Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1857 Part III NEXT-1858 Part I   
1850 - 1859
History at a Glance
1850 Part I
Compromise of 1850
Constitution of Prussia
The eight Kaffir War, 1850-1853
Masaryk Tomas
Kitchener Horatio Herbert
Erfurt Union
Fillmore Millard
Taiping Rebellion
Hong Xiuquan
Feng Yunshan
Yang Xiuqing
Shi Dakai
1850 Part II
Protestant churches in Prussia
Public Libraries Act 1850
Schopenhauer: "Parerga und Paralipomena"
Herbert Spencer: "Social Statics"
E. B. Browning: "Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Emerson: "Representative Men"
Hawthorne: "The Scarlet Letter"
Herzen Aleksandr
Ibsen: "Catiline"
Loti Pierre
Maupassant Guy
Guy de Maupassant
Stevenson Robert Louis
Robert Louis Stevenson  
"Treasure Island
Turgenev: "A Month in the Country"
1850 Part III
Corot: "Une Matinee"
Courbet: "The Stone Breakers"
Menzel: "Round Table at Sansouci"
Millais: "Christ in the House of His Parents"
Millet: "The Sower"
Bristow George Frederick
George Frederick Bristow - Dream Land
George Frederick Bristow
Schumann: "Genoveva"
Wagner: "Lohengrin"
1850 Part IV
Bernard Claude
Clausius Rudolf
Stephenson Robert
Chebyshev Pafnuty Lvovich
Barth Heinrich
Galton Francis
Anderson Karl John
McClure Robert
McClure Arctic Expedition
Royal Meteorological Society
University of Sydney
1851 Part I
Victoria, state of Australia
Murdock Joseph Ballard
Machado Bernardino
Bourgeois Leon Victor Auguste
Foch Ferdinand
Bombardment of Sale
French coup d'état
Danilo II
Hawthorne: "The House of Seven Gables"
Gottfried Keller: "Der grune Heinrich"
Ward Humphry
Ruskin: "The Stones of Venice"
1851 Part II
Herman Melville: "Moby Dick"
Corot: "La Danse des Nymphes"
Walter Thomas Ustick
Ward Leslie
Crystal Palace
Falero Luis Ricardo
Luis Ricardo Falero
Kroyer Peder
Peder Kroyer
Hughes Edward Robert
Edward Robert Hughes
1851 Part III
Gounod: "Sappho"
D’Indy Vincent
Vincent D'Indy - Medee
Vincent d'Indy
Verdi: "Rigoletto"
Bogardus James
Cast-iron architecture
Kapteyn Jacobus Cornelius
Helmholtz's ophthalmoscope
Neumann Franz Ernst
Ruhmkorff Heinrich Daniel
Singer Isaac Merrit
Cubitt William
Thomson William
Royal School of Mines
Carpenter Mary
"The New York Times"
1852 Part I
Joffre Joseph
Second French Empire
Second Anglo-Burmese War
New Zealand Constitution Act
Asquith Herbert Henry
Pierce Franklin
Delisle Leopold Victor
Fischer Kuno
First Plenary Council of Baltimore
Vaihinger Hans
Gioberti Vincenzo
1852 Part II
Bourget Paul
Creasy Edward
Creasy: "The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo"
Charles Dickens: "Bleak House"
Theophile Gautier: "Emaux et Camees"
Moore George
Reade Charles
Harriet Beecher Stowe: "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Thackeray: "History of Henry Esmond"
Turgenev: "A Sportsman's Sketches"
Zhukovsky Vasily
1852 Part III
Fopd Madox Brown: "Christ Washing Peter's Feet"
William Holman Hunt: "The Light of the World"
John Everett Millais: "Ophelia"
Bryullov Karl
Karl Bryullov
Stanford Charles
Charles Villiers Stanford - Piano Concerto No.2
Charles Stanford
Becquerel Henri
Gerhardt Charles Frederic
Van’t Hoff Jacobus Henricus
Mathijsen Antonius
Michelson Albert
Ramsay William
Sylvester James Joseph
United All-England Eleven
Wells Fargo & Company
1853 Part I
Eugenie de Montijo
Crimean War
Battle of Sinop
Rhodes Cecil
Peter V
Nagpur Province
1853 Part II
Mommsen: "History of Rome"
Matthew Arnold: "The Scholar-Gipsy"
Charlotte Bronte: "Villette"
Caine Hall
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Ruth"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Tanglewood Tales"
Charles Kingsley: "Hypatia"
Tree Herbert Beerbohm
Charlotte M. Yonge: "The Heir of Redclyffe"
1853 Part III
Haussmann Georges-Eugene
Larsson Carl
Carl Larsson
Hodler Ferdinand
Ferdinand Hodler
Van Gogh Vincent
Vincent van Gogh
Steinway Henry Engelhard
Verdi: "Il Trovatore"
Verdi: "La Traviata"
Wood Alexander
"Die Gartenlaube"
International Statistical Congress
1854 Part I
Bloemfontein Convention
Orange Free State
Battle of the Alma
Menshikov Alexander Sergeyevich
Siege of Sevastopol (1854-1855)
Kornilov Vladimir Alexeyevich
Battle of Balaclava
Battle of Inkerman
Perry Matthew Calbraith
Gadsden Purchase
Bleeding Kansas (1854–59)
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Elgin-Marcy Treaty
Republican Party
Said of Egypt
Ostend Manifesto
1854 Part II
Herzog Johann
Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau
Youthful Offenders Act 1854
Immaculate Conception
Patmore Coventry
Patmore: "The Angel in the House"
Sandeau Leonard
Guerrazzi Francesco Domenico
Rimbaud Arthur
Arthur Rimbaud "Poems"
Tennyson: "The Charge of the Light Brigade"
Thackeray: "The Rose and the Ring"
Thoreau: "Walden, or Life in the Woods"
1854 Part III
Courbet: "Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet"
Frith William Powell
William Frith
Millet: "The Reaper"
Angrand Charles
Charles Angrand
Gotch Thomas Cooper
Thomas Cooper Gotch
Berlioz: "The Infant Christ"
Humperdinck Engelbert
Humperdinck - Hansel und Gretel
Liszt: "Les Preludes"
1854 Part IV
Poincare Henri
Eastman George
Ehrenberg Christian Gottfried
Paul Ehrlich
Goebel Henry
George Boole: "The Laws of Thought"
Riemann Bernhard
Wallace Alfred Russel
Southeast Asia
"Le Figaro"
Litfass Ernst
Northcote–Trevelyan Report
Maurice Frederick Denison
1855 Part I
Alexander II
Istomin Vladimir Ivanovich
Somerset FitzRoy
Nakhimov Pavel Stepanovich
Treaty of Peshawar
Bain Alexander
Droysen Johann
Gratry Auguste
Milman Henry
Le Play Pierre
1855 Part II
Charles Kingsley: "Westward Ho!"
Nerval Gerard
Charles Dickens "Little Dorrit"
Ganghofer Ludwig
Longfellow: "The Song of Hiawatha"
Corelli Marie
Pinero Arthur Wing
Tennyson: "Maud"
Anthony Trollope: "The Warden"
Turgenev: "Rudin"
Walt Whitman: "Leaves of Grass"
Berlioz: "Те Deum"
Verdi: "Les Vepres Siciliennes"
Chansson Ernest
Chausson - Poeme
Ernest Chausson
1855 Part III
Hughes David Edward
Lowell Percival
Cunard Line
"The Daily Telegraph"
Niagara Falls suspension bridge
Paris World Fair
1856 Part I
Victoria Cross
Doctrine of Lapse
Oudh State
Ottoman Reform Edict of 1856
Congress of Paris
Treaty of Paris (1856)
Napoleon, Prince Imperial
Sacking of Lawrence
Pottawatomie massacre
Second Opium War (1856-1860)
Anglo–Persian War (1856-1857)
Buchanan James
1856 Part II
Froude: "History of England"
Goldstucker Theodor
Lotze Rudolf Hermann
Motley: "Rise of the Dutch Republic"
Flaubert: "Madame Bovary"
Haggard Henry Rider
Victor Hugo: "Les Contemplations"
Charles Reade: "It Is Never Too Late to Mend"
Shaw George Bernard
Wilde Oscar
1856 Part III
Berlage Hendrik Petrus
Ferstel Heinrich
Sargent John
John Singer Sargent
Vrubel Mikhail
Mikhail Vrubel
Cross Henri Edmond
Henri-Edmond Cross
Bechstein Carl
Dargomyzhsky Alexander
Alexander Dargomyzhsky: "Rusalka"
Alexander Dargomyzhsky
Maillart Aime
Aime Maillart - Les Dragons de Villars
Sinding Christian
Sinding - Suite in A minor
Christian Sinding
1856 Part IV
Bessemer Henry
Bessemer process
Freud Sigmund
Sigmund Freud
Peary Robert Edwin
Pringsheim Nathanael
Siemens Charles William
Hardie James Keir
Taylor Frederick Winslow
"Big Ben"
1857 Part I
Treaty of Paris
Indian Rebellion of 1857
Italian National Society
Manin Daniele
Taft William Howard
1857 Part II
Buckle Henry Thomas
Buckle: "History of Civilization in England"
Charles Baudelaire: "Les Fleurs du mal"
Conrad Joseph
Joseph Conrad 
"Lord Jim"
George Eliot: "Scenes from Clerical Life"
Hughes Thomas
Thomas Hughes: "Tom Brown's Schooldays"
Mulock Dinah
 Pontoppidan Henrik
Adalbert Stifter: "Nachsommer"
Sudermann Hermann
Thackeray: "The Virginians"
Anthony Trollope: "Barchester Towers"
1857 Part III
Klinger Max
Max Klinger
Millet: "The Gleaners"
Dahl Johan Christian
Johan Christian Dahl
Leoncavallo Ruggero
Ruggero Leoncavallo - Pagliacci
Ruggero Leoncavallo 
Elgar Edward
Edward Elgar - The Light of Life
Edward Elgar
Kienzl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Kienzl - Symphonic Variations
Wilhelm Kienzl
Liszt: "Eine Faust-Symphonie"
1857 Part IV
Coue Emile
Hertz Heinrich
Wagner-Jauregg Julius
Ross Ronald
Newton Charles Thomas
Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Burton Richard
Speke John Hanning
The Nile Quest
McClintock Francis
Alpine Club
"The Atlantic Monthly"
Baden-Powell Robert
Matrimonial Causes Act
North German Lloyd
1858 Part I
Orsini Felice
Stanley Edward
Treaty of Tientsin
Government of India Act 1858
Law Bonar
William I
Karageorgevich Alexander
Roosevelt Theodore
1858 Part II
Bernadette Soubirous
Carey Henry Charles
Thomas Carlyle: "History of Friedrich II of Prussia"
Hecker Isaac
Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle
Rothschild Lionel Nathan
Schaff Philip
Benson Frank
Feuillet Octave
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table"
Kainz Joseph
Lagerlof Selma
1858 Part III
Corinth Lovis
Lovis Corinth
William Powell Frith: "The Derby Day"
Menzel: "Bon soir, Messieurs"
Segantini Giovanni
Giovanni Segantini
Khnopff Fernand
Fernand Khnopff
Toorop Jan
Cornelius Peter
Cornelius: "Der Barbier von Bagdad"
Jaques Offenbach: "Orpheus in der Unterwelt"
Puccini Giacomo
Giacomo Puccini: Donna non vidi mai
Giacomo Puccini
1858 Part IV
Diesel Rudolf
Huxley Thomas Henry
Planck Max
Mirror galvanometer
General Medical Council
Suez Canal Company
S.S. "Great Eastern"
Webb Beatrice
Webb Sidney
Transatlantic telegraph cable
1859 Part I
Second Italian War of Independence
Battle of Varese
Battle of Palestro
Battle of Magenta
Battle of Solferino
Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies
Francis II of the Two Sicilies
Charles XV of Sweden
German National Association
Jaures Jean
Roon Albrecht
William II
1859 Part II
Bergson Henri
Henri Bergson
Bergson Henri "Creative Evolution"
Charles Darwin: "On the Origin of Species"
Dewey John
Husserl Edmund
Karl Marx: "Critique of Political Economy"
John Stuart Mill: "Essay on Liberty"
Tischendorf Konstantin
Codex Sinaiticus
Villari Pasquale
1859 Part III
Dickens: "A Tale of Two Cities"
Doyle Arthur Conan
Arthur Conan Doyle  
Duse Eleonora
George Eliot: "Adam Bede"
Edward Fitzgerald: "Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam"
Ivan Goncharov: "Oblomov"
Hamsun Knut
Heidenstam Verner
Housman Alfred Edward
A.E. Housman 
"A Shropshire Lad", "Last Poems"
Victor Hugo: "La Legende des siecles"
Jerome K. Jerome
Tennyson: "Idylls of the King"
1859 Part IV
Corot: "Macbeth"
Gilbert Cass
Millet: "The Angelus"
Hassam Childe
Childe Hassam 
Seurat Georges
Georges Seurat
Whistler: "At the Piano"
Daniel Decatur Emmett: "Dixie"
Gounod: "Faust"
Verdi: "Un Ballo in Maschera"
1859 Part V
Arrhenius Svante
Kirchhoff Gustav
Curie Pierre
Drake Edwin
Drake Well
Plante Gaston
Lead–acid battery
Smith Henry John Stephen
Brunel Isambard Kingdom
Blondin Charles
Lansbury George
Samuel Smiles: "Self-Help"

