Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1852 Part II NEXT-1853 Part I   
1850 - 1859
History at a Glance
1850 Part I
Compromise of 1850
Constitution of Prussia
The eight Kaffir War, 1850-1853
Masaryk Tomas
Kitchener Horatio Herbert
Erfurt Union
Fillmore Millard
Taiping Rebellion
Hong Xiuquan
Feng Yunshan
Yang Xiuqing
Shi Dakai
1850 Part II
Protestant churches in Prussia
Public Libraries Act 1850
Schopenhauer: "Parerga und Paralipomena"
Herbert Spencer: "Social Statics"
E. B. Browning: "Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Emerson: "Representative Men"
Hawthorne: "The Scarlet Letter"
Herzen Aleksandr
Ibsen: "Catiline"
Loti Pierre
Maupassant Guy
Guy de Maupassant
Stevenson Robert Louis
Robert Louis Stevenson  
"Treasure Island
Turgenev: "A Month in the Country"
1850 Part III
Corot: "Une Matinee"
Courbet: "The Stone Breakers"
Menzel: "Round Table at Sansouci"
Millais: "Christ in the House of His Parents"
Millet: "The Sower"
Bristow George Frederick
George Frederick Bristow - Dream Land
George Frederick Bristow
Schumann: "Genoveva"
Wagner: "Lohengrin"
1850 Part IV
Bernard Claude
Clausius Rudolf
Stephenson Robert
Chebyshev Pafnuty Lvovich
Barth Heinrich
Galton Francis
Anderson Karl John
McClure Robert
McClure Arctic Expedition
Royal Meteorological Society
University of Sydney
1851 Part I
Victoria, state of Australia
Murdock Joseph Ballard
Machado Bernardino
Bourgeois Leon Victor Auguste
Foch Ferdinand
Bombardment of Sale
French coup d'état
Danilo II
Hawthorne: "The House of Seven Gables"
Gottfried Keller: "Der grune Heinrich"
Ward Humphry
Ruskin: "The Stones of Venice"
1851 Part II
Herman Melville: "Moby Dick"
Corot: "La Danse des Nymphes"
Walter Thomas Ustick
Ward Leslie
Crystal Palace
Falero Luis Ricardo
Luis Ricardo Falero
Kroyer Peder
Peder Kroyer
Hughes Edward Robert
Edward Robert Hughes
1851 Part III
Gounod: "Sappho"
D’Indy Vincent
Vincent D'Indy - Medee
Vincent d'Indy
Verdi: "Rigoletto"
Bogardus James
Cast-iron architecture
Kapteyn Jacobus Cornelius
Helmholtz's ophthalmoscope
Neumann Franz Ernst
Ruhmkorff Heinrich Daniel
Singer Isaac Merrit
Cubitt William
Thomson William
Royal School of Mines
Carpenter Mary
"The New York Times"
1852 Part I
Joffre Joseph
Second French Empire
Second Anglo-Burmese War
New Zealand Constitution Act
Asquith Herbert Henry
Pierce Franklin
Delisle Leopold Victor
Fischer Kuno
First Plenary Council of Baltimore
Vaihinger Hans
Gioberti Vincenzo
1852 Part II
Bourget Paul
Creasy Edward
Creasy: "The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo"
Charles Dickens: "Bleak House"
Theophile Gautier: "Emaux et Camees"
Moore George
Reade Charles
Harriet Beecher Stowe: "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Thackeray: "History of Henry Esmond"
Turgenev: "A Sportsman's Sketches"
Zhukovsky Vasily
1852 Part III
Fopd Madox Brown: "Christ Washing Peter's Feet"
William Holman Hunt: "The Light of the World"
John Everett Millais: "Ophelia"
Bryullov Karl
Karl Bryullov
Stanford Charles
Charles Villiers Stanford - Piano Concerto No.2
Charles Stanford
Becquerel Henri
Gerhardt Charles Frederic
Van’t Hoff Jacobus Henricus
Mathijsen Antonius
Michelson Albert
Ramsay William
Sylvester James Joseph
United All-England Eleven
Wells Fargo & Company
1853 Part I
Eugenie de Montijo
Crimean War
Battle of Sinop
Rhodes Cecil
Peter V
Nagpur Province
1853 Part II
Mommsen: "History of Rome"
Matthew Arnold: "The Scholar-Gipsy"
Charlotte Bronte: "Villette"
Caine Hall
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Ruth"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Tanglewood Tales"
Charles Kingsley: "Hypatia"
Tree Herbert Beerbohm
Charlotte M. Yonge: "The Heir of Redclyffe"
1853 Part III
Haussmann Georges-Eugene
Larsson Carl
Carl Larsson
Hodler Ferdinand
Ferdinand Hodler
Van Gogh Vincent
Vincent van Gogh
Steinway Henry Engelhard
Verdi: "Il Trovatore"
Verdi: "La Traviata"
Wood Alexander
"Die Gartenlaube"
International Statistical Congress
1854 Part I
Bloemfontein Convention
Orange Free State
Battle of the Alma
Menshikov Alexander Sergeyevich
Siege of Sevastopol (1854-1855)
Kornilov Vladimir Alexeyevich
Battle of Balaclava
Battle of Inkerman
Perry Matthew Calbraith
Gadsden Purchase
Bleeding Kansas (1854–59)
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Elgin-Marcy Treaty
Republican Party
Said of Egypt
Ostend Manifesto
1854 Part II
Herzog Johann
Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau
Youthful Offenders Act 1854
Immaculate Conception
Patmore Coventry
Patmore: "The Angel in the House"
Sandeau Leonard
Guerrazzi Francesco Domenico
Rimbaud Arthur
Arthur Rimbaud "Poems"
Tennyson: "The Charge of the Light Brigade"
Thackeray: "The Rose and the Ring"
Thoreau: "Walden, or Life in the Woods"
1854 Part III
Courbet: "Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet"
Frith William Powell
William Frith
Millet: "The Reaper"
Angrand Charles
Charles Angrand
Gotch Thomas Cooper
Thomas Cooper Gotch
Berlioz: "The Infant Christ"
Humperdinck Engelbert
Humperdinck - Hansel und Gretel
Liszt: "Les Preludes"
1854 Part IV
Poincare Henri
Eastman George
Ehrenberg Christian Gottfried
Paul Ehrlich
Goebel Henry
George Boole: "The Laws of Thought"
Riemann Bernhard
Wallace Alfred Russel
Southeast Asia
"Le Figaro"
Litfass Ernst
Northcote–Trevelyan Report
Maurice Frederick Denison
1855 Part I
Alexander II
Istomin Vladimir Ivanovich
Somerset FitzRoy
