Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1861 Part IV NEXT-1862 Part I    
 
 
     
1860 - 1869
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860-1869
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part I
Treaty of Turin
First Taranaki War
Convention of Peking
Secession of South Carolina
Poincare Raymond
The Church Union
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part II
Barrie James Matthew
Boucicault Dion
Dion Boucicault: "The Colleen Bawn"
Collins Wilkie
Wilkie Collins: "The Woman in White"
Wilkie Collins 
"The Moonstone"
"The Woman in White"
George Eliot: "The Mill on the Floss"
Di Giacoma Salvatore
Labiche Eugene-Marin
Multatuli
Multatuli: "Max Havelaar"
Alexander Ostrovski: "The Storm"
Chekhov Anton
Anton Chekhov
"Uncle Vanya"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part III
Degas: "Spartan Boys and Girls Exercising"
Hunt: "Finding of the Saviour in the Temple"
Manet: "Spanish Guitar Player"
Ensor James
James Ensor
Mucha Alfons
Alfons Mucha
Levitan Isaak
Isaac Levitan
Steer Philip Wilson
Philip Wilson Steer
Mahler Gustav
Mahler - Das Lied von der Erde
Gustav Mahler
Paderewski Ignace
Paderewski - Minuet
Ignace Paderewski
Suppe Franz
Franz von Suppe - Das Pensionat
Franz von Suppe
Wolf Hugo
Hugo Wolf - "Kennst du das Land"
Hugo Wolf
MacDowell Edward
MacDowell - Piano Sonata No. 1 "Tragica"
Edward MacDowell
Albeniz Isaac
Albeniz - Espana
Isaac Albeniz
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part IV
Cesium
Rubidium
Fechner Gustav Theodor
Lenoir Etienne
Walton Frederick
Linoleum
Across the Continent
Burke Robert O'Hara
Wills William John
Stuart John McDouall
Grant James Augustus
"The Cornhill Magazine"
"The Catholic Times"
Heenan John Camel
Sayers Tom
The Open Championship
Park William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part I
Kansas
Confederate States of America
Davis Jefferson
First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
American Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Hatteras
The American Civil War, 1861
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part II
Siege of Gaeta
Emancipation Manifesto
Abduaziz
Louis I
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part III
Dal Vladimir
Steiner Rudolf
Whitehead Alfred North
Charles Dickens: "Great Expectations"
Dostoevsky: "The House of the Dead"
George Eliot: "Silas Marner"
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "Elsie Venner"
Tagore Rabindranath
Charles Reade: "The Cloister and the Hearth"
Wood Ellen
Mrs. Henry Wood: "East Lynne"
Spielhagen Friedrich
Friedrich Spielhagen: "Problematische Naturen"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part IV
Garnier Charles
Anquetin Louis
Louis Anquetin
Godward John William
John William Godward
Bourdelle Antoine
Antoine Bourdelle
Korovin Konstantin
Konstantin Korovin
Maillol Aristide
Aristide Maillol
Melba Nellie
Royal Academy of Music, London
The Paris version "Tannhauser"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part V
Archaeopteryx
Thallium (Tl)
Hopkins Frederick Gowland
Mort Thomas Sutcliffe
Nansen Fridtjof
Fermentation theory
Baker Samuel
Baker Florence
The Bakers and the Nile
Beeton Isabella
Harden Maximilian
First horse-drawn trams in London
Order of the Star of India
Otis Elisha Graves
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part I
Battle of Fort Henry
Second Battle of Bull Run
BATTLE OF ANTIETAM
Battle of Fredericksburg
Grey Edward
Briand Aristide
The American Civil War, 1862
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part II
Rawlinson George
Ogai Mori
Ivan Turgenev: "Fathers and Sons"
Flaubert: "Salammbo"
Victor Hugo: "Les Miserables"
Barres Maurice
Maeterlinck Maurice
Hauptmann Gerhart
Wharton Edith
Schnitzler Arthur
Uhland Ludwig
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part III
Albert Memorial, London
Manet: "Lola de Valence"
Manet: "La Musique aux Tuileries"
Nesterov Mikhail
Mikhail Nesterov
Klimt Gustav
Gustav Klimt
Rysselberghe Theo
Theo van Rysselberghe
Berlioz: "Beatrice et Benedict"
Debussy Claude
Debussy - Preludes
Claude Debussy
Delius Frederick
Frederick Delius - On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring
Frederick Delius
German Edward
Edward German - Melody in D flat major
Edward German
Kochel Ludwig
Kochel catalogue
Verdi: "La Forza del Destino"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part IV
Bragg William
Foucault Leon
Gatling Richard Jordan
Lamont Johann
Lenard Pnilipp
Sachs Julius
Palgrave William Gifford
The Arabian Desert
International Exhibition, London
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part I
Arizona
Idaho
West Virginia
Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Chancellorsville
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address"
The American Civil War, 1863
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part II
Isma'il Pasha
January Uprising
George I of Greece
Dost Mohammad Khan
Christian IX  of Denmark
Chamberlain Austen
Lloyd George David
Second Taranaki War
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part III
Huxley: "Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature"
Charles Lyell: "The Antiquity of Man"
Massachusetts Agricultural College
D'Annunzio Gabriele
Bahr Hermann
Dehmel Richard
Hale Edward Everett
Edward Everett Hale: "Man without a Country"
Hope Anthony
Charles Kingsley: "The Water Babies"
Longfellow: "Tales of a Wayside Inn"
Quiller-Couch Arthur
Stanislavsky Constantin
Stanislavsky system
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part IV
Stuck Franz
Manet: "Dejeuner sur l'herbe"
Manet: "Olympia"
Meurent Victorine-Louise
The "Salon des Refuses" in Paris
Art in Revolt
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Signac Paul
Paul Signac
Munch Edvard
Edvard Munch
Berlioz: "Les Troyens"
Bizet: "Les Pecheurs de perles"
Mascagni Pietro
Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana
Pietro Mascagni
Weingartner Felix
Felix von Weingartner: Symphony No 6
Felix Weingartner
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part V
Billroth Theodor
Butterick Ebenezer
Ford Henry
Graham Thomas
National Academy of Sciences
Sorby Henry Clifton
The Football Association, London
Grand Prix de Paris
Hearst William Randolph
Yellow journalism
Pulitzer Joseph
Nadar
History of photography
Alexandra of Denmark
Royce Henry
Cuthbert Ned
Coburn Joe
Mike McCoole
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part I
Schleswig-Holstein Question
First Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
Halleck Henry
Sherman William
BATTLE OF ATLANTA
Sand Creek massacre
Venizelos Eleutherios
Maximilian II of Bavaria
Louis II
First International Workingmen's Association
Confederate Army of Manhattan
The American Civil War, 1864
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part II
Lombroso Cesare
Newman: "Apologia pro Vita Sua"
Syllabus of Errors
Dickens: "Our Mutual Friend"
Karlfeldt Erik Axel
Trollope: "The Small House at Allington"
Wedekind Frank
Zangwill Israel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part III
Stieglitz Alfred
History of photography
ALFRED STIEGLITZ
Dyce William
William Dyce
Jawlensky Alexey
Alexei von Jawlensky
Ranson Paul
Paul Ranson
Serusier Paul
Paul Serusier
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
A More Tolerant Salon
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"
Roberts David
David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"
D'Albert Eugen
Eugen d'Albert - Piano Concerto No.2
Eugen d’Albert
Foster Stephen
Stephen Foster - Beautiful Dreamer
Offenbach: "La Belle Helene"
Strauss Richard
Richard Strauss - Metamorphosen
Richard Strauss
Fry William Henry
William Henry Fry - Santa Claus Symphony
William Henry Fry - Niagara Symphony
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part IV
Lake Albert
Bertrand Joseph
Calculus
Nernst Walther
Pasteurization
Wien Wilhelm
Rawat Nain Singh
The Surveyors
Kinthup
First Geneva Convention
Knights of Pythias
"Neue Freie Presse""
De Rossi Giovanni Battista
"In God We Trust"
Travers Stakes
Farragut David
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part I
Union blockade in the American Civil War
Charleston, South Carolina in the American Civil War
Lee Robert Edward
Conclusion of the American Civil War
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Johnson Andrew
Causes of the Franco-Prussian War
Leopold II of Belgium
Harding Warren
George V of Great Britain
Ludendorff Erich
Free State–Basotho Wars
The American Civil War, 1865
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part II
Baudrillart Henri
William Stanley Jevons: "The Coal Question"
Billings Josh
Belasco David
Campbell Patrick
Lewis Carroll: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
Dodge Mary Mapes
Mary Mapes Dodge: "Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates"
Kipling Rudyard
Rudyard Kipling
Merezhkovsky Dmitry
John Henry Newman: "Dream of Gerontius"
Mark Twain: "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"
Walt Whitman: "Drum-Taps"
Yeats William Butler
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part III
Serov Valentin
Valentin Serov
Wiertz Antoine
Antoine Wiertz
Vallotton Felix
Felix Vallotton
"Olympia" - a Sensation
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Nielsen Carl
Carl Nielsen - Aladdin Suite
Carl Nielsen
Glazunov Alexander
Glazunov - The Seasons
Alexander Glazunov
Dukas Paul
Paul Dukas "L'Apprenti Sorcier"
Paul Dukas
Meyerbeer: "L'Africaine"
Sibelius Jean
Jean Sibelius - Finlandia
Jean Sibelius
Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part IV
Plucker Julius
Hyatt John Wesley
Kekule: structure of benzene
Antiseptic
Lowe Thaddeus
Mendelian inheritance
Sechenov Ivan
Whymper Edward
The High Andes
 Bingham Hiram
Rohlfs Friedrich Gerhard
Open hearth furnace
Martin Pierre-Emile
Ku Klux Klan
"The Nation"
Marquess of Queensberry Rules
"San Francisco Examiner"
"San Francisco Chronicle"
Mitchell Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part I
Cuza Alexandru
"Monstrous coalition"
Carol I
Austro-Prussian War
Battle of Custoza
Battle of Trautenau
Battle of Koniggratz
Battle of Lissa
Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869
MacDonald Ramsay
Sun Yat-sen
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part II
Croce Benedetto
Soderblom Nathan
Larousse Pierre
Larousse: Great Universal Dictionary of the 19th Century
Friedrich Lange: "History of Materialism"
Benavente Jacinto
Dostoevsky: "Crime and Punishment"
Hamerling Robert
Ibsen: "Brand"
Kingsley: "Hereward the Wake"
Rolland Romain
Wells Herbert
H.G. Wells
"The War of the Worlds"

