Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

Loading
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
     
     
 
1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1857 Part IV NEXT-1858 Part II    
 
 
     
1850 - 1859
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850-1859
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part I
Compromise of 1850
Constitution of Prussia
The eight Kaffir War, 1850-1853
Masaryk Tomas
Kitchener Horatio Herbert
Erfurt Union
Fillmore Millard
California
Taiping Rebellion
Hong Xiuquan
Feng Yunshan
Yang Xiuqing
Shi Dakai
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part II
Protestant churches in Prussia
Public Libraries Act 1850
Schopenhauer: "Parerga und Paralipomena"
Herbert Spencer: "Social Statics"
E. B. Browning: "Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Emerson: "Representative Men"
Hawthorne: "The Scarlet Letter"
Herzen Aleksandr
Ibsen: "Catiline"
Loti Pierre
Maupassant Guy
Guy de Maupassant
"Bel-Ami"
Stevenson Robert Louis
Robert Louis Stevenson  
"Treasure Island
"
Turgenev: "A Month in the Country"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part III
Corot: "Une Matinee"
Courbet: "The Stone Breakers"
Menzel: "Round Table at Sansouci"
Millais: "Christ in the House of His Parents"
Millet: "The Sower"
Bristow George Frederick
George Frederick Bristow - Dream Land
George Frederick Bristow
Schumann: "Genoveva"
Wagner: "Lohengrin"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part IV
Bernard Claude
Clausius Rudolf
Stephenson Robert
Chebyshev Pafnuty Lvovich
Barth Heinrich
Galton Francis
Anderson Karl John
McClure Robert
McClure Arctic Expedition
Royal Meteorological Society
University of Sydney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1851 Part I
Victoria, state of Australia
Murdock Joseph Ballard
Machado Bernardino
Bourgeois Leon Victor Auguste
Foch Ferdinand
Bombardment of Sale
French coup d'état
Danilo II
Hawthorne: "The House of Seven Gables"
Gottfried Keller: "Der grune Heinrich"
Ward Humphry
Ruskin: "The Stones of Venice"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1851 Part II
Herman Melville: "Moby Dick"
Corot: "La Danse des Nymphes"
Walter Thomas Ustick
Ward Leslie
Crystal Palace
Falero Luis Ricardo
Luis Ricardo Falero
Kroyer Peder
Peder Kroyer
Hughes Edward Robert
Edward Robert Hughes
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1851 Part III
Gounod: "Sappho"
D’Indy Vincent
Vincent D'Indy - Medee
Vincent d'Indy
Verdi: "Rigoletto"
Bogardus James
Cast-iron architecture
Kapteyn Jacobus Cornelius
Helmholtz's ophthalmoscope
Neumann Franz Ernst
Ruhmkorff Heinrich Daniel
Singer Isaac Merrit
Cubitt William
Thomson William
Royal School of Mines
Carpenter Mary
"The New York Times"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1852 Part I
Joffre Joseph
Transvaal
Second French Empire
Second Anglo-Burmese War
New Zealand Constitution Act
Asquith Herbert Henry
Pierce Franklin
Delisle Leopold Victor
Fischer Kuno
First Plenary Council of Baltimore
Vaihinger Hans
Gioberti Vincenzo
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1852 Part II
Bourget Paul
Creasy Edward
Creasy: "The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo"
Charles Dickens: "Bleak House"
Theophile Gautier: "Emaux et Camees"
Moore George
Reade Charles
Harriet Beecher Stowe: "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Thackeray: "History of Henry Esmond"
Turgenev: "A Sportsman's Sketches"
Zhukovsky Vasily
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1852 Part III
Fopd Madox Brown: "Christ Washing Peter's Feet"
William Holman Hunt: "The Light of the World"
John Everett Millais: "Ophelia"
Bryullov Karl
Karl Bryullov
Stanford Charles
Charles Villiers Stanford - Piano Concerto No.2
Charles Stanford
Becquerel Henri
Gerhardt Charles Frederic
Van’t Hoff Jacobus Henricus
Mathijsen Antonius
Michelson Albert
Ramsay William
Sylvester James Joseph
United All-England Eleven
Wells Fargo & Company
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1853 Part I
Eugenie de Montijo
Crimean War
Battle of Sinop
Rhodes Cecil
Peter V
Nagpur Province
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1853 Part II
Mommsen: "History of Rome"
Matthew Arnold: "The Scholar-Gipsy"
Charlotte Bronte: "Villette"
Caine Hall
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Ruth"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Tanglewood Tales"
Charles Kingsley: "Hypatia"
Tree Herbert Beerbohm
Charlotte M. Yonge: "The Heir of Redclyffe"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1853 Part III
Haussmann Georges-Eugene
Larsson Carl
Carl Larsson
Hodler Ferdinand
Ferdinand Hodler
Van Gogh Vincent
Vincent van Gogh
Steinway Henry Engelhard
Verdi: "Il Trovatore"
Verdi: "La Traviata"
Wood Alexander
"Die Gartenlaube"
International Statistical Congress
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part I
Bloemfontein Convention
Orange Free State
Battle of the Alma
Menshikov Alexander Sergeyevich
Siege of Sevastopol (1854-1855)
Kornilov Vladimir Alexeyevich
Battle of Balaclava
Battle of Inkerman
Perry Matthew Calbraith
Gadsden Purchase
Bleeding Kansas (1854–59)
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Elgin-Marcy Treaty
Republican Party
Said of Egypt
Ostend Manifesto
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part II
Herzog Johann
Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau
Youthful Offenders Act 1854
Immaculate Conception
Patmore Coventry
Patmore: "The Angel in the House"
Sandeau Leonard
Guerrazzi Francesco Domenico
Rimbaud Arthur
Arthur Rimbaud "Poems"
Tennyson: "The Charge of the Light Brigade"
Thackeray: "The Rose and the Ring"
Thoreau: "Walden, or Life in the Woods"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part III
Courbet: "Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet"
Frith William Powell
William Frith
Millet: "The Reaper"
Angrand Charles
Charles Angrand
Gotch Thomas Cooper
Thomas Cooper Gotch
Berlioz: "The Infant Christ"
Humperdinck Engelbert
Humperdinck - Hansel und Gretel
Liszt: "Les Preludes"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part IV
Poincare Henri
Eastman George
Ehrenberg Christian Gottfried
Paul Ehrlich
Laryngoscopy
Goebel Henry
George Boole: "The Laws of Thought"
Riemann Bernhard
Wallace Alfred Russel
Southeast Asia
"Le Figaro"
Litfass Ernst
Northcote–Trevelyan Report
Maurice Frederick Denison
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1855 Part I
Alexander II
Istomin Vladimir Ivanovich
Somerset FitzRoy
Nakhimov Pavel Stepanovich
Treaty of Peshawar
Bain Alexander
Droysen Johann
Gratry Auguste
Milman Henry
Le Play Pierre
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1855 Part II
Charles Kingsley: "Westward Ho!"
Nerval Gerard
Charles Dickens "Little Dorrit"
Ganghofer Ludwig
Longfellow: "The Song of Hiawatha"
Corelli Marie
Pinero Arthur Wing
Tennyson: "Maud"
Anthony Trollope: "The Warden"
Turgenev: "Rudin"
Walt Whitman: "Leaves of Grass"
Berlioz: "Те Deum"
Verdi: "Les Vepres Siciliennes"
Chansson Ernest
Chausson - Poeme
Ernest Chausson
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1855 Part III
Rayon
Hughes David Edward
Lowell Percival
Cunard Line
"The Daily Telegraph"
Niagara Falls suspension bridge
Paris World Fair
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part I
Victoria Cross
Doctrine of Lapse
Oudh State
Ottoman Reform Edict of 1856
Congress of Paris
Treaty of Paris (1856)
Napoleon, Prince Imperial
Sacking of Lawrence
Pottawatomie massacre
Second Opium War (1856-1860)
Anglo–Persian War (1856-1857)
Buchanan James
Tasmania
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part II
Froude: "History of England"
Goldstucker Theodor
Lotze Rudolf Hermann
Motley: "Rise of the Dutch Republic"
Flaubert: "Madame Bovary"
Haggard Henry Rider
Victor Hugo: "Les Contemplations"
Charles Reade: "It Is Never Too Late to Mend"
Shaw George Bernard
Wilde Oscar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part III
Berlage Hendrik Petrus
Ferstel Heinrich
Sargent John
John Singer Sargent
Vrubel Mikhail
Mikhail Vrubel
Cross Henri Edmond
Henri-Edmond Cross
Bechstein Carl
Dargomyzhsky Alexander
Alexander Dargomyzhsky: "Rusalka"
Alexander Dargomyzhsky
Maillart Aime
Aime Maillart - Les Dragons de Villars
Sinding Christian
Sinding - Suite in A minor
Christian Sinding
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part IV
Bessemer Henry
Bessemer process
Freud Sigmund
Sigmund Freud
Peary Robert Edwin
Mauveine
Pringsheim Nathanael
Siemens Charles William
Hardie James Keir
Taylor Frederick Winslow
"Big Ben"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part I
Treaty of Paris
Indian Rebellion of 1857
Italian National Society
Manin Daniele
Taft William Howard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part II
Buckle Henry Thomas
Buckle: "History of Civilization in England"
Charles Baudelaire: "Les Fleurs du mal"
Conrad Joseph
Joseph Conrad 
"Lord Jim"
George Eliot: "Scenes from Clerical Life"
Hughes Thomas
Thomas Hughes: "Tom Brown's Schooldays"
Mulock Dinah
 Pontoppidan Henrik
Adalbert Stifter: "Nachsommer"
Sudermann Hermann
Thackeray: "The Virginians"
Anthony Trollope: "Barchester Towers"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part III
Klinger Max
Max Klinger
Millet: "The Gleaners"
Dahl Johan Christian
Johan Christian Dahl
Leoncavallo Ruggero
Ruggero Leoncavallo - Pagliacci
Ruggero Leoncavallo 
Elgar Edward
Edward Elgar - The Light of Life
Edward Elgar
Kienzl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Kienzl - Symphonic Variations
Wilhelm Kienzl
Liszt: "Eine Faust-Symphonie"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part IV
Coue Emile
Hertz Heinrich
Wagner-Jauregg Julius
Ross Ronald
Newton Charles Thomas
Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Burton Richard
Speke John Hanning
The Nile Quest
McClintock Francis
Alpine Club
"The Atlantic Monthly"
Baden-Powell Robert
Matrimonial Causes Act
North German Lloyd
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part I
Orsini Felice
Stanley Edward
Minnesota
Treaty of Tientsin
Government of India Act 1858
Law Bonar
William I
Karageorgevich Alexander
Roosevelt Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part II
Bernadette Soubirous
Carey Henry Charles
Thomas Carlyle: "History of Friedrich II of Prussia"
Hecker Isaac
Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle
Rothschild Lionel Nathan
Schaff Philip
Benson Frank
Feuillet Octave
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table"
Kainz Joseph
Lagerlof Selma
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part III
Corinth Lovis
Lovis Corinth
William Powell Frith: "The Derby Day"
Menzel: "Bon soir, Messieurs"
Segantini Giovanni
Giovanni Segantini
Khnopff Fernand
Fernand Khnopff
Toorop Jan
Cornelius Peter
Cornelius: "Der Barbier von Bagdad"
Jaques Offenbach: "Orpheus in der Unterwelt"
Puccini Giacomo
Giacomo Puccini: Donna non vidi mai
Giacomo Puccini
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part IV
Diesel Rudolf
Huxley Thomas Henry
Planck Max
Mirror galvanometer
General Medical Council
Suez Canal Company
S.S. "Great Eastern"
Webb Beatrice
Webb Sidney
Transatlantic telegraph cable
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part I
Second Italian War of Independence
Battle of Varese
Battle of Palestro
Battle of Magenta
Battle of Solferino
Oregon
Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies
Francis II of the Two Sicilies
Charles XV of Sweden
German National Association
Jaures Jean
Roon Albrecht
William II
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part II
Bergson Henri
Henri Bergson
Bergson Henri "Creative Evolution"
Charles Darwin: "On the Origin of Species"
Dewey John
Husserl Edmund
Karl Marx: "Critique of Political Economy"
John Stuart Mill: "Essay on Liberty"
Tischendorf Konstantin
Codex Sinaiticus
Villari Pasquale
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part III
Dickens: "A Tale of Two Cities"
Doyle Arthur Conan
Arthur Conan Doyle  
"SHERLOCK HOLMES"
Duse Eleonora
George Eliot: "Adam Bede"
Edward Fitzgerald: "Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam"
Ivan Goncharov: "Oblomov"
Hamsun Knut
Heidenstam Verner
Housman Alfred Edward
A.E. Housman 
"A Shropshire Lad", "Last Poems"
Victor Hugo: "La Legende des siecles"
Jerome K. Jerome
Tennyson: "Idylls of the King"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part IV
Corot: "Macbeth"
Gilbert Cass
Millet: "The Angelus"
Hassam Childe
Childe Hassam 
Seurat Georges
Georges Seurat
Whistler: "At the Piano"
Daniel Decatur Emmett: "Dixie"
Gounod: "Faust"
Verdi: "Un Ballo in Maschera"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part V
Arrhenius Svante
Kirchhoff Gustav
Curie Pierre
Drake Edwin
Drake Well
Plante Gaston
Lead–acid battery
Smith Henry John Stephen
Brunel Isambard Kingdom
Blondin Charles
Lansbury George
Samuel Smiles: "Self-Help"
 