The ruins of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1857 Part IV
Coue Emile

Emile Coue de la Chataigneraie (26 February 1857 – 2 July 1926) was a French psychologist and pharmacist who introduced a popular method of psychotherapy and self-improvement based on optimistic autosuggestion.

Considered at times to represent a second Nancy School, Coué treated many patients in groups and free of charge.


Emile Coue de la Chataigneraie
  Life and career
Coué's family, from the Brittany region of France and with origins in French nobility, had only modest means. A brilliant pupil in school, he initially studied to become a chemist. However, he eventually abandoned these studies, as his father, who was a railroad worker, was in a precarious financial state. Coué then decided to become a pharmacist and graduated with a degree in pharmacology in 1876.

Working as an apothecary at Troyes from 1882 to 1910, Coué quickly discovered what later came to be known as the placebo effect. He became known for reassuring his clients by praising each remedy's efficiency and leaving a small positive notice with each given medication.

In 1901 he began to study under Ambroise-Auguste Liébeault and Hippolyte Bernheim, two leading exponents of hypnosis. In 1913, Coué and his wife founded The Lorraine Society of Applied Psychology (French: La Société Lorraine de Psychologie appliquée).

His book Self-Mastery Through Conscious Autosuggestion was published in England (1920) and in the United States (1922). Although Coué’s teachings were, during his lifetime, more popular in Europe than in the United States, many Americans who adopted his ideas and methods, such as Norman Vincent Peale, Robert H. Schuller, and W. Clement Stone, became famous in their own right by spreading his words.

The Coué method

The application of his mantra-like conscious autosuggestion, "Every day, in every way, I'm getting better and better" (French: Tous les jours à tous points de vue je vais de mieux en mieux) is called Couéism or the Coué method. Some American newspapers quoted it differently, "Day by day, in every way, I'm getting better and better." The Coué method centered on a routine repetition of this particular expression according to a specified ritual—preferably as much as twenty times a day, and especially at the beginning and at the end of each day. When asked whether or not he thought of himself as healer, Coué often stated that "I have never cured anyone in my life. All I do is show people how they can cure themselves." Unlike a commonly held belief that a strong conscious will constitutes the best path to success, Coué maintained that curing some of our troubles requires a change in our unconscious thought, which can be achieved only by using our imagination. Although stressing that he was not primarily a healer but one who taught others to heal themselves, Coué claimed to have effected organic changes through autosuggestion.
Development and origins
Coué noticed that in certain cases he could improve the efficacy of a given medicine by praising its effectiveness to the patient. He realized that those patients to whom he praised the medicine had a noticeable improvement when compared to patients to whom he said nothing. This began Coué’s exploration of the use of hypnosis and the power of the imagination.

His initial method for treating patients relied on hypnosis. He discovered that subjects could not be hypnotized against their will and, more importantly, that the effects of hypnosis waned when the subjects regained consciousness. He thus eventually turned to autosuggestion, which he describes as

... an instrument that we possess at birth, and with which we play unconsciously all our life, as a baby plays with its rattle. It is however a dangerous instrument; it can wound or even kill you if you handle it imprudently and unconsciously. It can on the contrary save your life when you know how to employ it consciously.

Coué believed in the effects of medication. But he also believed that our mental state is able to affect and even amplify the action of these medications. By consciously using autosuggestion, he observed that his patients could cure themselves more efficiently by replacing their "thought of illness" with a new "thought of cure". According to Coué, repeating words or images enough times causes the subconscious to absorb them. The cures were the result of using imagination or "positive autosuggestion" to the exclusion of one's own willpower.

Underlying principles
Coué thus developed a method which relied on the principle that any idea exclusively occupying the mind turns into reality,[citation needed] although only to the extent that the idea is within the realm of possibility. For instance, a person without hands will not be able to make them grow back. However, if a person firmly believes that his or her asthma is disappearing, then this may actually happen, as far as the body is actually able physically to overcome or control the illness. On the other hand, thinking negatively about the illness (ex. "I am not feeling well") will encourage both mind and body to accept this thought. Likewise, when someone cannot remember a name, they will probably not be able to recall it as long as they hold onto this idea (i.e. "I can't remember") in their mind. Coué realised that it is better to focus on and imagine the desired, positive results (i.e. "I feel healthy and energetic" and "I can remember clearly").

Coué observed that the main obstacle to autosuggestion was willpower. For the method to work, the patient must refrain from making any independent judgment, meaning that he must not let his will impose its own views on positive ideas. Everything must thus be done to ensure that the positive "autosuggestive" idea is consciously accepted by the patient; otherwise, one may end up getting the opposite effect of what is desired.

For example, when a student has forgotten an answer to a question in an exam, he will likely think something such as "I have forgotten the answer". The more he or she tries to think of it, the more the answer becomes blurred and obscured. However, if this negative thought is replaced with a more positive one ("No need to worry, it will come back to me"), the chances that the student will come to remember the answer will increase.

Coué noted that young children always applied his method perfectly, as they lacked the willpower that remained present among adults. When he instructed a child by saying "clasp your hands and you can't open them", the child would thus immediately follow.

A patient's problems are likely to increase when his willpower and imagination (or mental ideas) are opposing each other, something Coué would refer to as "self-conflict". In the student's case, the will to succeed is clearly incompatible with his thought of being incapable of remembering his answers.

As the conflict intensifies, so does the problem: the more the patient tries to sleep, the more he becomes awake. The more a patient tries to stop smoking, the more he smokes. The patient must thus abandon his willpower and instead put more focus on his imaginative power in order to succeed fully with his cure.

Thanks to his method, which Coué once called his "trick", patients of all sorts would come to visit him. The list of ailments included kidney problems, diabetes, memory loss, stammering, weakness, atrophy and all sorts of physical and mental illnesses.

According to one of his journal entries (1916), he apparently cured a patient of a uterus prolapse as well as "violent pains in the head" (migraine).

C. (Cyrus) Harry Brooks (1890–1951), author of various books on Coué, claimed the success rate of his method was around 93%. The remaining 7% of people would include those who were too skeptical of Coué's approach and those who refused to recognize it.

Medicines and autosuggestion
The use of autosuggestion is intended to complement use of medicine, but no medication of Coué's time could save a patient from depression or tension. Coué recommended that patients take medicines with the confidence that they would be completely cured very soon, and healing would be optimal. Conversely, he contended, patients who are skeptical of a medicine would find it least effective.

References in fiction
1922: In the same year as the English translation of Self-Mastery Through Conscious Autosuggestion is published, Mark Strong writes the song I'm Getting Better Every Day. In the following year, a Swedish translation of the song is launched by entertainer Ernst Rolf, Bättre och bättre dag för dag (Better and better day by day), which is still a popular refrain in Sweden almost a century later.
1923: The Coué Method is taught in Elsie Lincoln Benedict's "How to Get Anything You Want" to train the subconscious mind.
1926: The Coué Method is mentioned in P. G. Wodehouse's short story, "Mr. Potter Takes a Rest Cure".
1928: Coué and Couéism are referred to frequently in John Galsworthy's novel The White Monkey from his Modern Comedy trilogy.
Fleur Mont (née Forsyte), expecting what her husband (the tenth baronet) keeps referring to as the eleventh, repeats daily "every day in every way my baby's becoming more and more male".
Other characters in the novel are also Coué followers, including, rather improbably, the strait-laced and sensible Soames (although he remains sceptical).
1930: Miss Milsome, in The Documents in the Case, written by Dorothy L. Sayers and Robert Eustace, dabbles in all sorts of self-improvement schemes, including using "In every day ..."
1946: In Josephine Tey's novel Miss Pym Disposes, the title character, herself a psychologist, refers to Coué with apparent scepticism.
1948: In Graham Greene's novel, The Heart of the Matter, the narrator dismisses the Indian fortune teller's reading of Inspector Wilson's hand:
"Of course the whole thing was Couéism: if one believed in it enough, it would come true."
1969: In the film The Bed Sitting Room Room (1969), the character "Mate", played by Spike Milligan, repeatedly utters the phrase "Every day, in every way, I'm getting better and better" while delivering a pie.
1970: The Coué Method is briefly mentioned in Robertson Davies' book Fifth Business; the passage ends with a criticism of Couéism:
"So Dr. Coué failed for her, as he did for many others, for which I lay no blame on him. His system was really a form of secularized, self-seeking prayer, without the human dignity that even the most modest prayer evokes. And like all attempts to command success for the chronically unsuccessful, it petered out."
1973: The leading character, Frank Spencer (played by Michael Crawford), in the BBC's situation comedy Some Mothers Do 'Ave 'Em, often recites the mantra, on occasion when trying to impress the instructor during a public relations training course.
1976: In the film The Pink Panther Strikes Again, the mentally-ill Chief Inspector Charles Dreyfus, repeatedly uses the phrase "Every day and in every way, I am getting better, and better" as directed by his psychiatrist.
1980: The chorus in the song "Beautiful Boy" — which John Lennon wrote for his son, Sean — makes a reference to Coué's mantra:
Before you go to sleep
Say a little prayer
Every day in every way
It's getting better and better.
1981: The protagonist in Emir Kusturica's 1981 film Do You Remember Dolly Bell? often recites the mantra as a result of studying hypnotherapy and autosuggestion.
1992: In Kerry Greenwood's novel, Death at Victoria Dock, investigative detective Phryne Fisher recites the mantra during a particularly trying case.
1998: In Nest Family Entertainment's animated children's film The Swan Princess III and the Mystery of the Enchanted Treasure, a character uses the mantra while training for a competition.
2012: In Boardwalk Empire (season 3, episode 1) the fugitive Nelson Van Alden (played by Michael Shannon), now a salesman, looks into a mirror and repeats to himself the mantra: "Every day, in every way, I am getting better and better".

