

With their stake in the Civil War now patently obvious, African Americans joined the service in significant numbers. By the end of the war, about 180,000 African Americans were in the army, which amounted to about 10 percent of the troops in that branch, and another 20,000 were serving in the navy.

Still, military service did not erase the bigotry that characterized Northern society at the time. African American soldiers were placed in segregated units, few of which saw action in battle, and their regiments were commanded by white men. Only a handful of African Americans achieved an officer’s rank. Most black troops were put on guard duty or asked to build forts. (The U.S. armed forces would not be integrated until 1948.) Because they tended to be in camps, these men were at far greater risk of contracting a disease than were troops on the march.

As a result, nearly three-fourths of the 40,000 African American soldiers who died in the war succumbed to either disease or infection rather than battle wounds. Initially, black troops were paid significantly less than their white counterparts. White privates made $13 a month, and their uniforms were paid for. Blacks earned $10 a month, with $3 deducted each month for uniform costs.

By June 1864 this had become enough of an embarrassment that Congress deemed that white and black troops should be paid equally and made the action retroactive. African American soldiers were routinely issued equipment that was much older or poorly made in comparison with the equipment their white comrades received. Black soldiers also faced a threat that no white troops faced: when they were captured by the rebels, black troops could be put into slavery, whether they had been free or slaves before the proclamation. They also suffered much harsher treatment if they were held as prisoners of war.

Despite the many disadvantages under which they laboured, black troops who saw battle performed admirably. African Americans participated directly in fights at Milliken’s Bend, Louisiana; Port Hudson, Louisiana; Fort Wagner, South Carolina, where the famed 54th Massachusetts Regiment lost two-thirds of its officers and nearly half its enlisted men; Petersburg, Virginia; and Nashville, Tennessee. Sixteen black men were awarded the Medal of Honor for their bravery during the war.

Jennifer L. Weber

 
 
 

The main area of the western and Carolina campaigns, 1861–65.
 
 

THE WAR IN THE WEST

Military events, meanwhile, were transpiring in other arenas.

TRANS-MISSISSIPPI THEATRE AND MISSOURI
In the Trans-Mississippi theatre covetous Confederate eyes were cast on California, where ports for privateers could be seized, as could gold and silver to buttress a sagging treasury. Led by Henry Sibley, a Confederate force of some 2,600 invaded the Union’s Department of New Mexico, where the Federal commander, Edward Canby, had but 3,810 men to defend the entire vast territory. Although plagued by pneumonia and smallpox, Sibley battered a Federal force at Valverde on February 21, 1862, and captured Albuquerque and Santa Fe on March 23. But at the crucial engagement of La Glorieta Pass (known also as Apache Canyon, Johnson’s Ranch, or Pigeon’s Ranch) a few days later, Sibley was checked and lost most of his wagon train. He had to retreat into Texas, where he reached safety in April but with only 900 men and 7 of 337 supply wagons left.

Farther eastward, in the more vital Mississippi valley, operations were unfolding as large and as important as those on the Atlantic seaboard. Missouri and Kentucky were key border states that Lincoln had to retain within the Union orbit. Commanders there—especially on the Federal side—had greater autonomy than those in Virginia. Affairs began inauspiciously for the Federals in Missouri when Nathaniel Lyon’s 5,000 Union troops were defeated at Wilson’s Creek on August 10, 1861, by a Confederate force of more than 10,000 under Sterling Price and Benjamin McCulloch, each side losing some 1,200 men. But the Federals under Samuel Curtis decisively set back a gray-clad army under Earl Van Dorn at Pea Ridge (Elkhorn Tavern), Arkansas, on March 7–8, 1862, saving Missouri for the Union and threatening Arkansas.

 
 
OPERATIONS IN KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE
The Confederates to the east of Missouri had established a unified command under Albert Sidney Johnston, who manned, with only 40,000 men, a long line in Kentucky running from near Cumberland Gap on the east through Bowling Green to Columbus on the Mississippi River. Numerically superior Federal forces cracked this line in early 1862. First, George H. Thomas broke Johnston’s right flank at Mill Springs (Somerset), Kentucky, on January 19. Then, in February, Grant, assisted by Federal gunboats commanded by Andrew H. Foote and acting under Halleck’s orders, ruptured the centre of the Southern line in Kentucky by capturing Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and Fort Donelson, 11 miles (18 km) to the east, on the Cumberland River (both forts located in Tennessee). The Confederates suffered more than 16,000 casualties at the latter stronghold—most of them taken prisoner—against Federal losses of fewer than 3,000, and Grant’s victories at Forts Henry and Donelson marked the first real successes for the Union in the war. Johnston’s left anchor fell when Pope seized New Madrid, Missouri, and Island Number Ten in the Mississippi River in March and April. This forced Johnston to withdraw his remnants quickly from Kentucky through Tennessee and to reorganize them for a counterstroke. This seemingly impossible task he performed splendidly.

The Confederate onslaught came at Shiloh, Tennessee, near Pittsburg Landing, a point on the west bank of the Tennessee River to which Grant and William T. Sherman had incautiously advanced. In a herculean effort, Johnston pulled his forces together and, with 40,000 men, suddenly struck a like number of unsuspecting Federals on April 6. Johnston hoped to crush Grant before the arrival of Don Carlos Buell’s 20,000 Federal troops, approaching from Nashville, Tennessee. A desperate combat ensued, with Confederate assaults driving the Federals perilously close to the river. But, at the height of success, Johnston was mortally wounded. The Southern attack then lost momentum, and Grant held on until reinforced by Buell. On the following day the Federals counterattacked and drove the Confederates, now under Beauregard, steadily from the field, forcing them to fall back to Corinth, in northern Mississippi. Grant’s victory cost him 13,047 casualties, compared with Southern losses of 10,694.

  Halleck then assumed personal command of the combined forces of Grant, Buell, and Pope and inched forward to Corinth, which the Confederates had evacuated on May 30. With this battle and its huge losses, the people of both the Union and the Confederacy came to realize that this war would be longer and costlier than many on either side had thought in 1861.
Beauregard, never popular with Davis, was superseded by Braxton Bragg, one of the president’s favourites. Bragg was an imaginative strategist and an effective drillmaster and organizer, but he was also a weak tactician and a martinet who was disliked by a number of his principal subordinates. Leaving 22,000 men in Mississippi under Price and Van Dorn, Bragg moved through Chattanooga, Tennessee, with 30,000 troops, hoping to reconquer the state and carry the war into Kentucky. Some 18,000 other Confederate soldiers under E. Kirby Smith were at Knoxville, Tennessee. Buell led his Federal force northward to save Louisville, Kentucky, and to force Bragg to fight. Occupying Frankfort, Kentucky, Bragg failed to move promptly against Louisville. In the ensuing Battle of Perryville on October 8, Bragg, after an early advantage, was halted by Buell and impelled to fall back to a point south of Nashville. Meanwhile, Federals under William S. Rosecrans had checked Price and Van Dorn at Iuka, Mississippi, on September 19 and had repelled their attack in the Battle of Corinth on October 3–4.

Buell—like McClellan cautious and a Democrat—was slow in his pursuit of the retreating Confederates and, despite his success at Perryville, was relieved of his command by Lincoln on October 24. His successor, Rosecrans, was able to safeguard Nashville and then move southeastward against Bragg’s army at Murfreesboro, Tennessee. He scored a partial success by bringing on the bloody Battle of Stones River (or Murfreesboro, December 31, 1862–January 2, 1863). Again, after first having the better of the combat, Bragg was finally contained and forced to retreat. Of some 41,400 men, Rosecrans lost 12,906, while Bragg suffered 11,739 casualties out of about 34,700 effectives. Although it was a strategic victory for Rosecrans, his army was so shaken that he felt unable to advance again for five months, despite the urgings of Lincoln and Halleck.

Warren W. Hassler, Jr.
Jennifer L. Weber

 
 
 

The war in 1863

The first half of 1863 was grim for the Union cause. In the East, Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia experienced its greatest successes. Meanwhile, Union armies in the West were stifled, especially in their efforts to take Vicksburg, Mississippi. Catastrophic Confederate losses in early July, however, left Lee unable to ever take the offensive again, gave the Union control of the Mississippi River from top to bottom, and divided the Confederacy in half. Nevertheless, problems plagued both sides as the war’s toll weighed increasingly on the people at home.

 

Copperhead: cartoon from “Harper’s Weekly”
 
 
THE COPPERHEADS
In January 1863 Lincoln was despondent about the political situation in the North. Antiwar Democrats had been in evidence since the beginning of the conflict, but the North’s defeats in the summer and fall of 1862, along with the deeply divisive Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, had given the so-called Peace Democrats credibility and an audience. Republicans had not fared well in the midterm elections, and a movement in the Midwestern states to break off and either join the Confederacy or start a third country seemed to be gaining ground. “The fire in the rear,” Lincoln told a senator, posed a greater threat to the nation than the Confederates did to its front.
 
 
The Peace Democrats, dubbed “Copperheads” by Republicans after a poisonous snake, braided together three coalitions: immigrants, especially Irish and German Catholics, who had been the target of ugly discrimination by nativists and Protestant reformers and who had gravitated into the Democratic Party in the mid-1850s; people in the Lower Midwest with family ties to the South; and conservative Democrats who had a strict constructionist reading of the Constitution. Poorly led and having only loose formal connections beyond county lines, Peace Democrats universally characterized themselves as conservatives worried that Lincoln and the Republicans were reaching far past constitutional bounds. They also shared a deep antipathy toward African Americans. By the summer of 1862 the rallying cry of these conservatives was “The Union as it was, the Constitution as it is.”