 
 

Assassination attempt on Louis Napoleon, 14 January 1858
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1858 Part I
 
 
 
1858
 
 
Felice Orsini's attempt to assassinate Napoleon III
 
 
Orsini Felice
 

Felice Orsini (10 December 1819 – 13 March 1858) was an Italian revolutionary and leader of the Carbonari who tried to assassinate Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.

 
Early life
Felice Orsini was born at Meldola in Romagna, then part of the Papal States.

His biographer, the Englishman Michael St. John Packe, describes him:

According to the prosecutors in his trial, Felice Orsini was born a conspirator. Whether that can be believed or not, quite certainly his mother had no notion of it. She was a gentle, cultivated girl of twenty, Florentine, graceful, kind and true. She suckled him and crooned at him in the usual manner. She treated him as, a year or so before, she had treated his elder sister Rosina, as she would likewise treat, in three years’ time, his younger brother, Leonidas, all with the best results. She did not realize that his infant thoughts were of a repressed and furtive trend; that when he waved his wooden spoon and gurgled, he was marshalling secret armies in craggy places, or that his wondering unfathomable eyes, jet black and shining, screened from her view a world of incipient revolution, wherein already he was blowing up Emperors and dethroning Popes. Yet such, maintained the prosecution, was the case.

Orsini was encouraged to become a priest, but he abandoned that lifestyle and became an ardent liberal, joining the Giovane Italia, a society founded by Giuseppe Mazzini.

 
 

Felice Orsini
  Arrest and revolutionary activities
Orsini was arrested in 1844 along with his father, implicated in revolutionary plots and condemned to imprisonment for life. The new pope, Pius IX set him free, and he led a company of young Romagnols in the First War of Italian Independence in 1848, distinguishing himself in the engagements at Treviso and Vicenza.

Orsini was elected member of the Roman Constituent Assembly in 1849, and after the fall of the revolutionary republic in Rome he conspired against the papal autocracy in the interest of the Mazzinian party. Mazzini sent him on a secret mission to Hungary, but he was arrested in 1854 and imprisoned at Mantua. He escaped a few months later using a tiny saw to cut through two grids of bars, climbed out of the window 100 feet above ground and slid down using a rope he had made of bedsheets. Passing as a sympathetic peasant, he managed to get past the Austrian guards.