While most American reporters of his day seemed dazzled by Coué's accomplishments and did not question the results attributed to his method,), a handful of journalists and a few educators were skeptical. After Coué had left Boston, the Boston Herald waited six months, revisited the patients he had "cured", and found most had initially felt better but soon returned to whatever ailments they previously had. Few of the patients would criticize Coué, saying he did seem very sincere in what he tried to do, but the Herald reporter concluded that any benefit from Coué's method seemed to be temporary and might be explained by being caught up in the moment during one of Coué's events. Coué also received much criticism from exponents of psychoanalysis, with Otto Fenichel concluding: "A climax of dependence masked as independent power is achieved by the methods of autosuggestion where a weak and passive ego is controlled by an immense superego with magical powers. This power is, however, borrowed and even usurped".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hertz Heinrich

Heinrich Hertz, in full Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (born February 22, 1857, Hamburg [Germany]—died January 1, 1894, Bonn, Germany), German physicist who showed that Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism was correct and that light and heat are electromagnetic radiations.


Heinrich Hertz
  He received a Ph.D. magna cum laude from the University of Berlin in 1880, where he studied under Hermann von Helmholtz. In 1883 he began his studies of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory. Between 1885 and 1889, while he was professor of physics at the Karlsruhe Polytechnic, he produced electromagnetic waves in the laboratory and measured their length and velocity. He showed that the nature of their vibration and their susceptibility to reflection and refraction were the same as those of light and heat waves. As a result, he established beyond any doubt that light and heat are electromagnetic radiations. The electromagnetic waves were called Hertzian and, later, radio waves. (He was not the first to produce such waves. Anglo-American inventor David Hughes had done so in work that was almost universally ignored in 1879, but Hertz was the first to correctly understand their electromagnetic nature.) In 1889 Hertz was appointed professor of physics at the University of Bonn, where he continued his research on the discharge of electricity in rarefied gases.
His scientific papers were translated into English and published in three volumes: Electric Waves (1893), Miscellaneous Papers (1896), and Principles of Mechanics (1899).

Encyclopædia Britannica

Wagner-Jauregg Julius

Julius Wagner-Jauregg, original name Julius Wagner, Ritter (Knight) von Jauregg (born March 7, 1857, Wels, Austria—died Sept. 27, 1940, Vienna), Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist whose treatment of syphilitic meningoencephalitis, or general paresis, by the artificial induction of malaria brought a previously incurable fatal disease under partial medical control. His discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1927.


Julius Wagner-Jauregg
  While a member of the psychiatric staff (1883–89) at the University of Vienna, Wagner-Jauregg noted that persons suffering from certain nervous disorders showed a marked improvement after contracting febrile (characterized by fever) infections.

In 1887 he suggested that such infections be deliberately induced as a method of treatment for the insane, especially recommending malaria because it could be controlled with quinine. As professor of psychiatry and neurology at the University of Graz, Austria (1889–93), he attempted to induce fevers in mental patients through the administration of tuberculin (an extract of the tubercle bacillus), but the program met with only limited success.

In 1917, while occupying a similar post at the University of Vienna, where he also directed the university hospital for nervous and mental diseases (1893–1928), Wagner-Jauregg was able to produce malaria in paresis victims, with dramatically successful results.

Although malaria treatment of the disease was later supplanted largely by administration of antibiotics, his work led to the development of fever therapy and shock therapy for a number of mental disorders. He was also known as an authority on cretinism and other thyroid disorders.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Pasteur Louis  proves that fermentation is caused by living organisms
Ross Ronald
Sir Ronald Ross, (born May 13, 1857, Almora, India—died Sept. 16, 1932, Putney Heath, London, Eng.), British doctor who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.

Sir Ronald Ross
  His discovery of the malarial parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of the Anopheles mosquito led to the realization that malaria was transmitted by Anopheles, and laid the foundation for combating the disease.

After graduating in medicine (1879), Ross entered the Indian Medical Service and served in the third Anglo-Burmese War (1885). On leave he studied bacteriology in London (1888–89) and then returned to India, where, prompted by Patrick Manson’s guidance and assistance, he began (1895) a series of investigations on malaria. He discovered the presence of the malarial parasite within the Anopheles mosquito in 1897. Using birds that were sick with malaria, he was soon able to ascertain the entire life cycle of the malarial parasite, including its presence in the mosquito’s salivary glands. He demonstrated that malaria is transmitted from infected birds to healthy ones by the bite of a mosquito, a finding that suggested the disease’s mode of transmission to humans.

Ross returned to England in 1899 and joined the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. He was knighted in 1911. In 1912 he became physician for tropical diseases at King’s College Hospital, London, and later director of the Ross Institute and Hospital for Tropical Diseases, founded in his honour. In addition to mathematical papers, poems, and fictional works, he wrote The Prevention of Malaria (1910).

Encyclopædia Britannica

Ross, Mrs Ross, Mahomed Bux, and two other assistants at Cunningham’s laboratory of
Presidency Hospital in Calcutta
Sir Charles T. Newton discovers remains of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Newton Charles Thomas

Sir Charles Thomas Newton (16 September 1816 – 28 November 1894) was a British archaeologist. He was made KCB in 1887.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
He was born in 1816, the second son of Newton Dickinson Hand Newton, vicar of Clungunford, Shropshire, and afterwards of Bredwardine, Herefordshire. He was educated at Shrewsbury School (then under Samuel Butler), and at Christ Church, Oxford (matriculating 17 Oct. 1833), where he graduated B.A. in 1837 and M.A. in 1840.

Already in his undergraduate days Newton (as his friend and contemporary, John Ruskin, tells in Præterita) was giving evidence of his natural bent ; the scientific study of classical archaeology, which Winckelmann had set on foot in Germany, was in England to find its worthy apostle in Newton. In 1840, contrary to the wishes of his family, he entered the British Museum as assistant in the department of antiquities. As a career the museum, as it then was, can have presented but few attractions to a young man ; but the department, as yet undivided, probably offered to Newton a wider range of comparative study in his subject than he could otherwise have acquired.

In 1852, he was named vice-consul at Mytilene, and from April 1853 to January 1854 he was consul at Rhodes, with the definite duty, among others, of watching over the interests of the British Museum in the Levant.

In 1854 and 1855, with funds advanced by Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, he carried on excavations in Kalymnos, enriching the British Museum with an important series of inscriptions, and in the following year he was at length enabled to undertake his long-cherished scheme of identifying the site, and recovering for this country the chief remains, of the mausoleum at Halicarnassus.

In 1856-1857, he achieved the great archaeological exploit of his life by the discovery of the remains of the mausoleum of Halicarnassus, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. He was greatly assisted by Murdoch Smith, afterwards celebrated in connection with Persian telegraphs. The results were described by Newton in his History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus (1862–1863), written in conjunction with R. P. Pullan, and in his Travels and Discoveries in the Levant (1865).

These works included particulars of other important discoveries, especially at Branchidae, where he disinterred the statues which had anciently lined the Sacred Way, and at Cnidos, where Pullan, acting under his direction, found the Lion of Knidos now in the British Museum.

In 1860, he was named consul at Rome, but was the following year recalled to take up the newly created post of keeper of Greek and Roman antiquities at the British Museum.

Newton's keepership at the museum was marked by an amassing wealth of important acquisitions, which were largely attributable to his personal influence or initiation. Thus in the ten years 1864-74 alone he was enabled to purchase no less than five important collections of classical antiquities : the Farnese, the two great series of Castellani, the Pourtales, and the Blacas collections, representing in special grants upwards of £100,000 ; only those who know what labour and tact are involved in the capture of even the smallest 'special grant' can appreciate what this implies. Meanwhile his work in the Levant, bringing to the museum the direct results of exploration and research, was being continued by his successors and friends : Biliotti in Rhodes, Smith and Porcher at Gyrene, Lang in Cyprus, Dennis in Sicily, in the Cyrenaica, and around Smyrna, Pullan at Priene, John Turtle Wood at Ephesus were all working more or less directly under Newton on behalf of the museum.

Of his own work as a scholar in elucidating and editing the remains of antiquity, the list of his writings given below is only a slight indication ; nor was this confined to writing alone. In 1855, he had been offered by Lord Palmerston (acting on Liddell's advice) the regius professorship of Greek at Oxford, rendered vacant by Dean Gaisford's death, with the definite object of creating a school of students in what was then a practically untried field of classical study at Oxford. The salary, however, was only nominal, and Newton was obliged to decline the post, which was then offered to and accepted by Benjamin Jowett. In 1880, however, the Yates chair of classical archaeology was created at University College, London, and by a special arrangement Newton was enabled to hold it coincidentally with his museum appointment. As antiquary to the Royal Academy he lectured frequently. In the latter part of his career he was closely associated with the work of three English societies, all of which owed to him more or less directly their inception and a large part of their success ; the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies, at the inaugural meeting of which he presided in June 1879 ; the British School at Athens, started in February 1885 : and the Egypt Exploration Fund, which was founded in 1882.

In 1889, he was presented by his friends and pupils, under the presidency of the Earl of Carnarvon, with a testimonial in the form of a marble portrait bust of himself by Boehm, now deposited in the Mausoleum room at the British Museum ; the balance of the fund was by his own wish devoted to founding a studentship in connection with the British school at Athens. In 1885, he resigned the museum and academy appointments, and in 1888 he was compelled by increasing infirmity to give up the Yates professorship.

On 28 November 1894 he died at Margate, whither he had gone from his residence, 2 Montague Place, Bedford Square.

In 1874 Newton was made honorary fellow of Worcester College, Oxford, and on 9 June 1875 D.C.L. of the same university ; LL.D. of Cambridge, and Ph.D. of Strasburg in 1879 ; Companion of the Bath (C.B.) on 16 November 1875, and Knight Commander of the same order (K.C.B.) on 21 June 1887.

He was correspondent of the Institute of France, honorary director of the Archaeological Institute of Berlin, and honorary member of the Accademia dei Lincei of Rome.

On 27 April 1861 he married the distinguished painter, Ann Mary, daughter of Joseph Severn, himself a painter and the friend of John Keats, who had succeeded Newton in Rome; she died in 1866 at their residence, 74 Gower Street, Bloomsbury.

He was editor of the Collection of Ancient Greek Inscriptions in the British Museum (1874 &c. fol.), and author of numerous other official publications of the British Museum;

also of a treatise on the Method of the Study of Ancient Art, 1850;

a History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus, Cnidus, and Branchidse, 1862-3 ;

Travels and Discoveries in the Levant, 1865;

Essays on Art and Archæology, 1880;

and of many papers in periodicals, among which may be specially noted a Memoir on the Mausoleum in the Classical Museum for 1847.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mausoleum of Halicarnassus

Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, Halicarnassus also spelled Halikarnassos, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

The monument was the tomb of Mausolus, the tyrant of Caria in southwestern Asia Minor, and was built between about 353 and 351 bce by Mausolus’s sister and widow, Artemisia.

The building was designed by the Greek architects Pythius (sources spell the name variously, which has cast some doubt as to his identity) and Satyros.

The sculptures that adorned it were the work of four leading Greek artists—Scopas, Bryaxis, Leochares, and (most likely) Timotheus—each of whom was responsible for a single side.

According to the description by the Roman author Pliny the Elder (23–79 ce), the monument was almost square, with a total periphery of 411 feet (125 metres).

It was bounded by 36 columns, and the top formed a 24-step pyramid surmounted by a four-horse marble chariot.

Fragments of the Mausoleum’s sculpture that are preserved in the British Museum include a frieze of battling Greeks and Amazons and a statue 10 feet (3 metres) high, possibly of Mausolus. The Mausoleum was probably destroyed by an earthquake between the 11th and the 15th century ce, and the stones were reused in local buildings.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Scale model of a reconstruction of the Mausoleum, one of many widely differing versions, at Miniatürk, Istanbul

The ruins of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Expeditions of Burton and Speke (1857–1858)
Burton Richard

Sir Richard Burton, in full Sir Richard Francis Burton (born March 19, 1821, Torquay, Devonshire, England—died October 20, 1890, Trieste, Austria-Hungary [now in Italy]), English scholar-explorer and Orientalist who was the first European to discover Lake Tanganyika and to penetrate hitherto-forbidden Muslim cities. He published 43 volumes on his explorations and almost 30 volumes of translations, including an unexpurgated translation of The Arabian Nights.