The movement was galvanized by the suspension of habeas corpus, first on the East Coast and then throughout the Union; the Emancipation Proclamation, which confirmed the worst suspicions of the Copperheads, who believed this had always been a war about abolition rather than reunion; and conscription, which Congress approved in March 1863. Other changes that were widely accepted by most Northerners and would have major implications for the American economy for generations to come were also reviled by the Copperheads. Specifically, they believed that the income tax that was levied for the first time in the country’s history and the issuance of paper currency—so-called greenbacks—were further gross violations of the Constitution that represented yet another dangerous extension of executive power. These were indeed more examples of the executive’s broader power, although the income tax, like many other war measures, disappeared after the war. A nationally recognized paper currency, however, was with the country to stay.

Ultimately the Copperheads really had very little control over their own fate. Instead, the extent of their influence rested with the armies. Although they never seemed to realize it, the power of the Peace Democrats waxed and waned through the war in direct opposition to how well the Union armies performed in the field.

  THE SOUTHERN HOME FRONT
By 1863 the war was taking a clear toll on the civilians of both sides. The Union had the Copperheads. Labour shortages and inflation also complicated life for Northerners, though on the whole the economy boomed in the North during the war.

Whatever difficulties Yankees experienced paled in comparison with those of Southerners, who were plagued with shortages of food, salt, and nearly every conceivable consumer good. The shortages had myriad causes: the Union blockade shut off the import of many finished materials from Europe; naturally, the war itself shut down official trade with the North, which had supplied the South’s agrarian economy with much of its manufactured goods; and Southern industry was neither large nor well developed enough to meet demand.

Deprivation was evident early in the war with the lack of such basic items as paper and ink. Civilians wrote letters on anything they could find, including sheets torn from old account books and wallpaper ripped from the walls. The Southern states, which boasted about 800 newspapers at the beginning of the war, had only 22 by the time it ended, according to a contemporary estimate.

But the most pressing problem for many civilians in the Confederacy was the threat of starvation. Many causes were at the root of food shortages: a drought in 1862 drove down food supplies; slaves who worked on farms and plantations were fleeing to Union lines; Federal troops were gaining control of more parts of the Confederacy; and, with the Confederate military having priority in terms of transportation, food earmarked for civilians went bad before it could be shipped from warehouses.

When the government tried to rectify the situation by impressing food, farmers responded by hiding their crops and their livestock.

Hyperinflation sent the price of food skyrocketing while the value of the Confederate dollar cratered. Food riots broke out in several cities, including Richmond. In that instance, in April 1863, Davis ordered the militia to open fire on several hundred women if they did not leave the area, which they grudgingly did.

 
 
PHOTOGRAPHY
Photography had existed for about 20 years before the war broke out, but technological developments in the late 1850s allowed for the mass production of images. More than a million tintypes, which were printed on metal, and ambrotypes, which were printed on glass, would be made during the war.

Cartes de visite, a forerunner of sorts to trading cards, featured images of famous military and political figures and other celebrities, such as actors, as well as ordinary soldiers and civilians. But the most dramatic development in the field of photography was an exhibit Mathew Brady mounted in October 1862.

Featuring pictures of the aftermath of Antietam, the show attracted huge crowds to Brady’s New York City studio, and lines wrapped around the block. Americans had never seen photographs of such carnage before.

“Mr. Brady has done something to bring home to us the terrible reality and earnestness of war. If he has not brought bodies and laid them in our dooryards and along the streets, he has done something very like it,”
The New York Times reported.

Jennifer L. Weber

 
Mathew Brady
 
 
 
THE WAR IN THE EAST
In the east, after both armies had spent the winter in camp, the arrival of the active 1863 campaign season was eagerly awaited—especially by Hooker. “Fighting Joe” had capably reorganized and refitted his army, the morale of which was high once again. The massive Army of the Potomac numbered around 132,000—the largest army formed during the war—and was termed by Hooker “the finest army on the planet.” It was opposed by Lee with about 62,000 troops. Hooker decided to move most of his army up the Rappahannock, cross, and come in upon the Confederate rear at Fredericksburg, while John Sedgwick’s smaller force would press Lee in front.
 
 
CHANCELLORSVILLE
Beginning his turning movement on April 27, 1863, Hooker masterfully swung around toward the west of the Confederate army. Thus far he had outmaneuvered Lee, but Hooker was astonished on May 1 when the Confederate commander left a small part of his force in Fredericksburg and suddenly moved the bulk of his army directly against him. “Fighting Joe” lost his nerve and pulled back to Chancellorsville, Virginia, in the Wilderness, where the superior Federal artillery could not be used effectively.

Lee followed up on May 2 by splitting his army and sending Jackson on a brilliant flanking movement against Hooker’s exposed right. Bursting like a thunderbolt upon Oliver O. Howard’s XI Corps late in the afternoon, Jackson crushed this wing. While scouting the Federal forces that night, however, Jackson was accidentally shot by his own pickets and died of complications several days later. Lee resumed the attack on the morning of May 3 and slowly pushed back Hooker, who was knocked insensible by Southern artillery fire but refused to surrender his command even temporarily.

  That afternoon Sedgwick drove Jubal Early’s Southerners from Marye’s Heights at Fredericksburg, but Lee countermarched his weary troops, fell upon Sedgwick at Salem Church, and forced him back to the north bank of the Rappahannock.

Lee then returned to Chancellorsville to resume the main engagement, but Hooker, though he had 37,000 fresh troops available, gave up the contest on May 5 and retreated across the river to his old position opposite Fredericksburg. The Federals suffered 17,278 casualties at Chancellorsville, while the Confederates lost 12,764. It was a tremendous victory for Lee. His actions—splitting his force twice in the face of an adversary double his size—are still studied in military academies for their vision and audacity.

Lee emerged from the battle believing that his army, even without Jackson, was invincible, and his men emerged from the fight believing that they were invincible as long as Lee was their commander. Lee’s stunning success at Chancellorsville laid the groundwork for Lee’s second invasion of the North and some of the fateful decisions he would make at Gettysburg.
 
 

The third day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 3, 1863, is depicted in a lithograph by Currier & Ives.
 
 

GETTYSBURG
While both armies were licking their wounds and reorganizing, Hooker, Lincoln, and Halleck debated Union strategy. They were thus engaged when Lee headed north again on June 5, 1863. What his ultimate target may have been remains a historical mystery; he never told anyone. His advance elements moved down the Shenandoah Valley toward Harpers Ferry, brushing aside small Federal forces near Winchester. Marching through Maryland into Pennsylvania, the Confederates reached Chambersburg and turned eastward. They occupied York and Carlisle and menaced Harrisburg. Meanwhile, the dashing Confederate cavalryman J.E.B. (“Jeb”) Stuart set off on a questionable weeklong ride around the Federal army and was unable to join Lee’s main army until the second day at Gettysburg.

Hooker—on unfriendly terms with Lincoln and especially Halleck—moved the Federal forces northward, keeping between Lee’s army and Washington. Reaching Frederick, Hooker requested that the nearly 10,000-man Federal garrison at Harpers Ferry be added to his field army. When Halleck refused, Hooker resigned his command and was succeeded June 28 by the steady George Gordon Meade, the commander of V Corps. Meade was granted a greater degree of freedom of movement than Hooker had enjoyed, and he carefully felt his way northward, looking for the Confederates.

Learning to his surprise the same day that Meade took command that the Federal army was north of the Potomac, Lee hastened to concentrate his far-flung legions. Hostile forces met unexpectedly at the important crossroads town of Gettysburg, in southern Pennsylvania, bringing on the greatest battle ever fought in the Western Hemisphere. Attacking on July 1 from the west and north with 28,000 men, Confederate forces finally prevailed after nine hours of desperate fighting against 18,000 Federal soldiers under John F. Reynolds. When Reynolds was killed, Abner Doubleday handled the outnumbered Federal troops, but the weight of Confederate numbers forced him back through the streets of Gettysburg to strategic Cemetery Ridge south of town, where Meade assembled the rest of the army that night.

 
 
On the second day of battle, Meade’s 93,000 troops were ensconced in a strong, fishhook-shaped defensive position running northward from the Round Top hills along Cemetery Ridge and then eastward around Culp’s Hill. Lee, with 75,000 troops, ordered James Longstreet to attack the Federals diagonally from Little Round Top northward and Richard S. Ewell to assail Cemetery Hill and Culp’s Hill. The Confederate attack, coming in the late afternoon and evening, saw Longstreet capture the positions known as the Peach Orchard, Wheat Field, and Devil’s Den on the Federal left in furious fighting but fail to seize the vital Little Round Top. Ewell’s later assaults on Cemetery Hill were repulsed, and he could capture only a part of Culp’s Hill.

On the morning of the third day, Meade’s right wing drove the Confederates from the lower slopes of Culp’s Hill and checked Stuart’s cavalry sweep to the east of Gettysburg in midafternoon. Then, in what has been called the greatest infantry charge in American history, Lee—against Longstreet’s advice—hurled nearly 15,000 soldiers under the command of Generals George E. Pickett, J. Johnston Pettigrew, and Isaac R. Trimble against the centre of Meade’s lines on Cemetery Ridge, following a fearful and deafening artillery duel of two hours. Despite heroic efforts, only several hundred Southerners temporarily breached the low rock wall at the Federal’s centre; the rest were shot down by Union cannoneers and riflemen, captured, or thrown back, suffering casualties of almost 60 percent. To Lincoln’s great consternation, Meade felt unable to counterattack, and Lee retreated into Virginia. The Confederates had lost 28,063 men at Gettysburg and the Federals 23,049.