In 1856, he briefly visited Great Britain and received a favorable welcome. The daily news had published the first English translation of his tale of escape. He published The Memoirs and Adventures of Felice Orsini in 1856. In 1857, he also published an account of his prison experiences in English under the title of The Austrian Dungeons in Italy, which led to a rupture between him and Mazzini. Then he began to negotiate with Ausonio Franchi, editor of the Ragione of Turin, which he proposed to make the organ of pure republicans.

 
 
Orsini became convinced that Napoleon III was the chief obstacle to Italian independence and the principal cause of the anti-liberal reaction throughout Europe. He plotted his assassination with the logic that after the emperor's death, France would rise in revolt and the Italians could exploit the situation to revolt themselves. He went to Paris in 1857 to conspire against the emperor.

At the end of 1857, Orsini briefly visited England, where he contacted gunsmith Joseph Taylor and asked him to make six copies of a bomb of Orsini's own design; it would explode on impact and used fulminate of mercury as an explosive. The bomb was tested in Sheffield and Devonshire with the aid of French radical Simon Bernard. Satisfied, Orsini returned to Paris with the bombs and contacted other conspirators, Giuseppe Pieri, Antonio Gomez and Carlo di Rudio (later changed to Charles DeRudio).

 
 

Assassination attempt on Louis Napoleon, 14 January 1858
 
 
Assassination attempt on Louis Napoleon
On the evening of 14 January 1858, as the Emperor and Empress were on their way to the theatre in the Rue Le Peletier, the precursor of the Opera Garnier, to see Rossini's William Tell, Orsini and his accomplices threw three bombs at the imperial carriage. The first bomb landed among the horsemen in front of the carriage. The second bomb wounded the animals and smashed the carriage glass. The third bomb landed under the carriage and seriously wounded a policeman who was hurrying to protect the occupants. Eight people were killed and 142 wounded, though the emperor and empress were unhurt. Napoleon, the first modern European politician, realized that he and Eugénie de Montijo had to proceed to the performance and appear in their box.

Orsini himself was wounded on the right temple and stunned. He tended his wounds and returned to his lodgings, where police found him the next day.

The attempted assassination actually increased Napoleon III's popularity. Because the bombs had been made and tested in England, it caused a brief anti-British furor in France because of suspicion of British involvement. The Emperor refused to escalate the situation and the indignation eventually died down.

 
 

Assassination attempt on Louis Napoleon, 14 January 1858
 
 
Letter to Napoleon III
On 11 February Orsini wrote his famous letter to Napoleon, in which he exhorted him to take up the cause of Italian independence — a cause Napoleon III had already supported in his youth. Modern historians have even suspected that Napoleon wrote some of the letter himself. He addressed another letter to the youth of Italy and condemned political assassination.
 
 

Assassination attempt on Louis Napoleon, 14 January 1858
 
 
Judgment
Orsini was sentenced to death and went calmly to the guillotine on 13 March 1858. His accomplices were also sentenced; Pieri was executed and Gomez was condemned to hard labour for life. Di Rudio was sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment on Devil's Island, from where he escaped and later went to America; he became an officer in the United States Army, was appointed to the U.S. 7th Cavalry, and participated in — and survived — the 1876 Battle of the Little Big Horn.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1858
 
 
Lord Derby (Conservative) becomes Britain Prime Minister
 
 
Stanley Edward
 

Edward Stanley, 14th earl of Derby, (born March 29, 1799, Knowsley Park, Lancashire, England—died October 23, 1869, London), English statesman, important as leader of the Conservative Party during the long period 1846–68, thrice prime minister, and one of England’s greatest parliamentary orators; nevertheless, he has no great political reputation.

 

Edward Stanley
  Entering Parliament as a Whig in 1820, Derby held office under Viscount Goderich (1827–28) and became chief secretary for Ireland under Lord Grey in 1830, joining the Cabinet in 1831.

In 1834 he resigned over the Irish Church question, but he served under Sir Robert Peel (1841) only to resign again (1845) over the repeal of the Corn Laws. He succeeded to the earldom in 1851 and was premier in 1852, 1858, and 1866; among his legislation were the removal of Jewish discrimination in Parliament membership, the transfer of India’s administration from the East India Company to the crown, and the Reform Bill of 1867.

Derby disliked the drudgery of office and as Conservative leader seemed weak and indolent beside Benjamin Disraeli, who nonetheless admitted, “He abolished slavery, he educated Ireland, he reformed parliament.” Derby is chiefly remembered as epitomizing the aristocratic amateur; he excelled in whatever he did: as a racehorse owner, as a benevolent if autocratic landowner, and as a scholar who won the chancellor’s Latin verse prize at Oxford and published a blank verse translation of the Iliad (1864). He nurtured the Conservatives and helped the protectionists survive difficult years while he educated them to accept Disraeli as his successor and to prepare for electoral victory.

 
 
Though a somewhat neglected figure, Derby was a founder of modern Conservatism in Britain and a key figure linking the old and the new ruling classes.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Edward Stanley Prime Minister of the United Kingdom:

23 February 1852 – 19 December 1852
20 February 1858 – 11 June 1859
28 June 1866 – 27 February 1868

 
 
 
1858
 
 
Minnesota becomes a state of the U.S.
 
 
Minnesota
 

Minnesota, constituent state of the United States of America. It became the 32nd state of the union on May 11, 1858. A small extension of the northern boundary makes Minnesota the most northerly of the 48 conterminous U.S. states. (This peculiar protrusion is the result of a boundary agreement with Great Britain before the area had been carefully surveyed.) Minnesota is one of the north-central states. It is bounded by the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Ontario to the north, by Lake Superior and the state of Wisconsin to the east, and by the states of Iowa to the south and South Dakota and North Dakota to the west.

 
Minnesota’s thousands of rivers flow northward via the Red and Rainy rivers to Hudson Bay, eastward through the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean, and southward through the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. Indeed, Minnesota received its name from the Dakota (Sioux) word for the Mississippi’s major tributary in the state, the Minnesota River, which means “Sky-Tinted Water.”

Minnesota consists of extensive woodlands, fertile prairies, and innumerable lakes—the last the basis for one of the state’s nicknames, “Land of 10,000 Lakes.” Minnesota actually has about 12,000 lakes, all of which are larger than 10 acres (4 hectares) in area. The nearly 5,000 square miles (13,000 square km) of inland fresh water are a dominant feature in Minnesota. Its climate is continental, with cold winters and warm summers. About one in four Minnesotans is at least partly of Scandinavian origin, but those of German descent constitute the single largest ethnic group in the state. By the end of the 20th century, services had become the dominant activity of Minnesota’s economy, surpassing farming, mining, and manufacturing, which had been the major sources of income for the state since settlement. St. Paul is the state capital, and the Twin Cities region (Minneapolis–St. Paul) is the major administrative, economic, and cultural hub of Minnesota. Area 86,935 square miles (225,161 square km). Population (2010) 5,303,925; (2014 est.) 5,457,173.

 
 

The Siege of New Ulm, Minnesota, painting by Henry August Schwabe, c. 1902.
The siege occurred during the 1862 Sioux Uprising.
 
 
History
Early history

Until the middle of the 19th century, two major peoples occupied what is now Minnesota: the Ojibwa (also called Chippewa or Anishinaabe) in the north and east and the Dakota (Sioux) in the south and west. Between the time of European exploration and statehood, the Ojibwa occupied the forested areas of the state and pushed the Dakota southward and southwestward onto the prairie. Native Americans from as far away as the Appalachians and the Rocky Mountains met in a sacred place in southwestern Minnesota to quarry a hard red rock that was used for making peace pipes; today this area is preserved as the Pipestone National Monument.
 
 
European settlement
Some claim that Norsemen may have explored the area in the 14th century, citing a slab of sandstone inscribed with medieval Germanic script that was unearthed on a farm near Kensington, in west-central Minnesota, in 1898. (The Kensington Stone is now in a museum in Alexandria, Minn.) But the first European presence verified in what is present-day Minnesota is in the 17th century, when French explorers came searching for the Northwest Passage.