"The Invisible Man"
 
"A Short History of the World"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part III
Bakst Leon
Leon Bakst
Fry Roger
Kandinsky Vassili
Vassili Kandinsky
A Defender Appears
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Busoni Ferruccio
Ferruccio Busoni - Berceuse Elegiaque
Ferruccio Busoni
Offenbach: "La Vie Parisienne"
Smetana: "The Bartered Bride"
Satie Eric
Erik Satie: Nocturnes
Eric Satie
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part IV
Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
Morgan Thomas Hunt
Nicolle Charles
Werner Alfred
Whitehead Robert
Whitehead torpedo
Doudart de Lagree Ernest
Panic of 1866
Thomas Morris
MacGregor John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part I
Manchester Martyrs
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Nebraska
Constitution Act, 1867
Alaska Purchase
North German Confederation
Reform Act of 1867
Battle of Mentana
Mary of Teck
Baldwin Stanley
Rathenau Walther
Pilsudski Joseph
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part II
Bagehot Walter
Walter Bagehot: "The English Constitution"
Freeman Edward Augustus
Freeman: The History of the Norman Conquest of England
Marx: "Das Kapital"
Thoma Ludwig
Soseki Natsume
Russell George William
Reymont Wladislau
Bennett Arnold
Balmont Konstantin
Pirandello Luigi
Galsworthy John
Charles de Coster: "The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel"
Ouida: "Under Two Flags"
Trollope: "The Last Chronicle of Barset"
Turgenev: "Smoke"
Zola: "Therese Raquin"
Ibsen: "Peer Gynt"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part III
Delville Jean
Jean Delville
Kollwitz Kathe
Kathe Kollwitz
Nolde Emil
Emil Nolde
Bonnard Pierre
Pierre Bonnard
Manet's Personal Exhibition
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "La Jolie Fille de Perth"
Gounod: "Romeo et Juliette"
Offenbach: "La Grande-Duchesse de Gerolstein"
Johann Strauss II: The "Blue Danube"
Toscanini Arturo
Verdi: "Don Carlos"
Granados Enrique
Enrique Granados - Spanish Dances
Enrique Granados
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part IV
Curie Marie
Michaux Pierre
Monier Joseph
Brenner Railway
Mining industry of South Africa
Dynamite
Thurn and Taxis
Chambers John Graham
London Athletic Club
Barnardo Thomas John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part I
British Expedition to Abyssinia
Battle of Magdala
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tenure of Office Act
Province of Hanover
Russian Turkestan
Mihailo Obrenovic III
Milan I of Serbia
Glorious Revolution
Horthy Nicholas
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part II
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy
Charles Darwin: "The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication"
Louisa May Alcott: "Little Women"
Robert Browning: "The Ring and the Book"
Wilkie Collins: "The Moonstone"
Dostoevsky: "The Idiot"
George Stefan
Gorki Maxim
Rostand Edmond
Edmond Rostand
"Cyrano De Bergerac"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part III
Bernard Emile
Emile Bernard
Vollard Ambroise
Slevogt Max
Max Slevogt
Vuillard Edouard
Edouard Vuillard
The Realist Impulse
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bantock Granville
Bantock "Overture The Frogs"
Granville Bantock
Brahms: "Ein deutsches Requiem"
Schillings Max
Max von Schillings: Mona Lisa
Max von Schillings
Wagner: "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part IV
Lartet Louis
Cro-Magnon
Haber Fritz
Millikan Robert Andrews
Richards Theodore William
Scott Robert Falcon
Armour Philip Danforth
Badminton House
Garvin James Louis
Harmsworth Harold
Trades Union Congress
"Whitaker's Almanack"
Sholes Christopher Latham
Typewriter
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part I
Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant
French legislative election, 1869
Prohibition Party
Red River Rebellion
Chamberlain Neville
Gandhi Mahatma
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part II
Matthew Arnold: "Culture and Anarchy"
Eduard Hartmann: "The Philosophy of the Unconscious"
Mill: "On The Subjection of Women"
First Vatican Council
Blackmore Richard Doddridge
Blackmore: "Lorna Doone"
Flaubert: "Sentimental Education"
Gide Andre
Gilbert: "Bab Ballads"
Halevy Ludovic
Bret Harte: "The Outcasts of Poker Flat"
Victor Hugo: "The Man Who Laughs"
Leacock Stephen
Mark Twain: "The Innocents Abroad"
Tolstoy: "War and Peace"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part III
Lutyens Edwin
Poelzig Hans
Carus Carl Gustav
Carl Gustav Carus
Somov Konstantin
Konstantin Somov
Matisse Henri
Henri Matisse
Manet Falls Foul of the Censor
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 0
Pfitzner Hans
Pfitzner - Nachts
Hans Pfitzner
Wagner Siegfried
Siegfried Wagner "Prelude to Sonnenflammen"
Richard Wagner: "Das Rheingold"
Roussel Albert
Albert Roussel - Bacchus et Ariane
Albert Roussel
Wood Henry
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part IV
Francis Galton: "Hereditary Genius"
Celluloid
Periodic law
Nachtigal Gustav
Cincinnati Red Stockings
Girton College, Cambridge
Nihilism
1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game
Co-operative Congress
Lesseps Ferdinand
Suez Canal
 
 
 

Archaeopteryx
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1861 Part V
 
 
 
1861
 
 
Archaeopteryx: skeleton of link between reptile and bird discovered at Solnhofen, Germany; now at the British Museum, London
 
 
Archaeopteryx
 

Archaeopteryx, the oldest-known fossil animal that is generally accepted as a bird. The eight or so known specimens date to approximately 150 million years ago during the Late Jurassic Period (161 million to 146 million years ago), and all were found in the Solnhofen Limestone Formation in Bavaria, Germany, starting in 1861.

However, late 20th- and early 21st-century discoveries of other birdlike fossils of similar age, including Xiaotingia zhengi from the Liaoning deposits in China, have prompted several paleontologists to call for the reclassification of Archaeopteryx as a dinosaur.

 

Archaeopteryx
 
 
Much of what is known about Archaeopteryx comes from a series of well-preserved fossil specimens. The Solnhofen Limestone is a very fine-grained Jurassic limestone formed in a shallow tropical marine environment (probably a coral lagoon), where lime-rich muds slowly accumulated and permitted fossil material to be exceptionally well preserved. Several of the fossils show clear impressions of feathers. The sizes of the specimens range from that of a blue jay to that of a large chicken.

Archaeopteryx shared many anatomic characters with coelurosaurs, a group of theropods (carnivorous dinosaurs). In fact, only the identification of feathers on the first known specimens indicated that the animal was a bird. Unlike living birds, however, Archaeopteryx had well-developed teeth and a long well-developed tail similar to those of smaller dinosaurs, except that it had a row of feathers on each side. The three fingers bore claws and moved independently, unlike the fused fingers of living birds.

Archaeopteryx had well-developed wings, and the structure and arrangement of its wing feathers—similar to that of most living birds—indicate that it could fly.

 
 
A study of melanosomes (the pigmented, melanin-producing granules present in specialized skin cells called melanocytes) in the animal’s feathers revealed that the feathers were black and that the arrangement of the granules within the feather’s microstructure probably provided increased structural support to the wings, similar to the way it does in modern birds. Skeletal structures related to flight are incompletely developed, however, which suggests that Archaeopteryx may not have been able to sustain flight for great distances. Archaeopteryx is known to have evolved from small carnivorous dinosaurs, as it retains many features such as teeth and a long tail. It also retains a wishbone, a breastbone, hollow, thin-walled bones, air sacs in the backbones, and feathers, which are also found in the nonavian coelurosaurian relatives of birds. These structures, therefore, cannot be said to have evolved for the purpose of flight, because they were already present in dinosaurs before either birds or flight evolved.
Several paleontologists note that some birdlike dinosaurs of similar age or older also possessed features identical or nearly identical to those of Archaeopteryx. Many features, such as the presence of feathers, three-fingered hands, a wishbone, and long, robust forelimbs, which are often considered diagnostic of birds, also appear in X. zhengi, a species thought to have lived some five million years before Archaeopteryx, as well as others. Thus, these paleontologists claim that Archaeopteryx cannot, in fact, be the world’s most primitive bird, and many of the features used to describe birds could be applied to the Paraves, a more inclusive collection of theropod dinosaurs that includes birds and the deinonychosaurs (a group that contains the troodontids and the dromaeosaurs).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
The Berlin Archaeopteryx specimen (A. siemensii).
 
 
 
1861
 
 
Crookes William discovers thallium
 
 
Thallium (Tl)
 

Thallium (Tl), chemical element, metal of main Group 13 (IIIa, or boron group) of the periodic table, poisonous and of limited commercial value. Like lead, thallium is a soft, low-melting element of low tensile strength. Freshly cut thallium has a metallic lustre that dulls to bluish gray upon exposure to air. The metal continues to oxidize upon prolonged contact with air, generating a heavy nonprotective oxide crust. Thallium dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid and rapidly in nitric acid.

 
Rarer than tin, thallium is concentrated in only a few minerals that have no commercial value. Trace amounts of thallium are present in sulfide ores of zinc and lead; in the roasting of these ores, the thallium becomes concentrated in the flue dusts, from which it is recovered.

British chemist Sir Crookes William discovered (1861) thallium by observing the prominent green spectral line generated by selenium-bearing pyrites that had been used in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. Crookes and French chemist Claude-Auguste Lamy independently isolated (1862) thallium, showing it to be a metal.