After indecisive maneuvering and light actions in northern Virginia in the fall of 1863, the two armies went into winter quarters. Lee’s decisions on the third day have long been the subject of debate but are best understood in the context of coming just a few weeks after his greatest victory, at Chancellorsville. But the consequences of Gettysburg, while not ultimately decisive, were catastrophic nonetheless. Lee had lost a number of his hardened veterans along with many of his generals and colonels, and they could not be replaced. Never again would Lee be able to mount a full-scale invasion of the North with his entire army. Instead, he would have to spend the rest of the war on the defensive.

Warren W. Hassler, Jr.

  CONSCRIPTION AND THE NEW YORK CITY DRAFT RIOT
Just 10 days after Pickett’s Charge at Gettysburg, a draft riot broke out in New York City and quickly turned into a race riot. At least 120 people were killed in the five-day melee, which remains one of the deadliest episodes of civil unrest in American history. This was neither the first nor the last draft riot to take place in the North, however. In fact, the last major riot would occur in March 1864 in Charleston, Illinois, one of the towns that had hosted a Lincoln-Douglas debate in 1858.

It was the Confederates, however, who had resorted to a draft first, in April 1862. All healthy Southern white men between ages 18 and 35 were required to serve three years (ultimately, this would be extended to men between ages 17 and 50). Those whose occupations were critical to society or the war effort were exempt from military service, and until December 1863 a wealthy man could hire a substitute to serve in his place.

The most controversial element of the Confederate conscription was the “Twenty-Slave” law, which allowed one white man from a plantation with 20 or more slaves to avoid service during the war. This was in part a response to the pleas of many Southern women, who were unprepared for and overwhelmed by the responsibility of running plantations on their own and managing a significant number of slaves. The exemption stirred cries from yeomen farmers that this had become “a rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight.”

The U.S. Congress resorted to the first draft in the country’s history in March 1863. As with the Confederates the year before, the inflow of volunteers was drying up, and the Union needed to keep the ranks filled. All able-bodied men between ages 20 and 45 were required to be enrolled and available for military service.

Draftees were chosen by lottery. Once conscripted, a man could avoid service for that particular round of the draft either by paying a $300 commutation fee or by hiring a substitute to take his place.
As in the South, this raised accusations that the war had become “a rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight.” Nevertheless, in both North and South, statistics indicate that wealthy men were represented in the service in at least the same proportion as they were in the general population.

Jennifer L. Weber

 
 
THE WAR IN THE WEST
The surrender of Vicksburg was an important victory for the Union. It was one of several significant turning points in the war but was not decisive on its own. Confederate troops continued to put up a considerable fight, defeating Union forces at Chickamauga Creek, Georgia, and imposing great suffering at Chattanooga before finally losing that city.
 
 

Shirley House with Union “bomb-proofs” covering the surrounding hillside, Vicksburg, Mississippi.
 
 
ARKANSAS AND VICKSBURG
In Arkansas, Federal troops under Frederick Steele moved upon the Confederates and defeated them at Prairie Grove, near Fayetteville, on December 7, 1862—a victory that paved the way for Steele’s eventual capture of Little Rock the next September.

More importantly, Grant, back in good graces following his undistinguished performance at Shiloh, was authorized to move against the Confederate “Gibraltar of the West”—Vicksburg, Mississippi. This bastion was difficult to approach: Adm. David Farragut, Grant, and Sherman had failed to capture it in 1862.

In the early months of 1863, in the so-called Bayou Expeditions, Grant was again frustrated in his efforts to get at Vicksburg from the north. Finally, escorted by Adm. David Dixon Porter’s gunboats, which ran the Confederate batteries at Vicksburg, Grant landed his army to the south at Bruinsburg, Mississippi, on April 30, 1863, and pressed northeastward. He won small but sharp actions at Port Gibson, Raymond, and Jackson, while the circumspect Confederate defender of Vicksburg, John C. Pemberton, was unable to link up with a smaller Southern force under Joseph E. Johnston near Jackson.

Turning due westward toward the rear of Vicksburg’s defenses, Grant overwhelmed Pemberton’s army at Champion’s Hill and the Big Black River and enveloped the town. During his 47-day siege, Grant eventually had an army of 71,000; Pemberton’s command numbered 31,000, of whom 18,500 were effectives.

The outnumbered and starving Confederates were forced to capitulate on July 4. Five days later, 6,000 rebels yielded to Nathaniel P. Banks at Port Hudson, Louisiana, to the south of Vicksburg, a loss that divided the Confederacy in half. Lincoln could say, in relief, “The Father of Waters again goes unvexed to the sea.”

  CHICKAMAUGA AND CHATTANOOGA
Meanwhile, 60,000 Federal soldiers under Rosecrans sought to move southeastward from central Tennessee against the important Confederate rail and industrial centre of Chattanooga, then held by Bragg with some 43,000 troops. In a series of brilliantly conceived movements, Rosecrans maneuvered Bragg out of Chattanooga without having to fight a battle. Bragg was then bolstered by troops from Longstreet’s veteran corps, sent swiftly by rail from Lee’s army in Virginia.

With this reinforcement, Bragg turned on Rosecrans and—in a vicious two-day battle (September 19–20) at Chickamauga Creek, just southeast of Chattanooga—gained one of the few Confederate victories in the west. Bragg lost 18,454 of his 66,326 men; Rosecrans, 16,170 out of 53,919 engaged. Rosecrans fell back into Chattanooga, where he was almost encircled by Bragg. Bragg was able to choke off supplies to the point that Union troops were starving.

But the Southern success was short-lived. Instead of pressing the siege of Chattanooga, Bragg unwisely sent Longstreet off in a futile attempt to capture Knoxville, then being held by Burnside.

When Rosecrans showed signs of disintegration, Lincoln replaced him with Grant, who was able to establish a supply line by late October and strengthened the hard-pressed Federal army at Chattanooga by sending, by rail, the remnants of the Army of the Potomac’s XI and XII Corps, under Hooker’s command.

Outnumbering Bragg now 56,359 to 46,165, Grant attacked on November 23–25, capturing Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, defeating Bragg’s army, and driving it southward toward Dalton, Georgia. Grant sustained 5,824 casualties at Chattanooga and Bragg, 6,667. Confidence having been lost in Bragg by most of his top generals, Davis replaced him with Johnston. Both armies remained quiescent until the following spring.

 
 

In the climactic year of 1863, Union armies knifed deep into the South to open the Mississippi River and to win control of all the Chattanooga area. At the same time, Lee’s chief northern thrust was turned back at Gettysburg. These Union victories doomed the Confederacy. Contributing to the Union triumph was the naval blockade of major Southern ports and the inadequacies of the Confederate railroads.
 
 
 

The war in 1864–65

Finally dissatisfied with Halleck as general in chief and impressed with Grant’s victories, Lincoln appointed Grant to supersede Halleck and to assume the rank of lieutenant general, which Congress had re-created. Leaving Sherman in command in the west, Grant arrived in Washington on March 8, 1864. He was given largely a free hand in developing his grand strategy. He retained Meade in technical command of the Army of the Potomac but in effect assumed direct control by establishing his own headquarters with it. He sought to move this army against Lee in northern Virginia while Sherman marched against Johnston and Atlanta. Several lesser Federal armies were also to advance in May.

 
 
GRANT’S OVERLAND CAMPAIGN
Grant surged across the Rapidan and Rappahannock rivers in Virginia on May 4, hoping to get through the tangled Wilderness before Lee could move. But the Confederate leader reacted instantly and, on May 5, attacked Grant from the west in the Battle of the Wilderness. Two days of bitter, indecisive combat ensued. Although Grant had 115,000 men available against Lee’s 62,000, he found both Federal flanks endangered. Moreover, Grant lost 17,666 soldiers, compared with a probable Southern loss of about 8,000. Pulling away from the Wilderness battlefield, Grant tried to hasten southeastward to the crossroads point of Spotsylvania Court House, only to have the Confederates get there first. In savage action (May 8–19), including hand-to-hand fighting at the famous “Bloody Angle,” Grant, although gaining a little ground, was essentially thrown back. He had lost 18,399 men at Spotsylvania. Lee’s combined losses at the Wilderness and Spotsylvania were an estimated 17,250.

Again Grant withdrew, only to move forward in another series of attempts to get past Lee’s right flank. Again, at the North Anna River and at Totopotomoy Creek, he found Lee confronting him. Finally, at Cold Harbor, just northeast of Richmond, Grant launched several heavy attacks, including a frontal, nearly suicidal one on June 3, only to be repelled with grievous total losses of 12,737. Lee’s casualties are unknown but were much lighter.

 
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, Cold Harbor, Virginia; photograph by Mathew Brady, 1864.
 
 

Grant, with the vital rail centre of Petersburg—the southern key to Richmond—as his objective, made one final effort to swing around Lee’s right and finally outguessed his opponent and stole a march on him. But several blunders by Federal officers, swift action by Beauregard, and Lee’s belated though rapid reaction enabled the Confederates to hold Petersburg. Grant attacked on June 15 and 18, hoping to break through before Lee could consolidate the Confederate lines east of the city, but he was contained with 8,150 losses.

Unable to admit defeat but having failed to destroy Lee’s army and capture Richmond, Grant settled down to a nine-month active siege of Petersburg. The summer and fall of 1864 were highlighted by the Federal failure with a mine explosion under the gray lines at Petersburg on July 30 (the Battle of the Crater), the near capture of Washington by the Confederate Jubal Early in July, and Early’s later setbacks in the Shenandoah Valley at the hands of Philip H. Sheridan.