The first settlement was made where the French fur traders, known as voyageurs, had to leave Lake Superior to make a 9-mile (14-km) portage around the falls and rapids of the Pigeon River (at the present-day northeastern boundary of the state). Before the American Revolution (1775–83), this outpost, known as Grand Portage, was the hub of an enormous commercial empire stretching 3,000 miles (4,800 km) from Montreal to Canada’s northwestern wilderness.
It was the inland headquarters of the North West Company, which trapped beaver and marketed their pelts, and was also the meeting place each July and August for fur buyers and sellers.

Grand Portage became U.S. territory after the Revolution but did not pass into American hands until 1803, when the North West Company moved 30 miles (48 km) up the Lake Superior shore to Fort William (now Thunder Bay, Ont.). (Today Grand Portage is a national monument, and part of the fur traders’ route east of International Falls has been preserved as Voyageurs National Park.)
 
 
 
The first permanent U.S. settlement was at Fort Snelling, a military outpost established in 1819 overlooking the junction of the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers; the site has been restored as a state park.

Immigration into the region was slow during the first half of the 19th century, but, once the value of the vast forestlands of northern and central Minnesota was realized, lumberers from New England led a large wave of permanent settlers.
 
 

Settlers escaping the Dakota War of 1862
 
 
Territory and statehood
The area of Minnesota northeast of the Mississippi River was part of the original Northwest Territory, which came under the jurisdiction of the Ordinance of 1787; the section of the state that lies southwest of the Mississippi was part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The northwestern portion of the present-day state was granted to the United States in 1818 as part of an Anglo-American convention that set the northern boundary of the U.S. territories at the 49th parallel, thus defining the U.S.-Canadian border. Minnesota became a U.S. territory in 1849; its boundaries at that time reached as far west as the upper Missouri River, but most of its 4,000 settlers were located in the Fort Snelling–St. Paul area, in the eastern part of the territory. The lumber industry developed rapidly, and major sawmills were soon built at Stillwater, on the St. Croix River, and at the Falls of St. Anthony, in the village of St. Anthony on the east side of the Mississippi River. In 1849 settlers had begun occupying land on the west side of the river; this area was incorporated as the village of Minneapolis in 1856. These two villages were merged in 1872, and St. Anthony was absorbed into the larger and more aggressive city of Minneapolis.

Ties with Canada were important during the early settlement period. In 1811 a colony had been established in the lower Red River valley, near modern-day Winnipeg, Man. As there was little effort to mark and enforce the international boundary, goods and people passed unhindered between the two countries. Immigrant groups that entered Minnesota via this route were Canadians and New Englanders of English, Scottish, Scotch-Irish, and French extraction. Because it was much easier to supply this area from Minnesota than it was from eastern Canada, supplies were shipped from St. Paul via St. Anthony to Fort Garry and other Red River valley settlements. As a result of this lucrative trade, people from both sides of the border sought U.S. annexation of northern and western Canada, then known as Rupert’s Land. This notion received little support in the U.S. Congress, however, mainly because residents of Southern states were concerned with maintaining a geographic balance. Moreover, any Canadian desire to defect to the United States was effectively undercut by the British North America Act of 1867, which brought about the formation of the Dominion of Canada, giving Canada self-governing authority. The efforts of Minnesota expansionists ended in 1870, when Canada established the province of Manitoba and sent troops to Winnipeg.

When Minnesota became a U.S. state in 1858, its boundaries were cut back from the Missouri River eastward to the Red River. In 1861 Minnesota was the first Northern state to send volunteers to serve in the American Civil War. Meanwhile, a Dakota revolt, which became known as the Sioux Uprising of 1862, one of the bloodiest Indian wars in the country’s history, was occurring in Minnesota.

  The Dakota, who had not been driven from the state during European settlement, were confined to small reservations. The federal government had forced the sale of some of these lands, reversing earlier treaty agreements. Driven to desperation by crop failures and starvation, the Sioux attacked isolated farmsteads. In only a few weeks, more than 500 civilians, soldiers, and Dakota were killed. Also in 1862 the state’s first railroad, connecting Minneapolis and St. Paul, was completed.

Commercial iron ore production began in Minnesota in 1884 at Soudan, on the Vermilion Range. After the huge iron reserves of the Mesabi Range were discovered at Mountain Iron in 1890, large-scale production began, and the population along the Mesabi Range and in the Lake Superior port cities of Duluth and Superior, Wis., grew rapidly during the next two decades. The state’s deposits of high-grade iron ore were virtually depleted by the late 1950s. To encourage the mining of taconite, a low-grade ore that was plentiful in the state but previously viewed as “waste rock,” the Minnesota legislature enacted a taconite production tax in 1941 that would tax miners on the amount of ore that was produced from the low-grade deposits. (The taconite tax was in lieu of the high property and ad valorem taxes, which were in place then for the extraction of iron ore.) Later, in 1964, a constitutional amendment was passed that guaranteed the taconite industry a tax-free period of 25 years. The opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959 connected the port of Duluth to the Atlantic Ocean, allowing the shipment of iron ore, coal, and grain to other parts of the country and to Canada. In 1984 the last shipment of high-grade iron ore was dispatched from the Mesabi Range, and the preeminence of taconite mining was unquestionable.

Most of the valuable pine, balsam, and spruce in central and northeastern Minnesota had been cut before 1900, after which time the lumbering industry declined rapidly. Wood products remained important in northern and northeastern Minnesota, however.

After World War I Minnesota, like other states, experienced drought and a rural depression. The growing mechanization of agriculture resulted in the loss of farm jobs, and, as a result, rural populations in the state declined after 1920. Moreover, an influenza epidemic killed more than 10,000 Minnesotans from 1918 to 1920.

During this time a new political party, the Farmer–Labour Party, was formed to represent the common cause of farmers battling plummeting crop prices and facing foreclosure and of urban workers who were denied fair wages and the right to organize; it became one of the largest political parties in the state. The Democratic and Farmer–Labour parties merged to form the Democratic–Farmer–Labour (DFL) Party in 1944. Among the party’s influential liberal leaders were Hubert H. Humphrey, Eugene J. McCarthy, and Walter F. Mondale, all of whom went on to serve in the U.S. Senate.

Neil C. Gustafson

 
 

Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota.
 
 
Since the 1940s Minnesota has been a leader in the advocacy of civil rights and the prevention of racial discrimination. During Humphrey’s term as mayor of Minneapolis, he established a local human relations council and passed fair employment legislation. Indeed, Humphrey gave an impassioned plea at the 1948 Democratic National Convention in favour of a civil rights plank in the party’s platform—he implored that “the time has arrived in America for the Democratic Party to get out of the shadow of states’ rights and walk forthrightly into the bright sunshine of human rights”—the successful adoption of which prompted some Southern Democrats to leave the party and form the Dixiecrats. Moreover, the American Indian Movement was founded in Minneapolis in 1968 to protect the rights of Native Americans.

By the mid-20th century, Minnesotans increasingly sought employment opportunities in urban centres, particularly the Twin Cities. The parochial rivalry between St. Paul and Minneapolis had mellowed, as the economic times no longer fueled competition (though in the early 21st century, the cities remained culturally distinctive). Although the growth of the Twin Cities mirrored the urbanization trend of the United States as a whole, the cities—and the rest of Minnesota—remained culturally, economically, and politically separate from the rest of the country well into the 1960s. Indeed, throughout much of the 20th century, Minnesota was seen by outsiders as unusually liberal on economic matters yet culturally conservative, with the traditional sentiments of its dominant populations (mainly European Americans) holding sway.

  Few domestic labourers were attracted to Minnesota. Migrants from the South, for example, found employment opportunities in St. Louis, Cincinnati, Chicago, or Detroit before reaching the Twin Cities area. The same was true for immigrants, for whom Minnesota seemed about as remote a destination as one could locate on the map of North America.

