Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1854 Part III NEXT-1855 Part I    
 
 
     
1850 - 1859
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850-1859
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part I
Compromise of 1850
Constitution of Prussia
The eight Kaffir War, 1850-1853
Masaryk Tomas
Kitchener Horatio Herbert
Erfurt Union
Fillmore Millard
California
Taiping Rebellion
Hong Xiuquan
Feng Yunshan
Yang Xiuqing
Shi Dakai
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part II
Protestant churches in Prussia
Public Libraries Act 1850
Schopenhauer: "Parerga und Paralipomena"
Herbert Spencer: "Social Statics"
E. B. Browning: "Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Emerson: "Representative Men"
Hawthorne: "The Scarlet Letter"
Herzen Aleksandr
Ibsen: "Catiline"
Loti Pierre
Maupassant Guy
Guy de Maupassant
"Bel-Ami"
Stevenson Robert Louis
Robert Louis Stevenson  
"Treasure Island
"
Turgenev: "A Month in the Country"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part III
Corot: "Une Matinee"
Courbet: "The Stone Breakers"
Menzel: "Round Table at Sansouci"
Millais: "Christ in the House of His Parents"
Millet: "The Sower"
Bristow George Frederick
George Frederick Bristow - Dream Land
George Frederick Bristow
Schumann: "Genoveva"
Wagner: "Lohengrin"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part IV
Bernard Claude
Clausius Rudolf
Stephenson Robert
Chebyshev Pafnuty Lvovich
Barth Heinrich
Galton Francis
Anderson Karl John
McClure Robert
McClure Arctic Expedition
Royal Meteorological Society
University of Sydney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1851 Part I
Victoria, state of Australia
Murdock Joseph Ballard
Machado Bernardino
Bourgeois Leon Victor Auguste
Foch Ferdinand
Bombardment of Sale
French coup d'état
Danilo II
Hawthorne: "The House of Seven Gables"
Gottfried Keller: "Der grune Heinrich"
Ward Humphry
Ruskin: "The Stones of Venice"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1851 Part II
Herman Melville: "Moby Dick"
Corot: "La Danse des Nymphes"
Walter Thomas Ustick
Ward Leslie
Crystal Palace
Falero Luis Ricardo
Luis Ricardo Falero
Kroyer Peder
Peder Kroyer
Hughes Edward Robert
Edward Robert Hughes
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1851 Part III
Gounod: "Sappho"
D’Indy Vincent
Vincent D'Indy - Medee
Vincent d'Indy
Verdi: "Rigoletto"
Bogardus James
Cast-iron architecture
Kapteyn Jacobus Cornelius
Helmholtz's ophthalmoscope
Neumann Franz Ernst
Ruhmkorff Heinrich Daniel
Singer Isaac Merrit
Cubitt William
Thomson William
Royal School of Mines
Carpenter Mary
"The New York Times"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1852 Part I
Joffre Joseph
Transvaal
Second French Empire
Second Anglo-Burmese War
New Zealand Constitution Act
Asquith Herbert Henry
Pierce Franklin
Delisle Leopold Victor
Fischer Kuno
First Plenary Council of Baltimore
Vaihinger Hans
Gioberti Vincenzo
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1852 Part II
Bourget Paul
Creasy Edward
Creasy: "The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo"
Charles Dickens: "Bleak House"
Theophile Gautier: "Emaux et Camees"
Moore George
Reade Charles
Harriet Beecher Stowe: "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Thackeray: "History of Henry Esmond"
Turgenev: "A Sportsman's Sketches"
Zhukovsky Vasily
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1852 Part III
Fopd Madox Brown: "Christ Washing Peter's Feet"
William Holman Hunt: "The Light of the World"
John Everett Millais: "Ophelia"
Bryullov Karl
Karl Bryullov
Stanford Charles
Charles Villiers Stanford - Piano Concerto No.2
Charles Stanford
Becquerel Henri
Gerhardt Charles Frederic
Van’t Hoff Jacobus Henricus
Mathijsen Antonius
Michelson Albert
Ramsay William
Sylvester James Joseph
United All-England Eleven
Wells Fargo & Company
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1853 Part I
Eugenie de Montijo
Crimean War
Battle of Sinop
Rhodes Cecil
Peter V
Nagpur Province
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1853 Part II
Mommsen: "History of Rome"
Matthew Arnold: "The Scholar-Gipsy"
Charlotte Bronte: "Villette"
Caine Hall
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Ruth"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Tanglewood Tales"
Charles Kingsley: "Hypatia"
Tree Herbert Beerbohm
Charlotte M. Yonge: "The Heir of Redclyffe"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1853 Part III
Haussmann Georges-Eugene
Larsson Carl
Carl Larsson
Hodler Ferdinand
Ferdinand Hodler
Van Gogh Vincent
Vincent van Gogh
Steinway Henry Engelhard
Verdi: "Il Trovatore"
Verdi: "La Traviata"
Wood Alexander
"Die Gartenlaube"
International Statistical Congress
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part I
Bloemfontein Convention
Orange Free State
Battle of the Alma
Menshikov Alexander Sergeyevich
Siege of Sevastopol (1854-1855)
Kornilov Vladimir Alexeyevich
Battle of Balaclava
Battle of Inkerman
Perry Matthew Calbraith
Gadsden Purchase
Bleeding Kansas (1854–59)
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Elgin-Marcy Treaty
Republican Party
Said of Egypt
Ostend Manifesto
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part II
Herzog Johann
Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau
Youthful Offenders Act 1854
Immaculate Conception
Patmore Coventry
Patmore: "The Angel in the House"
Sandeau Leonard
Guerrazzi Francesco Domenico
Rimbaud Arthur
Arthur Rimbaud "Poems"
Tennyson: "The Charge of the Light Brigade"
Thackeray: "The Rose and the Ring"
Thoreau: "Walden, or Life in the Woods"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part III
Courbet: "Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet"
Frith William Powell
William Frith
Millet: "The Reaper"
Angrand Charles
Charles Angrand
Gotch Thomas Cooper
Thomas Cooper Gotch
Berlioz: "The Infant Christ"
Humperdinck Engelbert
Humperdinck - Hansel und Gretel
Liszt: "Les Preludes"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part IV
Poincare Henri
Eastman George
Ehrenberg Christian Gottfried
Paul Ehrlich
Laryngoscopy
Goebel Henry
George Boole: "The Laws of Thought"
Riemann Bernhard
Wallace Alfred Russel
Southeast Asia
"Le Figaro"
Litfass Ernst
Northcote–Trevelyan Report
Maurice Frederick Denison
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1855 Part I
Alexander II
Istomin Vladimir Ivanovich
Somerset FitzRoy
Nakhimov Pavel Stepanovich
Treaty of Peshawar
Bain Alexander
Droysen Johann
Gratry Auguste
Milman Henry
Le Play Pierre
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1855 Part II
Charles Kingsley: "Westward Ho!"
Nerval Gerard
Charles Dickens "Little Dorrit"
Ganghofer Ludwig
Longfellow: "The Song of Hiawatha"
Corelli Marie
Pinero Arthur Wing
Tennyson: "Maud"
Anthony Trollope: "The Warden"
Turgenev: "Rudin"
Walt Whitman: "Leaves of Grass"
Berlioz: "Те Deum"
Verdi: "Les Vepres Siciliennes"
Chansson Ernest
Chausson - Poeme
Ernest Chausson
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1855 Part III
Rayon
Hughes David Edward
Lowell Percival
Cunard Line
"The Daily Telegraph"
Niagara Falls suspension bridge
Paris World Fair
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part I
Victoria Cross
Doctrine of Lapse
Oudh State
Ottoman Reform Edict of 1856
Congress of Paris
Treaty of Paris (1856)
Napoleon, Prince Imperial
Sacking of Lawrence
Pottawatomie massacre
Second Opium War (1856-1860)
Anglo–Persian War (1856-1857)
Buchanan James
Tasmania
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part II
Froude: "History of England"
Goldstucker Theodor
Lotze Rudolf Hermann
Motley: "Rise of the Dutch Republic"
Flaubert: "Madame Bovary"
Haggard Henry Rider
Victor Hugo: "Les Contemplations"
Charles Reade: "It Is Never Too Late to Mend"
Shaw George Bernard
Wilde Oscar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part III
Berlage Hendrik Petrus
Ferstel Heinrich
Sargent John
John Singer Sargent
Vrubel Mikhail
Mikhail Vrubel
Cross Henri Edmond
Henri-Edmond Cross
Bechstein Carl
Dargomyzhsky Alexander
Alexander Dargomyzhsky: "Rusalka"
Alexander Dargomyzhsky
Maillart Aime
Aime Maillart - Les Dragons de Villars
Sinding Christian
Sinding - Suite in A minor
Christian Sinding
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part IV
Bessemer Henry
Bessemer process
Freud Sigmund
Sigmund Freud
Peary Robert Edwin
Mauveine
Pringsheim Nathanael
Siemens Charles William
Hardie James Keir
Taylor Frederick Winslow
"Big Ben"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part I
Treaty of Paris
Indian Rebellion of 1857
Italian National Society
Manin Daniele
Taft William Howard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part II
Buckle Henry Thomas
Buckle: "History of Civilization in England"
Charles Baudelaire: "Les Fleurs du mal"
Conrad Joseph
Joseph Conrad 
"Lord Jim"
George Eliot: "Scenes from Clerical Life"
Hughes Thomas
Thomas Hughes: "Tom Brown's Schooldays"
Mulock Dinah
 Pontoppidan Henrik
Adalbert Stifter: "Nachsommer"
Sudermann Hermann
Thackeray: "The Virginians"
Anthony Trollope: "Barchester Towers"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part III
Klinger Max
Max Klinger
Millet: "The Gleaners"
Dahl Johan Christian
Johan Christian Dahl
Leoncavallo Ruggero
Ruggero Leoncavallo - Pagliacci
Ruggero Leoncavallo 
Elgar Edward
Edward Elgar - The Light of Life
Edward Elgar
Kienzl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Kienzl - Symphonic Variations
Wilhelm Kienzl
Liszt: "Eine Faust-Symphonie"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part IV
Coue Emile
Hertz Heinrich
Wagner-Jauregg Julius
Ross Ronald
Newton Charles Thomas
Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Burton Richard
Speke John Hanning
The Nile Quest
McClintock Francis
Alpine Club
"The Atlantic Monthly"
Baden-Powell Robert
Matrimonial Causes Act
North German Lloyd
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part I
Orsini Felice
Stanley Edward
Minnesota
Treaty of Tientsin
Government of India Act 1858
Law Bonar
William I
Karageorgevich Alexander
Roosevelt Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part II
Bernadette Soubirous
Carey Henry Charles
Thomas Carlyle: "History of Friedrich II of Prussia"
Hecker Isaac
Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle
Rothschild Lionel Nathan
Schaff Philip
Benson Frank
Feuillet Octave
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table"
Kainz Joseph
Lagerlof Selma
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part III
Corinth Lovis
Lovis Corinth
William Powell Frith: "The Derby Day"
Menzel: "Bon soir, Messieurs"
Segantini Giovanni
Giovanni Segantini
Khnopff Fernand
Fernand Khnopff
Toorop Jan
Cornelius Peter
Cornelius: "Der Barbier von Bagdad"
Jaques Offenbach: "Orpheus in der Unterwelt"
Puccini Giacomo
Giacomo Puccini: Donna non vidi mai
Giacomo Puccini
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part IV
Diesel Rudolf
Huxley Thomas Henry
Planck Max
Mirror galvanometer
General Medical Council
Suez Canal Company
S.S. "Great Eastern"
Webb Beatrice
Webb Sidney
Transatlantic telegraph cable
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part I
Second Italian War of Independence
Battle of Varese
Battle of Palestro
Battle of Magenta
Battle of Solferino
Oregon
Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies
Francis II of the Two Sicilies
Charles XV of Sweden
German National Association
Jaures Jean
Roon Albrecht
William II
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part II
Bergson Henri
Henri Bergson
Bergson Henri "Creative Evolution"
Charles Darwin: "On the Origin of Species"
Dewey John
Husserl Edmund
Karl Marx: "Critique of Political Economy"
John Stuart Mill: "Essay on Liberty"
Tischendorf Konstantin
Codex Sinaiticus
Villari Pasquale
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part III
Dickens: "A Tale of Two Cities"
Doyle Arthur Conan
Arthur Conan Doyle  
"SHERLOCK HOLMES"
Duse Eleonora
George Eliot: "Adam Bede"
Edward Fitzgerald: "Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam"
Ivan Goncharov: "Oblomov"
Hamsun Knut
Heidenstam Verner
Housman Alfred Edward
A.E. Housman 
"A Shropshire Lad", "Last Poems"
Victor Hugo: "La Legende des siecles"
Jerome K. Jerome
Tennyson: "Idylls of the King"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part IV
Corot: "Macbeth"
Gilbert Cass
Millet: "The Angelus"
Hassam Childe
Childe Hassam 
Seurat Georges
Georges Seurat
Whistler: "At the Piano"
Daniel Decatur Emmett: "Dixie"
Gounod: "Faust"
Verdi: "Un Ballo in Maschera"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part V
Arrhenius Svante
Kirchhoff Gustav
Curie Pierre
Drake Edwin
Drake Well
Plante Gaston
Lead–acid battery
Smith Henry John Stephen
Brunel Isambard Kingdom
Blondin Charles
Lansbury George
Samuel Smiles: "Self-Help"
 