 
 
SHERMAN’S GEORGIA CAMPAIGNS AND TOTAL WAR
Meanwhile, Sherman was pushing off toward Atlanta from Dalton, Georgia, on May 7, 1864, with 110,123 men against Johnston’s 55,000. This masterly campaign comprised a series of cat-and-mouse moves by the rival commanders. Nine successive defensive positions were taken up by Johnston. Trying to outguess his opponent, Sherman attempted to swing around the Confederate right flank twice and around the left flank the other times, but each time Johnston divined which way Sherman was moving and each time pulled back in time to thwart him. At one point Sherman’s patience snapped, and he frontally assaulted the Southerners at Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, on June 27; Johnston threw him back with heavy losses. All the while Sherman’s lines of communication in his rear were being menaced by audacious Confederate cavalry raids conducted by Nathan Bedford Forrest and Joseph Wheeler. Forrest administered a crushing defeat to Federal troops under Samuel D. Sturgis at Brice’s Cross Roads, Mississippi, on June 10. But these Confederate forays were more annoying than decisive, and Sherman pressed forward.

When Johnston finally informed Davis that he could not realistically hope to annihilate Sherman’s mighty army, the Confederate president replaced him with John B. Hood, who had already lost two limbs in the war. Hood inaugurated a series of premature offensive battles at Peachtree Creek, Atlanta, Ezra Church, and Jonesboro, but he was repulsed in each of them. With his communications threatened, Hood evacuated Atlanta on the night of August 31–September 1. Sherman pursued only at first. Then, on November 15, he commenced his great March to the Sea with 62,000 men, laying waste to the economic resources of Georgia in a 50-mile- (80-km-) wide swath of destruction. He captured Savannah, 285 miles (460 km) from Atlanta, on December 21.

  Sherman’s March to the Sea marked a new development in the war. To this point, Union armies had generally avoided targeting civilians and their property other than slaves. Sherman had decided, though, that he had to crush the will of white Southern civilians if the Union were to bring the rebels to heel. He promised to “make Georgia howl,” and he did. His men destroyed everything of military value that they encountered, including railroads, telegraph lines, and warehouses. They were trailed by foragers, stragglers, deserters, Georgia militiamen, local ne’er-do-wells, and some Confederate cavalry who committed a variety of depredations on the population, including pillaging and burning civilian property. Sherman became the bête noire of the South not only for his own actions but also because he was blamed for the actions of others not necessarily under his control. Nevertheless, Sherman himself reported that his men had racked up $100 million in damage to Georgia, 80 percent of which was “simple waste and destruction” and the remainder being straightforward military targets.

Because civilians were not killed, historians have debated whether this was an instance of “total war” (other examples being the bombing of Dresden, Tokyo, or Hiroshima during World War II) or one of “hard war.”

Hood had sought unsuccessfully to lure Sherman out of Georgia and back into Tennessee by marching northwestward with nearly 40,000 men toward the key city of Nashville, the defense of which had been entrusted by Sherman to George H. Thomas.

At Franklin, Hood was checked for a day with severe casualties by a Federal holding force under John M. Schofield. This helped Thomas to retain Nashville, where on December 15–16 he delivered a crushing counterstroke against Hood’s besieging army, cutting it up so badly that it was of little use thereafter.

 
 

WESTERN CAMPAIGNS
Sherman’s force might have been larger and his Atlanta-Savannah Campaign consummated much sooner had not Lincoln approved the Red River Campaign in Louisiana led by Banks in the spring of 1864. Accompanied by Porter’s warships, Banks moved up the Red River with some 40,000 men. He had two objectives: to capture cotton and to defeat Southern forces under Kirby Smith and Richard Taylor. Not only did he fail to net much cotton but also he was checked with loss on April 8 at Sabine Cross Roads, Louisiana, and forced to retreat. Porter lost several gunboats, and the campaign amounted to a costly debacle.

That fall Kirby Smith ordered the reconquest of Missouri. Sterling Price’s Confederate army advanced on a broad front into Missouri but was set back temporarily by Thomas Ewing at Pilot Knob on September 27. Resuming the advance toward St. Louis, Price was forced westward along the south bank of the Missouri River by pursuing Federal troops under A.J. Smith, Alfred Pleasonton, and Samuel Curtis. Finally, on October 23, at Westport, near Kansas City, Price was decisively defeated and forced to retreat along a circuitous route, arriving back in Arkansas on December 2. This ill-fated raid cost Price most of his artillery as well as the greater part of his army, which numbered about 12,000.

 
 
SHERMAN’S CAROLINA CAMPAIGNS
On January 10, 1865, with Tennessee and Georgia now securely in Federal hands, Sherman’s 60,000-man force began to march northward into the Carolinas. It was only lightly opposed by much smaller Confederate forces. Sherman’s men blamed South Carolina for bringing on the war and sought to punish them for their actions. What had happened in Georgia paled in comparison with the devastation the Yankees wrought in South Carolina. Once again, civilians were not killed, but the Union troops did everything they could to demoralize the population and undermine their support for the war. Sherman captured Columbia, South Carolina, on February 17 and compelled the Confederates to evacuate Charleston (including Fort Sumter). When Lee was finally named Confederate general in chief, he promptly reinstated Johnston as commander of the small forces striving to oppose the Federal advance. Nonetheless, Sherman pushed on into North Carolina, capturing Fayetteville on March 11 and, after an initial setback, repulsing the counterattacking Johnston at Bentonville on March 19–20. Goldsboro fell to the Federals on March 23 and Raleigh on April 13.

Finally, perceiving that he no longer had any reasonable chance of containing the relentless Federal advance, Johnston surrendered to Sherman at the Bennett House near Durham Station on April 18. When Sherman’s generous terms proved unacceptable to Secretary of War Stanton (Lincoln had been assassinated on April 14), the former submitted new terms that Johnston signed on April 26.
  THE FINAL LAND OPERATIONS
Grant and Meade were continuing their siege of Petersburg and Richmond early in 1865. For months the Federals had been lengthening their left (southern) flank while operating against several important railroads supplying the two Confederate cities. This stretched Lee’s dwindling forces very thin. The Southern leader briefly threatened to break the siege when he attacked and captured Fort Stedman on March 25. But an immediate Federal counterattack regained the strongpoint, and Lee, when his lines were subsequently pierced, evacuated both Petersburg and Richmond on the night of April 2–3.

An 88-mile (142-km) pursuit west-southwestward along the Appomattox River in Virginia ensued, with Grant and Meade straining every nerve to bring Lee to bay. The Confederates were detained at Amelia Court House, awaiting delayed food supplies, and were badly cut up at Five Forks and Sayler’s Creek, with their only avenue of escape now cut off by Sheridan and George A. Custer. When Lee’s final attempt to break out failed, he surrendered the remnants of his Army of Northern Virginia at the McLean house at Appomattox Court House on April 9. The lamp of magnanimity was reflected in Grant’s unselfish terms.

On the periphery of the Confederacy, 43,000 gray-clad soldiers in Louisiana under Smith surrendered to Canby on May 26. The port of Galveston, Texas, yielded to the Federals on June 2, and the greatest war on American soil was over.

 
 

Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendering to Union Gen.
Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, April 9, 1865;
wood engraving based on an illustration by Alfred R. Waud, 1887.
 
 
The naval war
While the Federal armies actually stamped out Confederate land resistance, the increasingly effective Federal naval effort must not be overlooked. If Union sea power did not win the war, it enabled the war to be won. When hostilities opened, the U.S. Navy numbered 90 warships, of which only 42 were in commission, and many of these were on foreign station. Fortunately for the Federals, Lincoln had, in the person of Gideon Welles, a wise secretary of the navy who was one of his most competent cabinet members. Welles was ably seconded by his assistant, Gustavus Vasa Fox.

By the time of Lee’s surrender, Lincoln’s navy numbered 626 warships, of which 65 were ironclads. From a tiny force of nearly 9,000 seamen in 1861, the Union navy increased by war’s end to about 59,000 sailors, whereas naval appropriations per year leaped from approximately $12 million to perhaps $123 million. The blockade of about 3,500 miles (5,600 km) of Confederate coastline was a factor of incalculable value in the final defeat of the Davis government, although the blockade did not become truly effective before the end of 1863.

The Confederates, on the other hand, had to start from almost nothing in building a navy. That they did so well was largely because of untiring efforts by the capable secretary of the navy, Stephen Mallory. He dispatched agents to Europe to purchase warships, sought to refurbish captured or scuttled Federal vessels, and made every effort to arm and employ Southern-owned ships then in Confederate ports.

Mallory’s only major omission was his delay in seeing the advantage of Confederate government control of blockade runners bringing in strategic supplies; not until later in the war did the government begin closer supervision of blockade-running vessels. Eventually, the government commandeered space on all privately owned blockade runners and even built and operated some of its own late in the war.

The naval side of the Civil War was a revolutionary one. In addition to their increasing use of steam power, the screw propeller, shell guns, and rifled ordnance, both sides built and employed ironclad warships. The notable clash on March 9, 1862, between the North’s Monitor and the South’s Virginia (formerly the Merrimack) was the first battle ever waged between ironclads. Also, the first sinking of a warship by a submarine occurred on February 17, 1864, when the Confederate submersible Hunley sank the blockader USS Housatonic.

  Daring Confederate sea raiders preyed upon Union commerce. Especially successful were the Sumter, commanded by Raphael Semmes, which captured 18 Northern merchantmen early in the war; the Florida, captained by John Maffit, which in 1863 seized 37 Federal prizes in the North and South Atlantic; and the Shenandoah, with James Waddell as skipper, which took 38 Union merchant ships, mostly in the Pacific. But the most famous of all the Confederate cruisers was the Alabama, commanded by Semmes, which captured 69 Federal ships in two years; not until June 19, 1864, was the Alabama intercepted and sunk off Cherbourg, France, by the Federal warship Kearsarge, captained by John Winslow. A great many other Federal ships were captured, and marine insurance rates were driven to a prohibitive high by these Southern depredations. This led to a serious deterioration of the American merchant marine, the effects of which lasted into the 20th century.