 
Thallium (Tl)
 
 
Two crystalline forms of the element are known: close-packed hexagonal below about 230 °C (450 °F) and body-centred cubic above. Natural thallium, the heaviest of the boron group elements, consists almost entirely of a mixture of two stable isotopes: thallium-203 (29.5 percent) and thallium-205 (70.5 percent). Traces of several short-lived isotopes occur as decay products in the three natural radioactive disintegration series: thallium-206 and thallium-210 (uranium series), thallium-208 (thorium series), and thallium-207 (actinium series).

Thallium metal has no commercial use, and thallium compounds have no major commercial application, since thallous sulfate was largely replaced in the 1960s as a rodenticide and insecticide. Thallous compounds have a few limited uses. For example, mixed bromide-iodide crystals (TlBr and TlI) that transmit infrared light have been fabricated into lenses, windows, and prisms for infrared optical systems. The sulfide (Tl2S) has been employed as the essential component in a highly sensitive photoelectric cell and the oxysulfide in an infrared-sensitive photocell (thallofide cell). Thallium forms its oxides in two different oxidation states, +1 (Tl2O) and +3 (Tl2O3). Tl2O has been used as an ingredient in highly refractive optical glasses and as a colouring agent in artificial gems; Tl2O3 is an n-type semiconductor. Alkali halide crystals, such as sodium iodide, have been doped or activated by thallium compounds to produce inorganic phosphors for use in scintillation counters to detect radiation.

 
 

First ionization energies of the elements.
 
 
Thallium imparts a brilliant green coloration to a bunsen flame. Thallous chromate, formula Tl2CrO4, is best used in the quantitative analysis of thallium, after any thallic ion, Tl3+, present in the sample has been reduced to the thallous state, Tl+.

Thallium is typical of the Group 13 elements in having an s2p1 outer electron configuration. Promoting an electron from an s to a p orbital allows the element to be three or four covalent. With thallium, however, the energy required for s → p promotion is high relative to the Tl–X covalent bond energy that is regained on formation of TlX3; hence, a derivative with a +3 oxidation state is not a very energetically favoured reaction product. Thus, thallium, unlike the other boron group elements, predominantly forms singly charged thallium salts having thallium in the +1 rather than the +3 oxidation state (the 6s2 electrons remain unused). It is the only element to form a stable singly charged cation with the outer electron configuration (n-1)d10ns2, which is, unusually enough, not an inert gas configuration. In water the colourless, more stable thallous ion, Tl+, resembles the heavier alkali metal ions and silver; the compounds of thallium in its +3 state are easily reduced to compounds of the metal in its +1 state.

 
 

Modern version of the periodic table of the elements.
 
 
In its oxidation state of +3, thallium resembles aluminum, although the ion Tl3+ appears to be too large to form alums. The very close similarity in size of the singly charged thallium ion, Tl+, and the rubidium ion, Rb+, makes many Tl+ salts, such as the chromate, sulfate, nitrate, and halides, isomorphous (i.e., have an identical crystal structure) to the corresponding rubidium salts; also, the ion Tl+ is able to replace the ion Rb+ in the alums. Thus, thallium does form an alum, but in doing so it replaces the M+ ion, rather than the expected metal atom M3+, in M+M3+(SO4)2∙12H2O.

Soluble thallium compounds are toxic. The metal itself is changed to such compounds by contact with moist air or skin. Thallium poisoning, which may be fatal, causes nervous and gastrointestinal disorders and rapid loss of hair.

Thallium (Tl).
Element Properties

atomic number 81
atomic weight 204.37
melting point 303.5 °C (578.3 °F)
boiling point 1,457 °C (2,655 °F)
specific gravity 11.85 (at 20 °C [68 °F])
oxidation states +1, +3
electron config. [Xe]4f 145d106s26p1
 

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1861
 
 
Hopkins Frederick Gowland
 

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins OM FRS (20 June 1861 – 16 May 1947) was an English biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins. He also discovered the amino acid tryptophan, in 1901. He was President of the Royal Society from 1930 to 1935.

 

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins
  Hopkins was born in Eastbourne, Sussex, and educated at the City of London School completing his further study with the University of London External Programme and the medical school at Guy's Hospital which is now part of King's College London School of Medicine. He then taught physiology and toxicology at Guy's Hospital from 1894 to 1898.

In 1898 he married Jessie Anne Stephens (1861-1937); they had two daughters, one of whom, Jacquetta Hawkes, was married to J.B. Priestley, the author.

Also in 1898, while attending a meeting of the Physiological Society, he was invited by Sir Michael Foster to join the Physiological Laboratory in Cambridge to investigate the chemical aspects of physiology. Biochemistry was not, at that time, recognized as a separate branch of science. In June 1902 he was given a readership in biochemistry, and in 1910 he became a Fellow of Trinity College, and an Honorary Fellow of Emmanuel College. In 1914 he was elected to the Chair of Biochemistry at Cambridge University, thus becoming the first Professor in that discipline at Cambridge. His Cambridge students included neurochemistry pioneer Judah Hirsch Quastel and pioneer embryologist Joseph Needham.

Hopkins had for a long time studied how cells obtain energy via a complex metabolic process of oxidation and reduction reactions.

 
 
His study in 1907 with Sir Walter Morley Fletcher of the connection between lactic acid and muscle contraction was one of the central achievements of his work on the biochemistry of the cell. He and Fletcher showed that oxygen depletion causes an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscle. Their work paved the way for the later discovery by Archibald Hill and Otto Fritz Meyerhof that a carbohydrate metabolic cycle supplies the energy used for muscle contraction.

In 1912 Hopkins published the work for which he is best known, demonstrating in a series of animal feeding experiments that diets consisting of pure proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, and water fail to support animal growth. This led him to suggest the existence in normal diets of tiny quantities of as yet unidentified substances that are essential for animal growth and survival. These hypothetical substances he called “accessory food factors”, later renamed vitamins. It was this work that led his being awarded (together with Christiaan Eijkman) the 1929 Nobel Prize in Physiology for Medicine.

During World War I, Hopkins continued his work on the nutritional value of vitamins. His efforts were especially valuable in a time of food shortages and rationing. He agreed to study the nutritional value of margarine and found that it was, as suspected, inferior to butter because it lacked the vitamins A and D. As a result of his work, vitamin-enriched margarine was introduced in 1926.

Hopkins is credited with the discovery and characterization in 1921 of glutathione extracted from various animal tissues. At the time he proposed that the compound was a dipeptide of glutamic acid and cysteine. The structure was controversial for many years but in 1929 he concluded that it was a tripeptide of glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine. This conclusion agreed with that from the independent work of Edward Calvin Kendall.

During his life, in addition to the Nobel Prize, Hopkins was awarded the Royal Medal of the Royal Society in 1918 and the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1926. Other significant honours were his election in 1905 to fellowship in the Royal Society, Great Britain’s most prestigious scientific organization; his knighthood by King George V in 1925; and the award in 1935 of the Order of Merit, Great Britain’s most exclusive civilian honor. From 1930 -1935 he served as president of the Royal Society and in 1933 served as President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

He died on 16 May 1947 in Cambridge and is buried at the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge, with wife Lady Jessie Ann Hopkins.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1861
 
 
T. S. Mort (Sydney) builds first machine-chilled cold storage unit
 
 
Mort Thomas Sutcliffe
 

Thomas Sutcliffe Mort (23 December 1816 – 9 May 1878) was an Australian industrialist responsible for improving refrigeration of meat. He was renowned for speculation in the local pastoral industry as well as industrial activities such as his Ice-Works in Sydney's Darling Harbour and dry dock and engineering works at Balmain.

 

T S Mort and his wife Theresa photographed about 1847
  Businessman
Mort was born in Bolton, Lancashire, England in 1816. In 1878, he was associated with the Australian Mutual Provident Society. In 1849, he was one of a committee, which funded a company to promote sugar growing at Moreton Bay. In 1850 Mort was a member of the Sydney Exchange Co, and in 1851 he was a director of the Sydney Railway Co. and was also involved in mining (gold, later also copper and coal) and other enterprises. In the 1850s, he opened Mort's Dock in Sydney, a business that was not as successful as he wished.

Mort returned to England for a visit in 1857–59. During that visit he bought many furnishings, pictures and other goods, in particular at a sale of the possessions of the Earl of Shrewsbury. He commissioned the architect Edmund Blacket to build a house to add to his house to display the new possessions. His gallery was open to the public.

From 1856, Mort began acquiring land near Moruya on the south coast of New South Wales. In 1860, Mort acquired the Bodalla estate near the mouth of the Tuross River. Mort eventually owned 38,000 acres (150 km²) in the district, a very substantial holding in that fertile area. Bodalla is alleged to have been originally known as 'Boat Alley'. Mort's vision for Bodalla was as a country estate to retire on and to demonstrate model land utilisation and rural settlement.

 
 
Mort wished to have a tenanted dairy estate run as an integrated whole.
Mort replaced the beef cattle that had been farmed there and carried out extensive improvements including clearing land, draining river swamps, erecting fences, laying out farms, sowing imported grasses, and providing milking sheds, cheese and butter-making equipment. Butter and cheese were produced for the Sydney market. By the 1870s, the tenants were disgruntled sharefarmers and the estate was in Mort's control again run as three farms with hired labour.

In 1866, Mort expanded his dry dock into an engineering works. Mort offered shares to his employees and in 1875, the company was incorporated with limited liability having been managed beforehand by a committee that included four leading hands. This was one of the earliest attempts at co-operation between capital and labour in Australia, and although the effort at sharing ownership was only partially successful, Mort always had good relations with his employees.

Also in the mid-1860s, Mort had been looking at refrigeration as a way of developing manufacturing orders, to ensure better access to the Sydney market for the butter and cheese he was producing at Bodalla and to offset the vulnerability of being exposed to falling wool prices.

 
 
Mort financed experiments by Eugene Dominic Nicolle, a French born engineer who had arrived in Sydney in 1853 and registered his first ice-making patent in 1861.