After 1970, however, Minnesota became more tightly linked with the rest of the country. National and international investment in prominent local companies became common. Business and political leadership, once entirely homegrown, expanded. Local populations, once almost exclusively descended from settlement waves of the 19th century, came to include increasing numbers of Hispanics (mainly from Mexico and Texas) and African Americans (from the South and from Midwestern Rust Belt cities), as well as Southeast Asian and African immigrants.

By the early 21st century the Twin Cities were vastly outpopulated by their suburbs, which continued to expand with new residential areas, retail strip malls, and big-box retail stores. The approach to the environment, however, shifted from one of exploitation to more skillful management of Minnesota’s natural resources. The state’s remaining wilderness areas (including the large Boundary Waters Canoe Area in northeastern Minnesota) came under government protection. With their tradition of political activism, Minnesotans continued to influence those living conditions that they could and to adapt creatively to those they could not.

John S. Adams

 
 

Minnesota State Capitol, St. Paul.
 
 
The state drew national attention in 2008–09 when the results of the November 4, 2008, election for a U.S. Senate seat were disputed. The initial count showed that the incumbent Republican senator Norm Coleman had defeated DFL candidate Al Franken by just 215 votes. The narrow differential prompted a mandatory recount, by which it was determined in January 2009 that Franken had actually won the race by 225 votes. Coleman challenged the recount in a lawsuit, but in April the three-judge panel that heard the case declared Franken the winner. The panel also stipulated that a number of previously rejected ballots should be counted; those ballots gave Franken a victory margin of 312 votes. Coleman then appealed to the Minnesota Supreme Court. Meanwhile, because Coleman’s term had expired in January, the Senate seat remained vacant. In June 2009 the Minnesota Supreme Court ruled unanimously that Franken had won the race, and Coleman conceded.

Minnesota was again the centre of attention in 2011, when the Republican-led legislature and the DFL governor were unable to agree on how to tackle deficits in the state’s budget for the next year. The standoff led to the start of the new fiscal year without a budget in place, and, as a result, state government operations were largely shut down on July 1. Most state offices were closed, as were state-operated recreation areas, and state projects, such as road construction and other infrastructure repair, were halted. Services considered to be essential, such as those in the areas of law enforcement, health, and education, continued.

  A compromise was eventually reached, and on July 20 the shutdown ended when legislators passed the necessary budget bills, which the governor then signed. The shutdown earned the distinction of being the longest in Minnesota’s history and the longest state-government shutdown of the past decade in the country.

The nationwide debate over same-sex marriage came to the fore in Minnesota in the 2010s, with much of the state’s politically active population lining up on opposite sides of the issue. Minnesota already had legal measures in place that banned same-sex marriage, but in 2011 the Republican-led legislature attempted to strengthen the ban by voting to hold a referendum on a proposed state constitutional amendment that would define marriage as being between one man and one woman; this stirred up an emotional debate and galvanized supporters on both sides of the issue.

The proposed amendment was put to referendum in November 2012 and was defeated by the voters, 52 percent to 47 percent. Buoyed by their momentum, those who opposed the amendment now turned their attention toward actively campaigning for the legalization of same-sex marriage. In May 2013 Minnesota’s legislature—now led by the DFL—passed a bill legalizing same-sex marriage. It was then signed into law by the governor and was scheduled to take effect in August.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Skyline of Minneapolis, Minn., with the Mississippi River in the foreground.
 
 
     
 



World Countries



United States of America
     
 
 
 
1858
 
 
Treaty of Tientsin
 

Several documents known as the "Treaty of Tien-tsin" were signed in Tianjin (Tientsin) in June 1858, ending the first part of the Second Opium War (1856–1860). The Second French Empire, United Kingdom, Russian Empire, and the United States were the parties involved. These unequal treaties opened more Chinese ports to the foreigners, permitted foreign legations in the Chinese capital Beijing, allowed Christian missionary activity, and legalized the import of opium.

They were ratified by the Emperor of China in the Convention of Peking in 1860, after the end of the war.

 
Terms
Major points

1.Great Britain, France, Russia, and the United States would have the right to station legations in Beijing (Peking, a closed city at the time).
2.Eleven more Chinese ports would be opened for foreign trade, including Newchwang, Tamsui (Taiwan), Hankou and Nanjing.
3.The right of foreign vessels including warships to navigate freely on the Yangtze River.
4.The right of foreigners to travel in the internal regions of China for the purpose of travel, trade or missionary activities.
5.Religious liberty to all Christians in China.
6.China was to pay an indemnity to Britain and France in 2 million taels of silver respectively, and compensation to British merchants in 3 million taels of silver.
7.Official letters and other documents exchanged between China and Britain are to be banned from referring to British Officials and Subjects of the Crown by the character "夷" (yí), meaning "barbarian".
 
 

Signing the Treaty of Tientsin, 1858.
 
 
Definitions
The Treaties of Tientsin uses several words that have somewhat ambiguous meanings. For example the words “settlement” and “concession” can often be confused.

The term “settlement” refers to a parcel of land leased to a foreign power and is composed of both foreign and national peoples; locally elected foreigners govern them.

The term “concession” refers to a long-term lease of land to a foreign power where the foreign nation has complete control of the land; it is governed by consular representation.
  American involvement
Following the pattern set by the great powers of Europe, the United States took on a protectionist stance, built up its navy, and tried to create a mercantile empire.
The United States was one of the leading signing “treaty powers” in China, forcing open a total of 23 foreign concessions from the Chinese government. While it is often noted that the United States did not control any settlements in China, they shared British land grants and were actually invited to take land in Shanghai but refused because the land was thought to be disadvantageous.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1858
 
 
British proclaim peace in India
 
 
see also: Indian Rebellion of 1857
 
 
 
1858
 
 
Government of India Act 1858
 
The Government of India Act 1858 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (21 & 22 Vict. c. 106) passed on August 2, 1858. Its provisions called for the liquidation of the British East India Company (who had up to this point been ruling British India under the auspices of Parliament) and the transference of its functions to the British Crown. Lord Palmerston, then-Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, introduced a bill for the transfer of control of the Government of India from the East India Company to the Crown, referring to the grave defects in the existing system of the government of India.
 
History
Indian Rebellion of 1857 urged British Government to pass this Act. To calm down the after effects of 1857 revolt, the Act of 1858 was introduced.
 
 

Provisions of the bill
-The Company's territories in India were to be vested in the Queen, the Company ceasing to exercise its power and control over these territories. India was to be governed in the Queen's name.
-The Queen's Principal Secretary of State received the powers and duties of the Company's Court of Directors. A council of fifteen members was appointed to assist the Secretary of State for India. The council became an advisory body in India affairs. For all the communications between Britain and India, the Secretary of State became the real channel.
-The Secretary of State for India was empowered to send some secret despatches to India directly without consulting the Council. He was also authorised to constitute special committees of his Council.
-The Crown was empowered to appoint a Governor-General and the Governors of the Presidencies.
-Provision for the creation of an Indian Civil Service under the control of the Secretary of State.
-All the property of the East India Company was transferred to the Crown. The Crown also assumed the responsibilities of the Company as they related to treaties, contracts, and so forth.

The Act ushered in a new period of Indian history, bringing about the end of Company rule in India. The era of the new British Raj would last until Partition of India in August 1947, at which time all of the territory of the Raj was granted dominion status within the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1858
 
 
Law Bonar
 

Bonar Law, in full Andrew Bonar Law (born September 16, 1858, Kingston, New Brunswick, Canada—died October 30, 1923, London, England), prime minister of Great Britain from October 23, 1922, to May 20, 1923, the first holder of that office to come from a British overseas possession.

He was the leader of the Conservative Party during the periods 1911–21 and 1922–23.