 
 

Banteay Sei, whose chief entrance is shown here surrounded by jungle vegetation
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1854 Part IV
 
 
 
1854
 
 
Poincare Henri
 
Henri Poincare, in full Jules Henri Poincaré (born April 29, 1854, Nancy, France—died July 17, 1912, Paris), French mathematician, one of the greatest mathematicians and mathematical physicists at the end of 19th century. He made a series of profound innovations in geometry, the theory of differential equations, electromagnetism, topology, and the philosophy of mathematics.
 

Henri Poincare
  Poincaré grew up in Nancy and studied mathematics from 1873 to 1875 at the École Polytechnique in Paris. He continued his studies at the Mining School in Caen before receiving his doctorate from the University of Paris in 1879. While a student, he discovered new types of complex functions that solved a wide variety of differential equations. This major work involved one of the first “mainstream” applications of non-Euclidean geometry, a subject discovered by the Hungarian János Bolyai and the Russian Nikolay Lobachevsky about 1830 but not generally accepted by mathematicians until the 1860s and ’70s. Poincaré published a long series of papers on this work in 1880–84 that effectively made his name internationally. The prominent German mathematician Felix Klein, only five years his senior, was already working in the area, and it was widely agreed that Poincaré came out the better from the comparison.

In the 1880s Poincaré also began work on curves defined by a particular type of differential equation, in which he was the first to consider the global nature of the solution curves and their possible singular points (points where the differential equation is not properly defined). He investigated such questions as: Do the solutions spiral into or away from a point? Do they, like the hyperbola, at first approach a point and then swing past and recede from it? Do some solutions form closed loops? If so, do nearby curves spiral toward or away from these closed loops? He showed that the number and types of singular points are determined purely by the topological nature of the surface.

 
 
In particular, it is only on the torus that the differential equations he was considering have no singular points.

Poincaré intended this preliminary work to lead to the study of the more complicated differential equations that describe the motion of the solar system. In 1885 an added inducement to take the next step presented itself when King Oscar II of Sweden offered a prize for anyone who could establish the stability of the solar system. This would require showing that equations of motion for the planets could be solved and the orbits of the planets shown to be curves that stay in a bounded region of space for all time. Some of the greatest mathematicians since Isaac Newton had attempted to solve this problem, and Poincaré soon realized that he could not make any headway unless he concentrated on a simpler, special case, in which two massive bodies orbit one another in circles around their common centre of gravity while a minute third body orbits them both. The third body is taken to be so small that it does not affect the orbits of the larger ones. Poincaré could establish that the orbit is stable, in the sense that the small body returns infinitely often arbitrarily close to any position it has occupied. This does not mean, however, that it does not also move very far away at times, which would have disastrous consequences for life on Earth. For this and other achievements in his essay, Poincaré was awarded the prize in 1889. But, on writing the essay for publication, Poincaré discovered that another result in it was wrong, and in putting that right he discovered that the motion could be chaotic. He had hoped to show that if the small body could be started off in such a way that it traveled in a closed orbit, then starting it off in almost the same way would result in an orbit that at least stayed close to the original orbit. Instead, he discovered that even small changes in the initial conditions could produce large, unpredictable changes in the resulting orbit. (This phenomenon is now known as pathological sensitivity to initial positions, and it is one of the characteristic signs of a chaotic system. See complexity.) Poincaré summarized his new mathematical methods in astronomy in Les Méthodes nouvelles de la mécanique céleste, 3 vol. (1892, 1893, 1899; “The New Methods of Celestial Mechanics”).
 
 
Poincaré was led by this work to contemplate mathematical spaces (now called manifolds) in which the position of a point is determined by several coordinates. Very little was known about such manifolds, and, although the German mathematician Bernhard Riemann had hinted at them a generation or more earlier, few had taken the hint.
Poincaré took up the task and looked for ways in which such manifolds could be distinguished, thus opening up the whole subject of topology, then known as analysis situs. Riemann had shown that in two dimensions surfaces can be distinguished by their genus (the number of holes in the surface), and Enrico Betti in Italy and Walther von Dyck in Germany had extended this work to three dimensions, but much remained to be done. Poincaré singled out the idea of considering closed curves in the manifold that cannot be deformed into one another.
 
Marie Curie and Poincaré talk at the 1911
Solvay Conference
 
 
 For example, any curve on the surface of a sphere can be continuously shrunk to a point, but there are curves on a torus (curves wrapped around a hole, for instance) that cannot. Poincaré asked if a three-dimensional manifold in which every curve can be shrunk to a point is topologically equivalent to a three-dimensional sphere. This problem (now known as the Poincaré conjecture) became one of the most important unsolved problems in algebraic topology. Ironically, the conjecture was first proved for dimensions greater than three: in dimensions five and above by Stephen Smale in the 1960s and in dimension four as a consequence of work by Simon Donaldson and Michael Freedman in the 1980s. Finally, Grigori Perelman proved the conjecture for three dimensions in 2006. All of these achievements were marked with the award of a Fields Medal. Poincaré’s Analysis Situs (1895) was an early systematic treatment of topology, and he is often called the father of algebraic topology.

Poincaré’s main achievement in mathematical physics was his magisterial treatment of the electromagnetic theories of Hermann von Helmholtz, Heinrich Hertz, and Hendrik Lorentz. His interest in this topic—which, he showed, seemed to contradict Newton’s laws of mechanics—led him to write a paper in 1905 on the motion of the electron. This paper, and others of his at this time, came close to anticipating Albert Einstein’s discovery of the theory of special relativity. But Poincaré never took the decisive step of reformulating traditional concepts of space and time into space-time, which was Einstein’s most profound achievement. Attempts were made to obtain a Nobel Prize in physics for Poincaré, but his work was too theoretical and insufficiently experimental for some tastes.
 
 

Photographic portrait of H. Poincaré
by Henri Manuel
  About 1900 Poincaré acquired the habit of writing up accounts of his work in the form of essays and lectures for the general public. Published as La Science et l’hypothèse (1903; Science and Hypothesis), La Valeur de la science (1905; The Value of Science), and Science et méthode (1908; Science and Method), these essays form the core of his reputation as a philosopher of mathematics and science. His most famous claim in this connection is that much of science is a matter of convention. He came to this view on thinking about the nature of space: Was it Euclidean or non-Euclidean? He argued that one could never tell, because one could not logically separate the physics involved from the mathematics, so any choice would be a matter of convention. Poincaré suggested that one would naturally choose to work with the easier hypothesis.

Poincaré’s philosophy was thoroughly influenced by psychologism. He was always interested in what the human mind understands, rather than what it can formalize. Thus, although Poincaré recognized that Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry are equally “true,” he argued that our experiences have and will continue to predispose us to formulate physics in terms of Euclidean geometry; Einstein proved him wrong. Poincaré also felt that our understanding of the natural numbers was innate and therefore fundamental, so he was critical of attempts to reduce all of mathematics to symbolic logic (as advocated by Bertrand Russell in England and Louis Couturat in France) and of attempts to reduce mathematics to axiomatic set theory. In these beliefs he turned out to be right, as shown by Kurt Gödel in 1931.

 
 
In many ways Poincaré’s influence was extraordinary. All the topics discussed above led to the creation of new branches of mathematics that are still highly active today, and he also contributed a large number of more technical results. Yet in other ways his influence was slight. He never attracted a group of students around him, and the younger generation of French mathematicians that came along tended to keep him at a respectful distance. His failure to appreciate Einstein helped to relegate his work in physics to obscurity after the revolutions of special and general relativity. His often imprecise mathematical exposition, masked by a delightful prose style, was alien to the generation in the 1930s who modernized French mathematics under the collective pseudonym of Nicolas Bourbaki, and they proved to be a powerful force. His philosophy of mathematics lacked the technical aspect and profundity of developments inspired by the German mathematician David Hilbert’s work. However, its diversity and fecundity has begun to prove attractive again in a world that sets more store by applicable mathematics and less by systematic theory.

Most of Poincaré’s original papers are published in the 11 volumes of his Oeuvres de Henri Poincaré (1916–54). In 1992 the Archives–Centre d’Études et de Recherche Henri-Poincaré founded at the University of Nancy 2 began to edit Poincaré’s scientific correspondence, signaling a resurgence of interest in him.

Jeremy John Gray

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1854
 
 
Eastman George
 

George Eastman (July 12, 1854 – March 14, 1932) was an American innovator and entrepreneur who founded the Eastman Kodak Company and popularized the use of roll film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream. Roll film was also the basis for the invention of motion picture film in 1888 by the world's first film-makers Eadweard Muybridge and Louis Le Prince, and a few years later by their followers Léon Bouly, Thomas Edison, the Lumière Brothers, and Georges Méliès.

 
He was a major philanthropist, establishing the Eastman School of Music, and schools of dentistry and medicine at the University of Rochester and in London; contributing to the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and the construction of several buildings at MIT's second campus on the Charles River. In addition he made major donations to Tuskegee and Hampton universities, historically black colleges in the South. With interests in improving health, he provided funds for clinics in London and other European cities to serve low-income residents.