Nakhimov Pavel Stepanovich
Treaty of Peshawar
Bain Alexander
Droysen Johann
Gratry Auguste
Milman Henry
Le Play Pierre
1855 Part II
Charles Kingsley: "Westward Ho!"
Nerval Gerard
Charles Dickens "Little Dorrit"
Ganghofer Ludwig
Longfellow: "The Song of Hiawatha"
Corelli Marie
Pinero Arthur Wing
Tennyson: "Maud"
Anthony Trollope: "The Warden"
Turgenev: "Rudin"
Walt Whitman: "Leaves of Grass"
Berlioz: "Те Deum"
Verdi: "Les Vepres Siciliennes"
Chansson Ernest
Chausson - Poeme
Ernest Chausson
1855 Part III
Hughes David Edward
Lowell Percival
Cunard Line
"The Daily Telegraph"
Niagara Falls suspension bridge
Paris World Fair
1856 Part I
Victoria Cross
Doctrine of Lapse
Oudh State
Ottoman Reform Edict of 1856
Congress of Paris
Treaty of Paris (1856)
Napoleon, Prince Imperial
Sacking of Lawrence
Pottawatomie massacre
Second Opium War (1856-1860)
Anglo–Persian War (1856-1857)
Buchanan James
1856 Part II
Froude: "History of England"
Goldstucker Theodor
Lotze Rudolf Hermann
Motley: "Rise of the Dutch Republic"
Flaubert: "Madame Bovary"
Haggard Henry Rider
Victor Hugo: "Les Contemplations"
Charles Reade: "It Is Never Too Late to Mend"
Shaw George Bernard
Wilde Oscar
1856 Part III
Berlage Hendrik Petrus
Ferstel Heinrich
Sargent John
John Singer Sargent
Vrubel Mikhail
Mikhail Vrubel
Cross Henri Edmond
Henri-Edmond Cross
Bechstein Carl
Dargomyzhsky Alexander
Alexander Dargomyzhsky: "Rusalka"
Alexander Dargomyzhsky
Maillart Aime
Aime Maillart - Les Dragons de Villars
Sinding Christian
Sinding - Suite in A minor
Christian Sinding
1856 Part IV
Bessemer Henry
Bessemer process
Freud Sigmund
Sigmund Freud
Peary Robert Edwin
Pringsheim Nathanael
Siemens Charles William
Hardie James Keir
Taylor Frederick Winslow
"Big Ben"
1857 Part I
Treaty of Paris
Indian Rebellion of 1857
Italian National Society
Manin Daniele
Taft William Howard
1857 Part II
Buckle Henry Thomas
Buckle: "History of Civilization in England"
Charles Baudelaire: "Les Fleurs du mal"
Conrad Joseph
Joseph Conrad 
"Lord Jim"
George Eliot: "Scenes from Clerical Life"
Hughes Thomas
Thomas Hughes: "Tom Brown's Schooldays"
Mulock Dinah
 Pontoppidan Henrik
Adalbert Stifter: "Nachsommer"
Sudermann Hermann
Thackeray: "The Virginians"
Anthony Trollope: "Barchester Towers"
1857 Part III
Klinger Max
Max Klinger
Millet: "The Gleaners"
Dahl Johan Christian
Johan Christian Dahl
Leoncavallo Ruggero
Ruggero Leoncavallo - Pagliacci
Ruggero Leoncavallo 
Elgar Edward
Edward Elgar - The Light of Life
Edward Elgar
Kienzl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Kienzl - Symphonic Variations
Wilhelm Kienzl
Liszt: "Eine Faust-Symphonie"
1857 Part IV
Coue Emile
Hertz Heinrich
Wagner-Jauregg Julius
Ross Ronald
Newton Charles Thomas
Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Burton Richard
Speke John Hanning
The Nile Quest
McClintock Francis
Alpine Club
"The Atlantic Monthly"
Baden-Powell Robert
Matrimonial Causes Act
North German Lloyd
1858 Part I
Orsini Felice
Stanley Edward
Treaty of Tientsin
Government of India Act 1858
Law Bonar
William I
Karageorgevich Alexander
Roosevelt Theodore
1858 Part II
Bernadette Soubirous
Carey Henry Charles
Thomas Carlyle: "History of Friedrich II of Prussia"
Hecker Isaac
Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle
Rothschild Lionel Nathan
Schaff Philip
Benson Frank
Feuillet Octave
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table"
Kainz Joseph
Lagerlof Selma
1858 Part III
Corinth Lovis
Lovis Corinth
William Powell Frith: "The Derby Day"
Menzel: "Bon soir, Messieurs"
Segantini Giovanni
Giovanni Segantini
Khnopff Fernand
Fernand Khnopff
Toorop Jan
Cornelius Peter
Cornelius: "Der Barbier von Bagdad"
Jaques Offenbach: "Orpheus in der Unterwelt"
Puccini Giacomo
Giacomo Puccini: Donna non vidi mai
Giacomo Puccini
1858 Part IV
Diesel Rudolf
Huxley Thomas Henry
Planck Max
Mirror galvanometer
General Medical Council
Suez Canal Company
S.S. "Great Eastern"
Webb Beatrice
Webb Sidney
Transatlantic telegraph cable
1859 Part I
Second Italian War of Independence
Battle of Varese
Battle of Palestro
Battle of Magenta
Battle of Solferino
Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies
Francis II of the Two Sicilies
Charles XV of Sweden
German National Association
Jaures Jean
Roon Albrecht
William II
1859 Part II
Bergson Henri
Henri Bergson
Bergson Henri "Creative Evolution"
Charles Darwin: "On the Origin of Species"
Dewey John
Husserl Edmund
Karl Marx: "Critique of Political Economy"
John Stuart Mill: "Essay on Liberty"
Tischendorf Konstantin
Codex Sinaiticus
Villari Pasquale
1859 Part III
Dickens: "A Tale of Two Cities"
Doyle Arthur Conan
Arthur Conan Doyle  
Duse Eleonora
George Eliot: "Adam Bede"
Edward Fitzgerald: "Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam"
Ivan Goncharov: "Oblomov"
Hamsun Knut
Heidenstam Verner
Housman Alfred Edward
A.E. Housman 
"A Shropshire Lad", "Last Poems"
Victor Hugo: "La Legende des siecles"
Jerome K. Jerome
Tennyson: "Idylls of the King"
1859 Part IV
Corot: "Macbeth"
Gilbert Cass
Millet: "The Angelus"
Hassam Childe
Childe Hassam 
Seurat Georges
Georges Seurat
Whistler: "At the Piano"
Daniel Decatur Emmett: "Dixie"
Gounod: "Faust"
Verdi: "Un Ballo in Maschera"
1859 Part V
Arrhenius Svante
Kirchhoff Gustav
Curie Pierre
Drake Edwin
Drake Well
Plante Gaston
Lead–acid battery
Smith Henry John Stephen
Brunel Isambard Kingdom
Blondin Charles
Lansbury George
Samuel Smiles: "Self-Help"

