or "Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet" (French: La
rencontre, ou "Bonjour Monsieur Courbet") is an 1854
The painting is traditionally
interpreted as Courbet greeted by his patron Alfred Bruyas,
his servant Calas, and his dog while traveling to
Montpellier. The composition is based on the Wandering Jew.
The Meeting was exhibited in Paris at the 1855 Exhibition
Universelle, where critics ridiculed it as "Bonjour,
Monsieur Courbet". Bruyas did not exhibit The Meeting until
he donated it to the Musée Fabre in Montpellier in 1868.
William Powell Frith
(19 January 1819 – 9 November 1909) was an English
painter[ specialising in genre subjects and panoramic
narrative works of life in the Victorian era. He was
elected to the Royal Academy in 1853, presenting The
Sleeping Model as his Diploma work. He has been
described as the "greatest British painter of the social
scene since Hogarth".
Life and career
Born in Aldfield, North Yorkshire, Frith was encouraged to
take up art by his father, a hotelier in Harrogate. He moved
to London in 1835 where he began his formal art studies at
Sass’s Academy in Charlotte Street, before attending the
Royal Academy Schools. Frith started his career as a
portrait painter and first exhibited at the British
Institution in 1838. In the 1840s he often based works on
the literary output of writers such as Charles Dickens,
whose portrait he painted, and Laurence Sterne.
He was a member of The
Clique, which also included Richard Dadd. The principal
influence on his work was the hugely popular domestic
subjects painted by Sir David Wilkie. Wilkie's famous
painting The Chelsea Pensioners was a spur to the creation
of Frith's own most famous compositions. Following the
precedent of Wilkie, but also imitating the work of his
friend Dickens, Frith created complex multi-figure
compositions depicting the full range of the Victorian class
system, meeting and interacting in public places. In
Ramsgate Sands, Life at the Seaside (1854) he depicted
visitors and entertainers at the seaside resort. He followed
this with The Derby Day, depicting scenes among the crowd at
the race at Epsom Downs, which was based on photographic
studies by Robert Howlett. This 1858 composition was bought
by Jacob Bell for £1,500. It was so popular that it had to
be protected by a specially installed rail when shown at the
Royal Academy of Arts. Another well-known painting was The
Railway Station, a scene of Paddington station. In 1865 he
was chosen to paint the Marriage of the Prince of Wales.
His 1858 painting The Crossing Sweeper has been
described as breaking "new ground in its description
of the collision of wealth and poverty on a London
street." Later in his career he painted two series
of five pictures each, telling moral stories in the
manner of William Hogarth. These were the Road to
Ruin (1878), about the dangers of gambling, and the
Race for Wealth (1880) about reckless financial
speculation. He retired from the Royal Academy in
1890 but continued to exhibit until 1902.
Frith was a traditionalist who made known his
aversion to modern-art developments in a couple of
autobiographies – My Autobiography and Reminiscences
(1887) and Further Reminiscences (1888) – and other
writings. He was also an inveterate enemy of the
Pre-Raphaelites and of the Aesthetic Movement, which
he satirised in his painting A Private View at the
Royal Academy (1883), in which Oscar Wilde is
depicted discoursing on art while Frith's friends
look on disapprovingly. Fellow traditionalist
Frederic Leighton is featured in the painting, which
also portrays painter John Everett Millais and
novelist Anthony Trollope.
Frith lived a
curious domestic life – married to Isabelle with
twelve children, whilst a mile down the road
maintaining a mistress (Mary Alford, formerly his
ward) and seven more children – all a marked
contrast to the upright family scenes depicted in
paintings like Many Happy Returns of the Day.
Frith married Mary on the
death of Isabelle in 1880. In his later years he painted
many copies of his famous paintings, as well as more
sexually uninhibited works, such as the nude After the Bath.
A well-known raconteur, his writings, most notably his
chatty autobiography, were very popular.
In 1856 Frith was
photographed at "The Photographed Institute" by Robert
Howlett, as part of a series of portraits of "fine artists".