In his final two years, Eastman was in intense pain caused by a disorder affecting his spine. On March 14, 1932, Eastman shot himself in the heart, leaving a note which read, "To my friends: my work is done. Why wait?"

The George Eastman House, now operated as the International Museum of Photography and Film, has been designated a National Historic Landmark.

 
 

George Eastman
  Early life
Eastman was born in Waterville, New York to George Washington Eastman and Maria Eastman (née Kilbourn), the youngest child, at the 10-acre farm which his parents bought in 1849. He had two older sisters, Ellen Maria and Katie. He was largely self-educated, although he attended a private school in Rochester after the age of eight. In the early 1840s his father had started a business school, the Eastman Commercial College in Rochester, New York, described as one of the first "boomtowns" in the United States, based on rapid industrialization. As his father's health started deteriorating, the family gave up the farm and moved to Rochester in 1860. His father died of a brain disorder in May 1862. To survive and afford George's schooling, his mother took in boarders.
Maria's second daughter, Katie, had contracted polio when young and died in late 1870 when George was 16 years old. The young George left school early and started working to help support the family. As Eastman began to experience success with his photography business, he vowed to repay his mother for the hardships she had endured in raising him.

Career
In 1884, Eastman patented the first film in roll form to prove practicable; he had been tinkering at home to develop it. In 1888, he perfected the Kodak camera, the first camera designed specifically to use roll film. In 1892, he established the Eastman Kodak Company, in Rochester, New York. It was one of the first firms to mass-produce standardized photography equipment.

 
 
The company also manufactured the flexible transparent film, devised by Eastman in 1889, which proved vital to the subsequent development of the motion picture industry.

He started his philanthropy early, sharing the income from his business to establish educational and health institutions. Notable among his contributions were a $625,000 gift in 1901 (equivalent to $17.7 million in present-day terms[6]) to the Mechanics Institute, now Rochester Institute of Technology; and a major gift in the early 1900s to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which enabled the construction of buildings on its second campus by the Charles River. MIT opened this campus in 1916.

 
 
Personal life
George Eastman never married. He was close to his mother, and to his sister and her family. He had a long platonic relationship with Josephine Dickman, a trained singer and the wife of business associate George Dickman, becoming especially close to her after the death of his mother, Maria Eastman, in 1907. He was also an avid traveler and had a passion for playing the piano.

The loss of his mother, Maria, was particularly crushing to George. Almost pathologically concerned with decorum, he found himself unable for the first time to control his emotions in the presence of friends. "When my mother died I cried all day", he explained later. "I could not have stopped to save my life". Due to his mother's reluctance to accept his gifts, George Eastman could never do enough for his mother during her lifetime. He opened the Eastman Theater in Rochester on September 4, 1922, which included a chamber-music hall dedicated to his mother's memory: the Kilbourn Theater. At the Eastman House, he maintained a rose bush using a cutting from her childhood home.

Later years
Eastman was associated with the Kodak company in an administrative and an executive capacity until his death; he contributed much to the development of its notable research facilities. In 1911, he founded the Eastman Trust and Savings Bank. While discouraging the formation of unions at his manufacturing plant, he established paternal systems of support for his employees.

He was one of the outstanding philanthropists of his time, donating more than $100 million to various projects in Rochester; Cambridge, Massachusetts; at two historically black colleges in the South; and in several European cities. In 1918, he endowed the establishment of the Eastman School of Music at the University of Rochester, and in 1921 a school of medicine and dentistry there.

 
U.S. patent no. 388,850, issued to George Eastman, September 4, 1888
 
 
In 1925, Eastman gave up his daily management of Kodak to become treasurer. He concentrated on philanthropic activities, to which he had already donated substantial sums. For example, he donated funds to establish the Eastman Dental Dispensary in 1916. He was one of the major philanthropists of his time, ranking only slightly behind Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and a few others, but did not seek publicity for his activities. He concentrated on institution-building and causes that could help people's health. From 1926 until his death, Eastman also donated $22,050 per year to the American Eugenics Society, a popular cause among many of the upper class when there were concerns about immigration and "race mixing."

Eastman donated £200,000 in 1926 to fund a dental clinic in London, UK after being approached by the Chairman of the Royal Free Hospital, Lord Riddell. This was in addition to donations of £50,000 each from Lord Riddell and the Royal Free honorary treasurer. On 20 November 1931, the Eastman Dental Clinic opened in a ceremony attended by Neville Chamberlain, then Minister of Health, and the American Ambassador to the UK. The clinic was incorporated into the Royal Free Hospital and was committed to providing dental care for disadvantaged children from central London.

 
 

George Eastman, 1917
  Infirmity and suicide
In his final two years, Eastman was in intense pain caused by a disorder affecting his spine. He had trouble standing, and his walk became a slow shuffle. Today, it might be diagnosed as a form of degenerative disease such as disc herniations from trauma or age causing either painful nerve root compressions, or perhaps a type of lumbar spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the spinal canal caused by calcification in the vertebrae. Since his mother suffered the final two years of her life in a wheelchair, she also may have had a spine condition but that is uncertain. Only her uterine cancer and successful surgery is documented in her health history.

If she did have a musculoskeletal disorder, perhaps George Eastman's spine condition may have been due to a congenital disease, such as ankylosing spondylitis, degenerative disc disease, or a variant of Ehlers–Danlos collagen disorder—conditions known to be inheritable but usually presenting earlier in age. Eastman grew increasingly depressed due to his pain, reduced ability to function, and also since he had witnessed his mother's suffering from pain.

On March 14, 1932, Eastman committed suicide with a single gunshot through the heart, leaving a note which read, "To my friends, my work is done – Why wait? GE."

His funeral was held at St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Rochester; he was buried on the grounds of the company he founded at Kodak Park in Rochester.

 
 
Legacy
Eastman had a very astute business sense. He focused his company on making film when competition heated up in the camera industry. By providing quality and affordable film to every camera manufacturer, Kodak managed to turn its competitors into de facto business partners.

During his lifetime Eastman donated $100 million to various organizations, with most of his money going to the University of Rochester and to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to build their programs and facilities (under the alias "Mr. Smith"). The Rochester Institute of Technology has a building dedicated to Eastman, in recognition of his support and substantial donations. MIT installed a plaque of Eastman on one of the buildings he funded. (Students rub the nose of Eastman's image on the plaque for good luck.) Eastman also made substantial gifts to the Tuskegee Institute and the Hampton Institute in Alabama and Virginia, respectively.

Upon his death, his entire estate went to the University of Rochester. The Eastman Quadrangle of the River Campus was named for him.

Eastman had built a mansion, which became known as the George Eastman House, at 900 East Avenue in Rochester. Here he entertained friends to dinner and held private music concerts. The University of Rochester used the mansion for various purposes for decades after his death. In 1949, it re-opened after having been adapted for use as the George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film in 1949. It has been designated a National Historic Landmark.

In 1915, Eastman founded a bureau of municipal research in Rochester "to get things done for the community" and to serve as an "independent, non-partisan agency for keeping citizens informed." Called the Center for Governmental Research, the agency continues to carry out that mission.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1854
 
 
Christian Ehrenberg: "Microgeology"
 
 
Ehrenberg Christian Gottfried
 

Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (19 April 1795 – 27 June 1876), German naturalist, zoologist, comparative anatomist, geologist, and microscopist, was one of the most famous and productive scientists of his time.

 
Early collections
The son of a judge, Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg was born in Delitzsch, near Leipzig. He first studied theology at the University of Leipzig, then medicine and natural sciences in Berlin and became a friend of the famous explorer Alexander von Humboldt. In 1818, he completed his doctoral dissertation on fungi, Sylvae mycologicae Berolinenses.

In 1820–1825, on a scientific expedition to the Middle East with his friend Wilhelm Hemprich, he collected thousands of specimens of plants and animals. He investigated parts of Egypt, the Libyan desert, the Nile valley and the northern coasts of the Red Sea, where he made a special study of the corals. Subsequently parts of Syria, Arabia and Abyssinia were examined. Some results of these travels and of the important collections that had been made were reported on by Humboldt in 1826. While in Sudan he designed the mansion of the local governor of Dongola, Abidin Bey.

After his return, Ehrenberg published several papers on insects and corals and two volumes Symbolae physicae (1828–1834), in which many particulars of the mammals, birds, insects, etc., were made public. Other observations were communicated to scientific societies.

 
 

Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg
  Focus on microscopic organisms
Ehrenberg was appointed professor of medicine at Berlin University in 1827. In 1829 he accompanied Humboldt through eastern Russia to the Chinese frontier. After his return he began to concentrate his studies on microscopic organisms, which until then had not been systematically studied.

For nearly 30 years Ehrenberg examined samples of water, soil, sediment, blowing dust and rock and described thousands of new species, among them well-known flagellates such as Euglena, ciliates such as Paramecium aurelia and Paramecium caudatum, and many fossils, in nearly 400 scientific publications.

He was particularly interested in a unicellular group of protists called diatoms, but he also studied, and named, many species of radiolaria, foraminifera and dinoflagellates.

These researches had an important bearing on some of the infusorial earths used for polishing and other economic purposes; they added, moreover, largely to our knowledge of the microorganisms of certain geological formations, especially of the chalk, and of the marine and freshwater accumulations.

Until Ehrenberg took up the study it was not known that considerable masses of rock were composed of minute forms of animals or plants. He also demonstrated that the phosphorescence of the sea was due to organisms.

 
 
He was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from 1836 and a foreign member of the Royal Society of London from 1837. In 1839, he won the Wollaston Medal, the highest award granted by the Geological Society of London. He continued until late in life to investigate the microscopic organisms of the deep sea and of various geological formations. He died in Berlin on 27 June 1876.
 
 
Legacy
After his death in 1876, his collections of microscopic organisms were deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde at the University of Berlin. The "Ehrenberg Collection" includes 40,000 microscope preparations, 5,000 raw samples, 3,000 pencil and ink drawings, and nearly 1,000 letters of correspondence. His collection of scorpions, and other arachnids from the Middle East, is also held in the Berlin Museum.

He was also the first winner of the Leeuwenhoek Medal in 1877.

In his hometown, Delitzsch, the highest A-Level school, the "Ehrenberg-Gymnasium" is named after him. The best student of the school year receives the Ehrenberg Prize and a scholarship.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1854
 
 
Paul Ehrlich
 

Paul Ehrlich, (born March 14, 1854, Strehlen, Silesia, Prussia [now Strzelin, Pol.]—died Aug. 20, 1915, Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Ger.), German medical scientist known for his pioneering work in hematology, immunology, and chemotherapy and for his discovery of the first effective treatment for syphilis. He received jointly with Élie Metchnikoff the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1908.

 

Paul Ehrlich
  Early life
Ehrlich was born into a Jewish family prominent in business and industry. Although he lacked formal training in experimental chemistry and applied bacteriology, he was introduced by his mother’s cousin, the pathologist Carl Weigert, to the technique of staining cells with chemical dyes, a procedure used to view cells under the microscope. As a medical student at several universities, including Breslau, Strasbourg, Freiburg, and Leipzig, Ehrlich continued to experiment with cellular staining. The selective action of these dyes on different types of cells suggested to Ehrlich that chemical reactions were occurring in cells and that these reactions formed the basis of cellular processes. From this idea he reasoned that chemical agents could be used to heal diseased cells or to destroy infectious agents, a theory that revolutionized medical diagnostics and therapeutics.