Burton 1864
  Early life and career
Burton was of mixed English, Irish, and possibly French ancestry. His father, retiring early from an unsuccessful army career, chose to raise his two sons and daughter in France and Italy, where young Richard developed his astonishing talent for languages to such an extent that before matriculating at Trinity College, Oxford, in 1840, he had become fluent in French, Italian, and the Béarnais and Neapolitan dialects, as well as in Greek and Latin. But his continental upbringing left him ambivalent about his national identity.

He called himself “a waif, a stray…a blaze of light, without a focus,” and complained that “England is the only country where I never feel at home.”

Expelled from Oxford in 1842 because of a minor breach of discipline, he went to India as subaltern officer in the 18th Regiment of Bombay Native Infantry during England’s war with the Sindh (now a province of Pakistan).
He mastered Arabic and Hindī and during his eight-year stay became proficient also in Marāṭhī, Sindhī, Punjābī, Telugu, Pashto, and Multānī. Eventually in his travels over the world he learned 25 languages, with dialects that brought the number to 40.

As a favoured intelligence officer of Sir Charles James Napier, commander of the English forces in the Sindh, Captain Burton went in disguise as a Muslim merchant in the bazaars, bringing back detailed reports.

Napier in 1845 asked him to investigate the homosexual brothels in Karāchi; his explicit study resulted in their destruction; it also resulted, after Napier’s departure, in the destruction of Burton’s promising career, when the report was forwarded to Bombay by an unfriendly officer who hoped to see Burton dismissed in disgrace. Though the effort failed, Burton realized his reputation was irreparably clouded and returned, ill and disconsolate, to England.

From his 29th to his 32nd year he lived with his mother and sister in Boulogne, France, where he wrote four books on India, including Sindh, and the Races That Inhabit the Valley of the Indus (1851), a brilliant ethnological study, published before the new science of ethnology had a proper tradition against which its merits could be evaluated. Meanwhile he perfected his long-cherished plans for going to Mecca.


Burton in Persian disguise as "Mirza Abdullah the Bushri" (ca. 1849–50).
  Exploration in Arabia
Disguising himself as a Pathān, an Afghanistani Muslim, in 1853 he went to Cairo, Suez, and Medina, then traveled the bandit-ridden route to the sacred city of Mecca, where at great risk he measured and sketched the mosque and holy Muslim shrine, the Kaʿbah. Though not the first non-Muslim to penetrate and describe the “mother of cities,” Burton was the most sophisticated and the most accurate. His Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Mecca (1855–56) was not only a great adventure narrative but also a classic commentary on Muslim life and manners, especially on the annual pilgrimage. Instead of returning to London to enjoy his sudden fame, however, he organized a new expedition in 1854 to the equally forbidden East African city of Harar (Harer) and became the first European to enter this Muslim citadel without being executed. He described his adventures in First Footsteps in East Africa (1856).

By this time Burton had become fascinated by the idea of discovering the source of the White Nile and in 1855 planned an expedition with three officers of the British East India Company, including John Hanning Speke, intending to push across Somaliland. Africans attacked the party near Berbera, however, killing one member of the party and seriously wounding Speke. Burton himself had a javelin hurled through his jaw and was forced to return to England. After recovery, in July 1855, he went to Crimea to volunteer in the war against Russia. At the Dardanelles he helped train Turkish irregulars but saw no action at the front.
The Crimean War over, he turned again to the Nile search, leading an expedition inland from Zanzibar with John Speke in 1857–58. They suffered almost every kind of hardship Africa could inflict. When they finally arrived on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, Burton was so ill from malaria he could not walk, and Speke was virtually blind. Ailing, and disappointed by native information that the Rusizi River to the north poured into rather than out of the lake, Burton wished to return and prepare a new expedition. Speke, however, who had recovered more quickly, pushed on alone to the northeast and discovered Lake Victoria, which he was convinced was the true Nile source. Burton’s unwillingness to accept this theory without further exploration led to quarrels with Speke and their eventual estrangement.

Speke was the first to return to London, where he was lionized and given funds to return to Africa. Burton, largely ignored and denied financing for a new exploration of his own, felt betrayed. His Lake Regions of Central Africa (1860) attacked Speke’s claims and exacerbated their by then public feud.

In 1860 Burton went off unexpectedly to the United States, where he traveled by stagecoach to the Mormon capital, Salt Lake City. The resulting volume, City of the Saints (1861), showed that he could write with sophistication about the nature of the Mormon church, compose a vivid portrait of its leader, Brigham Young, and also be dispassionate about the Mormon practice of polygamy, which was then outraging most Americans. Shortly after his return from the United States, in January 1861, he and Isabel Arundell, the daughter of an aristocratic family, whom he had been courting since 1856, were married secretly.

Foreign office
Burton now entered the British Foreign Office as consul in Fernando Po, a Spanish island off the coast of West Africa. During his three years there, he made many short trips of exploration into West Africa, gathering enough material to fill five books. His explicit descriptions of tribal rituals concerning birth, marriage, and death, as well as fetishism, ritual murder, cannibalism, and bizarre sexual practices, though admired by modern anthropologists, won him no favour with the Foreign Office, which considered him eccentric if not dangerous.

Returning to London on leave in September 1864, Burton was invited to debate with Speke before the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Speke, who with the British soldier and explorer James Augustus Grant had made a memorable journey from Zanzibar to Lake Victoria and then down the whole length of the Nile, was expected to defend his conviction that Lake Victoria was the true Nile source. After the preliminary session on September 15, Speke went hunting, dying mysteriously as a result of a shotgun wound in his chest. The coroner’s jury ruled the death an accident, but Burton believed it to be a suicide. He wrote in anguish to a friend, “The charitable say that he shot himself, the uncharitable say that I shot him.”

Burton spent the next four years as consul in Santos, Braz., where he wrote a book on the highlands of Brazil (1869) and translated Vikram and the Vampire, or Tales of Hindu Devilry (1870). He also began translating the works of the romantic Portuguese poet-explorer Luís de Camões, with whom he felt a deep sense of kinship. Yet his work did not help him to overcome his increasing aversion for Brazil. He took to drink, and finally he sent his devoted wife to London to obtain a better post for him. She succeeded in persuading the Foreign Secretary to appoint Burton consul in Damascus.

Back in the Middle East, which he loved, Burton for a time was highly successful as a diplomat; but Muslim intrigue, complicated by the proselytizing indiscretions of his Roman Catholic wife, resulted in his humiliating dismissal in August 1871. The details of this event were recorded by Isabel Burton in her lively, defensive Inner Life of Syria (1875).


Sir Richard Burton
In 1872 Burton reluctantly accepted the consulate at Trieste, and although he considered it an ignominious exile, he eventually came to cherish it as his home. There he stayed until his death, publishing an astonishing variety of books. He wrote a book on Iceland, one on Etruscan Bologna (reflecting his passion for archaeology), a nostalgic volume on the Sindh, two books on the gold mines of the Midian, and one on the African Gold Coast (now Ghana), none of which matched the great narratives of his earlier adventures. His Book of the Sword (1884), a dazzling piece of historical erudition, brought him no more financial success than any of the others. In 1880 he published his best original poetry, The Kasidah, written under a pseudonym and patterned after the Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám.

In Trieste, Burton emerged as a translator of extraordinary virtuosity. He translated and annotated six volumes of Camões, a volume of Neapolitan Italian tales by Giambattista Basile, Il Pentamerone, and Latin poems by Catullus. What excited him most, however, was the erotica of the East.
Taking it upon himself to introduce to the West the sexual wisdom of the ancient Eastern manuals on the art of love, he risked prosecution and imprisonment to translate and print secretly the Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana (1883), Ananga Ranga (1885), and The Perfumed Garden of the Cheikh Nefzaoui (1886).

He also published openly, but privately, an unexpurgated 16-volume edition of the Arabian Nights (1885–88), the translation of which was so exceptional for its fidelity, masculine vigour, and literary skill that it has frightened away all competitors. Moreover, he larded these volumes with ethnological footnotes and daring essays on pornography, homosexuality, and the sexual education of women. He railed against the “immodest modesty,” the cant, and hypocrisy of his era, displaying psychological insights that anticipated both Havelock Ellis and Sigmund Freud. His Nights were praised by some for their robustness and honesty but attacked by others as “garbage of the brothels,” “an appalling collection of degrading customs and statistics of vice.”

In February 1886 Burton won belated recognition for his services to the crown when Queen Victoria made him Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George. He died in Trieste four years later. His wife, fearful lest her husband be thought vicious because he collected data on what Victorian England called vice, at once burned the projected new edition of The Perfumed Garden he had been annotating. She then wrote a biography of Burton in which she tried to fashion this Rabelaisian scholar-adventurer into a good Catholic, a faithful husband, and a refined and modest man. Afterward she burned almost all of his 40-year collection of diaries and journals. The loss to history and anthropology was monumental; the loss to Burton’s biographers, irreparable.

Fawn McKay Brodie

Encyclopædia Britannica


Routes taken by the expeditions of Burton and Speke (1857–58) and Speke and Grant (1863).
Speke John Hanning

John Hanning Speke, (born May 3, 1827, Bideford, Devon, Eng.—died Sept. 15, 1864, near Corsham, Wiltshire), British explorer who was the first European to reach Lake Victoria in East Africa, which he correctly identified as a source of the Nile.


John Hanning Speke
  Commissioned in the British Indian Army in 1844, he served in the Punjab and travelled in the Himalayas and Tibet. In April 1855, as a member of Richard Burton’s party attempting to explore Somaliland, Speke was severely wounded in an attack by the Somalis that broke up the expedition. In December 1856 he rejoined Burton on the island of Zanzibar. Their intention was to find a great lake said to lie in the heart of Africa and to be the origin of the Nile.

After exploring the East African coast for six months to find the best route inland, the two men became the first Europeans to reach Lake Tanganyika (February 1858). During the return trip, Speke left Burton and struck out northward alone. On July 30 he reached the great lake, which he named in honour of Queen Victoria.

Speke’s conclusion about the lake as a Nile source was rejected by Burton and was disputed by many in England, but the Royal Geographical Society, which had sponsored the expedition, honoured Speke for his exploits. On a second expedition (1860), he and James Grant mapped a portion of Lake Victoria. On July 28, 1862, Speke, not accompanied by Grant for this portion of the journey, found the Nile’s exit from the lake and named it Ripon Falls.

The party then tried to follow the river’s course, but an outbreak of tribal warfare required them to change their route. In February 1863 they reached Gondokoro in the southern Sudan, where they met the Nile explorers Samuel Baker and Florence von Sass (who later became Baker’s wife). Speke and Grant told them of another lake said to lie west of Lake Victoria. This information helped the Baker party to locate another Nile source, Lake Albert.

Speke’s claim to have found the Nile source was again challenged in England, and, on the day he was to debate the subject publicly with Richard Burton, he was killed by his own gun while hunting. Accounts of his explorations were published in 1863 and 1864.