Besides fighting efficaciously with ironclads on the inland rivers, Lincoln’s navy played an important role in a series of coastal and amphibious operations, some in conjunction with the Federal army. As early as November 7, 1861, a Federal flotilla under Samuel Francis du Pont seized Port Royal, South Carolina, and another squadron under Louis M. Goldsborough assisted Burnside’s army in capturing Roanoke Island and New Bern on the North Carolina littoral in February–March 1862. One month later, Savannah, Georgia, was closed to Confederate blockade runners when the Federal navy reduced Fort Pulaski guarding the city; and on April 25 David Farragut, running the forts near the mouth of the Mississippi, took New Orleans, which was subsequently occupied by Benjamin F. Butler’s army.

But in April 1863 and again in July and August, Federal warships were repelled at Fort Sumter when they descended upon Charleston, and a Federal army under Quincy A. Gillmore fared little better when it tried to assist. Farragut had better luck, however, when he rendered Mobile, Alabama, useless by reducing Fort Morgan and destroying several defending Confederate ships on August 5, 1864, in the hardest-fought naval action of the war. The Confederacy’s last open Atlantic port, Wilmington, North Carolina, successfully withstood a Federal naval attack by Porter on defending Fort Fisher when Butler’s army failed to coordinate its attack properly in December 1864, but it fell one month later to Porter and to an ably conducted army assault led by Alfred H. Terry. Only Galveston remained open to the Confederates in the last months of the war. In short, “Uncle Sam’s web feet,” as Lincoln termed the Union navy, played a decisive role in helping to defeat the Confederacy.

 
 
The cost and significance of the Civil War
The triumph of the North, above and beyond its superior naval forces, numbers, and industrial and financial resources, was partly due to the statesmanship of Lincoln, who by 1864 had become a masterful political and war leader, to the pervading valour of Federal soldiers, and to the increasing skill of their officers. The victory can also be attributed in part to failures of Confederate transportation, matériel, and political leadership. Only praise can be extended to the continuing bravery of Confederate soldiers and to the strategic and tactical dexterity of such generals as Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, and Joseph E. Johnston.
 
 
While desertions plagued both sides, the personal valour and the enormous casualties—both in absolute numbers and in percentage of numbers engaged—have not yet ceased to astound scholars and military historians. On the basis of the three-year standard of enlistment, about 1,556,000 soldiers served in the Federal armies, and about 800,000 men probably served in the Confederate forces, though spotty records make it impossible to know for sure. Traditionally, historians have put war deaths at about 360,000 for the Union and 260,000 for the Confederates. In the second decade of the 21st century, however, a demographer used better data and more sophisticated tools to convincingly revise the total death toll upward to 752,000 and indicated that it could be as high as 851,000.

The enormous death rate—roughly 2 percent of the 1860 population of the U.S. died in the war—had an enormous impact on American society. Americans were deeply religious, and they struggled to understand how a benevolent God could allow such destruction to go on for so long. Understanding of the nature of the afterlife shifted as Americans, North and South, comforted themselves with the notion that heaven looked like their front parlors. A new mode of dealing with corpses emerged with the advent of embalming, an expensive method of preservation that helped wealthier families to bring their dead sons, brothers, or fathers home. Finally, a network of federal military cemeteries (and private Confederate cemeteries) grew out of the need to bury the men in uniform who had succumbed to wounds or disease.

  Some have called the American Civil War the last of the old-fashioned wars; others have termed it the first modern war. Actually, it was a transitional war, and it had a profound impact, technologically, on the development of modern weapons and techniques. There were many innovations. It was the first war in history in which ironclad warships clashed; the first in which the telegraph and railroad played significant roles; the first to use, extensively, rifled ordnance and shell guns and to introduce a machine gun (the Gatling gun); the first to have widespread newspaper coverage, voting by servicemen in the field in national elections, and photographic recordings; the first to organize medical care of troops systematically; and the first to use land and water mines and to employ a submarine that could sink a warship. It was also the first war in which armies widely employed aerial reconnaissance (by means of balloons).

The Civil War has been written about as few other wars in history have. More than 60,000 books and countless articles give eloquent testimony to the accuracy of poet Walt Whitman’s prediction that “a great literature will…arise out of the era of those four years.” The events of the war left a rich heritage for future generations, and that legacy was summed up by the martyred Lincoln as showing that the reunited sections of the United States constituted “the last best hope of earth.”

Warren W. Hassler, Jr.
Jennifer L. Weber

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
First Battle of Bull Run
 

The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as First Manassas (the name used by Confederate forces), was fought on July 21, 1861, in Prince William County, Virginia, near the city of Manassas, not far from the city of Washington, D.C. It was the first major battle of the American Civil War. The Union's forces were slow in positioning themselves, allowing Confederate reinforcements time to arrive by rail. Each side had about 18,000 poorly trained and poorly led troops in their first battle. It was a Confederate victory followed by a disorganized retreat of the Union forces.

 
Just months after the start of the war at Fort Sumter, the Northern public clamored for a march against the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, which they expected to bring an early end to the rebellion. Yielding to political pressure, Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell led his unseasoned Union Army across Bull Run against the equally inexperienced Confederate Army of Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard camped near Manassas Junction. McDowell's ambitious plan for a surprise flank attack on the Confederate left was poorly executed by his officers and men; nevertheless, the Confederates, who had been planning to attack the Union left flank, found themselves at an initial disadvantage.

Confederate reinforcements under Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston arrived from the Shenandoah Valley by railroad and the course of the battle quickly changed. A brigade of Virginians under the relatively unknown brigadier general from the Virginia Military Institute, Thomas J. Jackson, stood their ground and Jackson received his famous nickname, "Stonewall Jackson". The Confederates launched a strong counterattack, and as the Union troops began withdrawing under fire, many panicked and the retreat turned into a rout. McDowell's men frantically ran without order in the direction of Washington, D.C. Both armies were sobered by the fierce fighting and many casualties, and realized the war was going to be much longer and bloodier than either had anticipated.

 
 

First Battle of Bull Run, chromolithograph by Kurz & Allison
 
 
Background
Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln to command the Army of Northeastern Virginia. Once in this capacity, McDowell was harassed by impatient politicians and citizens in Washington, who wished to see a quick battlefield victory over the Confederate Army in northern Virginia.

McDowell, however, was concerned about the untried nature of his army. He was reassured by President Lincoln, "You are green, it is true, but they are green also; you are all green alike." Against his better judgment, McDowell commenced campaigning.

During the previous year, U.S. Army captain Thomas Jordan set up a pro-Southern spy network in Washington, DC, including Rose O'Neal Greenhow, a prominent socialite with a wide range of contacts.

He provided her with a code for messages. After he left to join the Confederate Army, he gave her control of his network but continued to receive reports from her.

On July 9 and 16, 1861, Greenhow passed secret messages to Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard containing critical information regarding military movements for what would be the First Battle of Bull Run, including the plans of Union general McDowell.

On July 16, 1861, McDowell departed Washington with the largest field army yet gathered on the North American continent, about 35,000 men (28,452 effectives). McDowell's plan was to move westward in three columns and make a diversionary attack on the Confederate line at Bull Run with two columns, while the third column moved around the Confederates' right flank to the south, cutting the railroad to Richmond and threatening the rear of the Confederate army.

He assumed that the Confederates would be forced to abandon Manassas Junction and fall back to the Rappahannock River, the next defensible line in Virginia, which would relieve some of the pressure on the U.S. capital.

  The Confederate Army of the Potomac (21,883 effectives) under Beauregard was encamped near Manassas Junction, approximately 25 miles (40 km) from the United States capital. McDowell planned to attack this numerically inferior enemy army. Union Maj. Gen. Robert Patterson's 18,000 men engaged Johnston's force (the Army of the Shenandoah at 8,884 effectives, augmented by Maj. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes's brigade of 1,465) in the Shenandoah Valley, preventing them from reinforcing Beauregard.

After two days of marching slowly in the sweltering heat, the Union army was allowed to rest in Centreville. McDowell reduced the size of his army to approximately 31,000 by dispatching Brig. Gen. Theodore Runyon with 5,000 troops to protect the army's rear. In the meantime, McDowell searched for a way to outflank Beauregard, who had drawn up his lines along Bull Run. On July 18, the Union commander sent a division under Brig. Gen. Daniel Tyler to pass on the Confederate right (southeast) flank. Tyler was drawn into a skirmish at Blackburn's Ford over Bull Run and made no headway.

Becoming more frustrated, McDowell resolved to attack the Confederate left (northwest) flank instead. He planned to attack with Brig. Gen. Daniel Tyler's division at the Stone Bridge on the Warrenton Turnpike and send the divisions of Brig. Gens. David Hunter and Samuel P. Heintzelman over Sudley Springs Ford. From here, these divisions could march into the Confederate rear. The brigade of Col. Israel B. Richardson (Tyler's Division) would harass the enemy at Blackburn's Ford, preventing them from thwarting the main attack. Patterson would tie down Johnston in the Shenandoah Valley so that reinforcements could not reach the area. Although McDowell had arrived at a theoretically sound plan, it had a number of flaws: it was one that required synchronized execution of troop movements and attacks, skills that had not been developed in the nascent army; it relied on actions by Patterson that he had already failed to take; finally, McDowell had delayed long enough that Johnston's Valley force was able to board trains at Piedmont Station and rush to Manassas Junction to reinforce Beauregard's men.