Millais John Everett: "Ophelia"
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1852 Part III
Fopd Madox Brown: "Christ Washing Peter's Feet"

Brown Ford Madox. "Christ Washing Peter's Feet"
Ford Madox Brown
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
William Holman Hunt: "The Light of the World"
The Light of the World (1851–3) is an allegorical painting by William Holman Hunt representing the figure of Jesus preparing to knock on an overgrown and long-unopened door, illustrating Revelation 3:20:

"Behold, I stand at the door and knock; if any man hear My voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with Me"

According to Hunt:

"I painted the picture with what I thought, unworthy though I was, to be by Divine command, and not simply as a good Subject."

The door in the painting has no handle, and can therefore be opened only from the inside, representing "the obstinately shut mind".

Hunt, 50 years after painting it, felt he had to explain the symbolism.


The original, painted at night in a makeshift hut at Worcester Park Farm in Surrey, is now in a side room off the large chapel at Keble College, Oxford.

Toward the end of his life, Hunt painted a life-size version, which was hung in St Paul's Cathedral, London, after a world tour where the picture drew large crowds.

Due to Hunt's increasing infirmity, he was assisted in the completion of this version by English painter Edward Robert Hughes.

A third smaller version of the painting is on display at Manchester City Art Gallery.

This painting inspired much popular devotion in the late Victorian period and inspired several musical works, including Sir Arthur Sullivan's 1873 oratorio The Light of the World.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hunt William Holman. The Light of the World
William Holman Hunt
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
John Everett Millais: "Ophelia"

Ophelia is a painting by British artist Sir John Everett Millais, completed between 1851 and 1852. It is held in the Tate Britain in London. It depicts Ophelia, a character from William Shakespeare's play Hamlet, singing before she drowns in a river in Denmark.

The work was not widely regarded when first exhibited at the Royal Academy, but has since come to be admired for its beauty and its accurate depiction of a natural landscape. Ophelia has been estimated to have a market value of over £30 million.
Theme and elements
The painting depicts Ophelia singing while floating in a river just before she drowns. The scene is described in Act IV, Scene VII of the play in a speech by Queen Gertrude.

The episode depicted is not seen onstage, but exists only in Gertrude's description. Ophelia has fallen into the river from a tree overhanging it, while gathering flowers. She lies in the water singing songs, as if unaware of her danger ("incapable of her own distress"). Her clothes, trapping air, have allowed her to temporarily stay afloat

"Her clothes spread wide,
And, mermaid-like, awhile they bore her up."

But eventually,

"her garments, heavy with their drink,
Pull'd the poor wretch from her melodious lay"

down "to muddy death."

Ophelia's death has been praised as one of the most poetically written death scenes in literature.

Ophelia's pose—her open arms and upwards gaze—also resembles traditional portrayals of saints or martyrs, but has also been interpreted as erotic.

The painting is known for its depiction of the detailed flora of the river and the riverbank, stressing the patterns of growth and decay in a natural ecosystem. Despite its nominal Danish setting, the landscape has come to be seen as quintessentially English. "Ophelia" was painted along the banks of the Hogsmill River in Surrey, near Tolworth, Greater London. Barbara Webb, a resident of nearby Old Malden, devoted much time to finding the exact placement of the picture, and according to her research, the scene is located at Six Acre Meadow, alongside Church Road, Old Malden. Millais Road is now nearby. Millais' close colleague William Holman Hunt was at the time working on his The Hireling Shepherd nearby.

  The flowers shown floating on the river were chosen to correspond with Shakespeare's description of Ophelia's garland. They also reflect the Victorian interest in the "language of flowers", according to which each flower carries a symbolic meaning. The prominent red poppy—not mentioned by Shakespeare's description of the scene—represents sleep and death.

It has often been claimed that a human skull is depicted in the foliage in the riverbank at the right, but there is no extant evidence that this was intended by Millais. However a naturally formed skull shape is indisputably used by Hunt in his companion piece The Hireling Shepherd, which depicts a death's head moth.

At an early stage in the painting's creation, Millais painted a water vole—which an assistant had fished out of the Hogsmill—paddling next to Ophelia. In December 1851, he showed the unfinished painting to Holman Hunt's relatives. He recorded in his diary, "Hunt's uncle and aunt came, both of whom understood most gratifyingly every object except my water rat.