After receiving his medical degree from the University of Leipzig in 1878, Ehrlich was offered a position as head physician at the prestigious Charité Hospital in Berlin. There he developed a new staining technique to identify the tuberculosis bacillus (a bacterium) that had been discovered by the German bacteriologist Robert Koch. Ehrlich also differentiated the numerous types of blood cells of the body and thereby laid the foundation for the field of hematology.

While developing new methods for the staining of live tissue, Ehrlich discovered the uses of methylene blue in the treatment of nervous disorders. In other diagnostic advances, he traced a specific chemical reaction in the urine of typhoid patients, tested various medications for reducing or removing fever, and made valuable suggestions for the treatment of eye diseases.

 
 
Of the 37 scientific contributions that he published between 1879 and 1885, Ehrlich considered the last as the most important: Das Sauerstoff-Bedürfniss des Organismus (1885; “The Requirement of the Organism for Oxygen”). In it he established that oxygen consumption varies with different types of tissue and that these variations constitute a measure of the intensity of vital cell processes.

In 1883 Ehrlich married Hedwig Pinkus, with whom he had two daughters.

 
 

Paul Ehrlich
  Immunity and the side-chain theory
A bout with tuberculosis forced Ehrlich to interrupt his work and seek a cure in Egypt. When he returned to Berlin in 1889, the disease had been permanently arrested. After working for some time in a tiny and primitive private laboratory, he transferred to Koch’s Institute for Infectious Diseases, where he concentrated on the problem of immunity. Very little was known at the time about the precise manner in which bacteria bring about disease, and even less was known about the body’s defenses against infection or how these immune defenses could be enhanced. The hypothesis Ehrlich developed to explain immunological phenomena was the side-chain theory, which described how antibodies—the protective proteins produced by the immune system—are formed and how they react with other substances. Delivered to the Royal Society in 1900, this theory was based on an understanding of the way in which a cell was thought to absorb and assimilate nutrients. Ehrlich postulated that each cell has on its surface a series of side chains, or receptors, that function by attaching to certain food molecules. While each side chain interacts with a specific nutrient—in the same manner as a key fits into a lock—it also can interact with other molecules, such as disease-causing toxins (antigens) produced by an infectious agent. When a toxin binds to a side chain, the interaction is irreversible and blocks subsequent binding and uptake of nutrients. The body then tries to overwhelm the obstruction by producing a great number of replacement side chains—so many that they cannot fit on the surface of the cell and instead are secreted into the circulation.
 
 
According to Ehrlich’s theory, these circulating side chains are the antibodies, which are all gauged to and able to neutralize the disease-causing toxin and then remain in the circulation, thus immunizing the individual against subsequent invasions by the infectious agent.

This much-debated hypothesis, although ultimately proven to be incorrect in many particulars, had a profound influence on Ehrlich’s later work and on the work of his successors. Thus Ehrlich was able to show experimentally that rabbits subjected to a slow and measured increase of toxic matter were able to survive 5,000 times the fatal dose. In the end, he established precise quantitative patterns of immunity. These findings assumed great importance in 1890, when he met Emil von Behring, who had succeeded in creating an antitoxin against diphtheria.

 
 

Paul Ehrlich
  Behring had tried to prepare a serum that could be used in clinical practice, but it was only by adopting Ehrlich’s technique of using the blood of live horses that the preparation of a serum of optimum antitoxic effectiveness became possible. Ehrlich developed a way of measuring the effectiveness of serums that was soon adopted all over the world for the standardization of diphtheria serum. He also demonstrated, in 1892, that antibodies are passed in breast milk from mother to newborn. On the basis of these achievements, Ehrlich was made director of a government-supported institute near Berlin, which was transferred to Frankfurt am Main in 1899 as the Royal Institute for Experimental Therapy. No restrictions of any kind were placed upon the direction of his research. While this corresponded to Ehrlich’s own talents and inclinations, it did not please Behring, who endeavoured to have his colleague specialize in immunology and serum therapy. The strained relationship between the two men was exacerbated by personality differences. Ehrlich, utterly indifferent to monetary rewards, had no ambition to become an industrialist like Behring; he was content to carry out his research.

He had by then recognized the limitations of serum therapy. Many infectious disorders, in particular those caused by protozoa rather than bacteria, failed to respond to serum treatment. The recognition of this fact marks the birth of chemotherapy.
Ehrlich started experimenting with the identification and synthesis of substances, not necessarily found in nature, that could kill parasites or inhibit their growth without damaging the organism.
 
 
He began with trypanosomes, a species of protozoa that he unsuccessfully attempted to control by means of coal tar dyes. There followed compounds of arsenic and benzene; other compounds proved to be too toxic. Instead of declaring himself vanquished by these difficulties, Ehrlich turned his attention to the spirochete Treponema pallidum, the causal organism of syphilis.
 
 

Paul Ehrlich
  Syphilis studies
Ehrlich had at this time several institutes at his disposal as well as sizable research funds. He also had a staff of highly competent collaborators; in fact, his colleague Hata Sahachirō contributed much to his eventual success in combating syphilis. His preparation 606, later called Salvarsan, was extraordinarily effective and harmless despite its large arsenic content. The first tests, announced in the spring of 1910, proved to be surprisingly successful in the treatment of a whole spectrum of diseases; in the case of yaws, a tropical disease akin to syphilis, a single injection was sufficient. It seemed as if a “magic bullet,” to use a favourite expression of Ehrlich’s, had been found.

The devastation wrought by syphilis provoked worldwide demand for a new weapon against the disease. Ehrlich, however, would not yet release his discovery for general use, believing as he did that the usual few hundred clinical tests did not suffice in the case of an arsenic preparation, the injection of which required special precautions. In an unheard-of transaction, the manufacturer with whom Ehrlich had collaborated closely, Farbwerke-Hoechst, released a total of 65,000 units gratis to physicians all over the globe. Although harmful side effects remained nominal in number, some envious competitors did not hesitate to attack Ehrlich. The most libelous among them was given a jail sentence.

The greatest distinction bestowed on Ehrlich by the Prussian state was the title “Wirklicher Geheimer Rat,” or Privy Councillor, with the predicate of “Exzellenz.”

 
 
Along with numerous other honours, Ehrlich was presented with honorary doctorates by the Universities of Oxford, Chicago, and Athens and an honorary citizenship by Frankfurt am Main, where the institute he founded still bears his name. Having suffered a first stroke in December 1914, Ehrlich succumbed to a second stroke in August of the following year. In its obituary the London Times acknowledged Ehrlich’s achievement in opening new doors into the unknown, saying, “The whole world is in his debt.”

Heinrich Satter

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1854
 
 
Manuel Garcia, singing teacher, invents laryngoscope
     
 
Laryngoscopy
 

Laryngoscopy (larynx + scopy) is a medical procedure that is used to obtain a view of the vocal folds and the glottis. Laryngoscopy may be performed to facilitate tracheal intubation during general anesthesia or cardiopulmonary resuscitation or for procedures on the larynx or other parts of the upper tracheobronchial tree.

 
Direct laryngoscopy
Direct laryngoscopy is carried out (usually) with the patient lying on his or her back; the laryngoscope is inserted into the mouth on the right side and flipped to the left to trap and move the tongue out of the line of sight, and, depending on the type of blade used, inserted either anterior or posterior to the epiglottis and then lifted with an upwards and forward motion ("away from you and towards the roof "). This move makes a view of the glottis possible. This procedure is done in an operation theatre with full preparation for resuscitative measures to deal with respiratory distress. There are at least ten different types of laryngoscope used for this procedure, each of which has a specialized use for the otolaryngologist and medical speech pathologist. This procedure is most often employed in direct diagnostic laryngoscopy with biopsy. It is extremely uncomfortable and is not typically performed on conscious patients, or on patients with an intact gag reflex.
 
Anatomical parts seen during laryngoscopy
 
 
Indirect laryngoscopy
Indirect laryngoscopy is performed whenever the provider visualizes the patient's vocal cords by a means other than obtaining a direct line of sight. For the purpose of intubation, this is facilitated by fiberoptic bronchoscopes, video laryngoscopes, fiberoptic stylets and mirror or prism optically-enhanced laryngoscopes.
 
 
History
Some historians (for example, Morell Mackenzie) credit Benjamin Guy Babington (1794–1866), who called his device the "glottiscope", with the invention of the laryngoscope. Philipp von Bozzini (1773–1809) and Garignard de la Tour were other early physicians to use mouth mirrors to inspect the oropharynx and hypopharynx.

In 1854, a Spanish vocal pedagogist named Garcia Manuel (1805–1906) became the first man to view the functioning glottis and larynx in a living human. García developed a tool that used two mirrors for which the Sun served as an external light source. Using this device, he was able to observe the function of his own glottic apparatus and the uppermost portion of his trachea. He presented his findings at the Royal Society of London in 1855.

 
The laryngoscopy.
From García, 1884
 
 

All previous observations of the glottis and larynx had been performed under indirect vision (using mirrors) until 23 April 1895, when Alfred Kirstein (1863–1922) of Germany first described direct visualization of the vocal cords. Kirstein performed the first direct laryngoscopy in Berlin, using an esophagoscope he had modified for this purpose; he called this device an autoscope. It is believed that the death in 1888 of Emperor Frederick III motivated Kirstein to develop the autoscope.

In 1913, Chevalier Jackson was the first to report a high rate of success for the use of direct laryngoscopy as a means to intubate the trachea. Jackson introduced a new laryngoscope blade that had a light source at the distal tip, rather than the proximal light source used by Kirstein. This new blade incorporated a component that the operator could slide out to allow room for passage of an endoracheal tube or bronchoscope.

That same year, Henry H. Janeway (1873–1921) published results he had achieved using another new laryngoscope he had recently developed. An American anesthesiologist practicing at Bellevue Hospital in New York City, Janeway believed that direct intratracheal insufflation of volatile anesthetics would provide improved conditions for surgery of the nose, mouth and throat. With this in mind, he developed a laryngoscope designed for the sole purpose of tracheal intubation. Similar to Jackson's device, Janeway's instrument incorporated a distal light source. Unique however was the inclusion of batteries within the handle, a central notch in the blade for maintaining the tracheal tube in the midline of the oropharynx during intubation, and a slight curve to the distal tip of the blade to help guide the tube through the glottis. The success of this design led to its subsequent use in other types of surgery. Janeway was thus instrumental in popularizing the widespread use of directand tracheal intubation in the practice of anesthesiology.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 
 
 
1854
 
 
German watchmaker Heinrich Goebel invents first form of electric light bulb
 
 
Goebel Henry
 

In 1854, the German inventor Heinrich Goebel developed the first 'modern' light bulb: a carbonized bamboo filament, in a vacuum bottle to prevent oxidation. In the following five years he developed what many call the first practical light bulb. His lamps lasted for up to 400 hours. He did not immediately apply for a patent, but his priority was established in 1893.

 

Heinrich Goebel
  Heinrich Göbel, later Henry Goebel (April 20, 1818 – December 4, 1893), born in Springe, Germany, was a precision mechanic and inventor.
In 1848 he emigrated to New York City, where he resided until his death. He received American citizenship in 1865.