 
 
On July 19–20, significant reinforcements bolstered the Confederate lines behind Bull Run. Johnston arrived with all of his army, except for the troops of Brig. Gen. Kirby Smith, who were still in transit. Most of the new arrivals were posted in the vicinity of Blackburn's Ford, and Beauregard's plan was to attack from there to the north toward Centreville. Johnston, the senior officer, approved the plan. If both of the armies had been able to execute their plans simultaneously, it would have resulted in a mutual counterclockwise movement as they attacked each other's left flank.

McDowell was getting contradictory information from his intelligence agents, so he called for the balloon Enterprise, which was being demonstrated by Prof. Thaddeus S. C. Lowe in Washington, to perform aerial reconnaissance.

 
 

Northern Virginia Theater in July 1861
Confederate    Union
 
 
Battle
On the morning of July 21, 1861, McDowell sent the divisions of Hunter and Heintzelman (about 12,000 men) from Centreville at 2:30 a.m., marching southwest on the Warrenton Turnpike and then turning northwest toward Sudley Springs. Tyler's division (about 8,000) marched directly toward the Stone Bridge. The inexperienced units immediately developed logistical problems. Tyler's division blocked the advance of the main flanking column on the turnpike. The later units found the approach roads to Sudley Springs were inadequate, little more than a cart path in some places, and did not begin fording Bull Run until 9:30 a.m. Tyler's men reached the Stone Bridge around 6 a.m.

At 5:15 a.m., Richardson's brigade fired a few artillery rounds across Mitchell's Ford on the Confederate right, some of which hit Beauregard's headquarters in the Wilmer McLean house as he was eating breakfast, alerting him to the fact that his offensive battle plan had been preempted. Nevertheless, he ordered demonstration attacks north toward the Union left at Centreville. Bungled orders and poor communications prevented their execution. Although he intended for Brig. Gen. Richard S. Ewell to lead the attack, Ewell, at Union Mills Ford, was simply ordered to "hold ... in readiness to advance at a moment's notice." Brig. Gen. D.R. Jones was supposed to attack in support of Ewell, but found himself moving forward alone. Holmes was also supposed to support, but received no orders at all.
All that stood in the path of the 20,000 Union soldiers converging on the Confederate left flank were Col.

  Nathan "Shanks" Evans and his reduced brigade of 1,100 men. Evans had moved some of his men to intercept the direct threat from Tyler at the bridge, but he began to suspect that the weak attacks from the Union brigade of Brig. Gen. Robert C. Schenck were merely feints. He was informed of the main Union flanking movement through Sudley Springs by Captain Edward Porter Alexander, Beauregard's signal officer, observing from 8 miles (13 km) southwest on Signal Hill. In the first use of wig-wag semaphore signaling in combat, Alexander sent the message "Look out for your left, your position is turned." Evans hastily led 900 of his men from their position fronting the Stone Bridge to a new location on the slopes of Matthews Hill, a low rise to the northwest of his previous position.

The Confederate delaying action on Matthews Hill included a spoiling attack launched by Major Roberdeau Wheat's 1st Louisiana Special Battalion, "Wheat's Tigers". After Wheat's command was thrown back, and Wheat seriously wounded, Evans received reinforcement from two other brigades under Brig. Gen. Barnard Bee and Col. Francis S. Bartow, bringing the force on the flank to 2,800 men. They successfully slowed Hunter's lead brigade (Brig. Gen. Ambrose Burnside) in its attempts to ford Bull Run and advance across Young's Branch, at the northern end of Henry House Hill. One of Tyler's brigade commanders, Col. William T. Sherman, crossed at an unguarded ford and struck the right flank of the Confederate defenders. This surprise attack, coupled with pressure from Burnside and Maj. George Sykes, collapsed the Confederate line shortly after 11:30 a.m., sending them in a disorderly retreat to Henry House Hill.

 
 
As they retreated from their Matthews Hill position, the remainder of Evans's, Bee's, and Bartow's commands received some cover from Capt. John D. Imboden and his battery of four 6-pounder guns, who held off the Union advance while the Confederates attempted to regroup on Henry House Hill. They were met by generals Johnston and Beauregard, who had just arrived from Johnston's headquarters at the M. Lewis Farm, "Portici". Fortunately for the Confederates, McDowell did not press his advantage and attempt to seize the strategic ground immediately, choosing to bombard the hill with the batteries of Capts. James B. Ricketts (Battery I, 1st U.S. Artillery) and Charles Griffin (Battery D, 5th U.S.) from Dogan's Ridge.
 
 

Attacks on Henry House Hill, noon–2 p.m.
 
 
Brig. Gen Thomas J. Jackson's Virginia brigade came up in support of the disorganized Confederates around noon, accompanied by Col. Wade Hampton and his Hampton's Legion, and Col. J.E.B. Stuart's cavalry. Jackson posted his five regiments on the reverse slope of the hill, where they were shielded from direct fire, and was able to assemble 13 guns for the defensive line, which he posted on the crest of the hill; as the guns fired, their recoil moved them down the reverse slope, where they could be safely reloaded. Meanwhile, McDowell ordered the batteries of Ricketts and Griffin to move from Dogan's Ridge to the hill for close infantry support. Their 11 guns engaged in a fierce artillery duel across 300 yards (270 m) against Jackson's 13. Unlike many engagements in the Civil War, here the Confederate artillery had an advantage. The Union pieces were now within range of the Confederate smoothbores and the predominantly rifled pieces on the Union side were not effective weapons at such close ranges, with many shots fired over the head of their targets.
 
 

Ruins of Judith Henry's house, "Spring Hill", after the battle
 
 
One of the casualties of the artillery fire was Judith Carter Henry, an 85-year-old widow and invalid, who was unable to leave her bedroom in the Henry House. As Ricketts began receiving rifle fire, he concluded that it was coming from the Henry House and turned his guns on the building. A shell that crashed through the bedroom wall tore off one of the widow's feet and inflicted multiple injuries, from which she died later that day.

"The Enemy are driving us," Bee exclaimed to Jackson. Jackson, a former U.S. Army officer and professor at the Virginia Military Institute, is said to have replied, "Then, Sir, we will give them the bayonet." Bee exhorted his own troops to re-form by shouting, "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Let us determine to die here, and we will conquer. Rally behind the Virginians." This exclamation was the source for Jackson's (and his brigade's) nickname, "Stonewall". There is some controversy over Bee's statement and intent, which could not be clarified because he was mortally wounded almost immediately after speaking and none of his subordinate officers wrote reports of the battle.

Major Burnett Rhett, chief of staff to General Johnston, claimed that Bee was angry at Jackson's failure to come immediately to the relief of Bee's and Bartow's brigades while they were under heavy pressure. Those who subscribe to this opinion believe that Bee's statement was meant to be pejorative: "Look at Jackson standing there like a stone wall!"

Artillery commander Griffin decided to move two of his guns to the southern end of his line, hoping to provide enfilade fire against the Confederates. At approximately 3 p.m., these guns were overrun by the 33rd Virginia, whose men were outfitted in blue uniforms, causing Griffin's commander, Maj. William F. Barry, to mistake them for Union troops and to order Griffin not to fire on them.

Close range volleys from the 33rd Virginia and Stuart's cavalry attack against the flank of the 11th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment (Ellsworth's Fire Zouaves), which was supporting the battery, killed many of the gunners and scattered the infantry.

Capitalizing on this success, Jackson ordered two regiments to charge Ricketts's guns and they were captured as well. As additional Federal infantry engaged, the guns changed hands several times.

  The capture of the Union guns turned the tide of battle. Although McDowell had brought 15 regiments into the fight on the hill, outnumbering the Confederates two to one, no more than two were ever engaged simultaneously. Jackson continued to press his attacks, telling soldiers of the 4th Virginia Infantry, "Reserve your fire until they come within 50 yards! Then fire and give them the bayonet! And when you charge, yell like furies!" For the first time, Union troops heard the disturbing sound of the Rebel yell. At about 4 p.m., the last Union troops were pushed off Henry House Hill by a charge of two regiments from Col. Philip St. George Cocke's brigade.

To the west, Chinn Ridge had been occupied by Col. Oliver O. Howard's brigade from Heintzelman's division. Also at 4 p.m., two Confederate brigades that had just arrived from the Shenandoah Valley—Col. Jubal A. Early's and Brig. Gen. Kirby Smith's (commanded by Col. Arnold Elzey after Smith was wounded)—crushed Howard's brigade. Beauregard ordered his entire line forward. McDowell's force crumbled and began to retreat.

The retreat was relatively orderly up to the Bull Run crossings, but it was poorly managed by the Union officers. A Union wagon was overturned by artillery fire on a bridge spanning Cub Run Creek and incited panic in McDowell's force. As the soldiers streamed uncontrollably toward Centreville, discarding their arms and equipment, McDowell ordered Col. Dixon S. Miles's division to act as a rear guard, but it was impossible to rally the army short of Washington. In the disorder that followed, hundreds of Union troops were taken prisoner. Expecting an easy Union victory, the wealthy elite of nearby Washington, including congressmen and their families, had come to picnic and watch the battle. When the Union army was driven back in a running disorder, the roads back to Washington were blocked by panicked civilians attempting to flee in their carriages.

Since their combined army had been left highly disorganized as well, Beauregard and Johnston did not fully press their advantage, despite urging from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, who had arrived on the battlefield to see the Union soldiers retreating. An attempt by Johnston to intercept the Union troops from his right flank, using the brigades of Brig. Gens. Milledge L. Bonham and James Longstreet, was a failure. The two commanders squabbled with each other and when Bonham's men received some artillery fire from the Union rear guard, and found that Richardson's brigade blocked the road to Centreville, he called off the pursuit.