The male relation, when invited to guess at it, eagerly pronounced it to be a hare. Perceiving by our smiles that he had made a mistake, a rabbit was then hazarded. After which I have a faint recollection of a dog or a cat being mentioned." Millais painted the water vole out of the final picture, although a rough sketch of it still exists in an upper corner of the canvas hidden by its frame.

In keeping with the tenets of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, of which he was a member, Millais used bright colours, gave high attention to detail and faithful truth to nature. This rendition of Ophelia is the epitome of the PRB style; first, because of the subject matter, depicting a woman who has lived a life awaiting happiness, only to find her destiny on the verge of death: the vulnerable woman is a popular subject among Pre-Raphaelite artists. Also, Millais utilizes bright, intense colours in the landscape to make the pale Ophelia contrast with the nature behind her. All this is evident in the vivid attention to detail in the brush and trees around Ophelia, the contouring of her face, and the intricate work Millais did on her dress.


Millais John Everett: "Ophelia"
Painting process
Millais produced Ophelia in two separate stages: He first painted the landscape, and secondly the figure of Ophelia. Having found a suitable setting for the picture, Millais remained on the banks of the Hogsmill River in Ewell — within a literal stone's throw of where fellow Pre-Raphaelite William Holman Hunt painted The Light of the World — for up to 11 hours a day, six days a week, over a five-month period in 1851.

This allowed him to accurately depict the natural scene before him. Millais encountered various difficulties during the painting process. He wrote in a letter to a friend, "The flies of Surrey are more muscular, and have a still greater propensity for probing human flesh. I am threatened with a notice to appear before a magistrate for trespassing in a field and destroying the hay ... and am also in danger of being blown by the wind into the water. Certainly the painting of a picture under such circumstances would be greater punishment to a murderer than hanging." By November 1851, the weather had turned windy and snowy. Millais oversaw the building of a hut "made of four hurdles,[8] like a sentry-box, covered outside with straw". According to Millais, sitting inside the hut made him feel like Robinson Crusoe. William Holman Hunt was so impressed by the hut that he had an identical one built for himself.

Ophelia was modelled by artist and muse Elizabeth Siddal, then 19 years old. Millais had Siddal lie fully clothed in a full bathtub in his studio at 7 Gower Street in London. As it was now winter, he placed oil lamps under the tub to warm the water, but was so intent on his work that he allowed them to go out. As a result, Siddal caught a severe cold, and her father later sent Millais a letter demanding £50 for medical expenses. According to Millais' son, he eventually accepted a lower sum.


Millais John Everett: "Ophelia" (detail)
When Ophelia was first publicly exhibited at the Royal Academy in London in 1852, it was not universally acclaimed. A critic in The Times wrote that "there must be something strangely perverse in an imagination which souses Ophelia in a weedy ditch, and robs the drowning struggle of that lovelorn maiden of all pathos and beauty", while a further review in the same newspaper said that "Mr. Millais's Ophelia in her pool ... makes us think of a dairymaid in a frolic". Even the great art critic John Ruskin, an avid supporter of Millais, while finding the technique of the painting "exquisite", expressed doubts about the decision to set it in a Surrey landscape and asked, "Why the mischief should you not paint pure nature, and not that rascally wirefenced garden-rolled-nursery-maid's paradise?"

In the 20th century, the painting was championed by surrealist painter Salvador Dalí. In an article published in a 1936 journal, he wrote, "How could Salvador Dalí fail to be dazzled by the flagrant surrealism of English Pre-Raphaelitism. The Pre-Raphaelite painters bring us radiant women who are, at the same time, the most desirable and most frightening that exist." In 1906, Japanese novelist Natsume Sōseki called the painting "a thing of considerable beauty" in one of his novels; since then, the painting has been highly popular in Japan. It was exhibited in Tokyo in 1998 and travelled there again in 2008.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John Everett Millais
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Bryullov Karl
Karl Pavlovich Bryullov (Russian: Карл Па́влович Брюлло́в; 12 December 1799 – 11 June 1852), also transliterated Briullov or Briuloff and referred to by his friends as "The Great Karl", was a Russian painter. He is regarded as a key figure in transition from the Russian neoclassicism to romanticism.

Karl Pavlovich Bryullov. Self-portrait (1848)
Karl Bryullov was born on December, 12th (23), 1799 in St. Petersburg,[1] in a family of the academician, the woodcarver and engraver Pavel Ivanovich Briullo (Brulleau, 1760—1833) who was of Huguenot descent. He felt drawn to Italy from his early years. Despite his education at the Imperial Academy of Arts (1809–1821), Bryullov never fully embraced the classical style taught by his mentors and promoted by his brother, Alexander Bryullov. After distinguishing himself as a promising and imaginative student and finishing his education, he left Russia for Rome where he worked until 1835 as a portraitist and genre painter, though his fame as an artist came when he began doing historical painting.

His best-known work, The Last Day of Pompeii (1830–1833), is a vast composition compared by Pushkin and Gogol to the best works of Rubens and Van Dyck. It created a sensation in Italy and established Bryullov as one of the finest European painters of his day. After completing this work, he triumphantly returned to the Russian capital, where he made many friends among the aristocracy and intellectual elite and obtained a high post in the Imperial Academy of Arts.

An anecdote concerning Bryullov appeared in Leo Tolstoy's essay "Why Do Men Stupefy Themselves?" and later in the same author's essay "What Is Art?".


While teaching at the academy (1836–1848) he developed a portrait style which combined a neoclassical simplicity with a romantic tendency that fused well, and his penchant for realism was satisfied with an intriguing level of psychological penetration. While he was working on the plafond of St Isaac's Cathedral, his health suddenly deteriorated. Following advice of his doctors, Bryullov left Russia for Madeira in 1849 and spent the last three years of his life in Italy. He died in the village of Manziana near Rome and is buried at the Cimitero del Testaccio there.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Karl Bryullov. Italian Woman Heavy with a Child Examining a Shirt and Her Husband Making a Cradle
Karl Bryullov
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Stanford Charles

Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (30 September 1852 – 29 March 1924) was an Irish composer, music teacher, and conductor. Born to a well-off and highly musical family in Dublin, Stanford was educated at the University of Cambridge before studying music in Leipzig and Berlin. He was instrumental in raising the status of the Cambridge University Musical Society, attracting international stars to perform with it.