 

Bonar Law
  The son of a Presbyterian minister of Ulster ancestry, Law from the age of 12 was reared by wealthy cousins in Scotland. Leaving school at age 16, he eventually became a partner in a Glasgow firm of iron merchants. Elected to the House of Commons as a Conservative in 1900, he adhered to the party’s imperialist faction led by Joseph Chamberlain, whose illness (from 1906) left Law and Chamberlain’s son Austen as the leading advocates of a protective tariff.
Late in 1911 the former prime minister Arthur James Balfour resigned as Conservative Party leader. The deadlock between the leading candidates for the succession, Austen Chamberlain and Walter Long, was broken by their withdrawal in favour of Law, a compromise candidate, who was elected unanimously on November 13. On that occasion and afterward, his chief adviser was his friend William Maxwell Aitken (Lord Beaverbrook from 1917), who later became a powerful newspaper publisher.

Until the outbreak of World War I, Law was concerned primarily with the tariff question and with Irish Home Rule, which, as an Ulsterman, he furiously opposed. On May 25, 1915, he became secretary for the colonies in the wartime coalition government that he had virtually forced H.H. Asquith to lead. He took part in the intrigues resulting in Asquith’s resignation on December 5, 1916. Asked by King George V to form a government, he recommended instead David Lloyd George, who assumed office the next day.

 
 
In the new coalition, Law was leader of the House of Commons, a member of the war cabinet, and chancellor of the Exchequer, in which capacity he astutely managed war-loan and war-bond programs. Exchanging the chancellorship for the office of lord privy seal on January 10, 1919, he remained leader of the Commons until March 1921, when ill health forced him to resign his offices.

In 1922 the Conservatives were angered successively by a scandal over the sale of honours, the Çanak incident (when a wholly unnecessary war with Turkey seemed imminent), and a proposal that an election be called to approve a new coalition to be headed by Lloyd George. On October 19, at a party meeting in the Carlton Club, London, Law spoke against another coalition. Lloyd George at once resigned, taking with him most of the leading Tories in the government. Law then formed a Conservative government (“of the second eleven,” as Winston Churchill described it), which in November 1922 was approved by a comfortable majority of voters. The principal events of his premiership occurred in January 1923, when he almost resigned in dissatisfaction with Chancellor of the Exchequer Stanley Baldwin’s settlement of the British war debt to the United States and when he broke off diplomatic relations with France because of its occupation of the Ruhr. Aware of an inoperable malignancy in his throat, he resigned in May and was succeeded by Baldwin.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1858
 
 
Prince William of Prussia declared regent for the insane King Frederick William IV
 
 
William I
 

William I, German in full Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig (born March 22, 1797, Berlin—died March 9, 1888, Berlin), German emperor from 1871, as well as king of Prussia from 1861, a sovereign whose conscientiousness and self-restraint fitted him for collaboration with stronger statesmen in raising his monarchy and the house of Hohenzollern to predominance in Germany.

 

Wilhelm I., Deutscher Kaiser in Generalsuniform
  He was the second son of the future king Frederick William III of Prussia. In 1814 he fought at Bar-sur-Aube in the German War of Liberation against Napoleon I. Subsequently he devoted himself to the Prussian Army and military affairs. In 1840, on the accession of his childless elder brother, Frederick William IV, he became prince of Prussia and heir presumptive.

When revolution broke out in Berlin in March 1848, the conservative William’s advocacy of force earned him the sobriquet of “Kartätschenprinz” (Prince of Grapeshot). After a brief exile in England, he returned to Prussia in June 1848, and in 1849 he commanded the troops sent to suppress an insurrection in Baden.

William’s mistrust of constitutionalism was mitigated by the lessons of 1848, by his exposure to English political ideas, and by the influence of his consort, Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. (He married this witty and temperamental princess in 1829, after renouncing a youthful love affair with Eliza Radziwill.) Appointed military governor of Rhineland Province in 1849, he made his residence at Coblenz, a centre of opposition to the reactionary policies of Berlin. He described Otto von Bismarck’s ideas as “schoolboy’s politics.”

From October 1858 William was regent for his ailing brother, and, on Jan. 2, 1861, William succeeded to the Prussian throne. As regent he made himself popular by proclaiming a “New Era” of liberalism, but he appointed a ministry comprising pronounced conservatives as well as moderate liberals.

 
 
The problems raised for Prussia in 1859 by the wars for Italian independence were beyond his capacity: while he favoured an alliance with Austria against the France of Napoleon III, he insisted that Prussia have the supreme command on the Rhenish front; and the Austro-French armistice of Villafranca took him by surprise.
 
 

Coronation of William I, at Königsberg Castle, 1861
 
 
On internal affairs William’s fundamental conservatism reasserted itself. Backed by his war minister, Albrecht von Roon, and by the chief of the military cabinet, Edwin von Manteuffel, the King insisted on a three-year term of military conscription, which the liberal lower chamber rejected in 1862. William thereupon was ready to abdicate but was dissuaded by Bismarck, whom he installed as prime minister during this crisis.
 
 

William I is proclaimed German Emperor (1871) in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles, France
(painting by Anton von Werner)
 
 
After the Prussian victory in the Seven Weeks’ War against Austria in 1866, the King, despite their frequent disagreements, realized that Bismarck was more necessary to Prussia than he himself was. In 1870, when the Hohenzollern candidature to the Spanish throne was leading to the Franco-German War, William was far more cautious than Bismarck; during the war, he arbitrated between his chief advisers, Bismarck and Helmuth von Moltke. He was distressed by the Kulturkampf that Bismarck and the liberals conducted against the Roman Catholic Church, but in 1877, when Bismarck made his last appeal to be relieved of office, William answered: “Never.”
 
 

Funeral procession of German Emperor William I, 1888
 
 
William was so imbued with the traditions of the Prussian monarchy that it was painful for him to accept Bismarck’s foundation of the German Reich and the imperial title, which came to him by a sham offer (arranged by Bismarck) from the German princes. William was acclaimed German emperor (not “emperor of Germany,” which he thought more suitable) at Versailles, in conquered France, on Jan. 18, 1871. General indignation at the two attempts made on his life in 1878 (by Max Hödel on May 11 and by K.E. Nobiling, who seriously wounded him, on June 2) was expressed in popular support for Bismarck’s anti-Socialist legislation.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1858
 
 
Alexander Karageorgevich deposed by Serbian Diet; Milos Obrenovic I declared king
 
 
Karageorgevich Alexander
 

Alexander, Serbo-Croatian in full Aleksandar Karaðorðevići, Karaðorðevići also spelled Karageorgević, or Karadjordjević (born September 29 [October 11, New Style], 1806, Topola, Serbia—died April 22 [May 4], 1885, Temesvár, Banat, Austria-Hungary), prince of Serbia from 1842 to 1858.

 

Alexander Karađorđević, Prince of Serbia
  The third son of Karadjordje (Karageorge, or Karaðorðe), who had led the movement to win Serb autonomy from the Ottoman Turks (1804–13), Alexander lived in exile until 1842, when the Skupština (Serb parliament) elected him prince of Serbia. Assuming the throne despite Russian challenges to his election and Turkish refusals to make his office hereditary, Alexander allowed his administration to be dominated by an oligarchy consisting of an elite group of senators. In an effort to modernize the Serb bureaucracy, it attempted to improve the principality’s educational, legal, and judicial systems, as well as to foster the use of money and credit in Serbia’s economy. Although Alexander and his senator-advisers were well intentioned, their innovations, which were quickly undermined by corruption and abuse, stimulated widespread discontent in Serbia’s traditional peasant society. In addition, the new intelligentsia, created to provide trained personnel for the reformed bureaucracy, constituted another centre of opposition that encouraged emulation of western European parliamentary government, rather than the simple adoption of bureaucratic reforms.

Alexander responded to a revolt of the Serbs of south Hungary against the Hungarians in 1848 by refusing to support the revolutionary movement but allowing volunteers to cross the border. He later succumbed to Austrian demands that Serbia refrain from aiding Russia and again maintain neutrality during the Crimean War (1853–56). Thus, he lost the support of the many Serbs who advocated pan-Slavism.