 
 

Capture of Ricketts' Battery, painting by Sidney E. King, National Park Service.
 
 
Aftermath
Bull Run was the largest and bloodiest battle in United States history up to that point. Union casualties were 460 killed, 1,124 wounded, and 1,312 missing or captured; Confederate casualties were 387 killed, 1,582 wounded, and 13 missing. Among the Union dead was Col. James Cameron, brother of President Lincoln's first Secretary of War, Simon Cameron. Among the Confederate casualties was Col. Francis S. Bartow, who was the first Confederate brigade commander to be killed in the Civil War. General Bee was mortally wounded and died the following day.

Union forces and civilians alike feared that Confederate forces would advance on Washington, D.C., with very little standing in their way. On July 24, Prof. Thaddeus S. C. Lowe ascended in the balloon Enterprise to observe the Confederates moving in and about Manassas Junction and Fairfax. He saw no evidence of massing Confederate forces, but was forced to land in Confederate territory. It was overnight before he was rescued and could report to headquarters. He reported that his observations "restored confidence" to the Union commanders.

The Northern public was shocked at the unexpected defeat of their army when an easy victory had been widely anticipated. Both sides quickly came to realize the war would be longer and more brutal than they had imagined. On July 22 President Lincoln signed a bill that provided for the enlistment of another 500,000 men for up to three years of service. On July 25, eleven thousand Pennsylvanians who had earlier been rejected by the U.S. Secretary of War, Simon Cameron, for federal service in either Patterson's or McDowell's command arrived in Washington, D.C., and were finally accepted.

  The reaction in the Confederacy was more muted. There was little public celebration as the Southerners realized that despite their victory, the greater battles that would inevitably come would mean greater losses for their side as well.

Beauregard was considered the Confederate hero of the battle and was promoted that day by C.S. President Davis to full general in the Confederate army. Stonewall Jackson, arguably the most important tactical contributor to the victory, received no special recognition, but would later achieve glory for his 1862 Valley Campaign. Privately, Davis credited Greenhow with ensuring Confederate victory. Jordan sent a telegram to Greenhow: "Our President and our General direct me to thank you. We rely upon you for further information. The Confederacy owes you a debt. (Signed) JORDAN, Adjutant-General."

Irvin McDowell bore the brunt of the blame for the Union defeat and was soon replaced by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, who was named general-in-chief of all the Union armies. McDowell was also present to bear significant blame for the defeat of Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia by Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia thirteen months later, at the Second Battle of Bull Run. Patterson was also removed from command.

The name of the battle has caused controversy since 1861. The Union Army frequently named battles after significant rivers and creeks that played a role in the fighting; the Confederates generally used the names of nearby towns or farms. The U.S. National Park Service uses the Confederate name for its national battlefield park, but the Union name (Bull Run) also has widespread currency in popular literature.

 
 
Battlefield confusion between the battle flags, especially the similarity of the Confederacy's "Stars and Bars" and the Union's "Stars and Stripes" when fluttering, led to the adoption of the Confederate Battle Flag, which eventually became the most popular symbol of the Confederacy and the South in general.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Battle of Hatteras
 

The Battle of Hatteras Inlet Batteries, sometimes known as the Battle of Forts Hatteras and Clark, was a small but significant engagement in the early days of the American Civil War. Two Confederate forts on the North Carolina Outer Banks were subjected to an amphibious assault by Union forces that began on 28 August 1861. The ill-equipped and undermanned forts were forced to endure bombardment by seven Union warships, to which they were unable to reply.

 
Although casualties were light, the defenders chose not to continue the one-sided contest, and on the second day they surrendered. As immediate results of the battle, Confederate interference with Northern maritime commerce was considerably reduced, while the Union blockade of Southern ports was extended. More importantly, the Federal government gained entry into the North Carolina Sounds. Several North Carolina cities (New Bern, Washington, Elizabeth City, and Edenton among them) were directly threatened. In addition, the sounds were a back door to the Confederate-held parts of Tidewater Virginia, particularly Norfolk.

The battle is significant for several reasons: It was the first notable Union victory of the war; following the embarrassment of First Bull Run (or First Manassas), 21 July 1861, it encouraged supporters of the Union in the gloomy early days. It represented the first application of the naval blockading strategy. It was the first amphibious operation, as well as the first combined operation, involving units of both the United States Army and Navy. Finally, a new tactic was exploited by the bombarding fleet; by keeping in motion, they did much to eliminate the traditional advantage of shore-based guns over those carried on ships.

 
 

Capture of the Forts at Cape Hatteras inlet Alfred R. Waud, artist, August 28, 1861.
 
 
Hatteras Inlet in Confederate hands
The North Carolina Sounds occupy most of the coast from Cape Lookout (North Carolina) to the Virginia border. With their eastern borders marked by the Outer Banks, they were almost ideally located for raiding Northern maritime commerce. Cape Hatteras, the easternmost point in the Confederacy, is within sight of the Gulf Stream, which moves at a speed of about 3 knots (1.5 m/s) at this latitude. Ships in the Caribbean trade would reduce the time of their homeward journeys to New York, Philadelphia, or Boston by riding the stream to the north. Raiders, either privateers or state-owned vessels, could lie inside, protected from both the weather and from Yankee blockaders, until an undefended victim appeared. Watchers stationed at the Hatteras lighthouse would then signal a raider, which would dash out and make a capture, often being able to return the same day.

To protect the raiders from Federal reprisal, the state of North Carolina immediately after seceding from the Union established forts at the inlets, waterways that allowed entrance to and egress from the sounds. In 1861, only four inlets were deep enough for ocean-going vessels to pass: Beaufort, Ocracoke, Hatteras, and Oregon Inlets. Hatteras Inlet was the most important of these, so it was given two forts, named Fort Hatteras and Fort Clark Fort Hatteras was sited adjacent to the inlet, on the sound side of Hatteras Island.

  Fort Clark was about half a mile (800 m) to the southeast, closer to the Atlantic Ocean.

The forts were not very strong; Fort Hatteras had only ten guns mounted by the end of August, with another five guns in the fort but not mounted. Fort Clark had only five. Furthermore, most of the guns were rather light 32-pounders or smaller, of limited range and inadequate for coastal defense.

The personnel problem was even worse. North Carolina had raised and equipped 22 infantry regiments to serve in the war, but 16 of these had been drawn off for the campaigns in Virginia. The six regiments remaining were responsible for the defense of the entire North Carolina coastline. Only a fraction of one regiment, the 7th North Carolina Volunteers, occupied the two forts at Hatteras Inlet. The other forts were likewise only weakly held. Fewer than a thousand men garrisoned Forts Ocracoke, Hatteras, Clark, and Oregon. Reinforcements, if needed, would have to come from as far away as Beaufort.

Strangely, the military authorities in North Carolina did little to keep the poor state of their defenses secret. Several Yankee captains, victims of either capture or shipwreck, were loosely detained at or near Hatteras Island while awaiting return to their homes. They were allowed virtually free access to the forts, and made mental notes of everything. When they returned to the North, at least two of them gave full and valuable descriptions to the Navy Department.

 
 
Northern reaction
The depredations on Northern commerce emanating from Hatteras Inlet could not pass unnoticed. Insurance underwriters pressured Union Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles for remedy. Welles needed no prodding. He already had on his desk a report from the Blockade Strategy Board suggesting a way to perfect the blockade of the North Carolina coast. The board recommended that the coast be rendered useless to the South by sinking old, useless, ballast-laden ships in the inlets to block them up.

Soon after he received the board's report, Secretary Welles began to implement its recommendation. He ordered Commander H. S. Stellwagen to go to the Chesapeake Bay to buy some suitable old hulks. At the same time, he was told to report his activities to Flag Officer Silas H. Stringham, commandant of the Atlantic Blockading Squadron. As such, he was the naval officer in charge of the blockade of the North Carolina coast. This was the first involvement of Stringham with what was to become the attack at Hatteras Inlet. In time, he would become the most important person in the expedition.

Stringham opposed the plan to block the inlets from the beginning. He believed that the tidal currents would either sweep the impediments away or would rapidly scour new channels. As he saw it, the Rebels could not be denied access to the sounds unless the inlets were actually held by the Union. In other words, in order to establish an effective blockade in this part of North Carolina, the forts that the state had set up would have to be captured. Since the Navy could not do it alone, the cooperation of the Army would be needed.

  As it happened, the Army was willing to cooperate. This had to do something with the political general Benjamin F. Butler, who was a political force that had to be dealt with, but was already emerging as a military incompetent. Butler was ordered to assemble a force of some 800 men for the expedition. He soon had 880: 500 from the German-speaking 20th New York Volunteers, 220 from the 9th New York Volunteers, 100 from the Union Coast Guard (an Army unit, actually the 99th New York Volunteers; the U.S. Coast Guard as we know it did not exist in 1861), and 20 army regulars from the 2nd U.S. Artillery. The men were put aboard two of the vessels that Commander Stellwagen had purchased, Adelaide and George Peabody.

When objection was made that the two ships would not be able to survive a Hatteras storm, Stellwagen pointed out that the expedition could proceed only in fair weather anyway, as a storm would prevent landings.

While Butler was gathering his forces, Flag Officer Stringham was also making preparations. Somehow he learned that the War Department orders to Butler's superior, Major General John E. Wool, had contained the statement, "The expedition originated in the Navy Department, and is under its control."