In 1861 Mort established at Darling Harbour the first freezing works in the world, which afterwards became the New South Wales Fresh Food and Ice Company.

The first trial shipment of frozen meat to London was in 1868. Although their machinery was never used in the frozen meat trade, Mort and Nicolle developed commercially viable systems for domestic trade, although the financial return on that investment was not a great success for Mort.

As a part of his refrigeration works, Mort developed a large abattoir at Lithgow where sheep and cattle from western New South Wales were slaughtered and refrigerated for later transport. In 1875, to mark his achievements in the refrigeration techniques, Mort arranged a picnic for 300 guests. He organised a special train from Sydney and fed his guests food that had been refrigerated at his plant for over 18 months.

Mort was a prominent Anglican layman. He donated the land for St Mark's Church, Darling Point, and commissioned Edmund Blacket to design the church. Mort contributed to the upkeep of the church and also to the building of St. Andrew's Cathedral, Sydney and St Paul's College, University of Sydney.

He was also the founder of Christ Church School in Pitt Street Sydney.

  Death and legacy
He died at Bodalla, on 9 May 1878.

At the time of his death he was spoken of as "the greatest benefactor the working classes in this country ever had". Within a week of Mort's death from pneumonia at Bodalla, a meeting of working men in Sydney had resolved to show the esteem and respect in which they held his memory. A sculpture in Macquarie Place by Pierce Connolly resulted from their resolution and was unveiled in 1883.

Mort is also commemorated by All Saints Church, Bodalla, built in his honour by his family, to a design by Edmund Blacket, using granite quarried on Mort's property. The foundation stone was laid by Marianne Mort, Thomas' second wife, on 18 March 1880. It was completed in 1901. The church has one of seven small Henry Willis & Sons organs, built in 1881 and installed the following year. The church cost 13,000 Pounds Stirling to construct.

Mort's business Mort & Co. became Mort & Co Ltd in 1883. Mort & Co Ltd merged with R Goldsbrough & Co Ltd in 1888 to form Goldsbrough Mort & Co Ltd. This firm traded from 1888–1963 when a merger formed Elder Smith Goldsbrough Mort Ltd which traded from 1963 – 1982. The present day business is Elders Limited.

The southern Sydney suburb of Mortdale and its main road, Morts Road, are named after him.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1861
 
 
Nansen Fridtjof
 

Fridtjof Nansen, (born Oct. 10, 1861, Store-Frøen, near Kristiania [now Oslo], Nor.—died May 13, 1930, Lysaker, near Oslo), Norwegian explorer, oceanographer, statesman, and humanitarian who led a number of expeditions to the Arctic (1888, 1893, 1895–96) and oceanographic expeditions in the North Atlantic (1900, 1910–14). For his relief work after World War I he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace (1922).

 

Fridtjof Nansen
  Early life
Nansen went to school in Kristiania (Oslo), where in 1880 he passed his entrance examination to the university. He chose to study zoology in the expectation that fieldwork would give him the chance of an outdoor life and enable him to make use of his artistic talents. Although scientific work was always closest to his heart, he first attained fame as an explorer.

As a young man Nansen was a great outdoor athlete, an accomplished skater and skier, and a keen hunter and fisherman. In 1882, when he joined the sealing ship Viking for a voyage to the Greenland waters, Nansen first saw at a distance Greenland’s mighty ice cap. It occurred to him that it ought to be possible to cross it, and gradually he developed a plan, which he announced in 1887. Instead of starting from the inhabited west coast, he would start from the east coast and, by cutting off his means of retreat, would force himself to go forward. The expedition of six from Norway started the crossing on Aug. 15, 1888. After enduring storms and intense cold, they reached the highest point of the journey (8,920 feet [2,719 metres]) on September 5 and struck the west coast at Ameralik fjord on September 26. They were forced to winter at the settlement of Godthåb (Nuuk), where Nansen took the opportunity to study the Eskimos and gather material for his book Eskimoliv (1891; Eskimo Life). The party returned home in triumph in May 1889.

In 1890 Nansen presented before the Norwegian Geographical Society a plan for an even more hazardous expedition.

 
 
Having collected evidence showing that the ice of the polar sea drifted from Siberia toward Spitsbergen, he proposed to build a ship of such a shape that it would be lifted but not crushed when caught by the ice. He proposed to let this ship freeze in off eastern Siberia in order to be carried from there across the Arctic Ocean to Spitsbergen by the currents. Though his plan was severely criticized by contemporary Arctic explorers, the Norwegian Parliament granted two-thirds of the estimated expenses, and the rest was raised by subscriptions from King Oscar II and private individuals. His ship, Fram (i.e., “Forward”; now preserved outside Oslo), was built according to his ideas.
 
 

Greenland expedition, July–October 1888:

 
  Dotted line shows approach of Jason, to 17 July. Continuous line shows drift of Nansen's party southward to 29 July, and the boat journey northward to Umivik
 
  The originally planned crossing route, from Sermilik to Christianhaab
 
  Actual crossing route to Godthaab, 15 August to 3 October
 
 
With a complement of 13 men, the Fram sailed from Kristiania on June 24, 1893. On September 22 it was enclosed by the ice at 78°50′ N, 133°37′ E; it froze in, and the long drift began. It bore the pressure of the ice perfectly. On March 14, 1895, Nansen, being satisfied that the Fram would continue to drift safely, left it in 84°4′ N, 102°27′ E, and started northward with dogsleds and kayaks, accompanied by F.H. Johansen. On April 8 they turned back from 86°14′ N, the highest latitude then yet reached by man, and headed toward Franz Josef Land. As they approached the northern islands, progress was hampered by open water and, because of the advanced season, they wintered on Frederick Jackson Island (named by Nansen after the British Arctic explorer), where they stayed from Aug. 26, 1895, to May 19, 1896.
 
 

Nansen and Johansen prepare to depart Fram for their polar trek, 14 March 1895. Nansen is the figure second from left, Johansen second from right.
 
 
They built a hut of stone and covered it with a roof of walrus hides and lived during the winter mainly on polar bear and walrus meat, using the blubber as fuel. On their way to Spitsbergen they encountered Frederick Jackson and his party of the Jackson-Harmsworth expedition, on June 17, and returned to Norway in his ship Windward, reaching Vardø on August 13. The Fram also reached Norway safely, having drifted north to 85°57′. Nansen and his companions on board the Fram were given a rousing welcome, which reached its climax on their arrival in Kristiania on September 9. His two-volume account of the expedition, Fram over Polhavet (Farthest North), appeared in 1897.
 
 

Posed photograph of the meeting between Fridtjof Nansen (right) and Frederick Jackson at Cape Flora, Franz Josef Land, 17 June 1896
 
 
Scientific work
Nansen’s success as an explorer was due largely to his careful evaluation of the difficulties that might be encountered, his clear reasoning, which was never influenced by the opinions of others, his willingness to accept a calculated risk, his thorough planning, and his meticulous attention to detail.
 
 

Fridtjof Nansen, 1896.
  Many of these traits can be recognized in his scientific writings. In 1882 he was appointed curator of zoology at the Bergen museum. He wrote papers on zoological and histological subjects, illustrated by excellent drawings.

For one of his papers, “The Structure and Combination of Histological Elements of the Central Nervous System” (1887), the University of Kristiania conferred upon him the degree of doctor of philosophy. Though the paper contained so many novel interpretations that the committee that had to examine it accepted it with doubt, it is now considered a classic.

On his return from the Fram expedition in 1896, a professorship in zoology was established for Nansen at the University of Kristiania, but his interests shifted from zoology to physical oceanography, and in 1908 his status was changed to professor of oceanography.

During 1896–1917 he devoted most of his time and energy to scientific work. He edited the report of the scientific results of his expedition and himself wrote some of the most important parts.

He participated in the establishment of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea and for some time directed the council’s central laboratory in Kristiania. In 1900 he joined the Michael Sars on a cruise in the Norwegian Sea.

In 1910 he made a cruise in the Fridtjof through the northeastern North Atlantic; in 1912 he visited the Spitsbergen waters on board his own yacht Veslemoy; and in 1914 he joined B. Helland-Hansen on an oceanographic cruise to the Azores in the Armauer Hansen.

 
 
In 1913 Nansen traveled through the Barents Sea and the Kara Sea to the mouth of the Yenisey River and back through Siberia. He published the results of his cruises in numerous papers, partly in cooperation with Helland-Hansen. His lasting contributions to oceanography comprise improvement and design of instruments, explanation of the wind-driven currents of the seas, discussions of the waters of the Arctic, and explanation of the manner in which deep- and bottom-water is formed.

Nansen also dealt with other subjects: for instance, his Nord i tåkeheimen, 2 vol. (1911; In Northern Mists) gave a critical review of the exploration of the northern regions from early times up to the beginning of the 16th century.

 
 

Routes taken during the 1893–96
 
Fram expedition:
 
  Fram's route eastward from Vardø along the Siberian coast, turning north at the New Siberian Islands to enter the pack ice, July–September 1893
 
  Fram's drift in the ice from the New Siberian Islands north and west to Spitsbergen, September 1893 – August 1896
 
  Nansen and Johansen's march to Farthest North, 86°13.6′N, and subsequent retreat to Cape Flora in Franz Josef Land, March 1895 – June 1896
 
  Nansen and Johansen's return to Vardø from Cape Flora, August 1896
 
  Fram's voyage from Spitsbergen to Tromsø, August 1896
 
 
Statesman and humanitarian
As Nansen grew older he became more interested in the relations between individuals and nations. In 1905 he took a lively part in the discussion about the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden.

His attitude may be summarized by his words: “Any union in which the one people is restrained in exercising its freedom is and will remain a danger.” On the establishment of the Norwegian monarchy, Nansen was appointed its first minister in London (1906–08). In 1917, during World War I, he was appointed head of a Norwegian commission to the United States and negotiated a satisfactory agreement with the U.S. government about the import of essential supplies to Norway.

At the first assembly of the League of Nations in 1920, the Norwegian delegation was headed by Nansen, who was to remain one of the outstanding members of the assembly until his death.