The picture was among a group exhibited at the Art Treasures
Exhibition in Manchester in 1857.
Frith was great uncle and
an advisor to the English school portrait painter Henry
Keyworth Raine (1872–1932 ).
Frith is buried in Kensal
Green Cemetery, London W10.
Exhibitions and legacy
The first major retrospective in Frith's native Britain for
half a century was staged at the Guildhall Art Gallery,
London in November 2006. It transferred to Mercer Art
Gallery in Harrogate, North Yorkshire in March 2007. Frith's
study for his last major work, The Private View, 1881, is in
the Mercer Art Gallery. Frith has paintings in the
collection of several British institutions including Derby
Art Gallery, Sheffield, Harrogate and the Victoria and
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
William Powell Frith.
Ramsgate Sands (Life at
the Seaside) 1851-54
William Powell Frith.
(Life at the Seaside) 1851-54 (detail)
William Powell Frith.
(Life at the Seaside) 1851-54 (detail)
Charles Angrand (19
April 1854 – 1 April 1926) was a French artist who
gained renown for his Neo-Impressionist paintings and
drawings. He was an important member of the Parisian
avant-garde art scene in the late 1880s and early 1890s.
Early life and work
Charles Théophile Angrand was born in Criquetot-sur-Ouville,
Normandy, France, to schoolmaster Charles P. Angrand
(1829–96) and his wife Marie (1833–1905).
He received artistic training
in Rouen at Académie de Peinture et de Dessin. His first
visit to Paris was in 1875, to see a retrospective of the
work of Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot at École des Beaux-Arts.
Corot was an influence on Angrand's early work.
After being denied entry
into École des Beaux-Arts, he moved to Paris in 1882, where
he began teaching mathematics at Collège Chaptal. His living
quarters were near Café d'Athènes, Café Guerbois, Le Chat
Noir, and other establishments frequented by artists.
Angrand joined the artistic world of the Parisian
avant-garde, becoming friends with such luminaries as
Georges Seurat, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Signac, Maximilien
Luce, and Henri-Edmond Cross. His avant-garde artistic and
literary contacts influenced him, and in 1884 he co-founded
Société des Artistes Indépendants, along with Seurat, Signac,
Odilon Redon, and others.
Angrand's Impressionist paintings of the early
1880s, generally depicting rural subjects and
containing broken brushstrokes and light-filled
colouration, reflect the influences of Claude Monet,
Camille Pissarro, and Jules Bastien-Lepage. Through
his interactions with Seurat, Signac, and others in
the mid-1880s, his style evolved towards
Neo-Impressionism. From 1887 his paintings were
Neo-Impressionist and his drawings incorporated
Seurat's tenebrist style. Angrand had the "ability
to distil poetry from the most banal suburban
scene". In 1887 he met van Gogh, who proposed a
painting exchange (which ultimately did not happen).
Van Gogh was influenced by Angrand's thick
brushstrokes and Japanese-inspired compositional
asymmetry. Also in 1887, L'Accident, his first
Divisionist painting, was exhibited at the Salon des
Indépendants. Angrand joined Seurat in plein air
painting on La Grande Jatte island.
implementation of Pointillist techniques differed
from that of some of its leading proponents. He
painted with a more muted palette than Seurat and
Signac, who used bright contrasting colours. As seen
in Couple in the street, Angrand used dots of
various colours to enhance shadows and provide the
proper tone, while avoiding the violent colouration
found in many other Neo-Impressionist works. His
monochrome conté crayon drawings such as his
self-portrait above, which also demonstrate his
delicate handling of light and shadow, were assessed
by Signac: "... his drawings are masterpieces.
It would be impossible to imagine a
better use of white and black ... These are the most beautiful
drawings, poems of light, of fine composition and execution."
Angrand exhibited his work in Paris at
Les Indépendants, Galerie Druet, Galérie Durand-Ruel, and
Bernheim-Jeune, and also in Rouen. His work appeared in Brussels in
an 1891 show with Les XX. In the early 1890s, he abandoned painting,
instead creating conté drawings and pastels of subjects including
rural scenes and depictions of mother and child, realized in dark
Symbolist intensity. During this period, he also drew illustrations
for anarchist publications such as Les Temps nouveaux; other
Neo-Impressionists contributing to these publications included
Signac, Luce, and Théo van Rysselberghe.