In 1893 the public in the USA and in Europe took notice of Henry Goebel. Magazines and newspapers reported that 25 years earlier Henry Goebel had developed incandescent light bulbs comparable to those invented in the year 1879 by Thomas Alva Edison. Henry Goebel did not apply for a patent.

In 1893 the Edison Electric Light Co. brought suit against three manufacturers of incandescent lamps for infringing Edison´s patent. The defense of these companies claimed the Edison patent was void because of the same invention of Henry Goebel 25 years earlier (Goebel-Defense).

Judges of four courts raised doubts; there was no clear and convincing proof for the claimed invention of Henry Goebel. A research work published in 2007 concluded that the Goebel-Defense was fraudulent.

After the death of Henry Goebel, in some countries, the legend came into being that he was the true inventor of the practical incandescent light bulb.

 
 
Biography
Springe, Germany 1818 - 1848

On April 20, 1818 Heinrich Göbel was born in Springe near Hanover in Germany. His father, Heinrich Christian Göbel, was a gardener and later a door-to-door salesman for chocolate. The name of his mother was Marie Eleonore née Hüper. At that time Springe was a small village in the Kingdom of Hanover with less than 2.000 inhabitants. Most of them worked in agriculture.

1832 Henry Goebel finished school with bad results. His teacher added this comment: "He seems to have an inventive mind. The reasons of the poor marks appear to be in his lengthy illness."

In 1834 master locksmith Gerhard Linde of Springe admitted Henry Goebel as an apprentice for 3 years. It is not known whether Henry Goebel finished this training.

1837 he started to work as a repair mechanic on markets. Later in New York he gave 1837 as the foundation date of his business.

In 1844 Henry Goebel married Sophie Lübke née Rodewig. In the documents he gave watchmaker as his profession at that time. There are no sources to confirm a training as watchmaker. Probably Goebel learned by doing and did work comparable to a precision mechanic. He operated a one person business repairing clocks. His son Johann Carl was born 1846, and his daughter Marie Sophie in 1848.

In 1848, at the age of 30, Henry Goebel and his family emigrated to New York City. They left Germany in 1848 on the sailing ship "J.W.Andrews" and arrived in New York in January 1849. According to the list of passengers of the ship, he gave "mechanic" as his profession. The reasons for emigration are not known.

 
 
New York 1849 - 1893
In New York Henry Goebel opened a shop in Monroe Street. The title was Jewelry, Horology and Optician's Store.

To earn more money, Henry Goebel constructed a telescope. Frequently in the 1850s and 1860s he moved with his large telescope on a horse wagon to Union Square in the evening and by payment of a fee people could use his telescope to observe the stars. In litigations of the year 1893 many persons remembered the telescope-man.

On May 9, 1865 Henry Goebel obtained the U.S. Patent No. 47.632 "Hemmer for sewing machines." Probably he got the idea when thinking about how to make the sewing work of his daughter more easy. He was not successful in selling the patent.

1872 Goebel moved his shop to Grand Street.

In 1881 Henry Goebel worked as a kind of consultant for the American Electric Light Co. Obviously there was a need for precision mechanics for the construction of electric lamps. Furthermore, he produced carbon filaments in his shop for the company.

He finished this work after half a year and tried to start his own business in the field of incandescent light bulbs together with his friend John Kulenkamp. Both were members of a Lodge of Freemasons of German immigrants.

 
Goebel-Lamp No. 5. This lamp was at exhibition in Goebel's shop April 29, 1882
 
 
On April 30, 1882 the New York Times reported about an exhibition of incandescent light bulbs in Goebel's shop. According to this report Henry Goebel told the story, that the electric light was by no means as new an invention as it was popularly supposed to be and that he knew this kind of light since his time in Germany. He affirmed that he produced electric lights since the 1850s without giving technical details. The lamps at exhibition were incandescent light bulbs with carbon-filaments of high resistance made of fibres of reed.

Two patents were granted to Henry Goebel in 1882, an improvement of the Geissler-System of vacuum pumps and a solution to connect carbon-filaments and metal-wires in a light bulb.

In 1882 Goebel made an offer to sell his inventions to the Edison Electric Light Co. for a few thousand dollars, but Edison did not see enough merit in the invention to accept the offer.

Obviously Henry Goebel and his friend John Kulenkamp were not successful in starting a business.

In the 1880s some patent attorneys visited Henry Goebel because of the report in the New York Times 1882. They were interested in early incandescent light bulbs to move Edison's patent of 1880 into question. Later they said, there was not much evidence, and Henry Goebel was not able to present old lamps.

In 1887 Henry Goebel's wife Sofie died. At least 8 more children of them were born in the USA. 7 children survived both parents.

In the late 1880s Henry Goebel retired and his son Henry Goebel Jr. became the owner of the shop.

In 1893 Patent attorneys Witter & Kenyon, New York, became the counsels of the defense in three cases of patent infringement. Henry Goebel became the main witness of the defense in these cases. His story of 1882 was used to create the Goebel-Defense.

Henry Goebel died on December 4, 1893 because of pneumonia. He was buried at Green-Wood Cemetery.

The lawsuits with the Goebel-defense continued until May 1894.

The work for the American Electric Light Co. 1881, the patents from 1882 and the report in the New York Times from April 30, 1882 are the earliest clear sources for work of Henry Goebel related to incandescent electric light bulbs. No earlier source is known to prove any kind of relation to incandescent light bulbs or any kind of work in the field of electricity. Doubtful details of the biography of Henry Goebel given by himself are not listed.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1854
 
 
George Boole: "The Laws of Thought"
 
The Laws of Thought, more precisely, An Investigation of the Laws of Thought on Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities, was an influential 19th century book by Boole George, the second of his two monographs on algebraic logic. It was published in 1854. Boole was Professor of Mathematics of then Queen's College, Cork in Ireland.
 
Review of the contents
The historian of logic John Corcoran wrote an accessible introduction to Laws of Thought and a point by point comparison of Prior Analytics and Laws of Thought. According to Corcoran, Boole fully accepted and endorsed Aristotle’s logic. Boole’s goals were “to go under, over, and beyond” Aristotle’s logic by:

1. Providing it with mathematical foundations involving equations;
2. Extending the class of problems it could treat from assessing validity to solving equations, and;
3. Expanding the range of applications it could handle — e.g. from propositions having only two terms to those having arbitrarily many.
 
 
More specifically, Boole agreed with what Aristotle said; Boole’s ‘disagreements’, if they might be called that, concern what Aristotle did not say.

First, in the realm of foundations, Boole reduced the four propositional forms of Aristotle's logic to formulas in the form of equations—by itself a revolutionary idea.

Second, in the realm of logic’s problems, Boole’s addition of equation solving to logic—another revolutionary idea—involved Boole’s doctrine that Aristotle’s rules of inference (the “perfect syllogisms”) must be supplemented by rules for equation solving.

Third, in the realm of applications, Boole’s system could handle multi-term propositions and arguments whereas Aristotle could handle only two-termed subject-predicate propositions and arguments.

For example, Aristotle’s system could not deduce “No quadrangle that is a square is a rectangle that is a rhombus” from “No square that is a quadrangle is a rhombus that is a rectangle” or from “No rhombus that is a rectangle is a square that is a quadrangle”.

Boole's work founded the discipline of algebraic logic.

It is often, but mistakenly, credited as being the source of what we know today as Boolean algebra.

In fact, however, Boole's algebra differs from modern Boolean algebra: in Boole's algebra A+B cannot be interpreted by set union, due to the permissibility of uninterpretable terms in Boole's calculus.

Therefore algebras on Boole's account cannot be interpreted by sets under the operations of union, intersection and complement, as is the case with modern Boolean algebra.

The task of developing the modern account of Boolean algebra fell to Boole's successors in the tradition of algebraic logic (Jevons 1869, Peirce 1880, Jevons 1890, Schröder 1890, Huntingdon 1904).

  Uninterpretable terms
In Boole's account of his algebra, terms are reasoned about equationally, without a systematic interpretation being assigned to them. In places, Boole talks of terms being interpreted by sets, but he also recognises terms that cannot always be so interpreted, such as the term 2AB, which arises in equational manipulations. Such terms he classes uninterpretable terms; although elsewhere he has some instances of such terms being interpreted by integers.
The coherences of the whole enterprise is justified by Boole in what Stanley Burris has later called the "rule of 0s and 1s", which justifies the claim that uninterpretable terms cannot be the ultimate result of equational manipulations from meaningful starting formulae (Burris 2000). Boole provided no proof of this rule, but the coherence of his system was proved by Theodore Hailperin, who provided an interpretation based on a fairly simple construction of rings from the integers to provide an interpretation of Boole's theory (Hailperin 1976).

Boole’s 1854 definition of universe of discourse
In every discourse, whether of the mind conversing with its own thoughts, or of the individual in his intercourse with others, there is an assumed or expressed limit within which the subjects of its operation are confined. The most unfettered discourse is that in which the words we use are understood in the widest possible application, and for them the limits of discourse are co-extensive with those of the universe itself. But more usually we confine ourselves to a less spacious field. Sometimes, in discoursing of men we imply (without expressing the limitation) that it is of men only under certain circumstances and conditions that we speak, as of civilized men, or of men in the vigour of life, or of men under some other condition or relation. Now, whatever may be the extent of the field within which all the objects of our discourse are found, that field may properly be termed the universe of discourse. Furthermore, this universe of discourse is in the strictest sense the ultimate subject of the discourse.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1854
 
 
Georg Riemann: "On the Hypotheses Forming the Foundation of Geometry"
 
 
Riemann Bernhard
 

Bernhard Riemann, in full Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (born September 17, 1826, Breselenz, Hanover [Germany]—died July 20, 1866, Selasca, Italy), German mathematician whose profound and novel approaches to the study of geometry laid the mathematical foundation for Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. He also made important contributions to the theory of functions, complex analysis, and number theory.

 

Bernhard Riemann
  Riemann was born into a poor Lutheran pastor’s family, and all his life he was a shy and introverted person. He was fortunate to have a schoolteacher who recognized his rare mathematical ability and lent him advanced books to read, including Adrien-Marie Legendre’s Number Theory (1830). Riemann read the book in a week and then claimed to know it by heart.

He went on to study mathematics at the University of Göttingen in 1846–47 and 1849–51 and at the University of Berlin (now the Humboldt University of Berlin) in 1847–49. He then gradually worked his way up the academic profession, through a succession of poorly paid jobs, until he became a full professor in 1859 and gained, for the first time in his life, a measure of financial security.

However, in 1862, shortly after his marriage to Elise Koch, Riemann fell seriously ill with tuberculosis. Repeated trips to Italy failed to stem the progress of the disease, and he died in Italy in 1866.

Riemann’s visits to Italy were important for the growth of modern mathematics there; Enrico Betti in particular took up the study of Riemannian ideas. Ill health prevented Riemann from publishing all his work, and some of his best was published only posthumously—e.g., the first edition of Riemann’s Gesammelte mathematische Werke (1876; “Collected Mathematical Works”), edited by Richard Dedekind and Heinrich Weber.