In April 1920 the council of the League of Nations gave Nansen his first great task, appointing him high commissioner responsible for the repatriation from Russia of about 500,000 prisoners of war from the former German and Austro-Hungarian armies.

The Soviet government would not recognize the League of Nations but negotiated with Nansen personally, and in September 1922 he reported to the third assembly of the League that his task was completed and that 427,886 prisoners of war had been repatriated.

 
Nansen raised funds to help the famine in Russia by taking photographs and selling postcards of the disaster.
 
 
In August 1921 Nansen was asked by the International Committee of the Red Cross to direct an effort to bring relief to famine-stricken Russia. He accepted, and on August 15 a conference in Geneva, at which 13 governments and 48 Red Cross organizations were represented, appointed him high commissioner of this new venture.

On August 27 he concluded an agreement with the Soviet government authorizing him to open in Moscow an office of the “International Russian Relief Executive.”
 
 
Nansen’s request to the League for financial assistance was turned down, but by appealing to private organizations and by addressing large public meetings he succeeded in raising the necessary funds.

On July 5, 1922, on Nansen’s initiative, an international agreement was signed in Geneva introducing the identification card for displaced persons known as the “Nansen passport.” In 1931 the Nansen International Office for Refugees was created in Geneva (after Nansen’s death); it cared mainly for anticommunist (“White”) Russians, for Armenians from Turkey, and, later, for Jews from Nazi Germany.

In 1922 Nansen was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace; he used the prize money for the furtherance of international relief work. The Nansen International Office for Refugees won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1938.

Harald Ulrik Sverdrup

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
Fridtjof Nansen among orphaned Armenian boys at a summer camp near Gyumri in 1925.
 
 

Fridtjof Nansen, photographed towards the end of his life.
 
Fridtjof Nansens Saga 1940
(1931)
 
 
 
1861
 
 
Pasteur Louis: germ theory of fermentation
 
 
Fermentation theory
 

The fermentation theory was studied in depth and brought to light first by Pasteur Louis . This theory states that it is the idea or concept of how fermentation is brought on by microbes and put to the concept of spontaneous generation to rest. Even though this theory is now outdated and has been replaced by the germ theory of disease, for a long time it held true, and Louis was on the forefront of explaining why it seemed organisms appeared out of nothing instead of claiming it was just a spontaneous act of God. Fermentation was a process that has been used for thousands of years, but no one could explain exactly what was happening and why. From Pasteur's discovery of why and how fermentation occurs, the process has been studied intensely and is now a mastered art used in everyday life with processes of making things such as alcoholic beverages, some foods like yogurt or even manufacturing some medications.

 
Fermentation
Simply put, fermentation is the anaerobic metabolic process that converts sugar into acids, gases, or alcohols. This metabolic process is used in oxygen starved environments. Yeast and many other microbes commonly use this process in order to carry our their anaerobic respiration to survive. Even the human body carries out fermentation processes from time to time. When someone runs a long distance race, lactic acid will build up in their muscles over the course of the race. That lactic acid is the by-product of fermentation taking place in their body, which tries to produce ATP so the body can continue to run since they could not process the oxygen intake fast enough. Although fermentation will give a lower yield of ATP production than aerobic respiration does, it can occur at a much higher rate. Fermentation has been used by humans consciously since around 5000 BCE where there were jars recovered in the Iran Zagros Mountains area in which contained remnants of a microbes similar those present in the process of making grapes into wine.
  What the Theory is
Before the 1870s, when Pasteur published his work on this theory, it was believe that microorganisms and even some small animals such as frogs would spontaneously appear, which was coined as spontaneous generation. Spontaneous generation was the explained theory that when elements of the Earth such as clay or mud would mix with water and sunlight in certain amounts, creatures would just appear out of that concoction. A common way that this idea was "proven" over and over again was by taking a piece of raw meat and placing it in open air, which would almost always produce maggots. This idea was accepted and believe to be true before Louis Pasteur shook the Earth with his new ideas that organisms actually came from traceable beginnings.

Pasteur demonstrated that fermentation is caused by the growth of microorganisms, and the emergent growth of bacteria in nutrient broths is due to biogenesis rather than spontaneous generation. He exposed boiled broths to air in vessels that contained a filter to prevent all particles from passing through to the growth medium.
 
 
Yet, when the vessels were open to the air surrounding it, the organisms appeared. It could be concluded that spontaneous generation could be disproven. The organisms did not just appear but were coming from the air, yet we were not able to see them at such a small level. His famous experiment was used with a curved neck placed on top of a beaker. This curved neck was the key to proving his findings because it showed that the germs and microbes had to fall into the broth inside. The curved neck did not allow this to happen.

The fermentation theory of disease is the (now obsolete) concept that many diseases, including the diseases which were "epidemic, endemic and contagious", owe their origin to the presence of a "morbific principle" in the system, acting in a manner analogous to, although not identical with, the process of fermentation. It was rendered obsolete by the germ theory of disease, which led to the new science of bacteriology.

 
 

Comparison of aerobic respiration and most known fermentation types in eucaryotic cell.[7] Numbers in circles indicate counts of carbon atoms in molecules, C6 is glucose C6H12O6, C1 carbon dioxide CO2. Mitochondrial outer membrane is omitted.
 
 
Application
Fermenting a broth in a beaker has become more than just a way to prove that organisms don't just appear out of thin air. Today, the process of fermentation is used for a multitude of everyday applications. Some of those processes include medications which we ingest, beverages we consume, and even food we eat. Currently, companies like Genencor International uses the production of enzymes involved in fermentation to build a revenue of over $400 million a year. Many medications such as antibiotics are produced by the fermentation process. An example is the important drug cortisone, which can be prepared by the fermentation of a plant steroid known as diosgenin.

The enzymes used in the reaction are provided by the mold Rhizopus nigricans. Just as it is commonly known, alcohol of all types and brands are also produced by way of fermentation and distillation. Moonshine is a classic example of how this is carried out. Finally, foods such as yogurt are made by fermentation processes as well. Yogurt is a fermented milk product that contains the characteristic bacterial cultures Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermopiles.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1861
 
 
Semmelweis: "Childbed Fever"
 
 
 
1861
 
 
Baker Samuel
 

Sir Samuel White Baker, KCB, FRS, FRGS (8 June 1821 – 30 December 1893) was a British explorer, officer, naturalist, big game hunter, engineer, writer and abolitionist. He also held the titles of Pasha and Major-General in the Ottoman Empire and Egypt. He served as the Governor-General of the Equatorial Nile Basin (today's South Sudan and Northern Uganda) between Apr. 1869 – Aug. 1873, which he established as the Province of Equatoria. He is mostly remembered as the discoverer of Lake Albert, as an explorer of the Nile and interior of central Africa, and for his exploits as a big game hunter in Asia, Africa, Europe and North America.

Baker wrote a considerable number of books and published articles. He was a friend of King Edward VII, who as Prince of Wales, visited Baker with Queen Alexandra in Egypt. Other friendships were with explorers Henry Morton Stanley, Roderick Murchison, John H. Speke and James A. Grant, with the ruler of Egypt Pasha Ismail The Magnificent, Major-General Charles George Gordon and Maharaja Duleep Singh.

 

Sir Samuel White Baker
  Family and early biography
Samuel White Baker was born on 8 June 1821 in London, as the offspring of a wealthy commercial family. His father, Samuel Baker Sr., was a sugar merchant, banker and ship owner from Thorngrove, Worcestershire with mercantile ties in the West Indies. His younger brother, Col. Valentine Baker, known as "Baker Pasha", was initially a British hero of the African Cape Colony, the Crimean War, Ceylon and the Balkans, later dishonoured by a civilian scandal. Valentine had successfully sought fame in the Ottoman Empire, notably the Russian-Turkish War in the Caucasus and the War of Sudan from Egypt. Samuel's other siblings were: James, John, Mary "Min" (later Cawston), Ellen (later Hopkinson) and Anna Eliza Baker (later Bourne).

Baker was educated at a private school at Rottingdean, next at the College School, Gloucester (1833–1835), then privately at Tottenham (1838–1840), before completing his studies in Frankfurt, Germany in 1841. He studied and graduated MA as Civil Engineer. While commissioned, at Constanța, Romania, where, as Royal Superintendent, he designed and planned railways, bridges and other structures across the Dobrogea region, from the Danube to the Black Sea.

On 3 August 1843 he married his first wife, Henrietta Ann Bidgood Martin, daughter of the rector of Maisemore, Gloucestershire.

 
 
Together, they had seven children: Agnes, Charles Martin, Constance, Edith, Ethel, Jane & John Lindsay Sloan. His brother John Garland Baker married Henrietta's sister Eliza Heberden Martin and after a double wedding, the four moved to Mauritius, overseeing the family's plantation. After spending two years there the desire for travel took them in 1846 to Ceylon, where in the following year he founded an agricultural settlement at Nuwara Eliya, a mountain health-resort.

Aided by his family, he brought emigrants from England, together with choice breeds of cattle, and before long the new settlement was a success. During his residence in Ceylon he wrote and published The Rifle and the Hound in Ceylon (1853) and two years later Eight Years' Wanderings in Ceylon (1855). After twelve years of marriage, his wife, Henrietta, died of typhoid fever in 1855, leaving Samuel a widower at the age of thirty-four. His two sons and one daughter (Jane) also died young. Baker left his four surviving daughters in the care of his unmarried sister Mary "Min".

After a journey to Constantinople and the Crimea in 1856, he went to Constanța, Romania and acted as Royal Superintendent for the construction of a railway and bridges across the Dobrogea, connecting the Danube with the Black Sea. After that project was completed he spent some months on a tour of south-eastern Europe and Asia Minor.