Charles Angrand. Farmyard, 1892
In 1896 he moved to Saint-Laurent-en-Caux, in Upper Normandy. He
began painting again around 1906, emulating the styles and colours
of Signac and Cross. Angrand developed his own unique methods of
Divisionism, with larger brushstrokes. As this resulted in rougher
optical blending than small dots, he compensated by using more
intense colours. Some of his landscapes from this period are almost
nonrepresentational. Before World War I, he lived for a year in
Dieppe. Then he moved back to Rouen, living there for the rest of
his life. He was very reclusive for his last thirty years, but
remained a dedicated correspondent. Angrand died in Rouen on 1 April
1926. He is buried in Cimetière monumental de Rouen.
Angrand's work is in many museum collections, including Ateneum
(Finnish National Gallery), Cleveland Museum of Art, Hecht Museum,
Indianapolis Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Musée
d'Orsay, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek.
Thomas Cooper Gotch
or T.C. Gotch (1854–1931) was an English Pre-Raphaelite
painter and book illustrator, and brother of John Alfred Gotch, the architect.
Gotch studied art in London and Antwerp before he married
and studied in Paris with his wife, Caroline, a fellow
artist. Returning to Britain, they settled into the Newlyn
art colony in Cornwall. He first made paintings of natural,
pastoral settings before immersing himself in the romantic,
Pre-Raphaelite romantic style for which he is best known.
His daughter was often a model for the colourful depictions
of young girls.
His works have been exhibited at the Royal Academy, Royal
College of Art and the Paris Salon.
Thomas Cooper Gotch.
Thomas Gotch was born 10 December 1854 in the Mission House
in Kettering, Northamptonshire.
He was the fourth son born to Mary Ann Gale Gotch and Thomas Henry Gotch
(born 1805), who was a shoe maker. He had an
elder brother, John Alfred Gotch, who was a successful
architect and author.
In 1881 he married fellow art student Caroline Burland
Yates (1854-1945) at Newlyn's St Peter’s Church. His
daughter, Phyllis Marian Gotch was sometimes a model for her
After completing his studies, Gotch
travelled to Australia in 1883.
Gotch and his wife
settled in Newlyn, Cornwall in 1887. The couple and their
daughter were key participants in the Newlyn art colony.
In addition to his time spent in France and Belgium while
studying art, Gotch also travelled to Austria, Australia,
South Africa, Italy and Denmark.
Thomas Cooper Gotch died in 1 May 1931 of a heart attack
while in London for an exhibition, and he was buried in
Sancreed churchyard in Cornwall.
With his parents' support, in 1876 and 1877 he first studied
at Heatherley's art school in London and then at Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp in 1877
and 1878. Then in 1879 Gotch attended Slade School of Fine
Art with Alphonse Legros in London. Gotch met his friend
Henry Scott Tuke and his future wife Caroline Yates at
Slade. After their marriage, Thomas and Caroline studied in
Paris at Académie Julian and Académie Laurens in the early
1880s. It was in Paris that he adopted the plein-air
approach of painting outdoors.
In Newlyn he founded the Newlyn Industrial Classes, where
the local youth could learn the arts & crafts.
helped to set up the Newlyn Art Gallery, and served on its
committee all his life. Among his friends in Newlyn was
fellow artist Stanhope Forbes and Albert Chevallier
In Newlyn, like other art colony artists, he used the
plein-air approach for making paintings outdoors. He was
also inspired by James McNeill Whistler's techniques
for creating compositions and paintings.
His style changed following an 1891-1892 a visit to Paris
and Florence; His works were transformed from the Newlyn
"rural realistic" style to a Pre-Raphaelite style that
embraced more vibrant, exuberant colours and "returned to
allegorical genre painting".