 
 
Riemann’s influence was initially less than it might have been. Göttingen was a small university, Riemann was a poor lecturer, and, to make matters worse, several of his best students died young. His few papers are also difficult to read, but his work won the respect of some of the best mathematicians in Germany, including his friend Dedekind and his rival in Berlin, Karl Weierstrass. Other mathematicians were gradually drawn to his papers by their intellectual depth, and in this way he set an agenda for conceptual thinking over ingenious calculation. This emphasis was taken up by Felix Klein and David Hilbert, who later established Göttingen as a world centre for mathematics research, with Carl Gauss and Riemann as its iconic figures.
 
 
In his doctoral thesis (1851), Riemann introduced a way of generalizing the study of polynomial equations in two real variables to the case of two complex variables. In the real case a polynomial equation defines a curve in the plane. Because a complex variable z can be thought of as a pair of real variables x + iy (where i = √(−1)), an equation involving two complex variables defines a real surface—now known as a Riemann surface—spread out over the plane. In 1851 and in his more widely available paper of 1857, Riemann showed how such surfaces can be classified by a number, later called the genus, that is determined by the maximal number of closed curves that can be drawn on the surface without splitting it into separate pieces. This is one of the first significant uses of topology in mathematics.

In 1854 Riemann presented his ideas on geometry for the official postdoctoral qualification at Göttingen; the elderly Gauss was an examiner and was greatly impressed. Riemann argued that the fundamental ingredients for geometry are a space of points (called today a manifold) and a way of measuring distances along curves in the space. He argued that the space need not be ordinary Euclidean space and that it could have any dimension (he even contemplated spaces of infinite dimension). Nor is it necessary that the surface be drawn in its entirety in three-dimensional space. A few years later this inspired the Italian mathematician Eugenio Beltrami to produce just such a description of non-Euclidean geometry, the first physically plausible alternative to Euclidean geometry.

 
Riemann surface of Log[z], projection from
4dim C x C to 3dim C x Im(C),
color is argument.
 
 
Riemann’s ideas went further and turned out to provide the mathematical foundation for the four-dimensional geometry of space-time in Einstein’s theory of general relativity. It seems that Riemann was led to these ideas partly by his dislike of the concept of action at a distance in contemporary physics and by his wish to endow space with the ability to transmit forces such as electromagnetism and gravitation.

In 1859 Riemann also introduced complex function theory into number theory. He took the zeta function, which had been studied by many previous mathematicians because of its connection to the prime numbers, and showed how to think of it as a complex function. The Riemann zeta function then takes the value zero at the negative integers (the so-called trivial zeros) and also at points on a certain line (called the critical line). Standard methods in complex function theory, due to Augustin-Louis Cauchy in France and Riemann himself, would give much information about the distribution of prime numbers if it could be shown that all the nontrivial zeros lie on this line—a conjecture known as the Riemann hypothesis. All nontrivial zeros discovered thus far have been on the critical line. In fact, infinitely many zeros have been discovered to lie on this line.
 
 

Bernhard Riemann
  Such partial results have been enough to show that the number of prime numbers less than any number x is well approximated by x/ln x. The Riemann hypothesis was one of the 23 problems that Hilbert challenged mathematicians to solve in his famous 1900 address, “The Problems of Mathematics.” Over the years a growing body of mathematical ideas have built upon the assumption that the Riemann hypothesis is true; its proof, or disproof, would have far-reaching consequences and confer instant renown.
Riemann took a novel view of what it means for mathematical objects to exist. He sought general existence proofs, rather than “constructive proofs” that actually produce the objects. He believed that this approach led to conceptual clarity and prevented the mathematician from getting lost in the details, but even some experts disagreed with such nonconstructive proofs. Riemann also studied how functions compare with their trigonometric or Fourier series representation, which led him to refine ideas about discontinuous functions. He showed how complex function theory illuminates the study of minimal surfaces (surfaces of least area that span a given boundary). He was one of the first to study differential equations involving complex variables, and his work led to a profound connection with group theory. He introduced new general methods in the study of partial differential equations and applied them to produce the first major study of shock waves.

Jeremy John Gray

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1854
 
 
Alfred Wallace explorations (1854-1862)
 
 
Wallace Alfred Russel
 

Alfred Russel Wallace, byname A.R. Wallace (born Jan. 8, 1823, Usk, Monmouthshire, Wales—died Nov. 7, 1913, Broadstone, Dorset, Eng.), British humanist, naturalist, geographer, and social critic. He became a public figure in England during the second half of the 19th century, known for his courageous views on scientific, social, and spiritualist subjects.

His formulation of the theory of evolution by natural selection, which predated Charles Darwin’s published contributions, is his most outstanding legacy, but it was just one of many controversial issues he studied and wrote about during his lifetime. Wallace’s wide-ranging interests—from socialism to spiritualism, from island biogeography to life on Mars, from evolution to land nationalization—stemmed from his profound concern with the moral, social, and political values of human life.

 

Alfred Russel Wallace
  Early life and work
The eighth of nine children born to Thomas Vere Wallace and Mary Anne Greenell, Alfred Russel Wallace grew up in modest circumstances in rural Wales and then in Hertford, Hertfordshire, England. His formal education was limited to six years at the one-room Hertford Grammar School. Although his education was curtailed by the family’s worsening financial situation, his home was a rich source of books, maps, and gardening activities, which Wallace remembered as enduring sources of learning and pleasure.

Wallace’s parents belonged to the Church of England, and as a child Wallace attended services. His lack of enthusiasm for organized religion became more pronounced when he was exposed to secular teachings at a London mechanics’ institute, the “Hall of Science” off Tottenham Court Road. Living in London with his brother John, an apprentice carpenter, the 14-year-old Wallace became familiar with the lives of tradesmen and labourers, and he shared in their efforts at self-education. Here Wallace read treatises and attended lectures by Robert Owenand his son Robert Dale Owen that formed the basis of his religious skepticism and his reformist and socialist political philosophy.

In 1837 Wallace became an apprentice in the surveying business of his eldest brother, William. New tax laws (Tithe Commutation Act, 1836) and the division of public land among landowners (General Enclosures Act, 1845) created a demand for accurate surveys and maps of farmlands, public lands, and parishes, as surveys and maps made according to regulations were legal documents in executing these laws.

 
 
For approximately 8 of the next 10 years, Wallace surveyed and mapped in Bedfordshire and then in Wales. He lived among farmers and artisans and saw the injustices suffered by the poor as a result of the new laws. Wallace’s detailed observations of their habits are recorded in one of his first writing efforts, an essay on “the South Wales Farmer,” which is reproduced in his autobiography. When surveying work could not be found as a result of violent uprisings by the Welsh farmers, Wallace spent a year (1844) teaching at a boys’ school, the Collegiate School in Leicester, Leicestershire, England. After his brother William died in early 1845, Wallace worked in London and Wales, saw to his brother’s business, surveyed for a proposed railway line, and built a mechanics’ institute at Neath, Wales, with his brother John.
 
 

A map from The Malay Archipelago shows the physical geography of the archipelago and Wallace's travels around the area. The thin black lines indicate where Wallace travelled, and the red lines indicate chains of volcanoes.
 
 

A photograph of A.R. Wallace taken in Singapore in 1862
  The career of a naturalist
As a surveyor, Wallace spent a great deal of time outdoors, both for work and pleasure. An enthusiastic amateur naturalist with an intellectual bent, he read widely in natural history, history, and political economy, including works by William Swainson, Charles Darwin, Alexander von Humboldt, and Thomas Malthus. He also read works and attended lectures on phrenology and mesmerism, forming an interest in nonmaterial mental phenomena that grew increasingly prominent later in his life. Inspired by reading about organic evolution in Robert Chambers’s controversial Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (1844), unemployed, and ardent in his love of nature, Wallace and his naturalist friend Henry Walter Bates, who had introduced Wallace to entomology four years earlier, traveled to Brazil in 1848 as self-employed specimen collectors. Wallace and Bates participated in the culture of natural history collecting, honing practical skills to identify, collect, and send back to England biological objects that were highly valued in the flourishing trade in natural specimens. The two young men amicably parted ways after several joint collecting ventures; Bates spent 11 years in the region, while Wallace spent a total of four years traveling, collecting, mapping, drawing, and writing in unexplored regions of the Amazon River basin. He studied the languages and habits of the peoples he encountered; he collected butterflies, other insects, and birds; and he searched for clues to solve the mystery of the origin of plant and animal species.

Except for one shipment of specimens sent to his agent in London, however, most of Wallace’s collections were lost on his voyage home when his ship went up in flames and sank. Nevertheless, he managed to save some of his notes before his rescue and return journey. From these he published several scientific articles, two books (Palm Trees of the Amazon and Their Uses and Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro, both 1853), and a map depicting the course of the Negro River. These won him acclaim from the Royal Geographical Society, which helped to fund his next collecting venture, in the Malay Archipelago.
 
 
Wallace spent eight years in the Malay Archipelago, from 1854 to 1862, traveling among the islands, collecting biological specimens for his own research and for sale, and writing scores of scientific articles on mostly zoological subjects. Among these were two extraordinary articles dealing with the origin of new species. The first of these, published in 1855, concluded with the assertion that “every species has come into existence coincident both in space and time with a pre-existing closely allied species.” Wallace then proposed that new species arise by the progression and continued divergence of varieties that outlive the parent species in the struggle for existence. In early 1858 he sent a paper outlining these ideas to Darwin, who saw such a striking coincidence to his own theory that he consulted his closest colleagues, the geologist Charles Lyell and the botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker. The three men decided to present two extracts of Darwin’s previous writings, along with Wallace’s paper, to the Linnean Society. The resulting set of papers, with both Darwin’s and Wallace’s names, was published as a single article entitled “On the Tendency of Species to Form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection” in the Proceedings of the Linnean Society in 1858. This compromise sought to avoid a conflict of priority interests and was reached without Wallace’s knowledge. Wallace’s research on the geographic distribution of animals among the islands of the Malay Archipelago provided crucial evidence for his evolutionary theories and led him to devise what soon became known as Wallace’s Line, the boundary that separates the fauna of Australia from that of Asia.
 
 
Wallace returned to England in 1862 an established natural scientist and geographer, as well as a collector of more than 125,000 animal specimens. He married Annie Mitten (1848–1914), with whom he raised three children (Herbert died at age 4, whereas Violet and William survived their father), published a highly successful narrative of his journey, The Malay Archipelago: The Land of the Orang-Utan, and the Bird of Paradise (1869), and wrote Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection (1870). In the latter volume and in several articles from this period on human evolution and spiritualism, Wallace parted from the scientific naturalism of many of his friends and colleagues in claiming that natural selection could not account for the higher faculties of human beings.

The Wallace family moved several times, from Inner London to the outer borough of Barking, to Grays in Essex, and then south to Dorking, Surrey, to the outer borough of Croydon, to Godalming, Surrey, then to Parkstone and finally Broadstone, both in Dorset. Wallace built three of his family’s houses, and at each he and his wife kept gardens. Although he applied for several jobs, Wallace never held a permanent position. He lost the profits from his collections through bad investments and other financial misfortunes. His income was limited to earnings from his writings, from grading school exams (which he did for some 25 years), and from a small inheritance from a relative. In 1881 he was added to the Civil List, thanks largely to the efforts of Darwin and T.H. Huxley.

 
An illustration from the chapter on the application of natural selection to humans in Wallace's 1889 book Darwinism shows a chimpanzee.
 