 
 
Florence Baker and East Europe experience
While Baker was visiting the Duke of Atholl on his shooting estate in Scotland, he befriended Maharaja Duleep Singh and in 1858–1859, the two partnered an extensive hunting trip in central Europe and the Balkans, via Frankfurt, Berlin, Vienna and Budapest. On the last part of the voyage, Baker and the Maharajah, hired a wooden boat in Budapest, which was eventually abandoned on the frozen Danube. The two continued into Vidin where, to amuse the Maharajah, Baker went to the Vidin slave market. There, Baker fell in love with a white slave girl, destined for the Ottoman Pasha of Vidin. He was outbid by the Pasha but bribed the girl's attendants and they ran away in a carriage together and eventually she became his lover and wife and accompanied him everywhere he journeyed. They are reported to have married, most probably in Bucharest, before going to Dubrushka, but Sir Samuel certainly promised that they would go through another ceremony on their return to England – where they had a family wedding in 1865.

She was officially born 6 August 1841 (but more probably 1845) in Nagyenyed, Austria-Hungary (today Aiud, Romania) and was named Florenz Barbara Maria. She said that her nurse helped her to a refugee camp in Vidin, Bulgaria. Possibly it was there that she was adopted by an Armenian family with name Finnian (or Finnin). Her nurse married and left her, probably during the first Amnesty of 1857. Later she was abducted and sold to an Armenian slave merchant, who groomed her for the Harem.
  Baker and the girl fled to Bucharest and remained in Romania, Baker applying for the position of British Consul there but he was refused. In Constanța, he acted as the Royal Superintendent for the construction of a railway and bridges across the Dobrogea, connecting the Danube with the Black Sea. After its completion he spent some months on a tour in south-eastern Europe and Asia Minor. The new consul issued Baker's companion with a British passport under the name Florence Barbara Maria Finnian, although she was British neither by birth nor yet by marriage. She was affectionately called "Flooey" by Baker and later nicknamed Anyadwe or Daughter of the Moon in what is now northern Uganda by the Luo-speaking Acholi natives, who prized her long blonde hair.

Florence refused to stay home, instead following her husband in his travels. She spoke English, Turkish, and Arabic, rode camels, mules and horses and carried pistols when in the wilds. She died in 1916 at the estate she had shared with her husband in Sandford Orleigh, Devon. She was 74 years old and was buried with her husband, who had died 23 years earlier, in the Baker family vault at Grimley, near Worcester, although her name was never recorded.

It is possible that the story of how Samuel Baker met his future second wife and of her origin was romanticised by him and adapted to the expectations of Victorian society (the rescue of an exotic princess by a brave white gentleman was a favourite plot of contemporary colonial novels).

 
 
Similarly, Florence Baker is on all drawings from Africa depicted in a conventional Victorian lady's dress but in Africa she used to wear an outfit almost identical to the one her husband had designed for himself. Although Sir Samuel and Lady Baker were personally charming enough to conquer most of Victorian society, Queen Victoria refused to receive Florence at court since she believed Baker had been "intimate with his wife before marriage", as indeed he had. Confusingly, Lady Baker is in Hungarian sources known as Sass (or Szász) Flóra, and Florica Maria Sas in the Romanian sources.
 
 

Explorer and big game hunter Samuel Baker chased by an elephant.
 
 
Career
In March 1861 he started upon his first tour of exploration in central Africa. This, in his own words, was undertaken "to discover the sources of the river Nile, with the hope of meeting the East African expedition under Captains Speke and Grant somewhere about the Lake Victoria." After a year spent on the Sudan–Ethiopian frontier, during which time he learned Arabic, explored the Atbara river and other Nile tributaries, and proved that the Nile sediment came from Ethiopia, he arrived at Khartoum, leaving that city in December 1862 to follow up the course of the White Nile.

Two months later at Gondokoro he met Speke and Grant, who, after discovering the source of the Nile, were following the river to Egypt. Their success made him fear that there was nothing left for his own expedition to accomplish; but the two explorers gave him information which enabled him, after separating from them, to achieve the discovery of Albert Nyanza (Lake Albert), of whose existence credible assurance had already been given to Speke and Grant. Baker first sighted the lake on 14 March 1864. After some time spent in the exploration of the neighbourhood, Baker demonstrated that the Nile flowed through the Albert Nyanza. He formed an exaggerated idea of the relative importance of the Albert and Victoria lake sources in contributing to the Nile flow rate. Although he believed them to be near equal, Albert Nyanza sources add only ~15% to the Nile flow at this point, the remainder provided primarily by outflow from Lake Victoria. While in this area, Baker and his wife became the first Europeans to see a substantial waterfall on the Victoria Nile, which Baker named Murchison Falls after the then-president of the Royal Geographical Society, Sir Roderick Murchison. He started upon his return journey, and reached Khartoum, after many checks, in May 1865.

  In the following October Baker returned to England with his wife, who had accompanied him throughout the dangerous and difficult journeys in Africa. In recognition of the achievements, the Royal Geographical Society awarded him its gold medal, and a similar distinction was bestowed on him by the Paris Geographical Society. In August 1866 he was knighted. In the same year he published The Albert N'yanza, Great Basin of the Nile, and Explorations of the Nile Sources, and in 1867 The Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia, both books quickly turned into several editions. In 1868 he published a popular story called Cast up by the Sea. In 1869 he travelled with the future King Edward VII (who was the Prince of Wales at that time) through Egypt.

Baker never received quite the same level of acclamation granted to other contemporary British explorers of Africa. Queen Victoria, in particular, avoided meeting Baker because of the irregular way in which he acquired Florence, not to mention the fact that during the years of their mutual travels, the couple were not actually married. A court case involving his brother Valentine Baker (following his indecent assault of a woman on a train) also harmed Baker's chances of wider acceptance by the Victorian establishment.

In 1869, at the request of the khedive Ismail, Baker led a military expedition to the equatorial regions of the Nile, with the object of suppressing the slave-trade there and opening the way to commerce and civilisation. Before starting from Cairo with a force of 1700 Egyptian troops – many of them discharged convicts – he was given the rank of pasha and major-general in the Ottoman army. Lady Baker, as before, accompanied him. The khedive appointed him Governor-General of the new territory of Equatoria for four years at a salary of £10,000 a year; and it was not until the expiration of that time that Baker returned to Cairo, leaving his work to be carried on by the new governor, Colonel Charles George Gordon.

 
 
He had to contend with innumerable difficulties – the blocking of the river in the Sudd, the hostility of officials interested in the slave-trade, the armed opposition of the natives – but he succeeded in planting in the new territory the foundations upon which others could build up an administration.
 
 
Later life
He published his narrative of the central African expedition under the title of Ismailia (1874). Cyprus as I saw it in 1879 was the result of a visit to that island.

He spent several winters in Egypt, and travelled in India, the Rocky Mountains and Japan in search of big game, publishing in 1890 Wild Beasts and their Ways.

He kept up a correspondence with men of all shades of opinion upon Egyptian affairs, strongly opposing the abandonment of the Sudan by the British Empire and subsequently urging its reconquest. Next to these, questions of maritime defence and strategy chiefly attracted him in his later years.

In November 1874 he purchased the Sandford Orleigh estate in Newton Abbot, Devon, England, where he also died after a heart attack, at the age of 72, on 30 December 1893. He was cremated and his ashes buried in the Baker family vault at Grimley Saint Bartholomew Churchyard in Grimley, Worcestershire.

  Hunting authority
Samuel Baker lived as a reputed Victorian Nimrod and was a milestone in the history of modern hunting through his works and deeds. He was proud of his British heritage and was an advocate of the virtues of his nation, and a fighter against slavery.

An acclaimed sportsman, he likely started hunting in the Scottish Highlands; his skills were renowned, and he once gave a demonstration to friends in Scotland of how he could, with dogs, successfully hunt down a stag armed only with a knife, he did the same with the large boars in the jungles of Ceylon. He hunted consistently until his last years, in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America.

He forged his skills chasing asian elephants and sambar deer in Ceylon, a place where Rowland Ward's records account him for some of world largest wild boar trophies. He travelled looking for sport in Asia Minor in 1860, in Scotland in 1869 for red stag, in the Rocky Mountains in 1881 downing elk, grizzly and buffalo.

 
 
In 1886 he was in the French Alps, looking for brown bear and many times in India in 1885 and 1887–1889 pursuing tigers and blackbuck. His most memorable cynegetic (hunting-related) exploits remained the episodes in Africa and Ceylon, where he returned again towards the end of his life in 1887. He also visited for sport, Transylvania for bears, Serbia for wild boars, Hungary for deer, Cyprus in 1879, China and Japan.

He left a wealth of study in the science of hunting firearms and ballistics, and accounts as one of the world's few hunters that used the two bore rifle, the world's largest gun calibre for the purpose. He described in great detail his observations of the animal world, account in which, his book Wild Beasts And Their Ways (1890) ranks highest.

In 1863, the German zoologist Theodor von Heuglin named a subspecies of Roan antelope in his honour: Hippotragus e. bakeri or Baker's antelope. In Sri Lanka the Baker's Falls bears his name, and in 1906 Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, while in the Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda, named Mount Baker in his honour.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Baker Florence
 

Lady Florence Baker or Barbara Szász; Maria Freiin von Sass; Barbara Szasz; Barbara Maria Szász; Barbara Maria Szasz (August 6, 1841 – March 11, 1916) was an explorer who was born in Hungary.

 

Lady Florence Baker
  She became an orphan and was being sold as a slave when she came into the possession of Samuel White Baker.

Together they went in search of the source of the River Nile and found Lake Albert. They returned to England where they were married and she became Lady Florence Baker.

She returned with her husband to try and put down the slave trade. They both retired and died in Devon.

Life
Some sources say that Florence Barbara Maria von Sass was born in Aiud in 1841. The story handed down in the Baker family is that she was the daughter of a Székely officer from a Hungarian noble family, who had estates in Transylvania, called von Sas (a branch of the von Sass family) and whilst she was young, during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 "her father and brothers had been killed before her eyes". As an adolescent, she spoke Hungarian, Romanian, German and Turkish. She may have been fourteen she was being sold as a slave in Vidin, a town and fortified port on the River Danube in what is now Bulgaria. She was there in January 1859. According to certain accounts, she was destined to be owned by the Pasha of Vidin but she had been spotted by Samuel Baker. Baker and Maharaja Duleep Singh were both on a hunting trip. Samuel Baker bribed the guards and Florence was allowed to escape into the ownership of Baker.