Encyclopædia Britannica

The Nile Quest
Once the mystery that had cloaked the Niger for so long had largely been dissipated, travelers began to look for another legendary goal, the source or sources of the Nile. In 1839 and 1841 the Viceroy of Egypt, Mehemet AH, launched two expeditions with the purpose of achieving economic expansion southward into the Sudan. They reached the navigable head ot the Nile at a place called Gondokoro near modern Juba, leaving only the rapids south of Gondokoro between the travelers and the Nile sources. Adventurers and traders then began to move southward, raiding the land for ivory and slaves. In their detestable way they contributed to geographical knowledge by blazing trails through unknown country and sometimes allowing explorers to tag along with them and to share their protection.
Paths of the Arab traders
In the 1840s a new direction was given to the search tor the sources of the Nile by missionaries working inland trom Mombasa on the east coast on behalf of the Ghurch Missionary Society. Ludwig Krapf Johann Rcbmann, and Johann Erhardt made some important journeys and collected information from the Arab traders operating inland from the cast coast. There were, they learned, great lakes and huge mountains. Krapf and Rebmann saw these mountains for themselves, apparently covered in snow — an astonishing sight in Equatorial Africa.

The Pans Geographical Society awarded the men a medal, but the British geographers lagged behind, ridiculing the idea at first. The mountains were, in tact, Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya, and although they do not form part of the Nile system, it was the report of their existence that set others thinking about the possibility of an approach to the Nile from the cast coast.

Richard Burton

Richard Burton was painted by Lord Leighton in 1876.

The scar made by a Somali spear in 1855 is visible on his cheek.

Burton was both an outstanding swordsman and a fine oriental scholar.

He was not, however, a man who could stand correction.

As Speke put it, he was "one of those men who never can be wrong."
Burton and Speke: explorers at odds
Two men whose names will always be associated with the Nile first came together in 1854: Richard Burton and John Hanmng Speke, both British Indian Army officers. Burton had recently accomplished his spectacular journey to Mecca and was keen to travel in Africa. Spekc's enthusiasm was big game hunting; his preoccupation with finding the source of the Nile was to develop later. In 1856 the British Royal Geographical Society' (RGS) invited Burton to lead an expedition in search of the Nile sources from the east coast of Africa. Instructions were based largely on the reports of the Mombasa missionaries, and reference was made to a map drawn by Erhardt of a vast inland sea which was to resolve itself eventually into Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, and Lake Tanganyika.

John Hanning Speke was, in contrast to Burton, reserved and
aloof in his manner, a poor linguist, uninterested in scholarly
pursuits, and a devoted big game hunter.
Like many African travelers, Burton and Speke started off in Zanzibar, the base of the Arab ivory and slave traders, where the Indian bankers had their depots and where porters congregated for hire. They set off on 16 June 1857 from Bagamoyo, not knowing at this stage whether they were likely to find one lake, or two, or three. The RGS told them to explore first "the Nyasa" (the Swahili word for lake) and then to turn north to investigate possible mountains which might give rise to the White Nile.

African followers

The porters recruited by Burton and Speke in Zanzibar were among the many Africans who made exploration of the continent possible. Without them no long expedition could have taken place in East Africa, where the prevalence of the tsetse fly prevented the use of pack animals.
A work force of 350 or more could be needed, making it essential to recruit loyal captains and headmen with organizational skills. Such men also played an important part in negotiations with local chiefs, for most spoke Swahili and mission education had taught them some English.
The two men made their way west to Lake Tanganyika, which ranks as Burton's "discovery," but arrived there too ill and with stores too depleted to explore the lake. Burton's legs were paralysed. Speke was almost blind from ophthalmia, and he had gone deaf owing to a beetle penetrating his ear. It was impossible to hire a boat to take them to the north end of the lake, where a river was reported as running either out of or into the lake. In the first case it might be the Nile, in the second case it could not be. It was not until Livingstone and Stanley visited the northern tip of Lake Tanganyika in 1872 that the Ruzizi was finally identified as an inflowing stream.

Back at Tabora, both somewhat recovered, Speke took an opportunity to visit a lake to the north, of which he had heard from the Arabs. His immediate claim that this lake, which he had no hesitation in naming "Victoria," was the source of the Nile was no more than an inspired guess, and it was to be many years before this was confirmed by further exploration. Burton, according to Speke, "snubbed" him "most unpleasantly" and thus began the famous quarrel between Burton and Speke over whether Lake Tanganyika or Lake Victoria was the source of the Nile.
Speke and Grant
The argument could only be resolved by the collection of more information.

In 1860 the RGS sent Speke back to Africa with James Augustus Grant, a more congenial companion than the brilliant, eccentric Burton.

The two men worked their way up the western side of Lake Victoria into Buganda — the first European visitors to this Bantu kingdom — of which Speke has left historians an interesting account.

His description of how he measured the vital statistics of some of the royal ladies sent a delicious shiver of horror down Victorian spines.

After five months in Buganda, subject to the whims of the Kabaka Mtesa, Speke was allowed to make a quick dash to the northern end of the lake, where he identified the Nile flowing over what he called the Ripon Falls.

Together with Grant he then followed the river downstream into Bunyoro, but since time was pressing and supplies were running short they had to cut across country to Gondokoro, where they hoped to find boats to take them down the Nile to Khartoum.

Here, to their amazement, they encountered an old tnend, Samuel Baker.
James Augustus Grant, Speke's companion in the search for the source of the Nile, was a modest, unassuming Scot, whose loyalty to Speke never wavered.
see also: Islam's Holy Cities
Explorations of Anderson Karl John (1857-1858)

Explorations of Anderson Karl John
see also: Southern Africa
McClintock Francis

Admiral Sir Francis Leopold McClintock or Francis Leopold M'Clintock KCB, FRS (8 July 1819 – 17 November 1907) was an Irish explorer in the British Royal Navy who is known for his discoveries in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.


Admiral Sir Francis Leopold McClintock, 1856
Sir Francis Leopold McClintock was the eldest son of Henry McClintock, formerly of the 3rd dragoon guards, by his wife Elizabeth Melesina, daughter of the Ven. George Fleury, D.D., archdeacon of Waterford. His uncle was John McClintock (1770–1855) of Drumcar House. In 1835 McClintock became a member of the Royal Navy as a gentleman volunteer, and joined a series of searches for Sir John Franklin between 1848 and 1859. He mastered traveling by using human hauled sleds, which remained the status quo in Royal Navy Arctic and Antarctic overland travel until the death of Captain Robert Falcon Scott RN in his bid to reach the South Pole. In 1848-49, McClintock accompanied James Clark Ross on his survey of Somerset Island. As part of Capt. Henry Kellett's expedition 1852 to 1854, McClintock traveled 1,400 miles by sled and discovered 800 miles of previously unknown coastline.

In 1854 John Rae (explorer) traveled west from Repulse Bay, Nunavut and learned from the Inuit that a ship had been abandoned somewhere to the west. Previous expeditions had not searched the area because they thought it was ice-blocked. In April 1857 McClintock agreed to take command of the Fox (ship) (177 tons, 25-man crew), which belonged to Lady Franklin, and search for her husband in the area west of Repulse Bay. At Disko Bay he hired 30 sled dogs and an Inuit driver.


McClintock's Travelling Party Discovering the Remains of Cairn at Cape Herschel -
Walter W. May (1855)

The 'Fox' on a Rock Near Buchan Island - Walter W. May (1855)

Sir Francis McClintock
  It was a bad year for ice and from September he was frozen in for eight months.

1858 was another bad year and he did not reach Beechey Island until August.
He entered Peel Sound, found it blocked by ice, backed up, entered Prince Regent Inlet in the hope of passing Bellot Strait. He was glad to extricate himself from this narrow passage and found winter quarters near its entrance.

In February 1859, when sledging became practical, he went south to the North Magnetic Pole which had been found by James Clark Ross in 1831.

Here he met some Inuit who told him that a ship had been crushed by ice off King William Island, the crew had landed safely and that some white people had starved to death on an island.

In April he went south again and on the east coast of King William Island met other Inuit who sold him artifacts from Franklin's expedition. William Hobson, who had separated from him, found the only written record left by Franklin on the northwest corner of the island.

They also found a skeleton with European clothes and a ships boat on runners containing two corpses. They got as far south as Montreal Island (Nunavut) and the mouth of the Back River.

McClintock returned to England in September 1859 and was knighted. The officers and men of the Fox shared a £5,000 parliamentary reward.
The tale was published in

The Voyage of the 'Fox' in the Arctic Seas: A Narrative of the Discovery of the Fate of Sir John Franklin and His Companions. London, 1859.

In 1872–1877 McClintock was Admiral-Superintendent of Portsmouth Dockyard.

In 1879 he was appointed Commander-in-Chief, North America and West Indies Station.

McClintock left the Royal Navy in 1884 as a Rear Admiral.

He died on 17 November 1907. He was buried in Kensington Cemetery, Hanwell, Middlesex.

His son, Robert S. McClintock, married Mary, only daughter of Major-General Sir Howard Craufurd Elphinstone.

On 29 October 2009 a special service of thanksgiving was held in the chapel at the Old Royal Naval College in Greenwich, to accompany the rededication of the national monument to Sir John Franklin there.

It also marked the 150th anniversary of Francis Leopold McClintock's voyage aboard the yacht Fox.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cover of The Voyage of the 'Fox' in the Arctic Seas

Explorations of Francis McClintock (1857-1859)

see also:

Charting the Northwest
Alpine Club
The Alpine Club was founded in London in 1857 and is the world's first mountaineering club. It is UK mountaineering's acknowledged 'senior club'.
On 22 December 1857 a group of British mountaineers met at Ashley's Hotel in London. All were active in the Alps and instrumental in the development of alpine mountaineering during the golden age of alpinism (1854–1865). It was at this meeting that the Alpine Club, under the chairmanship of E. S. Kennedy, was born. John Ball was the first president and Kennedy, the first vice-president, succeeded him as president of the club from 1860 to 1863. It then moved its headquarters to the Metropole Hotel.

For climbing, a rope was required which would be both strong and light so that lengths of it could be carried easily. A committee of the club tested samples from suppliers and prepared a specification. The official Alpine Club Rope was then made by John Buckingham of Bloomsbury. It was made from three strands of manila hemp, treated to be rot proof and marked with a red thread of worsted yarn.

One hundred and fifty years later, the Alpine Club continues, and its members remain extremely active in the Alps and the Greater Ranges, as well as in mountain arts, literature and science.

For many years it had the characteristics of a London-based Gentlemen's club, including a certain imprecision in the qualification for membership (said to have been 'A reasonable number of respectable peaks'). Until 1974, the club was strictly for men only, but in 1975, within months of membership being opened to women, a merger with the Ladies' Alpine Club was agreed, and the Club thus gained about 150 new members. By the last quarter of the 20th century, the club had evolved into Britain's senior mountaineering club, with a clear qualification for membership, for both men and women, and an 'aspirant' grade for those working towards full membership. However, it still requires prospective members to be proposed and seconded by existing members.
Advert in Whymper's Guides Advertiser in 1897.
Though the club organises some UK-based meets, its primary focus has always tended towards mountaineering overseas, and it is associated more with exploratory mountaineering than with purely technical climbing (the early club was once dismissed as doing very little climbing but 'a lot of walking steeply uphill').

These higher technical standards were often to be found in offshoots such as the 'Alpine Climbing Group' (ACG), founded in 1952.

The club has produced a suite of guidebooks which cover some of the more popular Alpine mountaineering regions. It also holds extensive book and photo libraries as well as an archive of historical artifacts which are regularly loaned out to exhibitions. The club's history has recently been documented by George Band in his book Summit: 150 Years of the Alpine Club, and its artists in The Artists of the Alpine Club by Peter Mallalieu. Its members' activities are recounted annually in the club's publication the Alpine Journal.