His first such painting was My
Crown and Sceptre made in 1892, Commenting upon his
new style, Tate said:
His new combination of
symbolic female figures, decorative Italian textiles and the
static order of early Renaissance art finally brought him
On the provisional committee for the 1895 opening of the
Newlyn Art Gallery, Gotch exhibited The Reading Hour and A
Golden Dream at the inaugural exhibition.
Chris Leuchars for Project Kettering has said of Gotch's
Although Thomas Gotch is not widely recognised in
international art histories, his position and friendships in
Newlyn, and the mastery of his artwork, provide him some
level of recognition in British painting history and his
works make valuable contributions to collections around the
He has work in key collections in Australia, New
Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom.
Thomas Cooper Gotch. Heir to all the Ages
Thomas Gotch was a recognised success during his lifetime
and enjoyed considerable public acclaim. He was a regular
exhibitor at London's Royal Academy and contributed to
numerous other national and international exhibitions. His
works are still regularly exhibited and are often the
subject of academic studies.
Over his artistic career Gotch was also a model for other
artists. For instance, he modelled for illustrations of King
Arthur's Wood for Elizabeth Forbes.
Christ (English: The Childhood of Christ), Opus 25,
is an oratorio by the French composer
based on the Holy Family's flight into Egypt (see Gospel
of Matthew 2:13). Berlioz wrote his own words for the
piece. Most of it was composed in 1853 and 1854, but it
also incorporates an earlier work La fuite en Egypte
(1850). It was first performed at the Salle Herz, Paris
on 10 December 1854, with Berlioz conducting and
soloists from the Opéra-Comique: Jourdan (Récitant),
Depassio (Hérode), the couple Meillet (Marie and Joseph)
and Bataille (Le père de famille).
Berlioz described L'enfance as
a Trilogie sacrée (sacred trilogy). The first of its three
sections depicts King Herod ordering the massacre of all
newborn children in Judaea; the second shows the Holy Family
of Mary, Joseph, and Jesus setting out for Egypt to avoid
the slaughter, having been warned by angels; and the final
section portrays their arrival in the Egyptian town of Sais
where they are given refuge by a family of Ishmaelites.
Berlioz was not religious as an adult but remained all his
life susceptible to the beauty of the religious music that
had enraptured him as a child. L'enfance also shows some
influence from the Biblical oratorios of Berlioz's teacher
Jean-François Le Sueur.
Background to the
The idea for L'enfance went back to 1850 when
Berlioz composed an organ piece for his friend
Joseph-Louis Duc, called L'adieu des bergers (The
Shepherds' Farewell). He soon turned it into a
choral movement for the shepherds saying goodbye to
the baby Jesus as he leaves Bethlehem for Egypt.
Berlioz had the chorus performed as a hoax on 12
November 1850, passing it off as the work of an
imaginary 17th-century composer "Ducré". He was
gratified to discover many people who hated his
music were taken in and praised it, one lady even
going so far as to say, "Berlioz would never be able
to write a tune as simple and charming as this
little piece by old Ducré". He then added a piece
for tenor, Le repos de la sainte famille (The Repose
of the Holy Family) and preceded both movements with
an overture to form a work he called La fuite en
Egypte. It was published in 1852 and first performed
in Leipzig in December, 1853. The premiere was so
successful, Berlioz's friends urged him to expand
the piece and he added a new section, L'arrivée à
Sais (The Arrival at Sais), which included parts for
Mary and Joseph. Berlioz, perhaps feeling the result
was still unbalanced, then composed a third section
to precede the other two, Le songe d'Hérode (Herod's
Berlioz's music was usually received with great hostility by
Parisian audiences and critics, who generally accused it of
being bizarre and discordant. Yet L'enfance du Christ was an
immediate success and was praised by all but two critics in
the Paris newspapers. Some attributed its favourable
reception to a new, gentler style, a claim Berlioz
In that work many people
imagined they could detect a radical change in my style and
manner. This opinion is entirely without foundation. The
subject naturally lent itself to a gentle and simple style
of music, and for that reason alone was more in accordance
with their taste and intelligence. Time would probably have
developed these qualities, but I should have written
L'enfance du Christ in the same manner twenty years ago.