 
 
Africa
Baker took her to Africa where he was leading an expedition to find the source of the River Nile. They travelled up the Nile to Gondokoro where Baker saved the expedition. There was a dispute between her husband's inflexibility and the staff's disloyalty. Baker was able to intercede and find some common agreement. Gondokoro was a base for ivory and slaves and the point where boats could go no further and where they would need to travel to the source on foot. There they meet Speke and Grant who told them of their explorations. They suggested that they investigate another branch of the Nile. It is interesting to note that when Speke and Grant both later wrote down accounts of their voyages then neither of them mentioned that Grant had a wife with him. This was in line with an agreement they made with Baker.

She and her husband discovered Murchison Falls and Lake Albert in what is now Uganda.

When they arrived back they lived at Hedenham Hall in England. They were married on 4 November 1865 at St James's Church, Piccadilly and when Samuel Baker was knighted she became Lady Florence Baker. The details of how they met was meant to be kept secret but the story circulated and this resulted in Queen Victoria deciding to exclude Baker from court.



Florence and Samuel White Baker as illustrated in a book of 1890
 

Africa again
In 1869 Samuel was invited by Isma'il Pasha, the Turkish Viceroy of Egypt, to return to Africa to help rid or reduce the trade in slaves around Gondokoro. Samuel was made Governor General of the Equatorial Nile. They both returned where they attempted to gain the upper hand. Florence served as the medic and when they were defeated at Bunyoro she was there carrying rifles and brandy in addition to two umbrellas and a pistol.

Not Africa
In 1873 she and her husband started living at their house, Sandford Orleigh, at Newton Abbot in Devon. General Gordon arrived in February 1883 and requested that Samuel should assist him in evacuating people from the besieged Khartoum during the Mahdist War in Egypt. Florence would be required on such a journey. Florence would not go back to Africa and her husband would not travel with out her. He died in 1893. Baker died in Devon nearly twenty years later, but they were buried together.

Legacy
The Bakers appears in a painting called "Samuel Baker (1821-93) and the Discovery of Lake Albert" by Severino Baraldi (it).

Together with Delia Akeley, Christina Dodwell, Mary Kingsley and Alexandrine Tinne, she was one of the five subjects chosen for a 1997 book on women explorers in Africa.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
The Bakers and the Nile
 
 
Samuel White Baker was a wealthy sportsman who had spent a roving lite, having no necessity to earn a regular living. He and his brother founded and for a time managed a farm in the highlands of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), a ploy which left them plenty of time for big game hunting. On their return to England Sam's wife died, leaving him temporarily at a loss with four little daughters to care for.

Entrusting the children to a sister, Baker left England and went off to the Balkans to hunt wild boar. Idly wandering one day into the market place at the Turkish garrison town of Vidin (in modern Bulgaria), he found an auction of slaves in progress. On impulse he bid for a beautiful girl who was one of a crowd of Hungarian refugees being put up for sale and was to become his wife Florence.
 
 


Sir Samuel Baker in hunting attire with trophies
of rhino and buffalo.

 
 
Search for the source
 
Together Sam and Florence went off to Africa to search for the source of the Nile. They started off up the Nile from Cairo in April 1861, disembarking at Korosko, where the river takes its great bend to the west, and here they mounted camels for an exhausting ride across the Nubian Desert. At Berber Baker made his plans to study what he called "the great drains of Abyssinia" - the Atbara, Setit (Tekeze), Royan, Salam, Angereb, Rahad, and Dinder rivers, and the Blue Nile itself, pouring down from the highlands to swell the yearly flood of the White Nile.

The Bakers made a pretty thorough survey of the rivers in these foothills of Ethiopia. They had learned Arabic and could converse with the local people, and they made several interesting visits to chiefs.

Exactly a year after they had set off from Berber, the Bakers arrived in Khartoum, ready to begin the real expedition up the main course of the White Nile. Their arrival at Gondokoro coincided with Speke's marching in from the south with Grant. Baker was disappointed to hear that Speke had "discovered" the source of the Nile in Lake Victoria. "Does not one leaf of the laurel remain for me?" he asked. Speke reassured him that, though he had virtually settled that Lake Victoria was the main source, there was another lake to the west which probably formed part of the Nile system.

With some instructions and a map from Speke and Grant, the Bakers set off across country to find this lake. The distance from Gondokoro to the northern end of Lake Albert is no more than 180 miles (290 kilometers) in a straight line, but due to various misfortunes and at the whim of their "guide," an ivory and slave trader, the Bakers were forced to travel a rather more circuitous route. Their porters mutinied, they were obliged to ride on oxen when the horses died, and they were afflicted by fever. Sam and Florence, however, made the best of things, making friends with the local people and even, on one protracted stay, planting vegetables to vary their diet.

Baker was one of the few African explorers who made jokes and could bring a comic scene to life. On one occasion he had himself carried toward a local encampment attired in a full dress Highland suit; on another he had a tweed suit ready so as to accentuate his likeness to Speke and so inspire confidence in the locals.
 
 
 
A goal attained
 
All difficulties at last overcome, they reached the lake on March 4, 1864. "The glory of our prize burst suddenly upon me!" wrote Baker. "There, like a sea of quicksilver, lay far beneath the grand expanse of water ... I felt too serious to vent my feelings in vain cheers for victory and I sincerely thanked God for having guided and supported us through all dangers to the good end ... I called this great lake 'the Albert Nyanza'."
To reach the lake they had crossed Speke's Nile west of its exit from Lake Victoria and had come to Lake Albert near the southern end. Owing to the mist which for most of the year hangs over the Ruwenzori Range, it seemed to Baker that a huge lake stretched far to the south, and he saw no mountains.
The Bakers skirted the eastern shore of the lake by boat and at the northern end found a river flowing into the lake, and almost immediately south out of it. The inflowing current they assumed (rightly) to be the Nile, which they had already crossed higher up on its way from east to west, but Florence insisted that they should make sure.
On their way upstream they were stopped by the great falls which Baker named Murchison - today a National

Park and a popular tourist resort. The Bakers then landed on the north bank and made their way back to Gondokoro, thence to Khartoum and Cairo, where they arrived in the summer of 1865. They left a stretch of the Nile between the two lakes unexplored and the dimensions of Lake Albert still in doubt.

 
 

Samuel Baker painted this picture of himself being chased by an elephant -one occasion
on which the hunter became the hunted.
 
 
The continuing dispute
 
Meanwhile, Speke and Grant sailed down the river with "Speke's Faithfuls," the 18 porters who had stood by them all the way from Zanzibar - some 4000 miles (6500 kilometers). Speke cabled home "The Nile is settled," and he and Grant returned to a hero's welcome in London. But the Nile was not settled. There were the inevitable gaps in Speke's account, and the fact that he had gone alone to the source told against him.
Burton was hostile as ever, and the row between the two men spread. In the interests of geographical truth Burton and Speke were invited to address the British Association for the Advancement of Science in September 1864. But on the appointed day Speke died in a shooting accident, news of which was brought to the hall where a large company was assembled to hear the two men discuss their differences. The gap in the program was hastily filled by a talk from Burton on the customs of Dahomey, and one from David Livingstone, who had just returned from his Zambezi Expedition. It was an obvious move to ask Britain's foremost African explorer to undertake a further expedition to locate the Nile source.
 
 
 
1861
 
 
 
Mrs. Beeton: "Book of Household Management"
 
 
Beeton Isabella
 

Isabella Mary Beeton (née Mayson) (12 March 1836 – 6 February 1865), universally known as Mrs Beeton, was the English author of Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management (first published in 1861), and is one of the best-known and posthumously best-selling cookery writers of the Victorian era.

 
Background
Isabella was born at 24 Milk Street, Cheapside, in London, England. Her father, Benjamin Mayson, died when she was four years old. In 1843, her mother, Elizabeth Jerram, married Henry Dorling, a widower with four children of his own. They lived in Epsom, Surrey, where Henry officiated as Clerk of Epsom Racecourse. Isabella was sent to school in Heidelberg, Germany for two years, where she became an accomplished pianist; afterwards she returned to Epsom. Including her four step-siblings, she had 20 siblings, a huge family even for the Victorian times. As the oldest, she honed her abilities in babysitting and in general household management, which gave her the experience and confidence to write her famous book.

Her nephew was Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) MP Sir Walter Smiles (MP from 1931 to 1953); her great-niece Patricia Ford, Lady Fisher, also served as a UUP MP (from 1953 to 1955).

 
 

Isabella Mary Beeton
  Marriage and career
Isabella's husband, Samuel Orchart Beeton, was also born in Milk Street. Even after the move to Epsom their two mothers had kept in touch. On a visit to London, Isabella was introduced to Samuel Beeton, who had become a publisher of books and popular magazines. When letters from Beeton to her future spouse were sold at auction in 1999 it was revealed that she signed them with the nickname "Fatty".
The Beetons were married on 10 July 1856 at St Martin's Parish Church, Epsom. In August of that year they moved into their first home, a large Italianate property at 2 Chandos Villas on the Woodridings Estate in Hatch End. Their first child, Samuel Orchart, was born in May 1857 but died of croup in August of that year. In September 1859, their second son, also named Samuel Orchart, was born. During her time in Hatch End Isabella began to write articles on cooking and household management for her husband's publications. In 1859–61, she wrote a monthly supplement to The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine. On 25 December 1861, the supplements were published as a single volume, The Book of Household Management, comprising information for the Mistress, Housekeeper, Cook, Kitchen-Maid, Butler, Footman, Coachman, Valet, Upper and Under House-Maids, Lady's-Maid, Maid-of-all-Work, Laundry-Maid, Nurse and Nurse-Maid, Monthly Wet and Sick Nurses, etc. etc.—also Sanitary, Medical, & Legal Memoranda: with a History of the Origin, Properties, and Uses of all Things Connected with Home Life and Comfort.
 