As of 2009, the membership subscription costs between £39 and £60 per year, with a £27 rate for younger members. There is no joining fee.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"The Atlantic Monthly"
The Atlantic is an American magazine, founded (as The Atlantic Monthly) in 1857 in Boston, Massachusetts, now based in Washington, D.C. It was created as a literary and cultural commentary magazine, growing to achieve a national reputation as a high-quality review with a moderate worldview. The magazine has notably recognized and published new writers and poets, as well as encouraged major careers. It has also published leading writers' commentary on abolition, education, and other major issues in contemporary political affairs. The magazine has won more National Magazine Awards than any other monthly magazine.
After experiencing financial hardship and a series of ownership changes, the magazine was reformatted as a general editorial magazine. Focusing on "foreign affairs, politics, and the economy [as well as] cultural trends", it is now primarily aimed at a target audience of serious national readers and "thought leaders".

The magazine's initiator and founder was Francis H. Underwood, an assistant to the publisher, who received less recognition than his partners because he was "neither a 'humbug' nor a Harvard man". The other founding sponsors were prominent writers, including Ralph Waldo Emerson; Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.; Henry Wadsworth Longfellow; Harriet Beecher Stowe; John Greenleaf Whittier; and James Russell Lowell, who served as its first editor.

In 2010, The Atlantic posted its first profit in the previous decade. In profiling the publication at the time, The New York Times noted the accomplishment was the result of "a cultural transfusion, a dose of counterintuition and a lot of digital advertising revenue."

Format, publication frequency, and name
The magazine, subscribed to by over 400,000 readers, now publishes ten times a year. As the former name suggests, it was a monthly magazine for 144 years until 2001, when it published eleven issues; it published ten issues yearly from 2003 on, dropped "Monthly" from the cover starting with the January/February 2004 issue, and officially changed the name in 2007.

The Atlantic features articles in the fields of the arts, the economy, foreign affairs, political science, and technology. Regular contributors include James Fallows and Jeffrey Goldberg.

In April 2005, The Atlantic‍‍'​‍s editors decided to cease publishing fiction in regular issues in favor of a newsstand-only annual fiction issue edited by longtime staffer C. Michael Curtis. They have since re-instituted the practice.

On January 22, 2008, TheAtlantic.com dropped its subscriber wall and allowed users to freely browse its site, including all past archives. In addition to TheAtlantic.com, The Atlantic's web properties have expanded to include TheAtlanticWire.com, a news- and opinion-tracking site launched in 2009, and in 2011, TheAtlanticCities.com, a stand-alone website devoted to global cities and trends. According to a Mashable profile in December 2011, "traffic to the three web properties recently surpassed 11 million uniques per month, up a staggering 2500% since The Atlantic brought down its paywall in early 2008."

TheAtlantic.com covers politics, business, entertainment, technology, health, international affairs, and more.

First publication of "Battle Hymn of the Republic"
In December 2011, a new Health Channel launched on TheAtlantic.com, incorporating coverage of food, as well as topics related to the mind, body, sex, family, and public health. TheAtlantic.com has also expanded to visual storytelling with the addition of the In Focus photo blog, curated by Alan Taylor, and the Video Channel.
Literary history
A leading literary magazine, The Atlantic has published many significant works and authors. It was the first to publish pieces by the abolitionists Julia Ward Howe ("Battle Hymn of the Republic" on February 1, 1862), and William Parker's slave narrative, "The Freedman's Story" (in February and March 1866).

It also published Charles W. Eliot's "The New Education", a call for practical reform that led to his appointment to presidency of Harvard University in 1869; works by Charles Chesnutt before he collected them in The Conjure Woman (1899); and poetry and short stories, helping launch many national literary careers. For example, Emily Dickinson, after reading an article in The Atlantic by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, asked him to become her mentor. In 2005, the magazine won a National Magazine Award for fiction.

The magazine also published many of the works of Mark Twain, including one that was lost until 2001. Editors have recognized major cultural changes and movements; for example, the magazine published Martin Luther King, Jr.'s defense of civil disobedience in "Letter from Birmingham Jail" in August 1963.

The magazine has also published speculative articles that inspired the development of new technologies. The classic example is Vannevar Bush's essay "As We May Think" (July 1945), which inspired Douglas Engelbart and later Ted Nelson to develop the modern workstation and hypertext technology.

The cover of the original issue of The Atlantic, November 1, 1857
In addition to its fiction and poetry, the magazine publishes writing on society and politics. "A three-part series by William Langewiesche in 2002 on the rebuilding of the World Trade Center generated headlines, as have articles by James Fallows on planning for the Iraq war and reconstruction."

As of 2012, its writers included Mark Bowden, Ta-Nehisi Coates, James Fallows, Jeffrey Goldberg, Robert D. Kaplan, Megan McArdle, and Jeffrey Tayler.
For all but recent decades, The Atlantic was known as a distinctively New England literary magazine (as opposed to Harper's and later The New Yorker, both from New York City). It achieved a national reputation and was important to the careers of many American writers and poets. By its third year, it was published by the famous Boston publishing house Ticknor and Fields (later to become part of Houghton Mifflin. The magazine was purchased in 1908 by its then editor, Ellery Sedgwick, but remained in Boston.

In 1980, the magazine was acquired by Mortimer Zuckerman, property magnate and founder of Boston Properties, who became its Chairman. On September 27, 1999, Zuckerman transferred ownership of the magazine to David G. Bradley, owner of the Beltway news-focused National Journal Group. Bradley had promised that the magazine would stay in Boston for the foreseeable future, as it did for the next five and a half years.

In April 2005, however, the publishers announced that the editorial offices would be moved from its long-time home at 77 North Washington Street in Boston to join the company's advertising and circulation divisions in Washington, D.C. Later in August, Bradley told the New York Observer, cost cutting from the move would amount to a minor $200,000–$300,000 and those savings would be swallowed by severance-related spending.

Atlantic Monthly office, Ticknor & Fields, 124 Tremont Street, Boston, ca.1868
The reason was to create a hub in Washington where the top minds from all of Bradley's publications could collaborate under the Atlantic Media Company umbrella. Few of the Boston staff agreed to relocate, and Bradley embarked on an open search for a new editorial staff.

In 2006, Bradley hired James Bennet as editor-in-chief, who had been the Jerusalem bureau chief for The New York Times. He also hired writers including Jeffrey Goldberg and Andrew Sullivan. Jay Lauf joined the organization as publisher and vice-president in 2008.

The Wire
The Wire (previously known as The Atlantic Wire) is a sister site of TheAtlantic.com that aggregates news and opinions from online, print, radio, and television outlets. When The Atlantic Wire first launched in 2009, it curated op-eds from across the media spectrum and summarized significant positions in each debate. Expanded to encompass news and original reporting, regular features include "What I Read", showcasing the media diets of individuals from the worlds of entertainment, journalism, and politics, and "Trimming the Times", a summary of the feature editor's choices of the best content in The New York Times. The Atlantic Wire rebranded itself as The Wire in November 2013.

CityLab (formerly The Atlantic Cities) is the latest expansion of The Atlantics digital properties, launched in September 2011. The stand-alone site has been described as exploring and explaining "the most innovative ideas and pressing issues facing today’s global cities and neighborhoods." Featuring the work of Richard Florida, urban theorist, professor, and Atlantic senior editor, TheAtlanticCities.com also has been described as showcasing leading voices in the urban planning and community building arenas. The Atlantic Cities was rebranded as CityLab on May 16, 2014. In June 2015, it hosted the U.S. launch of the Universe Within, the final installment in the Highrise web documentary project.

Cover of The Atlantic
In June 2006, the Chicago Tribune named it one of the top ten English-language magazines, describing it as "a gracefully aging ... 150-year-old granddaddy of periodicals" because "it keeps us smart and in the know" with cover stories on the then-forthcoming fight over Roe v. Wade. It also lauded regular features such as "Word Fugitives" and "Primary Sources" as "cultural barometers."

On September 10, 2012, Salon criticized the current iteration of The Atlantic beginning with, "The magazine's features are always engaging but often seem to lack critical historical perspective", and the provocative, "Is the Atlantic making us stupid?"

Controversy and criticism
The Atlantic Media Company receives substantial financial support from the Gates Foundation through the National Journal ($240,000+) to provide coverage of education-related issues that are of interest to the Gates Foundation and its frequent partner in education policy initiatives, the Lumina Foundation. Critics have suggested that this funding may lead to biased coverage and have noted the Lumina Foundation's connections to the private student loan company Sallie Mae. Gates-funding of the National Journal is not always disclosed in articles or editorials about the Gates Foundation or Bill Gates, or in coverage of education white papers by other Lumina or Gates Foundation grantees, such as the New America Foundation.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Baden-Powell Robert

Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, also called (1922–29) Sir Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baronet (born Feb. 22, 1857, London, Eng.—died Jan. 8, 1941, Nyeri, Kenya), British army officer who became a national hero for his 217-day defense of Mafeking (now Mafikeng) in the South African War of 1899–1902; he later became famous as founder of the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides (also called Girl Scouts).


Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
  In 1884–85 Baden-Powell became noted for his use of observation balloons in warfare in Bechuanaland (now Botswana) and the Sudan. From Oct. 12, 1899, to May 17, 1900, he defended Mafeking, holding off a much larger Boer force until the siege was lifted. After the war he recruited and trained the South African constabulary.

On returning to England in 1903, he was appointed inspector general of cavalry, and the next year he established the Cavalry School, Netheravon, Wiltshire. He was promoted to lieutenant general in 1907.

Having learned that his military textbook Aids to Scouting (1899) was being used for training boys in woodcraft, Baden-Powell ran a trial camp on Brownsea Island, off Poole, Dorset, in 1907, and he wrote an outline for the proposed Boy Scout movement.

Scout troops sprang up all over Britain, and for their use Baden-Powell’s Scouting for Boys was issued in 1908. He retired from the army in 1910 to devote all his time to the Boy Scouts, and in the same year he and his sister Agnes (1858–1945) founded the Girl Guides (in the United States, Girl Scouts from 1912).

His wife, Olave, Lady Baden-Powell (1889–1977), also did much to promote the Girl Guides. In 1916 he organized the Wolf Cubs in Great Britain (Cub Scouts in the United States) for boys under the age of 11. At the first international Boy Scout Jamboree (London, 1920), he was acclaimed chief scout of the world.

A baronet from 1922, Baden-Powell was created a baron in 1929. He spent his last years in Kenya for his health.

His autobiography, Lessons of a Lifetime (1933), was followed by Baden-Powell (1942, 2nd ed. 1957), by Ernest Edwin Reynolds, and The Boy-Man: The Life of Lord Baden-Powell (1989), by Tim Jeal.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Baden-Powell on a patriotic postcard in 1900
Financial and economic crisis throughout Europe, caused by speculation in U.S. railroad shares
Matrimonial Causes Act
The Matrimonial Causes Act 1857 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Act reformed the law on divorce, moving litigation from the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to the civil courts, establishing a model of marriage based on contract rather than sacrament and widening the availability of divorce beyond those who could afford to bring proceedings for annulment or to promote a private Bill. It was one of the Matrimonial Causes Acts 1857 to 1878.
Before the Act, divorce was governed by the ecclesiastical Court of Arches and the canon law of the Church of England. As such, it was not administered by the barristers who practised in the common law courts but by the "advocates" and "proctors" who practised civil law from Doctors' Commons, adding to the obscurity of the proceedings. Divorce allowing remarriage was de facto restricted to the very wealthy, as it demanded either a complex annulment process or a private bill, either at great cost. The latter entailed sometimes lengthy debates about a couple's intimate marital relationship in public in the House of Commons.

A bill to create a civil court to regulate divorce and to allow it to proceed by ordinary civil litigation had been proposed by Lord Aberdeen's coalition but had made no progress. The procedure had largely been designed by Lord Chief Justice Lord Campbell. When Lord Palmerston came to power in 1855, the bill was relaunched. The bill was introduced in the House of Lords and supported by Archbishop of Canterbury John Bird Sumner and the usually conservative Henry Phillpotts, Bishop of Exeter.