While still an undergraduate, Stanford was appointed organist of Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1882, aged 29, he was one of the founding professors of the Royal College of Music, where he taught composition for the rest of his life. From 1887 he was also Professor of Music at Cambridge. As a teacher, Stanford was sceptical about modernism, and based his instruction chiefly on classical principles as exemplified in the music of Brahms. Among his pupils were rising composers whose fame went on to surpass his own, such as Gustav Holst and Ralph Vaughan Williams. As a conductor, Stanford held posts with the Bach Choir and the Leeds triennial music festival.

Stanford composed a substantial number of concert works, including seven symphonies, but his best-remembered pieces are his choral works for church performance, chiefly composed in the Anglican tradition. He was a dedicated composer of opera, but none of his nine completed operas has endured in the general repertory. Some critics regarded Stanford, together with Hubert Parry and Alexander Mackenzie, as responsible for a renaissance in music from the British Isles. However, after his conspicuous success as a composer in the last two decades of the 19th century, his music was eclipsed in the 20th century by that of Edward Elgar as well as former pupils.

  Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, (born Sept. 30, 1852, Dublin—died March 29, 1924, London), Anglo-Irish composer, conductor, and teacher who greatly influenced the next generation of British composers; Ralph Vaughan Williams, Sir Arthur Bliss, and Gustav Holst were among his pupils.

Stanford studied at Trinity College, Dublin, and Queen’s College, Cambridge, and between 1874 and 1877 with Karl Reinecke in Leipzig and Friedrich Kiel in Berlin.

He became professor of composition at the Royal College of Music in London in 1883 and professor of music at Cambridge in 1887.

He also conducted the London Bach Choir (1885–1902) and the Leeds Triennial Festival orchestra (1901–10).

He was knighted in 1901. Stanford was a prolific composer and was especially known for his orchestral works, which include seven symphonies and five Irish Rhapsodies.

His other works include numerous choral pieces, 10 operas, and many songs.

His music reflects the late 19th-century Romantic style, into which he introduced elements of Irish folk song.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Charles Villiers Stanford - Piano Concerto No.2
Piano Concerto No.2 in C-minor, Op.126 (1911)

Mov.I: Allegro moderato 00:00
Mov.II: Adagio molto - Piu mosso (quasi andante) 15:34
Mov.III: Allegro molto - Largemente e sostenuto 28:14

Pianist: Margaret Fingerhut

Orchestra: Ulster Orchestra

Conductor: Vernon Handley

Charles Stanford
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Becquerel Henri

Henri Becquerel, in full Antoine-Henri Becquerel (born December 15, 1852, Paris, France—died August 25, 1908, Le Croisic), French physicist who discovered radioactivity through his investigations of uranium and other substances. In 1903 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with Pierre and Marie Curie.

He was a member of a scientific family extending through several generations, the most notable being his grandfather Antoine-César Becquerel (1788–1878), his father, Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel (1820–91), and his son Jean Becquerel (1878–1953).


Henri Becquerel
  Education and training
After his early schooling at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Henri received his formal scientific education at the École Polytechnique (1872–74) and engineering training at the École des Ponts et Chaussées (Bridges and Highways School; 1874–77). In addition to his teaching and research posts, Becquerel was for many years an engineer in the Department of Bridges and Highways, being appointed chief engineer in 1894. His first academic situation was in 1876 as assistant teacher at the École Polytechnique, where in 1895 he succeeded to the chair of physics. Concurrently, he was assistant naturalist to his father at the museum, where he also assumed the physics professorship upon his father’s death.
Electricity, magnetism, optical phenomena, and energy were major areas of physical investigation during the 19th century. For several years the young man’s research was concerned with the rotation of plane-polarized light by magnetic fields, a subject opened by Michael Faraday and to which Henri’s father had also contributed. Henri then concerned himself with infrared radiation, examining, among other things, the spectra of different phosphorescent crystals under infrared stimulation. Of particular significance, he extended the work of his father by studying the relation between absorption of light and emission of phosphorescence in some uranium compounds.
By 1896 Henri was an accomplished and respected physicist—a member of the Académie des Sciences since 1889—but more important than his research thus far were his expertise with phosphorescent materials, his familiarity with uranium compounds, and his general skill in laboratory techniques, including photography. Together, these were to place the discovery of radioactivity within his reach.

Henri Becquerel
  Systematic study of radiation
At the end of 1895, Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X rays. Becquerel learned that the X rays issued from the area of a glass vacuum tube made fluorescent when struck by a beam of cathode rays. He undertook to investigate whether there was some fundamental connection between this invisible radiation and visible light such that all luminescent materials, however stimulated, would also yield X rays. To test this hypothesis, he placed phosphorescent crystals upon a photographic plate that had been wrapped in opaque paper so that only a penetrating radiation could reach the emulsion. He exposed his experimental arrangement to sunlight for several hours, thereby exciting the crystals in the customary manner. Upon development, the photographic plate revealed silhouettes of the mineral samples, and, in subsequent experiments, the image of a coin or metal cutout interposed between the crystal and paper wrapping. Becquerel reported this discovery to the Académie des Sciences at its session on February 24, 1896, noting that certain salts of uranium were particularly active.

He thus confirmed his view that something very similar to X rays was emitted by this luminescent substance at the same time it threw off visible radiation. But the following week Becquerel learned that his uranium salts continued to eject penetrating radiation even when they were not made to phosphoresce by the ultraviolet in sunlight. To account for this novelty he postulated a long-lived form of invisible phosphorescence; when he shortly traced the activity to uranium metal, he interpreted it as a unique case of metallic phosphorescence.