The work has maintained its
popularity - it is often performed around Christmas - and
many recordings have been made of it.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Berlioz: L'enfance du Christ,
Stéphanie d'Oustrac: Marie
• Stéphane Degout: Joseph
• François Lis: Hérode
• Jeremy Ovenden: un récitant - un centurion
• Nahuel di Pierro: Polydorus - un père de famille
Orchestre National de France
Conducted by James Conlon
Humperdinck (1 September 1854 – 27 September 1921) was a
German composer, best known for his opera Hänsel und
Gretel. Humperdinck was born at Siegburg in the Rhine
Province and died at the age of 67 in Neustrelitz,
After receiving piano lessons, Humperdinck produced
his first composition at the age of seven. His first
attempts at works for the stage were two Singspiele
written when he was 13. His parents disapproved of
his plans for a career in music and encouraged him
to study architecture. Nevertheless, he began taking
music classes under Ferdinand Hiller and Isidor
Seiss at the Cologne Conservatory in 1872. In 1876,
he won a scholarship that enabled him to go to
Munich, where he studied with Franz Lachner and
later with Josef Rheinberger. In 1879, he won the
first Mendelssohn Award given by the Mendelssohn
Stiftung (foundation) in Berlin. He went to Italy
and became acquainted with Richard Wagner in Naples.
Wagner invited him to join him in Bayreuth and
during 1880 and 1881 Humperdinck assisted in the
production of Parsifal. He also served as music
tutor to Wagner's son, Siegfried.
After winning another
prize, Humperdinck traveled through Italy, France,
and Spain and spent two years teaching at the Gran
Teatre del Liceu Conservatory in Barcelona. In 1887,
he returned to Cologne. He was appointed professor
at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt in 1890 and
also teacher of harmony at Julius Stockhausen's
Vocal School. By this time he had composed several
works for chorus and a Humoreske for small
orchestra, which enjoyed a vogue in Germany.
Hansel und Gretel
Humperdinck's reputation rests chiefly on his opera
Hänsel and Gretel, which he began work on in
Frankfurt in 1890. He first composed four songs to
accompany a puppet show his nieces were giving at
Then, using a libretto by his sister Adelheid Wette
rather loosely based on the version of the fairy
tale by the Brothers Grimm, he composed a Singspiel
of 16 songs with piano accompaniment and connecting
dialogue. By January 1891 he had begun working on a
The opera premiered in
Weimar on 23 December 1893, under the baton of
Richard Strauss, who called it: "a masterpiece of
the highest quality... all of it original, new, and
so authentically German."
With its highly original synthesis of Wagnerian
techniques and traditional German folk songs, Hänsel
und Gretel was an instant and overwhelming success.
Hänsel und Gretel
has always been Humperdinck's most popular work. In
1923 the Royal Opera House (London) chose it for
their first complete radio opera broadcast.
Eight years later, it was the first opera
transmitted live from the Metropolitan Opera (New
In 1896, the Kaiser made Humperdinck a Professor and
he went to live at Boppard. Four years later,
however, he went to Berlin where he was appointed
head of a Meister-Schule of composition. His
students included the Basque composer Andrés Isasi.
Among his other stage works are:
Die sieben Geißlein
(The Seven Little Kids), 1895
Königskinder (King's Children), 1897, 1910
Dornröschen (Sleeping Beauty), 1902
Die Heirat wider Willen (The Reluctant Marriage),
Bübchens Weihnachtstraum (The Christmas Dream), 1906
Die Marketenderin (The Provisioner), 1914
Gaudeamus: Szenen aus dem deutschen Studentenleben (Gaudeamus
igitur: Scenes from German Student Life), 1919
While composing those works, Humperdinck held
various teaching positions of distinction and
collaborated in the theater, providing incidental
music for a number of Max Reinhardt's productions in
Berlin, for example, for Shakespeare's The Merchant
of Venice in 1905.
as a disciple of Wagner rather than an innovator,
Humperdinck was nevertheless the first composer to
use Sprechgesang—a vocal technique halfway between
singing and speaking—in his melodrama Die
Königskinder (1897). In 1914, Humperdinck seems to
have applied for the post of director of the Sydney
Conservatorium of Music in Australia, but with the
outbreak of World War I it became unthinkable for a
German to hold that position, and the job went
instead to Belgium's Henri Verbrugghen.