 
Wallace’s two-volume Geographical Distribution of Animals (1876) and Island Life (1880) became the standard authorities in zoogeography and island biogeography, synthesizing knowledge about the distribution and dispersal of living and extinct animals in an evolutionary framework. For the ninth edition of Encyclopædia Britannica (1875–89), he wrote the article “Acclimatisation” (adaptation) and the animal life section of the article “Distribution.” He also lectured in the British Isles and in the United States and traveled on the European continent. In addition to his major scientific works, Wallace actively pursued a variety of social and political interests.

In writings and public appearances he opposed vaccination, eugenics, and vivisection while strongly supporting women’s rights and land nationalization. Foremost among these commitments was an increasing engagement with spiritualism in his personal and public capacities.
 
 

A map of the world from The Geographical Distribution of Animals shows Wallace's six biogeographical regions.
 
 
Wallace received several awards, including the Royal Society of London’s Royal Medal (1868), Darwin Medal (1890; for his independent origination of the origin of species by natural selection), Copley Medal (1908), and Order of Merit (1908); the Linnean Society of London’s Gold Medal (1892) and Darwin-Wallace Medal (1908); and the Royal Geographical Society’s Founder’s Medal (1892). He was also awarded honorary doctorates from the Universities of Dublin (1882) and Oxford (1889) and won election to the Royal Society (1893).

Wallace published 21 books, and the list of his articles, essays, and letters in periodicals contains more than 700 items. Yet his career eludes simple description or honorifics. He was keenly intellectual but no less spiritual, a distinguished scientist and a spokesman for unpopular causes, a gifted naturalist who never lost his boyish enthusiasm for nature, a prolific and lucid writer, a committed socialist, a seeker of truth, and a domestic, modest individual. His engagement with progressive politics and spiritualism likely contributed to his lack of employment and to his somewhat peripheral status in the historical record. What touched those who knew him was his compassion, his humanness and sympathy, and his lack of pretense or acquired pride. Wallace died in his 91st year and was buried in Broadstone, to be joined there by his widow the following year. A commemorative medallion in his honour was unveiled at Westminster Abbey in 1915.

Jane R. Camerini

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
Southeast Asia
 
Although civilizations like that of Armani or Java had flourished in Southeast Asia and long-distance maritime voyaging had begun there many centuries ago, little was known of these developments outside the region. The commercial voyages of the Portuguese and their successors in the 16th and 17th centuries began to open windows, but it was not until the 19th century, spurred on by colonialism or scientific enquiry, that the rich and diverse lands of Southeast Asia were explored by Europeans - with the essential assistance, of course, of some at least of their ethnically diverse inhabitants.
 
 
A naturalist in the Indies
 
Scientific endeavor is perhaps best represented by an indefatigable English naturalist, Alfred Wallace, who had already spent four years in Amazonia (see pages 108—9), before he arrived in Singapore in 1854. During the following eight years he traveled among the islands of the Malay or Indonesian Archipelago, from Malaya to New Guinea, collecting hundreds of specimens. He arrived at the theory of evolution by a process of natural selection independently of Darwin; he is also remembered for identifying the "Wallace Line," which marks the division between Asian and Australian types of fauna, and shows that the western and eastern islands of the archipelago once formed parts of separate continents.
 
 
Indochina
 
French political involvement in Indochina dated from 1787, when, following the work of French missionaries, a treaty was signed with the King of Annam giving the French two footholds on the coast. The king's successors after 1820 resented French influence, and the persecution of Christians led to direct intervention, with the capture of
Tourane (Da Nang) in 1862 and Saigon a few months later. By a treaty of 1862, three provinces of Cochin China (south Vietnam) were ceded, and in the following year Cambodia became a French protectorate.
 
 
 
 
The Mekong Expedition
 
The expedition to explore the Mekong River was urged on the French Governor by a 24-year-old naval officer. Mane Joseph Francois Gamier. In view of Garnier's youth, command was given to Captain Doudart de Lagree, the chief representative and virtual ruler at the court of King Norodom of Cambodia. Garnier's notion, a reasonable though incorrect hypothesis, was that the Mekong might provide a route through the length of the peninsula into the Chinese province of Yunnan, part of which was in rebel hands at the time. The aims of the expedition were frankly imperialist and commercial; scientific enquiry was a secondary consideration. However, Lagree and his men were to traverse some 5400 miles (8700 kilometers), two-thirds of it through unmapped country. Gamier himself was to be responsible for most of the observations.

Before embarking on the expedition proper, Lagree led a diversion to the famous ruins of Angkor, which had been little known until they were visited by the French explorer Henri Mouhot in 1861.

The journey up the Mekong began in July 1866. Five of the six members of the expedition — excluding a few soldiers, later sent back for bad behavior — were naval officers, two being qualified physicians. They traveled in a well-armed gunboat, but on reaching the rapids at Kratie prudently changed to Cambodian dugouts, hauled along by men with hooked poles. The tumultuous Khong Falls on the Laotian border destroyed any lingering hopes of steam navigation on the Mekong.
 
 

Banteay Sei, whose chief entrance is shown here surrounded by jungle vegetation, is some 20 miles (30 kilometers) from the main ruins of Angkor Wat-a vast temple complex dating from the 12th century. Doudart de Lagree was the first European to provide a detailed and accurate description of the ruins.
 
 
The Frenchmen experienced all the discomforts of 19th-century European travelers in a tropical forest. Besides heat, damp, and disease, the lesser fauna such as mosquitoes and leeches plagued them cruelly. Gamier memorably describes landing on an island to take sightings and finding it so infested with leeches that he was forced to climb a tree to escape them.

There were compensations, however. For one thing, the peaceable Buddhists of Cambodia and Laos were hospitable and eager to help. At Luang Prabang, the royal capital of Laos, the local ruler himself contributed to a memorial the French erected to Mouhot, who had died there. Local people brought in samples of flora, supposing all Frenchmen to be keen naturalists like Mouhot.

Some of these little, semi-independent states were highly attractive; Gamier marked down one as an ideal health station for convalescent colonial officials. At several places Lagree was excited to discover further remains of the ancient Khmer civilization.
 
 
A disappointing outcome
 
The expedition reached Luang Prabang, m April 1867, but not fir beyond it Lagree decided to forsake the Mekong altogether. In the Laotian highlands the river had become comparatively shallow, no longer the great artery it was further south.

The expedition set out overland for the Chinese border, making slow and haphazard progress because every local chieftain, curious to see a European, demanded a ceremonial visit, which frequently required a diversion of several days.

The remote mountain people of northern Laos were no less interesting to the Europeans, but the expedition, seriously behind schedule, had almost exhausted its cash and trade goods, and was increasingly reliant on local hospitality.


In October 1867 they finally reached the Chinese border, but m very poor shape. Lagree soon died, and Gamier took over command.

Any hope of establishing friendly relations with the Panthay rebels of Yunnan (Muslims who at that time maintained an independent state in the west of the province) had to be abandoned when the Frenchmen were attacked by a xenophobic mob.

They escaped and made their way overland to the Yangtze, descending the river to Shanghai and from there going by sea to Saigon in what is now Vietnam.


From an official point of view the results of the expedition were disappointing, but a great deal of knowledge concerning what was soon to become French Indochina had been gained.

Because the Mekong had failed to prove an Asian version of the Mississippi, Gamier shifted his enthusiastic commendations to the Hong (Rouge or Red) River, flowing from central Yunnan to the Gulf of Tonkmg via Hanoi.

Gamier died at Hanoi in 1873 in a scuffle with Black Flags (Chinese mercenaries) shortly after capturing the city — still only 34 years old.
 
The Red Bird of Paradise was just one of the many exotic species recorded and described by Alfred Wallace in The Malay Archipelago, published in 1869. During his eight years of travels through the archipelago he also collected over 125,000 specimens of animals and insects, many of which belonged to unknown species, and made a detailed study of the orang-utan in Borneo.
 
 
see also: Navigators and Naturalists
 
 
 
1854
 
 
"Le Figaro"
 

Le Figaro  is a French daily newspaper of record founded in 1826 and published in Paris. It is often compared to its main competitor, Le Monde. Its editorial line is conservative. It is also the oldest national newspaper in France.

It is the second-largest national newspaper in France after Le Parisien and before Le Monde, although some regional papers have larger circulations.

The newspaper is owned by Le Figaro Group, whose publications include TV Magazine and Evene. The company's chairman is Serge Dassault, whose Dassault Group has controlled the paper since 2004.

 
History
Le Figaro was founded as a satirical weekly in 1826, taking its name and motto from Le Mariage de Figaro, a play by Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais that poked fun at privilege. Its motto, from Figaro's monologue in the play's final act, is "Sans la liberté de blâmer, il n'est point d'éloge flatteur" ("Without the freedom to criticise, there is no true praise"). In 1833, editor Nestor Roqueplan fought a duel with a Colonel Gallois, who was offended by an article in Le Figaro, and was wounded but recovered.

Albert Wolff, Émile Zola, Alphonse Karr and Jules Claretie were among the paper's early contributors.

It was published somewhat irregularly until 1854, when it was taken over by Hippolyte de Villemessant.

In 1866 Le Figaro became a daily newspaper. Its first daily edition, that of 16 November 1866, sold 56,000 copies, having highest circulation of any newspaper in France.

On 16 March 1914, Gaston Calmette, the editor of Le Figaro, was assassinated by Henriette Caillaux, the wife of Finance Minister Joseph Caillaux, after he published a letter that cast serious doubt on her husband's integrity. In 1922, Le Figaro was purchased by perfume millionaire François Coty. Abel Faivre did cartoons for the paper.

By the start of World War II, Le Figaro had become France's leading newspaper. After the war it became the voice of the upper middle class, and continues to maintain a conservative position.

 
First issue, 15 January 1826
 
 
In 1975, Le Figaro was bought by Robert Hersant's Socpresse. In 1999, the Carlyle Group obtained a 40% stake in the paper, which it later sold in March 2002. Since March 2004 Le Figaro has been controlled by Serge Dassault, a conservative businessman and politician best known for running the aircraft manufacturer Dassault Aviation, which he inherited from his father, its founder, Marcel (1892–1986). Dassault has 80% of the paper.

Le Figaro switched to Berliner format in 2009. The paper has published The New York Times International Weekly on Friday since 2009, an 8-page supplement featuring a selection of articles from The New York Times translated into French. In 2010, Lefigaro.fr created a section called Le Figaro in English, which provides the global English-speaking community with daily original or translated content from Le Figaro’s website. The section ended in 2012.

 
 
Controversy about editorial independence
Controversial both inside and outside the newspaper is its ownership by a person who also controls a major military supplier, as well as being a mayor and senator from the Union for a Popular Movement party, whose son Olivier Dassault is a member of the French National Assembly for the same party.

In response, Dassault remarked in an interview on the public radio station France Inter, that "newspapers must promulgate healthy ideas" and that "left-wing ideas are not healthy ideas."

In February 2012, a general assembly of the newspaper's journalists adopted a motion accusing the paper's managing editor, Étienne Mougeotte, of having made Le Figaro into the "bulletin" of the governing party, the Union for a Popular Movement, of the government and of President Nicolas Sarkozy.