During 1896 Becquerel published seven papers on radioactivity, as Marie Curie later named the phenomenon; in 1897, only two papers; and in 1898, none. This was an index of both his and the scientific world’s interest in the subject, for the period saw studies of numerous radiations (e.g., cathode rays, X rays, Becquerel rays, “discharge rays,” canal rays, radio waves, the visible spectrum, rays from glowworms, fireflies, and other luminescent materials), and Becquerel rays seemed not especially significant. The far more popular X rays could take sharper shadow photographs and faster. It required the extension in 1898 of radioactivity to another known element, thorium (by Gerhard Carl Schmidt and independently by Marie Curie), and the discovery of new radioactive materials, polonium and radium (by Pierre and Marie Curie and their colleague, Gustave Bémont), to awaken the world and Becquerel to the significance of his discovery.
Further contributions
Returning to the field he had created, Becquerel made three more important contributions. One was to measure, in 1899 and 1900, the deflection of beta particles, which are a constituent of the radiation in both electric and magnetic fields. From the charge to mass value thus obtained, he showed that the beta particle was the same as Joseph John Thomson’s recently identified electron. Another discovery was the circumstance that the allegedly active substance in uranium, uranium X, lost its radiating ability in time, while the uranium, though inactive when freshly prepared, eventually regained its lost radioactivity. When Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy found similar decay and regeneration in thorium X and thorium, they were led to the transformation theory of radioactivity, which explained the phenomenon as a subatomic chemical change in which one element spontaneously transmutes into another. Becquerel’s last major achievement concerned the physiological effect of the radiation. Others may have noticed this before him, but his report in 1901 of the burn caused when he carried an active sample of the Curies’ radium in his vest pocket inspired investigation by physicians, leading ultimately to medical use.

For his discovery of radioactivity, Becquerel shared the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics with the Curies; he was also honoured with other medals and memberships in foreign societies. His own Academy of Sciences elected him its president and one of its permanent secretaries.

Lawrence Badash

Encyclopædia Britannica

С. F. Gerhardt: "New Theory of Organic Compounds"
Gerhardt Charles Frederic

Charles Frederic Gerhardt (21 August 1816 – 19 August 1856) was a French chemist.


Charles Frederic Gerhardt
He was born in Strasbourg, which is where he attended the gymnasium (an advanced academic secondary school). He then studied at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, where Friedrich Walchner's lectures first stimulated his interest in chemistry. Next he attended the school of commerce in Leipzig, where he studied chemistry under Otto Linné Erdmann, who further developed his interest into a passion for questions of speculative chemistry.

Returning home in 1834, he entered his father’s white lead factory, but soon found that business was not to his liking, and after a sharp disagreement with his father in his 20th year he enlisted in a cavalry regiment. In a few months military life became equally distasteful, and he purchased his discharge with the assistance of the German chemist Justus von Liebig. After a short period of living in Dresden, he went to the University of Giessen in central Germany in 1836 to study and work in Liebig's laboratory. His stay at Giessen lasted 18 months, and in 1837 he re-entered the factory. Again, however, he quarrelled with his father, and in 1838 he went to Paris with introductions from Liebig.

In Paris, he attended Jean Baptiste Dumas’ lectures and worked with Auguste Cahours (1813–1891) on essential oils, especially cumin, in Michel Eugène Chevreul’s laboratory at the Jardin des Plantes, meanwhile earning a precarious living by teaching and making translations of some of Liebig’s writings.

In 1841, through the influence of Dumas, he was charged with the duties of chemistry professor at the Montpellier faculty of sciences, becoming titular professor in 1844.

In 1842 he annoyed his friends in Paris by the matter and manner of a paper on the classification of organic compounds. Later, he published Précis de chimie organique (1844–1845). In 1845 he and his opinions were the subject of an attack by Liebig, unjustifiable in its personalities but not altogether surprising in view of his wayward disregard of his patron’s advice. The two were reconciled in 1850, but his faculty for disagreeing with his friends did not make it easier for him to get another appointment after resigning the chair at Montpellier in 1851, especially as he was unwilling to go into the provinces.

He obtained leave of absence from Montpellier in 1848 so that he could pursue without interruption his special investigations, and from that year until 1855 he resided in Paris. During that period he established an École de chimie pratique ("School for practical chemistry") for which he had great hopes.

However, these hopes were disappointed, and in 1855, after refusing the offer of a chair of chemistry at the new Zürich Polytechnic in 1854, he accepted the professorships of chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences and the École Polytechnique at Strassburg, where he died the following year, having just completed checking the proofs for Traité de chimie organique (4 vols., Paris, 1853–56), his magnum opus. This latter work embodies all his ideas and his discoveries.
Gerhardt is known for his work on reforming the notation for chemical formulas (1843–1846). He also worked on acid anhydrides, and synthesized acetylsalicylic acid, albeit in an unstable and impure form.
Gerhardt is usually linked with his contemporary, Auguste Laurent, with whom he shared a strong and influential interest in chemical combination.

He died on August 19, 1856, two days short of his birthday, after being poisoned by his own chemicals during laboratory work. He was 39 years old.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Van’t Hoff Jacobus Henricus

Jacobus Henricus Van’t Hoff, (born Aug. 30, 1852, Rotterdam, Neth.—died March 1, 1911, Berlin, Ger.), Dutch physical chemist and first winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1901), for work on rates of chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium, and osmotic pressure.