 
In 1861, Samuel Beeton founded The Queen, the Ladies' Newspaper, a weekly magazine for ladies, but not fashion-oriented at first. It focused on high society and detailed London social events. The articles covered occupations, literature, and other amusements suitable for proper ladies. In 1862, Beeton sold The Queen to William Cox.

The Beetons left Hatch End in the autumn of 1861.

In December of that year their son was taken ill with scarlet fever while on holiday in Brighton. He died on New Year's Eve. Mrs. Beeton gave birth to two other sons, Orchart (on New Year's Eve in 1863) and Mayson Moss (in January 1865). Orchart went on to lead a prosperous life in the army, and Mayson initially followed in his father's footsteps as a publisher and later as a journalist. In 1904, Mayson surveyed the Exploits River in the area of what is now Grand Falls Windsor in Newfoundland, to help set up a paper mill there. A new company was born called the Anglo Newfoundland Development Company, of which he became president. With talk of war, the mill was necessary to allow the paper supply to continue uninterrupted to supply newsprint for the Daily Mail, which held the world record for daily circulation.

Their home at Hatch End was destroyed by a German bomb during an air raid in September 1940; the site is now occupied by a parade of shops. However, they are still remembered by a plaque on the site of Chandos Villas and in the name of a nearby road, Beeton Close.

 
 
Book of Household Management
Popularly known as Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management, the book was a guide to running a Victorian household, with advice on fashion, child care, animal husbandry, poisons, the management of servants, science, religion, and industrialism. The book also highlights the importance of both animal welfare and the use of local and seasonal produce, long before such concerns became mainstream. Of the 1,112 pages, over 900 contained recipes, such that another popular name for the volume is Mrs Beeton's Cookbook. Most of the recipes were illustrated with coloured engravings, and it was the first book to show recipes in a format that is still used today. It is said that many of the recipes were actually plagiarised from earlier writers (including Eliza Acton), but the Beetons never claimed that the book's contents were original. It was intended as a guide of reliable information for the aspirant middle classes. Mrs Beeton is perhaps described better as its compiler and editor than as its author, many of the passages clearly being not her own words. Cookery writer Prue Leith has noted "if she'd cooked every recipe in her massive Household Management, it would have taken her 50 years. She only lived for 28."

Early death
The day after the birth of her fourth child, in January 1865, Isabella caught puerperal fever. She died a week later, aged 28. Her widower lived for another 12 years and died of tuberculosis in June 1877, aged 46. Both are buried at West Norwood Cemetery in south London. The original memorial became dilapidated, and her children replaced it with a simple, more modern headstone in the 1930s.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
Title page of The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine, September 1861
 
 
 
1861
 
 
Daily weather forecasts are begun in Britain
 
 

The first daily weather forecast, The Times, 1 Aug 1861
 
 
 
1861
 
 
Harden Maximilian
 
Maximilian Harden (born Felix Ernst Witkowski, he changed his name to Maximilian Harden) (20 October 1861 – 30 October 1927) was an influential German journalist and editor.
 

Maximilian Felix Ernst Harden
  Maximilian Felix Ernst Harden, original name Felix Ernst Witkowski (born Oct. 20, 1861, Berlin—died Oct. 30, 1927, Montana-Vermala, Valais, Switz.), political journalist, a spokesman for extreme German nationalism before and during World War I and a radical socialist after Germany’s defeat.

Initially an actor, Harden founded and edited the weekly Die Zukunft (1892–1923; “The Future”), which attained great influence by tasteless methods.

Calling war a “bracing educational experience,” Harden was enraged when Germany’s abortive challenge (1905–06) to French hegemony over nominally independent Morocco failed to result in war.

Using evidence supplied by the privy councillor, Friedrich von Holstein, he published (1906) accusations of homosexuality against several associates of the German emperor William II, alleging that those men somehow were responsible for the Emperor’s “weakness” in foreign policy.

These attacks led to his prosecution for libel (1907–09), in which he largely proved his statements to the disgrace of William’s closest friend, the diplomat Philipp zu Eulenburg und Hertefeld.

During World War I, Harden advocated unrestricted submarine warfare and the appointment of Adm. Alfred von Tirpitz as imperial chancellor.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1861
 
 
First horse-drawn trams in London
 
The first generation of trams in London started in 1860 when a horse tramway began operating along Victoria Street in Westminster. This first line was operated by a somewhat eccentric American, George Francis Train. Initially, there was strong opposition as, although it was popular with its passengers, the first designs had rails that stood proud of the road surface and created an obstruction for other traffic.

This came to a head in 1861 when Train was arrested for "breaking and injuring" the Uxbridge Road and his plans were put on hold.
 
 Eventually Parliament passed legislation permitting tram services, on the condition that the rails were recessed into the carriageway and that the tramways were shared with other road users. Costs of maintenance of the tramway and its immediately neighbouring road carriageway would be borne by the tram companies, thus benefiting the ratepayers, who had been bearing the full cost of highway repairs since the abolition of turnpikes. Fares were set at 1d per mile, with half-price early and late workmen's services. After a demonstration line was built at the Crystal Palace, the first lines authorised by the Act of Parliament in 1870 ran from:

- Blackheath to Vauxhall via Peckham and Camberwell
- Brixton joining the Camberwell line at Kennington
- Whitechapel to Bow
- Kensington to Oxford Street

 
 

A London Tramways horse tram, c 1890
 
 
The new tram companies all adopted the same standard gauge, with the intention of being able to link up services at later dates. Horse tram lines soon opened all over London, typically using two horses to pull a 60-person car. They proved popular as they were cheaper, smoother, roomier and safer than the competing Omnibus or Hackney carriages. Replacement by electric vehicles commenced in 1901; the last horse-drawn trams were withdrawn in 1915.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1861
 
 
Krupp Alfred  begins arms production in Essen, Germany
 
 
 
1861
 
 
Queen Victoria creates the Order of the Star of India
 
 
Order of the Star of India
 

The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1861.

 
The Order includes members of three classes:

Knight Grand Commander (GCSI)
Knight Commander (KCSI)
Companion (CSI)

No appointments have been made since the 1948 New Year Honours, shortly after the Partition of India in 1947.

With the death of the last surviving knight, the Maharaja of Alwar, the order became dormant in 2009.
The motto of the order is Heaven's light our guide.

The "Star of India", the emblem of the order, also appeared on the flag of the Viceroy of India and other flags used to represent British India.

The order is the senior order of chivalry associated with the Indian Empire (British Raj); the junior order is the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, and there was also, for women only the Imperial Order of the Crown of India.

It is the fifth-most-senior British order of chivalry, following the Most Noble Order of the Garter, the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, the Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick, and the Most Honourable Order of the Bath.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Insignia of a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India
 
 
     
 
Queen Victoria

Victorian Era
     
 
 
 
1861
 
 
U.S. introduces passport system
 
 
 
1861
 
 
Population figures (in millions): Russia, 76; U.S., 32; Great Britain, 23; Italy, 25

 

 
 
1861
 
 
Otis Elisha Graves
 

Elisha Graves Otis (August 3, 1811 – April 8, 1861) was an American industrialist, founder of the Otis Elevator Company, and inventor of a safety device that prevents elevators from falling if the hoisting cable fails. He worked on this device while living in Yonkers, New York in 1852, and had a finished product in 1854.

 

Elisha Graves Otis
  Biography
Otis was born in Halifax, Vermont to Stephen Otis, and Phoebe Glynn. He moved away from home at the age of 20, eventually settling in Troy, New York, where he lived for five years employed as a wagon driver. In 1834, he married Susan A. Houghton. They would have two children, Charles and Norton.
Later that year, Otis suffered a terrible case of pneumonia which nearly killed him, but he earned enough money to move his wife and three-year-old son to the Vermont Hills on the Green River. He designed and built his own gristmill, but did not earn enough money from it, so he converted it into a sawmill, yet still did not attract customers. Now having a second son, he started building wagons and carriages, at which he was fairly skilled. His wife later died, leaving Otis with two sons, one at that time being age 8 and the other still in diapers.

At 34 years old and hoping for a fresh start, he married and moved to Albany, New York. He worked as a doll maker for Otis Tingely. Skilled as a craftsman and tired of working all day to make only twelve toys, he invented and patented a robot turner. It could produce bedsteads four times as fast as could be done manually (about fifty a day). His boss gave him a $500 bonus. Otis then moved into his own business. At his leased building, he started designing a safety brake that could stop trains instantly and an automatic bread baking oven.
 
 
He was put out of business when the stream he was using for a power supply was diverted by the city of Albany to be used for its fresh water supply. In 1851, having no more use for Albany, he first moved to Bergen City, New Jersey to work as a mechanic, then to Yonkers, New York, as a manager of an abandoned sawmill which he was supposed to convert into a bedstead factory. At the age of 40, while he was cleaning up the factory, he wondered how he could get all the old debris up to the upper levels of the factory. He had heard of hoisting platforms, but they often broke, and he didn't want to take risks.
 
 
He and his sons, who were also tinkerers, designed their own "safety elevator" and tested it successfully.
He thought so little of it he neither patented it nor requested a bonus from his superiors for it, nor did he try to sell it. After having made several sales, and after the bedstead factory declined, Otis took the opportunity to make an elevator company out of it, initially called Union Elevator Works and later Otis Brothers & Co.. No orders came to him over the next several months, but soon after, the 1854 New York World's Fair offered a great chance at publicity.

At the New York Crystal Palace, Elisha Otis amazed a crowd when he ordered the only rope holding the platform on which he was standing cut. The rope was severed by an axeman, and the platform fell only a few inches before coming to a halt. After the World's Fair, Otis received continuous orders, doubling each year. He developed different types of engines, like a three-way steam valve engine, which could transition the elevator between up to down and stop it rapidly.
 
Otis free-fall safety demonstration in 1854.
 
 

In his spare time, he designed and experimented with his old designs of bread-baking ovens and train brakes, and patented a steam plow in 1857, a rotary oven in 1858, and, with Charles, the oscillating steam engine in 1860. Otis contracted diphtheria and died on April 8, 1861 at age 49.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
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