The bill proved controversial, raising particular opposition from future Liberal Party leader William Ewart Gladstone, who saw it as an usurpation of the authority of the Church, and from Bishop of Oxford Samuel Wilberforce. Palmerston eventually steered the bill through Parliament, despite Gladstone's attempted filibuster.

The Act
The Act created a new Court of Divorce and Matrimonial Causes and gave it jurisdiction to hear and decide civil actions for divorce. Further, it gave rights of audience both to common law barristers and civil law advocates, removing the advocates' previous monopoly in divorce proceedings. It abolished adultery as a criminal offence.

It came into force on 1 January 1858

  Differential gender treatment
The Act explicitly made divorce easier for men than for women: a husband could petition for divorce on the sole grounds that his wife had committed adultery; whereas a wife could only hope for a divorce based on adultery combined with other offenses such as incest, cruelty, bigamy, desertion, etc., or based on cruelty alone. (Nelson, p. 114)

The Act allowed legal separation by either husband or wife on grounds of adultery, cruelty, or desertion. (Nelson, p. 112)

The Act also required that a suit by a husband for adultery name the adulterer as a co-respondent, whereas this was not required in a suit by a wife. (Nelson, p. 114)

Implementation and impact
In England and Wales

Such a court would require sensitive but firm supervision and Palmerston appointed Sir Cresswell Cresswell as its first judge-in-ordinary with bipartisan support. Cresswell was not an obvious appointment. A mercantile lawyer who had been somewhat diffident as a junior judge in the Court of Common Pleas, Cresswell was a bachelor with a reputation for impatience and a short temper. However, he succeeded superbly in establishing the authority, dignity and efficiency of the new regime.

In the first year of operation of the Act, there were three hundred divorce petitions, as against three in the previous year and there were fears of chaos. Campbell sat in some of the earliest hearings but was afraid that he had created a "Frankenstein". However, Cresswell took a managerial role in regulating the new flood of litigation. He showed great sensitivity in dealing with genuine grievances but upheld the sanctity of marriage and was capable of being severe when necessary. However, he was also instrumental in moving the legal view of divorce from that based on a sacrament to that based on contract. He worked with colossal speed and energy, deciding over one thousand cases in six years, only one of which was reversed on appeal.

He achieved some public fame and huge respect, popularly being held as representing the five million married women of Britain.

The Act was also an important enabling step in unifying and rationalising the legal system of England and Wales, a process that was largely effected by the Judicature Acts (1873–1875). It also catalysed the unification of the legal profession. By the abolition of any remaining important role for canon lawyers, it ultimately led to the demise of the Doctors' Commons.

Overseas impact
The Matrimonial Causes Act 1857 also had impact in some of Britain's overseas possessions. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council held that the Act was part of the local law of the four western provinces of Canada, having been received by those provinces under the doctrine of the reception of English statute law. The Act formed the basis for divorce law in those provinces until the enactment of a uniform Divorce Act by the Parliament of Canada in 1968.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

North German Lloyd

Norddeutscher Lloyd (NDL) (North German Lloyd) was a German shipping company. It was founded by Hermann Henrich Meier and Eduard Crüsemann in Bremen on 20 February, 1857. It developed into one of the most important German shipping companies of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and was instrumental in the economic development of Bremen and Bremerhaven. On 1 September, 1970, the company merged with Hamburg America Line (HAPAG) to form Hapag-Lloyd AG.

Establishment of the NDL
The German shipping company North German Lloyd (NDL) was founded by the Bremen merchants Hermann Henrich Meier and Eduard Crüsemann on 20 February, 1857, after the dissolution of the Ocean Steam Navigation Company, a joint German-American enterprise. The new shipping company had no association with the British maritime classification society Lloyd's Register; in the mid-19th century, "Lloyd" was used as a term for a shipping company (an earlier user of the term in the same context was the Trieste-based Österreichischer Lloyd).

H.H. Meier became NDL's first Chairman of the Supervisory Board, and Crüsemann became the first director of the company (German Aktiengesellschaft - AG). Crüsemann was in charge of both cargo services and passenger transport, which, as a result of emigration, was growing significantly. The company was also active in other areas, including tugboats, bathing, insurance, and ship repair (the last of which it still provides). The first office of the shipping company was located at number 13 Martinistraße in Bremen.

The company started with a route to England prior to starting a transatlantic service. In 1857, the first ship, the Adler (Eagle), began regular passenger service between the Weser region (where Bremen is located) and England. On 28 October, 1857, it made its maiden voyage from Nordenham to London.

Just one year later, regular, scheduled services were started between the new port in Bremerhaven and New York using two 2,674 GRT steamships, the Bremen and the New York.

1857 NDL prospectus announcing formation of the company and offering stock for sale
International economic crises made the start of the NDL extremely difficult, and the company took losses until 1859. However, during the succeeding years, passenger connections to Baltimore and New Orleans were added to the schedule, and the company first rented and then in 1869 bought facilities on the waterfront in Hoboken, New Jersey.

In 1867-1868, NDL began a partnership with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which initiated the Baltimore Line; until 1978, this had its own ships. In 1869, Crüsemann died at only 43 years old. From 1877 to 1892, the Director of NDL was Johann Georg Lohmann. He established a new policy for the company, emphasizing fast liners. Eventually, however, H.H. Meier and Lohmann fell out over the direction of the company. In 1892, a 5,481 GRT twin-screw steamer, the company's first, was christened the H.H. Meier after the founder; this helped to heal the breach between them.


Headquarters of North German Lloyd in Bremerhaven in 1870

Foundation of the German Empire
During the Gründerzeit at the beginning of the German Empire, the NDL expanded greatly. Thirteen new ships of the "Strassburg class" were ordered. A route to the West Indies offered from 1871 to 1874 proved unprofitable, but was followed by a permanent line to the east coast of South America. On the transatlantic route, the HAPAG, the Holland-America Line, and the Red Star Line were now all fierce rivals. Beginning in 1881 with the Elbe, eleven fast steamships of from 4500 to 6,900 GRT of the so-called "Rivers class" (all named for German rivers), were introduced to serve the North Atlantic trade.

In 1885, the NDL won the commission to provide postal service between the German Empire and Australia and the Far East. The associated subsidy underwrote further expansion, beginning with the first large-scale order placed with a German shipyard, for three postal steamers for the major routes and three smaller steamers for branch service from AG Vulcan Stettin. It was in fact a requirement of the commission that the ships be built in Germany.

By 1890, with 66 ships of a total 251,602 GRT, NDL was the second largest shipping company in the world, after the British Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, with 48 ships of a total 251,603 GRT, and dominated shipping to Germany, with 31.6% of the traffic. NDL was also the carrying more transatlantic passengers to New York than any other company, due to its dominance in steerage, which consisted mostly of immigrants. In cabin class, it carried only slightly more passengers than the British Cunard Line and White Star Line. 42% of NDL's passenger traffic was to New York, and 15% to other US ports, but only 16.2% eastward-bound from New York. Its westbound South Atlantic service represented 17.3% of its passengers; eastbound from South America, only 1.7%.

In 1887, the NDL withdrew from the route to England in favor of Argo Reederei. However, it continued to provide tug services through participation beginning in 1899 in the Schleppschifffahrtsgesellschaft Unterweser (Unterweser Tug Association, now Unterweser Reederei).

  Expansion and dominance
H.H. Meyer stood down from the board in 1888; he was succeeded by Friedrich Reck. Johann Georg Lohmann became Director of the company; following his death in 1892, Reck stepped down and Georg Plate became chairman. The lawyer Heinrich Wiegand became Director; from 1899 onwards, his title was Director General. He held this position until 1909, and presided over appreciable expansion.

In 1897, with the commissioning of SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Große, the NDL finally had a major ship for the North Atlantic. This was the largest and fastest ship in the world, and the company benefited from the reputation advantage of the Blue Riband for the fastest Atlantic crossing, with an average speed of 22.3 knots.

Between 1897 and 1907, the line followed with three further four-screw and four-funnel steamers of the Kaiser class, of 14,000–19,000 GT: the SS Kronprinz Wilhelm, the SS Kaiser Wilhelm II and the SS Kronprinzessin Cecilie. With these the company offered a regular service across the Atlantic to its docks at Hoboken, New Jersey, across the Hudson River from New York.

So began the "decade of Germans" in transatlantic shipping, in which the NDL and the HAPAG dominated the routes with several record-breaking ships and vied with the British Cunard Line and the White Star Line as the largest shipping companies in the world.

In 1902 and 1904, two NDL ships again won the Blue Riband: SS Kronprinz Wilhelm, now with an average speed of 23.09 knots, for the westbound passage from Cherbourg to New York and the Kaiser Wilhelm II with 23.58 knots in the eastbound passage. In 1907, RMS Lusitania, and then in 1909, RMS Mauretania, both of the British Cunard Line, won the Blue Riband back for the British, and Mauretania then retained it until 1929.

Between 1894 and 1908, NDL ordered many other freight and passenger steamers from several German yards. These included the Barbarossa class (over 10,000 GRT, for Australia, the Far East, and the North Atlantic) and the Generals class (approximately 8,500 BRT, for the Far East and Australia).


North Germany Lloyd's docks in Hoboken, 1909
NDL in the 20th century
Beginning in 1899, the NDL expanded into the Pacific, acquiring the entire fleets of two small British lines, the Scottish Oriental Steamship Company and the Holt East Indian Ocean Steamship Company, and setting up between 14 and 16 passenger and freight routes in conjunction with the postal service. In 1900, 14 of NDL's passenger ships were requisitioned as troop transports due to the Boxer Rebellion in China; on 27 July, Kaiser Wilhelm II delivered his "Schrecklichkeit" speech, in which he compared the military of the German Empire to the Huns, at the departure ceremony for Friedrich Der Grosse. This inspired Britain later, when they seized a number of German ships, to rename them to names beginning with "Hun", such as "Huntsgreen" and "Huntsend". In German, these ships were collectively named "Hunnendampfer" (Huns' steamers).

At the beginning of the 20th century, the U.S. banking magnate J.P. Morgan began to acquire a number of shipping companies, including the White Star Line, the Leyland Line, and the Red Star Line, to build a transatlantic monopoly. He succeeded in signing both HAPAG and NDL to an alliance, but was unable to acquire the British Cunard Line, and the French Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (CGT). HAPAG and NDL gave Morgan the largest U.S. rail company, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and so Morgan offered to divide the market. The Holland-America Line and the Red Star Line together divided a contract for the passengers of the four companies. Ruinous competition was prevented. In 1912, the Morgan Agreement was terminated.

In 1907, the Norddeutscher Lloyd's fiftieth anniversary, it had 93 vessels, 51 smaller vessels, two sail training vessels and other river steamers. NDL had around 15,000 employees. Because of the high investment costs and an international economic crisis, the shipping company celebrated at this time but also with considerable financial difficulties.

Despite the financial difficulties, between 1907 and 1910 the company built a new headquarters on Papenburgstrasse in Bremen, the prestigious NDL Building to plans by architect Johann Poppe, who was also the lead interior designer for the company's liners.

  The building, the largest in the city at the time, was in eclectic Renaissance Revival style with a tower. It was sold in 1942 to Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau and when the company was broken up into its constituent parts after World War II, passed to AG Weser. However, it had been severely damaged by bombing and was ultimately demolished and a Horten department store built on the site in 1969. The adjacent new shopping mall bears the name Lloyd Passage.