 
 
Although he overthrew some of the main oligarchs in 1857, the Skupština, which met the following year, insisted that he abdicate. Alexander reluctantly agreed and spent the remainder of his life in exile.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Milos Obrenovic I (18 March 1780 [7 March o.s.] – 26 September 1860) was Prince of Serbia from 1815 to 1839, and again from 1858 to 1860.

He participated in the First Serbian Uprising, led Serbs in the Second Serbian Uprising, and founded the House of Obrenović. Under his rule, Serbia became an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire. Prince Miloš ruled autocratically, permanently refusing to share power. During his rule, he was the richest man in Serbia and one of the richest in the Balkans.
 
 

Milos Obrenovic I, Prince of Serbia
 
 
 
1858
 
 
Roosevelt Theodore
 

Theodore Roosevelt, bynames Teddy Roosevelt and TR (born October 27, 1858, New York, New York, U.S.—died January 6, 1919, Oyster Bay, New York), the 26th president of the United States (1901–09) and a writer, naturalist, and soldier. He expanded the powers of the presidency and of the federal government in support of the public interest in conflicts between big business and labour and steered the nation toward an active role in world politics, particularly in Europe and Asia. He won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1906 for mediating an end to the Russo-Japanese War, and he secured the route and began construction of the Panama Canal (1904–14). (For a discussion of the history and nature of the presidency, see presidency of the United States of America).

 

Theodore Roosevelt, former President of the United States
  The early years
Roosevelt was the second of four children born into a socially prominent family of Dutch and English ancestry; his father, Theodore Roosevelt, Sr., was a noted businessman and philanthropist, and his mother, Martha Bulloch of Georgia, came from a wealthy, slave-owning plantation family. In frail health as a boy, Roosevelt was educated by private tutors. From boyhood he displayed intense, wide-ranging intellectual curiosity.

He graduated from Harvard College, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, in 1880. He then studied briefly at Columbia Law School but soon turned to writing and politics as a career.

In 1880 he married Alice Hathaway Lee, by whom he had one daughter, Alice. After his first wife’s death, in 1886 he married Edith Kermit Carow (Edith Roosevelt), with whom he lived for the rest of his life at Sagamore Hill, an estate near Oyster Bay, Long Island, New York. They had five children: Theodore, Jr., Kermit, Ethel, Archibald, and Quentin.

As a child, Roosevelt had suffered from severe asthma, and weak eyesight plagued him throughout his life. By dint of a program of physical exertion, he developed a strong physique and a lifelong love of vigorous activity. He adopted “the strenuous life,” as he entitled his 1901 book, as his ideal, both as an outdoorsman and as a politician.

 
 
Elected as a Republican to the New York State Assembly at 23, Roosevelt quickly made a name for himself as a foe of corrupt machine politics. In 1884, overcome by grief by the deaths of both his mother and his wife on the same day, he left politics to spend two years on his cattle ranch in the badlands of the Dakota Territory, where he became increasingly concerned about environmental damage to the West and its wildlife. Nonetheless, he did participate as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1884. His attempt to reenter public life in 1886 was unsuccessful; he was defeated in a bid to become mayor of New York City. Roosevelt remained active in politics and again battled corruption as a member of the U.S. Civil Service Commission (1889–95) and as president of the New York City Board of Police Commissioners. Appointed assistant secretary of the navy by President William McKinley, he vociferously championed a bigger navy and agitated for war with Spain. When war was declared in 1898, he organized the 1st Volunteer Cavalry, known as the Rough Riders, who were sent to fight in Cuba. Roosevelt was a brave and well-publicized military leader. The charge of the Rough Riders (on foot) up Kettle Hill during the Battle of Santiago made him the biggest national hero to come out of the Spanish-American War.

On his return, the Republican bosses in New York tapped Roosevelt to run for governor, despite their doubts about his political loyalty. Elected in 1898, he became an energetic reformer, removing corrupt officials and enacting legislation to regulate corporations and the civil service. His actions irked the party’s bosses so much that they conspired to get rid of him by drafting him for the Republican vice presidential nomination in 1900, assuming that his would be a largely ceremonial role.

 
 

Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo
  Elected with McKinley, Roosevelt chafed at his powerless office until September 14, 1901, when McKinley died after being shot by an assassin and he became president. Six weeks short of his 43rd birthday, Roosevelt was the youngest person ever to enter the presidency. Although he promised continuity with McKinley’s policies, he transformed the public image of the office at once. He renamed the executive mansion the White House and threw open its doors to entertain cowboys, prizefighters, explorers, writers, and artists. His refusal to shoot a bear cub on a 1902 hunting trip inspired a toy maker to name a stuffed bear after him, and the teddy bear fad soon swept the nation. His young children romped on the White House lawn, and the marriage of his daughter Alice in 1905 to Representative Nicholas Longworth of Ohio became the biggest social event of the decade.

From what he called the presidency’s “bully pulpit,” Roosevelt gave speeches aimed at raising public consciousness about the nation’s role in world politics, the need to control the trusts that dominated the economy, the regulation of railroads, and the impact of political corruption.

He appointed young, college-educated men to administrative positions. But active as he was, he was cautious in his approach to domestic affairs. Roosevelt recognized that he had become president by accident, and he wanted above all to be elected in 1904.

 
 
Likewise, as sensitive as he was to popular discontent about big business and political machines, he knew that conservative Republicans who were bitterly opposed to all reforms controlled both houses of Congress. Roosevelt focused his activities on foreign affairs and used his executive power to address problems of business and labour and the conservation of natural resources.

Above all, Roosevelt relished the power of the office and viewed the presidency as an outlet for his unbounded energy. He was a proud and fervent nationalist who willingly bucked the passive Jeffersonian tradition of fearing the rise of a strong chief executive and a powerful central government. “I believe in a strong executive; I believe in power,” he wrote to British historian Sir George Otto Trevelyan. “While President, I have been President, emphatically; I have used every ounce of power there was in the office.…I do not believe that any President ever had as thoroughly good a time as I have had, or has ever enjoyed himself as much.”

 
 

Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
  The Square Deal
Despite his caution, Roosevelt managed to do enough in his first three years in office to build a platform for election in his own right. In 1902 he resurrected the nearly defunct Sherman Antitrust Act by bringing a lawsuit that led to the breakup of a huge railroad conglomerate, the Northern Securities Company. Roosevelt pursued this policy of “trust-busting” by initiating suits against 43 other major corporations during the next seven years.

Early in his term, he also sought the creation of an agency that would have the power to investigate businesses engaged in interstate commerce (though without regulatory powers); the Bureau of Corporations was formally established in 1903.

In 1902 Roosevelt intervened in the anthracite coal strike when it threatened to cut off heating fuel for homes, schools, and hospitals. The president publicly asked representatives of capital and labour to meet in the White House and accept his mediation. He also talked about calling in the army to run the mines, and he got Wall Street investment houses to threaten to withhold credit to the coal companies and dump their stocks. The combination of tactics worked to end the strike and gain a modest pay hike for the miners.

This was the first time that a president had publicly intervened in a labour dispute at least implicitly on the side of workers. Roosevelt characterized his actions as striving toward a “Square Deal” between capital and labour, and those words became his campaign slogan in the 1904 election.

 
 
Once he won that election—overwhelmingly defeating the Democratic contender Alton B. Parker by 336 to 140 electoral votes—Roosevelt put teeth into his Square Deal programs. He pushed Congress to grant powers to the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate interstate railroad rates. The Hepburn Act of 1906 conveyed those powers and created the federal government’s first true regulatory agency. Also in 1906, Roosevelt pressed Congress to pass the Pure Food and Drug and Meat Inspection acts, which created agencies to assure protection to consumers. The “muckrakers,” investigative journalists of the era, had exposed the squalid conditions of food-processing industries.
 