Also in 1914, Humperdinck
signed the Manifesto of the Ninety-Three, declaring support
for German military actions during early World War I.
On 5 January 1912, Humperdinck
suffered a severe stroke. Although he recovered, his left
hand remained permanently paralyzed. He continued to
compose, completing Gaudeamus with the help of his son,
Wolfram, in 1918. On 26 September 1921, Humperdinck attended
a performance of Carl Maria von Weber's Der Freischütz in
Neustrelitz, Wolfram's first effort as a stage director. He
suffered a heart attack during the performance and died the
next day from a second heart attack. The Berlin State Opera
performed Hänsel und Gretel in his memory a few weeks later.
In 1965, British singer
Arnold Dorsey named himself after the composer. The main
belt asteroid 9913 Humperdinck, discovered in 1977, was
named after the composer as well.
Hänsel : Elisabeth
Gretel : Elisabeth Schwarzkopf
Die Knusperhexe : Else Schürhoff
Peter, Besenbinder : Josef Metternich
Gertrud, sein Weib : Maria von Ilosvay
Sandmännchen : Anny Felbermayer
Taumännchen : Anny Felbermayer
Choir of Loughton High School for Girls
Choir of Bancroft's School
Herbert von Karajan
Studio recording, London, 27, 29 & 30.VI & 1-2.VII.1953
"Overture" Hansel & Gretel
Overture to Hänsel
& Gretel by
Herbert von Karajan, conductor
Les préludes is the third of Franz
Liszt's (Liszt Franz) thirteen symphonic poems. It is listed as S.97 in Humphrey
Searle's catalogue of Liszt's music. The music is partly based on
Liszt's 1844/5 choral cycle Les quatre élémens (The Four Elements).
Its premiere was in 1854, directed by Liszt himself. The score was
published in 1856 by Breitkopf & Härtel, who also published the
musical parts in 1865. Les préludes is the earliest example of an
orchestral work entitled "symphonic poem".
Much of the music of Les préludes derives from Liszt's earlier
choral cycle Les quatre élémens (The Four Elements). (1844/5). These
settings were later orchestrated, and an orchestral overture was
written for them.
Les préludes is written for a large
orchestra of strings, woodwind, brass (including tuba and bass
trombone), harp and a variety of percussion instruments (timpani,
side drum, bass drum and cymbals). It comprises the following
-Question (Introduction and Andante
maestoso) (bars 1–46)
-Love (bars 47–108)
-Storm (bars 109–181)
-Bucolic calm (bars 182–344)
-Battle and victory (bars 345–420) (including recapitulation of
'Question', bar 405 ff.)
In bar 3 one of the main motifs of Les préludes (the notes C-B-E) is
introduced. During the introduction this motif is frequently
repeated in different forms. It is, however, the head of a melody,
which in its entire form is for the first time played in bars 47ff.
The melody was taken from the chorus piece Les astres (The Stars) in
Les quatres élémens, where it is sung to the words, "Hommes épars
sur le globe qui roule" ("Solitary men on the rolling globe").
Richard Taruskin points out that
the sections of Les préludes "[correspond] to the movements of a
conventional symphony if not in the most conventional order". He
adds that "[t]he music, whilst heavily indebted in concept to
Berlioz, self-consciously advertises its descent from Beethoven even
as it flaunts its freedom from the formal constraints to which
Beethoven had submitted [...] The standard "there and back"
construction that had controlled musical discourse since at least
the time of the old dance suite continues to impress its general
shape on the sequence of programatically derived events."
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Franz Liszt - Les preudes
Conductor: Michel Plasson
Orchestra: Dresdner Philharmonie