The lucrative North Atlantic route was extremely competitive in this period, with new, attractive ships from other large companies including the RMS Lusitania, RMS Mauretania, and RMS Aquitania, of the Cunard Line, and the RMS Olympic, RMS Titanic, and RMS Britannic of the White Star Line. The HAPAG introduced three new vessels of the Imperator class, SS Imperator, SS Vaterland, and SS Bismarck, with a size of 50,000 GT. The NDL responded with smaller but prestigious vessels such as the SS Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm and the SS George Washington, and transferred the SS Berlin from Mediterranean service to the New York run. Finally in 1914 the company ordered two 33,000 GRT liners of the Columbus class; however, World War I prevented their completion.

In this era of "open borders" to transatlantic travel, the largest passenger group making the transatlantic crossing were immigrants from Europe to the United States, and NDL carried more than any other steamship line. During 1900-1914, the three NDL vessels carrying the most transatlantic migrants, Rhein, Main and Neckar, each brought over 100 thousand steerage passengers to New York, Baltimore and Philadelphia.

The economic downturn following the Panic of 1907 led to a sharp fall-off of migrant traffic to America, only partially offset by increased steerage flows back to Europe, and this was the main contributing factor to "one of the blackest years in the Company's history."

In 1914, NDL employed approximately 22,000 people. Its success thus directly influenced the rapid growth of the city of Bremerhaven, which had been founded only in 1827.

Director General Dr. Wiegand died in 1909, and was succeeded by Dr. Phillip Heineken until 1920.

World War I
For NDL as a civilian shipping line, the beginning of World War I was a trial, as well as a logistical challenge because a large part of the fleet was at sea around the World. However, most ships were able to reach neutral ports. The logistical operations of NDL in Bremerhaven were placed almost exclusively at the service of the German Navy.[28] NDL owned a majority interest in the Deutsche Ozean-Reederei ("German Ocean Shipping Service"), which used U-boats for trade and made some successful Atlantic crossings.

NDL Headquarters Building built in 1907–10
Post war
At the start of the war, the NDL's fleet totaled more than 900,000 GRT. Under the Treaty of Versailles at war's end, all ships over 1,600 GRT and half of all units from 100 to 1,600 GRT were confiscated. The United States had already confiscated in 1917 the facilities in Hoboken and the NDL ships at the dock there. The prewar NDL fleet no longer existed. The company was left with some small ships totalling 57,000 GRT. With these the company restarted daytrip passenger service, tug service, and freight service in 1919. The 'flagship' was the 781-ton Grüß Gott. From 1920 to 1939, NDL participated in the Seedienst Ostpreußen passenger and goods service to East Prussia.

In 1920, an air transport subsidiary was founded and soon merged with Sablatnig Flugzeugbau GmbH to form Lloyd Luftverkehr Sablatnig. In 1923 this combined with HAPAG's air transport subsidiary to form Deutscher Aero Lloyd, which on 6 January 1926 merged with Junkers Luftverkehr AG to become Deutsche Luft Hansa A.G., the predecessor of Lufthansa.

In August 1920, the NDL made an agency agreement with the U.S. Mail Steamship Co. (beginning in 1921, United States Lines). This made it possible to resume transatlatic service from Bremerhaven to New York with the former Rhein, now sailing under the US flag as the Susquehanna. The unfinished Columbus had been awarded to Great Britain after the war and was bought in 1920 by White Star, which had lost significant tonnage in the war and also wished to make up for the pre-war loss of the Titanic. However, work at Danzig proceeded very slowly. Finally in autumn 1921 the so-called Columbus Agreement was reached, under which the German government and NDL undertook to facilitate rapid completion of the Columbus in exchange for the British government returning ownership to the NDL of six smaller ships which had spent the war years in South America: the postal steamers Seydlitz and Yorck, the Gotha, and the freighters Göttingen, Westfalen and Holstein. The company also began to build new freighters and passenger ships and to buy back other ships. In late 1921, service to South America was resumed with the Seydlitz, and in early 1922, East Asian service with the Westfalen. On 12 February 1922, service to New York with NDL's own ships resumed with Seydlitz. The other ship of the Columbus class, the 32,354 GRT former Hindenburg, was completed in 1924 and named Columbus; she was placed in scheduled transatlantic passenger service.

A brief post-war boom was followed by severe inflation in Germany, despite which NDL continued to expand their fleet. Twelve new ships of between 8,700 and 11,400 GRT were placed in service for South and Central America and the Far East, then in addition to Columbus three new ships of between 13,000 and 15,000 GRT for the North Atlantic (the München, Stuttgart and Berlin), and in 1927 the former Zeppelin was bought back from Great Britain and placed in service as the Dresden.

In 1920, Carl Stimming became Director General of NDL, while his predecessor Heineken became Chairman of the Board. Between 1925 and 1928, the company acquired a number of German shipping companies: HABAL, the Roland Line, and Argo. The acquisition of the Roland Line brought Ernst Glässel onto the Board of Directors, where he was to have increasing influence. In 1926, the company were once more able to pay a dividend. American credit financed continuing expansion and orders for new ships.

In 1929 and 1930, the company placed its two largest ships in service, SS Bremen (51,656 GRT) and SS Europa (49,746 GRT).

  With an average speed of about 27.9 knots, both were to take the Blue Riband for the fastest Atlantic crossings. In 1929, Columbus was completely refitted.

From 1928 to 1939, the volume of passengers travelling between the USA and Europe declined sharply. In 1928, the NDL transported about 8% of a passenger volume of 1,168,414 passengers; in 1932, 16.2% of the 751,592 passengers transported; in 1938, around 11% of 685,655 passengers. In addition, there was significant new competition from new Italian, French and British superliners: the Italian SS Rex (51,062 GRT) and SS Conte di Savoia (48,502 GRT), the French SS Normandie (79,280 GRT), and the British RMS Queen Mary (80,744 GRT).

The 1929 economic crisis which began in the US affected the German shipping companies. The NDL and the HAPAG therefore entered into a cooperation agreement in 1930, and beginning in 1935, instituted joint operations in the North Atlantic. The first signs of a merger were visible. By 1932, the NDL was in an economic crisis, with about 5,000 employees let go, salary cuts, and red ink. Glässel was dismissed. The government placed both NDL and HAPAG in trusteeship under Siegfried Graf von Roedern, and following the death of Stimming, Heinrich F. Albert briefly became head of the NDL, followed after some eighteen months by the National Socialist Rudolph Firle. Bremen State Councillor Karl Lindemann was Chairman of the Board from 1933 to 1945. A programme of economic recovery by divestments and restructuring was initiated. HBAL and the Roland Line became independent companies once more, and other lines took over services to Africa and the Mediterranean. The Nazi regime ordered both NDL and HAPAG to relinquish ships to other lines which were to operate in their regions without competition from other German companies, in particular to Hamburg Süd, the Deutsche Afrika-Linien and the Deutsche Levante Linie.

In 1935, the Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and Potsdam, each with about 18,000 GRT, were placed in service for the Far East. The modernization of the fleet continued and in 1937 the line made modest profits.

On 28 August 1939 the Erlangen slipped out of Lyttelton Harbour (New Zealand) on 28 August 1939, on the eve of war, ostensibly for Port Kembla, New South Wales, where she was to have filled her coal bunkers for the homeward passage to Europe. She then headed for the subantarctic Auckland Islands, where she successfully evaded the cruiser HMNZS Leander, and re-stocked with food and wood. The freighter then made a desperate and successful escape, using jury-rigged sails, to Valparaíso, Chile, in South America. She then made her way into the South Atlantic where, on 24 July 1941, she was intercepted off Montevideo by HMS Newcastle and scuttled by her crew.

In 1939 NDL had in service 70 vessels with a total of 562,371 GRT, including the sail training vessel Kommodore Johnsen (now the Russian STS Sedov), 3 daytrip ships, 19 tugs and 125 small ships, and employed 12,255, 8,811 on vessels. Nine further freighters were completed after the outbreak of World War II. This entire fleet was either lost during the war or awarded to the Allies as reparations. Columbus had to be sunk in 1939; Bremen burned in 1941; Steuben was sunk in the Baltic in 1945 with the loss of some 4,000 lives; Europa, claimed by France, became the Liberté in 1947.

The Reich was the primary stockholder in the company, but in 1941/42, NDL was once more privatized and cigarette manufacturer Philipp Reemtsma became primary stockholder. Dr. Johannes Kulenkampff, a Board member since 1932, and Richard Bertram, a Board member since 1937, became Chairman in 1942.


The second Columbus of 1924
After World War II
At the end of World War II the company's headquarters (which had in any case been sold in 1942) had been severely damaged by bombing and all its large vessels either destroyed or seized. It was left with only the freighter Bogotá, which was in Japan. Relicensed by the American military administration on November 29, 1945 as a "coastal shipping and stevedoring company," it started again, as after World War I, practically from zero, offering tugboat and daytripper services.

Kulenkampff and Bertram constituted the Board and there were at first only 350 employees. In 1948, the first Hapag-Lloyd travel agency opened. Business initially consisted of emigration and a limited amount of tourism. Beginning in 1949, German companies were permitted to order and to build ships of up to 7,200 GRT.

In 1950, the NDL placed its first post-war orders at the Bremer Vulkan shipyard, the Rheinstein class (2,791 GRT, 13 knots).

After the limitations on German shipping imposed by the Allies were lifted in 1951, the NDL commenced building a new fleet. First it bought older freighters (for example the Nabob, a former American auxiliary aircraft carrier) and had new freighters built between 4,000 and 9,000 GRT and 5,000 and 13,000 DWT, all with names ending in -stein. The line had routes to Canada, New Orleans, the Canary Islands, and beginning in 1953 to the Far East.

Passenger service resumed in 1955 using a rebuilt 1924 Swedish ship, the 17,993 GRT MS Gripsholm. Renamed Berlin, she was the sixth German ship of that name, the fourth at NDL, and sailed North Atlantic routes.
In 1959, the company added the 32,336 GRT Bremen (formerly Pasteur), and in 1965, the 21,514 GRT Europa (formerly Kungsholm), Gripsholm's sister ship bought from the Swedish American Line, with a capacity of 843 passengers.

  These vessels were first placed in scheduled service to America but soon transferred to cruising. In 1967, the 10,481 GRT express freighter Friesenstein (21.5 knots) inaugurated the Friesenstein class and replaced Nabob and Schwabenstein. Passenger service was running at an increasing deficit, and the rapidly growing container traffic required cost-intensive retooling in the freight business. In 1968 NDL inaugurated container service to the USA with the 13,384 GRT Weser-Express; two more container ships were soon added.

Around 1960, NDL had 47 ships, a number that remained almost unchanged until 1970. In 1968, the fleet totaled 343,355 GRT (in 1970, 391,313 GRT) and was the 16th largest shipping company worldwide; HAPAG, with 410,786 GRT, was the 9th largest. In 1970, NDL had a turnover of 515 million DM and share capital of 54 million DM, and employed 6,200 people, 3,500 of them at sea.

In 1967, Claus Wätjen and Dr. Horst Willner, and in 1969 Karl-Heinz Sager, joined the Board. Kulenkampff served on the Board until 1968 and Bertram until 1970. Since the NDL was already executing three quarters of its freight business in association with HAPAG, a merger of the two largest German shipping companies was entirely logical.

On September 1, 1970, the North German Lloyd merged with Hamburg America Line (HAPAG) to form Hapag-Lloyd AG, based in Hamburg with secondary headquarters in Bremen.

On 20 February 2007, a small group of dedicated, former member of the North German Lloyd organized for the 150th anniversary of the foundation of the shipping company a meeting at the Bremer Ratskeller. This event was very popular, so it was decided to carry out in the following years further meetings. - Meanwhile, the meetings take place annually on the twentieth of February in Bremen in the former Lloyd's building - today Courtyard Marriott hotel.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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