Reasoning that he would be blamed if anything went wrong, he decided to follow his own plans. He selected seven warships for the expedition: USS Minnesota, Cumberland, Susquehanna, Wabash, Pawnee, Monticello, and Harriet Lane. All but the last were ships of the U.S. Navy; Harriet Lane was a cutter, part of the US Revenue Service. He also included in his force the tug Fanny, needed to tow some of the surf boats that would be used for the landing.

 
 
On 26 August 1861, the flotilla, less Susquehanna and Cumberland, departed Hampton Roads and moved down the coast to the vicinity of Cape Hatteras. On the way, they were joined by Cumberland. They swung around the Cape on 27 August and anchored near the inlet, in full view of the defenders there. Colonel William F. Martin of the 7th North Carolina Infantry, commanding at Forts Hatteras and Clark, knew that his 580 or so men would need help, so he called for reinforcements from Forts Ocracoke and Oregon. Unfortunately for him and his garrison, communication among the forts was slow, and the first reinforcements did not arrive until late the next day, when it was too late.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 

The American Civil War, 1861

 

 
 

1861: SCHISM


Match the two broken pieces of the Union, and you will find the fissure that separates them zigzagging itself half across the continent like an isothermal line, shooting its splintery projections, and opening its re-entering angles, not merely according to the limitations of particular States, but as a county or other limited section of ground belongs to freedom or to slavery.

Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr The Complete Writings of Oliver Wendell Holmes Vol.8 (1892) pp.87-8.

****

The bird of our country is a debilitated chicken, disguised in eagle feathers. We have never been a nation; we are only an aggregate of communities, ready to fall apart at the first serious shock.

George Templeton Strong, 1861; Geoffrey C. Ward The CM War (1995) p.33. Strong, an eminent New York lawyer, kept a diary throughout the Civil War.

****

A Union that can only be maintained by swords and bayonets, and in which strife and civil war are to take the place of brotherly love and kindness, has no charm for me.

Robert E. Lee to his son, 23 Jan. I86I;J. William Jones Personal Reminiscences, Anecdotes and Letters of General Robert £ Lee {1874} p. I 37. Lee was to become the general-in-chief of the armies of the secessionist Confederate States of America.

****

Some of the manufacturing States think a fight would be awful. Without a little blood-letting, this Union will not, in my estimation, be worth a rush.

Senator Zachariah Chandler of Michigan to Governor Austin Blair, I I Feb. 1861; Congressional Globe, p. 1247.

****

Say to the seceded States, 'Wayward sisters, depart in peace!'

General Winfield Scott to the incoming secretary of state, William Henry Seward, 3 March 1861. Scott was commanding general of the US arm/ but also a son of the secessionist state Virginia. By this time seven states had seceded from the Union; they were shortly to be joined by four more.

****

The streets of Charleston present some such aspect as those of Paris in the last revolution [1848]. Crowds of armed men singing and promenading the streets, the battle blood running through their veins - that hot oxygen which is called 'the flush of victory' on the cheek ... Sumter has set them distraught; never such a victory. It is a bloodless Waterloo.

William Howard Russell, correspondent of the London Times, April 1861. The first shot of the war was fired across the harbour of Charleston. South Carolina, at the Union island bastion of Fort Sumter, on 12 April. The US army garrison surrendered after a 34-hour bombardment.

****

It will require the exercise of the full powers of the Federal Government to restrain the fury of the noncombatants.

General Winfield Scott after hearing the news of the loss of Fort Sumter on 13 April 186 I; Peter G. Tsouras (ed.) Military Quotations from the Civil War (1998) p. 128.

****

John Brown's body lies a-moldering in the
grave;
His soul is marching on!

Rev. William Patton 'John Brown's body' {April 186 I). One of the most famous marching songs of the Union Army, celebrating the abolitionist Brown, executed in Dec. 1859.

****

For Dixie's land we'll took our stand, To lib an' die in Dixie!

Daniel Decatur Emmett 'Dixie' (April 1859). This song became virtually the national anthem of the Southern Confederacy, although Emmett, a white star of minstrel shows, was from Ohio, Northern and Unionist.

****

Avenge the patriotic gore
That flecked the streets of Baltimore,
And be the battle-queen of yore,
Maryland! My Maryland!

James R. Randall 'Maryland, My Maryland!" (1861). Randall, a journalist and song-writer, composed this after Union troops fired on a crowd in Baltimore protesting against the Federal government on I 9 April. Maryland, its sympathies sharply divided, did not secede from the Union.

****
I look upon secession as anarchy. If I owned the four millions of slaves in the South, I would sacrifice all for the Union - but how can I draw my sword upon Virginia?

The Virginian General Robert E. Lee, April 1861;Jones (1874).

****

We are organizing. We will be compelled to shoot, burn & hang, but the thing will soon be over.

Senator David Atchison of Missouri to the Confederate President Jefferson Davis; Ward (1995) p.21.


****

They do not know what they say. If it comes to a conflict of arms, the war will last at least four years. Northern politicians do not appreciate the determination and pluck of the South, and Southern politicians do not appreciate the numbers, resources, and patient perseverance of the North. Both sides forget that we are all Americans, and that it must be a terrible struggle if it comes to war.

General Robert E. Lee, May 1861; J. William Jones The Life and Letters of Robert Edward Lee (1906). The war was to last precisely four years.

****

You might as well attempt to put out the flames of a burning house with a squirt-gun. I think this
is to be a long war - very long - much longer than any politician thinks.

Colonel William Tecumseh Sherman, 1861; Ward (1995) p.81. Sherman was to become one of the most formidable generals of the Union armies.

****

I was a soldier two weeks once in the beginning of the war, and was hunted like a rat the whole time. Familiar? My splendid Kipling himself hasn't a more burnt-in, hard-baked and unforgettable familiarity with that death-in-the-pale-horse-with-hell-following-after which is a raw soldier's first fortnight in the field - and which without any doubt, is the most tremendous fortnight and vividest he is ever going to see.

Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens) recalling in 1890 his brief experience in the Confederate army before making off for Nevada with his brother; Daniel Aaron The Unwritten War (1973) p. 133.

****

Look, there is Jackson with his Virginians, standing like a stone wall!

General Barnard E. Bee at Bull Run, 21 July 1861; Ward (1995) p.67. The Confederate General Thomas Jonathan Jackson checked the Union forces at the Battle of Bull Run. (Manassas) and so earned the nickname of 'Stonewall'.

****

I perceived several waggons coming from the direction of the battlefield, the drivers of which were endeavouring to force their horses past the ammunition carts going in the contrary direction ... drivers and men cried out with the most vehement gestures, 'Turn back! Turn back! We are whipped!'

William Howard Russell, Times correspondent at Bull Run; William Russell, Special Correspondent of The Times (1995) p.211. Russell's candid reporting of the Union defeat made him comprehensively persona non grata with the Federal government, and he returned to Britain in April 1862.

****

All quiet along the Potomac.

General George McClellan, commander of the Union Army of the Potomac (the river flowing through Washington, D.C.), late summer 1861. A despatch designed to steady the nerves of Washingtonians after Bull Run.

****

War is not a question of valor, but a question of money. It is not regulated by the laws of honor, but by the laws of trade. I understand the practical problem to be solved in crushing the rebellion of despotism against representative government is who can throw the most projectiles. Who can afford the most iron or lead?

Representative Roscoe Conkling of New York, I Aug. 1861; Ward (1995) p. 127. Conkling was right to see the war as a conflict of economic forces, and the defeat of the agrarian South by the industrial North was only a matter of time as long as the North held its ground.

****

The workmen in a mood of grim humor had put little flags upon his great head and arms and the monster seemed to be alive with patriotism. The sight was most suggestive and encouraging. I could have cried for joy or sung hallelujahs to the Lord of Hosts for all was clear then. There, and everywhere through the loyal States, was that same mighty force working for us - the Providential arm of the 19th century.

Samuel Osgood Harper's New Monthly Magazine, 1867. A eulogy to the steam engine, the symbol of the North's overwhelming industrial power.

****

I will hold McClellan's horse if he will only bring us success.

President Abraham Lincoln to John Hay, 13 Nov. 1861. General McClellan had just snubbed the President and Hay, his secretary, believed he should be dismissed. Shortly afterwards, however, Lincoln appointed McClellan to succeed the elderly General Scott as general-in-chief.

****

The President is nothing more than a well-meaning baboon ... 'the original gorilla'.

General George McClellan to his wife, late 1861; Ward (1995) p.75.

****

Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of
the Lord:
He is trampling out the vintage where the
grapes of wrath are stored;
He hath loosed the fateful lightning of his
terrible swift sword:
His truth is marching on ...
He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall
never call retreat;
Не is sifting out the hearts of men before his
judgment seat:
Oh! Be swift my soul to answer Him! Be
jubilant, my feet!
Our God is marching on ...
In the beauty of the lilies Christ was born across
the sea,
With a glory in his bosom that transfigures you
and me:
As He died to make men holy, let us die to
make men free, While God is marching on.

Julia Ward Howe 'Battle Hymn of the Republic', set to the tune of John Brown's Body', which Howe heard Union troops singing at a review on 17 Nov. 1861. She wrote it in a creative frenzy in the early hours of the following morning, and it was published in the Atlantic Monthly in Feb. 1862.


****

It is looked upon as one of the disasters of the war, although it cannot be shown that it had any connection with the war. When Eternal Justice decrees the punishment of a people, it sends not War alone, but also its sister terrors, Famine, Pestilence, and Fire.

John T. Trowbridge on the fire that devastated Charleston on 13 Dec. 1861; The South (1866) p.514.
 

 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1860 Part IV NEXT-1861 Part II