They requested more pluralism and "honesty" rather than one-sided political reporting. Mougeotte had previously said that Le Figaro would do nothing to embarrass the government and the right.

Mougeotte publicly replied: "Our editorial line pleases our readers as it is, it works. I don't see why I should change it. [...] We are a right-wing newspaper and we express it clearly, by the way. Our readers know it, our journalists too. There's nothing new to that!"

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
Front page of Le Figaro, August 4, 1914
 
 
 
1854
 
 
The first street-poster pillars erected in Berlin by Ernst Litfass
 
 
Litfass Ernst
 

Ernst Amandus Theodor Litfaß (or Litfass; German pronunciation: [ˈlɪtfas]), (11 February 1816 – 27 December 1874) was a German printer and publisher. His claim to fame rests on the invention of the free-standing cylindrical advertising column which bears his name in German (Litfaßsäule).

 
Biography
Born in Berlin, Litfaß took over his stepfather's business in 1845 and became the editor of a number of newspapers and pamphlets.

As publisher, he completed, in 1858, the edition of the Oekonomische Encyklopädie (in 242 volumes), which had been started by Johann Georg Krünitz in 1773.

In 1854 Litfaß proposed putting up columns in the streets of Berlin for announcement and advertising purposes.

Allegedly, he was disgusted by the unsystematic and ubiquitous posting of pamphlets, notices and other materials on walls, doors, fences and trees.

In December that year he was granted permission to erect such Annoncier-Säulen columns, and on 1 July 1855 the first 100 Litfaß-Säulen were presented in Berlin.

Litfaß had a monopoly on his advertising columns and grew rich fast. After his death in Wiesbaden in 1874, the idea of putting up Litfaßsäulen (Litfaß columns or Litfaß pillars) quickly spread to other German cities.

Today, they can be found in other countries as well.

Later developments include the electrically powered slowly revolving Litfaß column; Litfaß columns that serve as vents for underground services; and the Litfaß column with a hidden door whose interior is used for storage purposes (tools for street sweeping, electrical appliances, etc.)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
A Litfaßsäule in Vienna, Austria. The advertisements are for concerts with Ton Koopman and Kurt Masur respectively; at the bottom there is the weekly programme of the theatres of Vienna.
 
 
 
1854
 
 
Northcote–Trevelyan Report
 

The Northcote–Trevelyan Report was a document prepared by Stafford H. Northcote (later to be Chancellor of the Exchequer) and C.E. Trevelyan (then permanent secretary at the Treasury). Published in February 1854, the report catalysed the development of Her Majesty's Civil Service in the United Kingdom.

 
Origins and influences
The principles of the system proposed by Northcote–Trevelyan can be traced to earlier reforms in the Indian Civil Service (ICS).Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, Secretary to the Board of Control, was instrumental in the passing of the Saint Helena Act 1833 which removed the East India Company's trade functions, and established is as an entirely administrative body. He was responsible for establishing the principle of 'appointment by generalist competitive examination' into government positions. (Although, as with the Northcote–Trevelyan report subsequently, although Macaulay's intentions were clear, and incorporated into the Act, implementation of those intentions did not immediately follow; it was not until the 1853 that appointment by nomination rather than competition was made universal in the ICS.)

Trevelyan had been a member of the Indian civil service, having been trained at its college at East India Company College near Hertford. He regarded Macaulay highly, and was also married to one of Macaulay's sisters.

Northcote was also influenced by the example of the Indian civil service. He was a friend of William Ewart Gladstone, at that time chancellor of the exchequer and also of Benjamin Jowett, a theologian and tutor at Balliol College, Oxford. Jowett had been one of the commissioners involved in the earlier reform of the ICS, and subsequently wrote a letter which acted as a cover note to the Northcote-Trevelyan report.

  In the years leading up to 1854, there were at least 11 other reports into the structure and functions of individual government departments Because these were mainly motivated by the need for 'economy' rather than the improvement of effectiveness, they had Her Majesty's Treasury involvement, and so Trevelyan, as 'assistant secretary' to the Treasury from 1840, (a role now known as permanent secretary) had taken part in many of them.
By 1848, he had become convinced of the need for reform across government rather than merely in individual departments,. Although he had not been successful in instituting the kind of reforms for which he would later argue in the Northcote–Trevelyan report, his reviews into the Home Office, Foreign Office, Colonial Office, and the Irish Office had led him to draw two of the conclusions that would untimately have prominence in Northcote–Trevelyan; that work should be devided into mechanical and intellectual types, and that recruitment and selection should be based solely on merit.

The appointment of a reform-minded Gladstone as chancellor in 1852, created greater pressure for civil service reform. A report into the Board of Trade recommended that

‘the whole subject of the examination of candidates for public employment is well worthy of consideration, and that it would be of great advantage if a proper system was devised, and a central board of properly qualified examiners employed.'

 
 
Production
The terms of reference of what became the Northcote–Trevelyan report were issued by Gladstone in the form of a Treasury minute in 1853. They stated that an enquiry should be convened:

‘For the purpose of considering applications for increase of salary, abolishing or consolidating redundant offices, supplying additional assistance where it is required, getting rid of obsolete processes, and introducing more simple and compendious modes of transacting business…establishing a proper distinction between intellectual and mechanical labour, and generally, so revising and readjusting the public establishments as to place them on the footing best calculated for the efficient discharge of their important functions according to the actual circumstances of the present time…’

The report took nine months to draft and publish. It had the formal title "Report on the organisation of the permanent civil service, together with a letter from the Rev. B. Jowett." It had four major conclusions:

Recruitment into the civil service should be by open examination, conducted by an independent ‘civil service board’.
Entrants should be recruited into a ‘home civil service’ as a whole, rather than to a specific department.
Recruits would be segregated at entry into a hierarchy of grades, ranging from clerical officers who would conduct routine tasks, through to those who would provide policy advice to ministers.
Promotion would be on merit, not preferment, patronage, purchase, or length of service.

 
 
Implementation and effect
Initial reaction to the report’s recommendations was hostile, including from Queen Victoria. The report advocated that its recommendations be enacted in statute, but it quickly became apparent that this would be politically impossible.

However, Gladstone did quickly establish the Civil Service Commission through an order in council on 21 May 1855. The Commission was intended to fulfil the role of the 'Civil Service Board' argued for by the report. The Commission did issue certificates to civil service candidates, but the certificates were not, as had been recommended, issued on the basis of competitive examination results.

Opposition to the reforms continued, and even by 1870, Gladstone, although by then Prime Minister, was still unable to garner support for statutory reform. Instead, he issued a second order in council on 4 June 1870, which placed responsibility for the recruitment of all civil servants, except for the Home and Foreign Offices, under the control of the Treasury.

This had the effect of more fully implementing the first of the report's major recommendations; although entrance examinations would now be conducted (with patronage largely disappearing as a result) by the Commission, they would be overseen by the Treasury.

Even after 1870, there was still nothing approaching a unified, 'home civil service'; salaries, working conditions and reputation differed between Departments. However, in 1919, Warren Fisher, as Permanent Secretary of the Treasury, pushed hard for the idea that 'inter-departmental transfers should form a normal part of the middle and high-ranking civil servant's career...this was secured by Fisher's requirement that all of his own officials should previously have worked in other Departments.'

  Legacy
In 1908, writer Graham Wallas wrote that 'the real 'constitutional' check in England is provided… by the existence of a permanent civil service, appointed on a system independent of the opinion and desires of any politician', which has been taken to be an endorsement of the by then well-embedded principles behind Northcote-Trevelyan.

It has been argued that the 'structure provided by the Northcote-Trevelyan report and the…Order in Council' was flawed in its inception and [steadily grew] more inappropriate since then.' due to increasingly stark difference between both the Civil Service, and the world in general, after the publication of the report.

These differences (such as a large increase in the number of civil servants and the scope of activity of the service itself, and the increasing perception of exclusivity of an entry examination system 'rooted firmly in the educational standards of Oxbridge and the curricular preferences of middle-class public schools') were reflected in publication of the Fulton Report in 1968. Fulton has been seen as marking the end of the UK Civil Service on the lines of Northcote-Trevelyan but even since then, Northcote-Trevelyan is often still mentioned as a significant influence on the British Civil Service, enshrining the "core values of integrity, propriety, objectivity and appointment on merit, able to transfer its loyalty and expertise from one elected government to the next".

One of the report's principles (that pay should be common across the civil service, rather than directly affected by performance or geographical location) was cited as being used to attack the first attempt to introduce performance-related pay in the civil service in 1985 and as late as 2004, a speech by the then Prime Minister Tony Blair, referred positively to the values implicit in the report's recommendations.

 
 
However, it has also been said that the ‘Northcote-Trevelyan system’, with ‘a merit-based, permanent career civil service, in which those at the very top were an elite of anonymous, objective, disinterested, party politically neutral officials…is a powerful myth’.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1854
 
 
Turin-Genoa railroad opened
 

 

 
1854
 
 
Working Men's College, London, founded by F. D. Maurice
 
 
Maurice Frederick Denison
 

Frederick Denison Maurice, (born Aug. 29, 1805, Normanston, Suffolk, Eng.—died April 1, 1872, London), major English theologian of 19th-century Anglicanism and prolific author, remembered chiefly as a founder of Christian Socialism.

 

Frederick Denison Maurice
  Prevented from graduation in law at Cambridge by his refusal to subscribe to the Thirty-nine Articles, the Anglican confession of faith, Maurice reversed his position by 1830 and attended Oxford. In the interim he had worked for several years in London as a writer and an editor for literary journals and in 1834 published his only novel, Eustace Conway. That same year he was ordained and soon afterward became chaplain at Guy’s Hospital in London. Elected professor of English literature and modern history at King’s College, Cambridge, in 1840, he became professor of divinity and accepted the chaplaincy at Lincoln’s Inn, the London academy of law, six years later. His reputation as a theologian was enhanced with the publication of his book The Kingdom of Christ (1838), in which he held the church to be a united body that transcended the diversity and partiality of individual men, factions, and sects. That view—subsequently regarded as presaging the 20th-century ecumenical movement—aroused the suspicions of orthodox Anglicans. Their misgivings were intensified in 1848, when he joined the moderate Anglicans Charles Kingsley, John Malcolm Ludlow, and others to found the Christian Socialist movement.

Opposition to Maurice progressed after his Theological Essays of 1853 revealed his disbelief in the eternity of hell, and that year he was dismissed from his King’s College post. Combining his skill as an educator with his interest in improving the status of workers, Maurice planned and became the first principal of the Working Men’s College (1854). He also organized cooperative associations among workers.

 
 
In 1860 Maurice left the chaplaincy at Lincoln’s Inn to serve St. Peter’s Church, where admirers of his preaching called him “the Prophet.” Elected to the Knightsbridge professorship of moral philosophy at Cambridge in 1866, he lectured on ethical subjects and wrote his celebrated Social Morality (1869). To this position, which he held until his death, he added the chaplaincy of St. Edward’s Church at Cambridge in 1870.

After World War II, considerable interest in his work revived, and, though some critics have viewed his teachings as dated and obscure, he remains a versatile and creative source for students of Christian Socialism. Noteworthy among his numerous works are Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy (1850–62), What Is Revelation? (1859), and The Claims of the Bible and of Science (1863).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 

 
 
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