 

Colonel Roosevelt and the Rough Riders after capturing Kettle Hill along with members of the 3rd Volunteers and the regular Army black 10th Cavalry
 
 
Roosevelt’s boldest actions came in the area of natural resources. At his urging, Congress created the Forest Service (1905) to manage government-owned forest reserves, and he appointed a fellow conservationist, Gifford Pinchot, to head the agency. Simultaneously, Roosevelt exercised existing presidential authority to designate public lands as national forests in order to make them off-limits to commercial exploitation of lumber, minerals, and waterpower. Roosevelt set aside almost five times as much land as all of his predecessors combined, 194 million acres (78.5 million hectares). In commemoration of Roosevelt’s dedication to conservation, Theodore Roosevelt National Park in North Dakota and Theodore Roosevelt Island in Washington, D.C., a 91-acre (37-hectare) wooded island in the Potomac River, were named in his honour.
 
 
Foreign policy
Roosevelt believed that nations, like individuals, should pursue the strenuous life and do their part to maintain peace and order, and he believed that “civilized” nations had a responsibility for stewardship of “barbarous” ones. He knew that taking on the Philippine Islands as an American colony after the Spanish-American War had ended America’s isolation from international power politics—a development that he welcomed. Every year he asked for bigger appropriations for the army and navy. Congress cut back on his requests, but by the end of his presidency he had built the U.S. Navy into a major force at sea and reorganized the army along efficient, modern lines.

Several times during Roosevelt’s first years in office, European powers threatened to intervene in Latin America, ostensibly to collect debts owed them by weak governments there. To meet such threats, he framed a policy statement in 1904 that became known as the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. It stated that the United States would not only bar outside intervention in Latin American affairs but would also police the area and guarantee that countries there met their international obligations. In 1905, without congressional approval, Roosevelt forced the Dominican Republic to install an American “economic advisor,” who was in reality the country’s financial director. Quoting an African proverb, Roosevelt claimed that the right way to conduct foreign policy was to “speak softly and carry a big stick.” Roosevelt resorted to big-stick diplomacy most conspicuously in 1903, when he helped Panama to secede from Colombia and gave the United States a Canal Zone.

 
Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt,
second wife of Theodore Roosevelt
 
 
Construction began at once on the Panama Canal, which Roosevelt visited in 1906, the first president to leave the country while in office. He considered the construction of the canal, a symbol of the triumph of American determination and technological know-how, his greatest accomplishment as president. As he later boasted in his autobiography, “I took the Isthmus, started the canal and then left Congress not to debate the canal, but to debate me.” Other examples of wielding the big stick came in 1906 when Roosevelt occupied and set up a military protectorate in Cuba and when he put pressure on Canada in a boundary dispute in Alaska.
 
 

Official White House
portrait by John Singer Sargent
  Roosevelt showed the soft-spoken, sophisticated side of his diplomacy in dealing with major powers outside the Western Hemisphere. In Asia he was alarmed by Russian expansionism and by rising Japanese power. In 1904–05 he worked to end the Russo-Japanese War by bringing both nations to the Portsmouth Peace Conference and mediating between them.

More than just to bring peace, Roosevelt wanted to construct a balance of power in Asia that might uphold U.S. interests. In 1907 he defused a diplomatic quarrel caused by anti-Japanese sentiment in California by arranging the so-called Gentlemen’s Agreement, which restricted Japanese immigration. In another informal executive agreement, he traded Japan’s acceptance of the American position in the Philippines for recognition by the United States of the Japanese conquest of Korea and expansionism in China.

Contrary to his bellicose image, Roosevelt privately came to favour withdrawal from the Philippines, judging it to be militarily indefensible, and he renounced any hopes of exerting major power in Asia.

During his second term Roosevelt increasingly feared a general European war. He saw British and U.S. interests as nearly identical, and he was strongly inclined to support Britain behind the scenes in diplomatic controversies.

In secret instructions to the U.S. envoys to the Algeciras Conference in 1906, Roosevelt told them to maintain formal American noninvolvement in European affairs but to do nothing that would imperil existing Franco-British understandings, the maintenance of which was “to the best interests of the United States.”

 
 
Despite his bow toward noninvolvement, Roosevelt had broken with the traditional position of isolation from affairs outside the Western Hemisphere. At Algeciras, U.S. representatives had attended a strictly European diplomatic conference, and their actions favoured Britain and France over Germany.
 
 

Theodore Roosevelt
  Last years as president
The end of Roosevelt’s presidency was tempestuous. From his bully pulpit, he crusaded against “race suicide,” prompted by his alarm at falling birth rates among white Americans, and he tried to get the country to adopt a simplified system of spelling.

Especially after a financial panic in 1907, his already strained relations with Republican conservatives in Congress degenerated into a spiteful stalemate that blocked any further domestic reforms. Roosevelt also moved precipitously and high-handedly to punish a regiment of some 160 African American soldiers, some of whom had allegedly engaged in a riot in Brownsville, Texas, in which a man was shot and killed. Although no one was ever indicted and a trial was never held, Roosevelt assumed all were guilty and issued a dishonourable discharge to every member of the group, depriving them of all benefits; many of the soldiers were close to retirement and several held the Medal of Honor. When Congress decried the president’s actions Roosevelt replied, “The only reason I didn’t have them hung was because I could not find out which ones…did the shooting.”

This incident, along with his establishment of independent agencies within the executive branch and his bypassing of Congress and expanded use of executive orders to set aside public lands beyond the reach of the public, is why some historians see in Roosevelt’s presidency the seeds of abuse that flowered in the administrations of later 20th-century presidents. Roosevelt’s term ended in March 1909, just four months after his 50th birthday.
 
 
Later years
Immediately upon leaving office, Roosevelt embarked on a 10-month hunting safari in Africa and made a triumphal tour of Europe. On his return he became ineluctably drawn into politics. For a while, he tried not to take sides between progressive Republicans who supported his policies and those backing President William Howard Taft. Although Taft was Roosevelt’s friend and hand-picked successor, he sided with the party’s conservatives and worsened the split in the party. Both policy differences and personal animosity eventually impelled Roosevelt to run against Taft for the Republican nomination in 1912. When that quest failed, he bolted to form the Progressive Party, nicknamed the Bull Moose Party—in a letter to political kingmaker Mark Hanna, Roosevelt had once said “I am as strong as a bull moose and you can use me to the limit.”

In the presidential campaign as the Progressive candidate, Roosevelt espoused a “New Nationalism” that would inspire greater government regulation of the economy and promotion of social welfare. Roosevelt spoke both from conviction and in hopes of attracting votes from reform-minded Democrats.

This effort failed, because the Democrats had an attractive, progressive nominee in Woodrow Wilson, who won the election with an impressive 435 electoral votes to Roosevelt’s 88. Roosevelt had been shot in the chest by a fanatic while campaigning in Wisconsin, but he quickly recovered.
 
 

ex-President Theodore Roosevelt in Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1914.
  Since the Progressive Party had managed to elect few candidates to office, Roosevelt knew that it was doomed, and he kept it alive only to bargain for his return to the Republicans.

In the meantime, he wrote his autobiography and went on an expedition into the Brazilian jungle, where he contracted a near-fatal illness. When World War I broke out in 1914, he became a fierce partisan of the Allied cause. Although he had some slight hope for the 1916 Republican nomination, he was ready to support almost any candidate who opposed Wilson; he abandoned the Progressives to support the Republican candidate, Charles Evans Hughes, who lost by a narrow margin. After the United States entered the war his anger at Wilson boiled over when his offer to lead a division to France was rejected.

His four sons served in combat; two were wounded, and the youngest, Quentin, was killed when his airplane was shot down. By 1918 Roosevelt’s support of the war and his harsh attacks on Wilson reconciled Republican conservatives to him, and he was the odds-on favourite for the 1920 nomination.

But he died in early January 1919, less than three months after his 60th birthday.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1857 Part IV NEXT-1858 Part II