Jacobus Henricus Van’t Hoff
  Education and early career
Van ’t Hoff was the son of a physician and among the first generation to benefit from the extensive Dutch education reforms of the 1860s. He attended the newly formed Hoogere Burgerschool (High School) in Rotterdam. These new schools emphasized the study of mathematics and science to prepare students for a career in the growing industrial economy of the Netherlands. Beginning in 1869, van ’t Hoff studied chemistry at the Technical University in Delft and mathematics and physics at the University of Leiden before traveling to Germany to study chemistry with August Kekule at the University of Bonn and then France to study chemistry with Charles-Adolphe Wurtz at the École de Medicine. He finally returned to the University of Utrecht to complete his doctoral dissertation in 1874.
Before he completed his dissertation, van ’t Hoff published an 11-page pamphlet in which he proposed that if the four bonds (or valence electrons) of the carbon atom pointed toward the corners of a tetrahedron, it would explain some puzzling cases of isomerism and also explain why solutions of certain chemical compounds would rotate a plane of polarized light. His theory is today one of the fundamental concepts in organic chemistry and the foundation of stereochemistry, or the study of the three-dimensional properties of molecules. This idea was also published independently, in a slightly different form, by the French chemist Joseph Achilles Le Bel, whom van ’t Hoff had met during his stay in Wurtz’s laboratory earlier in the year.
Despite this innovative pamphlet, van ’t Hoff’s future in science was uncertain until he was appointed in 1876 to a new position lecturing chemistry and physics at the Imperial Veterinary College in Utrecht. In 1878 he was appointed professor of chemistry, mineralogy, and geology at the newly created University of Amsterdam.

Jacobus Henricus Van’t Hoff
  Birth of physical chemistry
In the late 1870s, van ’t Hoff turned away from organic chemistry and became interested in explaining why various chemical reactions occur at widely different rates. In 1884 he published the innovative book Études de dynamique chimique (“Studies in Chemical Dynamics”), in which he used the principles of thermodynamics to provide a mathematical model for the rates of chemical reactions based on the changes in the concentration of reactants with time. In the Études, van ’t Hoff showed how the previously independently developed concepts of dynamic equilibrium (that chemical equilibrium results when the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal), the law of mass action (that the concentration of substances affects the rate of reaction), and the equilibrium constant (the ratio of the concentrations of starting materials to products at equilibrium) together formed a coherent model for understanding the nature of chemical reactions. Finally, he showed mathematically how temperature, pressure, and mass affected the rate of chemical reactions and how the heat generated by a reaction could be calculated from the mathematical equation governing the final equilibrium state. This relationship between heats of reaction and equilibrium allowed van ’t Hoff to define chemical “affinity,” an old concept in the history of chemistry that had been difficult to define in terms of its effects, specifically the amount of work that a reversible chemical reaction could perform.
One of the central assumptions van ’t Hoff made in the Études was that the behaviours of gases and solutions were analogous, and in a series of papers published in 1886 and 1887 he set out to justify that assumption by modeling the behaviour of dilute solutions, using the principles of thermodynamics. He showed that osmotic pressure, the tendency of a pure solvent to cross a semipermeable membrane to dilute a solution on the opposite side, was directly proportional to the concentration of the solution and could be modeled by the same equation (the perfect gas law) that governed the behaviour of ideal gases.

In 1887 van ’t Hoff and the German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald founded the Zeitschrift für physikalische Chemie (“Journal of Physical Chemistry”) as a forum for the new physical chemistry based on thermodynamics that he, Ostwald, and the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius had created during the 1880s. On the basis of his innovative and successful treatment of chemical affinity, van ’t Hoff was awarded the first Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1901.

Van ’t Hoff accepted an appointment in 1896 to the Academy of Sciences in Berlin, where he turned to another problem in chemical equilibrium—the conditions under which salt deposits are formed in the ocean, specifically the salt deposits at Stassfurt, Ger. In order to understand the conditions behind the precipitation of salts, van ’t Hoff modeled the deposition process as an equilibrium between the solution and solid phases of the components in water at a constant temperature. This work was published in 1905 and 1909 as the two-volume Zur Bildung der ozeanischen Salzablagerungen (“On the Formation of Oceanic Salt Deposits”). Van ’t Hoff died in 1911 of pulmonary tuberculosis shortly after completing this work.

Peter J. Ramberg

Encyclopædia Britannica
Dutch army surgeon Mathysen impregnates bandages with plaster
Mathijsen Antonius

Antonius Mathijsen (November 4, 1805–June 15, 1878) was a Dutch army surgeon who first used plaster of paris to fixate broken bones.

Early life and education

Antonius Mathijsen was born November 4, 1805 to a village physician in Budel, a Dutch town on the Belgian border. He was educated at hospitals in Maastricht, Brussels and the army medical school in Utrecht.

Antonius Mathijsen
He received his commission as medical officer 3d class in the Royal Netherlands Army in 1828. In 1838 he participated in the 10 day war of Belgian Revolution.

While working at military hospital Haarlem Mathijsen in 1851 first used plaster of paris as a bandage. He discovered that a bandage soaked in water and plaster of paris hardened within a few minutes and thus made a good fixation for broken bones. He published his findings in a Dutch medical magazine Repertorium in February 1852.

He retired from the army in 1868 as first medical officer first class (Lieutenant Colonel).

Death and afterward
Mathijsen died June 15, 1878, aged 72, in Hamont.

Memorial monuments are located in both Budel and Hamont. The last Dutch army hospital in Utrecht was named after Dr Mathijsen until the army hospital merged with the navy hospital in the early 1990s.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Michelson Albert
A. A. Michelson, in full Albert Abraham Michelson (born December 19, 1852, Strelno, Prussia [now Strzelno, Poland]—died May 9, 1931, Pasadena, California, U.S.), German-born American physicist who established the speed of light as a fundamental constant and pursued other spectroscopic and metrological investigations. He received the 1907 Nobel Prize for Physics.

Albert Abraham Michelson
  Michelson came to the United States with his parents when he was two years old. From New York City the family made its way to Virginia City, Nevada, and San Francisco, where the elder Michelson prospered as a merchant. At age 17 Michelson entered the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, where he did well in science but was rather below average in seamanship. He graduated in 1873 and served as science instructor at the academy from 1875 until 1879.

In 1878 Michelson began work on what was to be the passion of his life, the accurate measurement of the speed of light. He was able to obtain useful values with homemade apparatuses. Feeling the need to study optics before he could be qualified to make real progress, he traveled to Europe in 1880 and spent two years in Berlin, Heidelberg, and Paris, resigning from the U.S. Navy in 1881.

Upon his return to the United States, he determined the velocity of light to be 299,853 km (186,329 miles) per second, a value that remained the best for a generation, until Michelson bettered it.

While in Europe, Michelson began constructing an interferometer, a device designed to split a beam of light in two, send the parts along perpendicular paths, then bring them back together. If the light waves had, in the interim, fallen out of step, interference fringes of alternating light and dark bands would be obtained.
From the width and number of those fringes, unprecedentedly delicate measurements could be made, comparing the velocity of light rays traveling at right angles to each other.

It was Michelson’s intention to use the interferometer to measure Earth’s velocity against the “ether” that was then thought to make up the basic substratum of the universe. If Earth were traveling through the light-conducting ether, then the speed of the light traveling in the same direction would be expected to be equal to the velocity of light plus the velocity of Earth, whereas the speed of light traveling at right angles to Earth’s path would be expected to travel only at the velocity of light. His earliest experiments in Berlin showed no interference fringes, however, which seemed to signify that there was no difference in the speed of the light rays and, therefore, no Earth motion relative to the ether.

In 1883 he accepted a position as professor of physics at the Case School of Applied Science in Cleveland and there concentrated his efforts on improving the delicacy of his interferometer experiment. By 1887, with the help of his colleague, American chemist Edward Williams Morley, he was ready to announce the results of what has since come to be called the Michelson-Morley experiment. Those results were still negative; there were no interference fringes and apparently no motion of Earth relative to the ether.


Albert Abraham Michelson
  It was perhaps the most significant negative experiment in the history of science. In terms of classical Newtonian physics, the results were paradoxical. Evidently, the speed of light plus any other added velocity was still equal only to the speed of light.

To explain the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment, physics had to be recast on a new and more-refined foundation, something that resulted eventually in Albert Einstein’s formulation of the theory of relativity in 1905.

In 1892 Michelson—after serving as professor of physics at Clark University at Worcester, Massachusetts, from 1889—was appointed professor and the first head of the department of physics at the newly organized University of Chicago, a position he held until his retirement in 1929. From 1923 to 1927 he served as president of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1907 he became the first American ever to receive a Nobel Prize in the sciences, for his spectroscopic and metrological investigations, the first of many honours he was to receive.

Michelson advocated using some particular wavelength of light as a standard of distance (a suggestion generally accepted in 1960) and, in 1893, measured the standard metre in terms of the red light emitted by heated cadmium. His interferometer made it possible for him to determine the width of heavenly objects by matching the light rays from the two sides and noting the interference fringes that resulted.

In 1920, using a 6-metre (20-foot) interferometer attached to a 254-cm (100-inch) telescope, he succeeded in measuring the diameter of the star Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) as 386,160,000 km (300 times the diameter of the Sun). This was the first substantially accurate determination of the size of a star.

In 1923 Michelson returned to the problem of the accurate measurement of the velocity of light. In the California mountains he surveyed a 35-km pathway between two mountain peaks, determining the distance to an accuracy of less than 2.5 cm. He made use of a special eight-sided revolving mirror and obtained a value of 299,798 km/sec for the velocity of light. To refine matters further, he made use of a long, evacuated tube through which a light beam was reflected back and forth until it had traveled 16 km through a vacuum. Michelson died before the results of his final tests could be evaluated, but in 1933 the final figure was announced as 299,774 km/sec, a value less than 2 km/sec higher than the value accepted in the 1970s.

Isaac Asimov

Encyclopædia Britannica
Ramsay William

Sir William Ramsay, (born Oct. 2, 1852, Glasgow, Scot.—died July 23, 1916, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, Eng.), British physical chemist who discovered four gases (neon, argon, krypton, xenon) and showed that they (with helium and radon) formed an entire family of new elements, the noble gases. He was awarded the 1904 Nobel Prize for Chemistry in recognition of this achievement.

Ramsay, the only child of a civil engineer, decided at an early age that he would become a chemist. He studied at the University of Glasgow in Scotland (1866–70); during his final 18 months there he pursued additional studies in the laboratory of the city analyst, Robert Tatlock. In October 1870 he left Glasgow without taking a degree, intending to become a pupil of the German analytical chemist Robert Bunsen at the University of Heidelberg in Germany, but he abandoned this plan. Six months later, Ramsay became a doctoral student under the German organic chemist Rudolf Fittig at the University of Tübingen in Germany, where he received a doctorate in 1872.

Sir William Ramsay
  Early research
After graduating from Tübingen, Ramsay returned to Glasgow to work at Anderson College (1872–74) and then at the University of Glasgow (1874–80). During this period, Ramsay’s research focused on alkaloids (complex chemical compounds derived from plants). He studied their physiological action and established their structural relationship to pyridine, a nitrogen-containing compound closely resembling benzene. In 1879 he turned to physical chemistry to study the molecular volumes of elements at their boiling points. Following his appointment to the chair of chemistry at University College, Bristol (1880–87; he became principal of the college in 1881), he continued this research with the British chemist Sydney Young; they published more than 30 papers on the physical characteristics of liquids and vapours. This work helped Ramsay to develop the technical and manipulative skills that later formed the hallmark of his work on the noble gases. In 1887 Ramsay became professor of general chemistry at University College London, where he remained until his retirement in 1913. For several years he continued to work on projects related to the properties of liquids and vapours, and in 1893 he and chemist John Shields verified Hungarian physicist Roland Eötvös’s law for the constancy of the rate of change of molecular surface energy with temperature. During the following year, Ramsay began the research that was eventually to make him the most famous chemist in Britain—the discovery of the noble gases.
Discovery of noble gases
The British physicist John William Strutt (better known as Lord Rayleigh) showed in 1892 that the atomic weight of nitrogen found in chemical compounds was lower than that of nitrogen found in the atmosphere. He ascribed this discrepancy to a light gas included in chemical compounds of nitrogen, while Ramsay suspected a hitherto undiscovered heavy gas in atmospheric nitrogen. Using two different methods to remove all known gases from air, Ramsay and Rayleigh were able to announce in 1894 that they had found a monatomic, chemically inert gaseous element that constituted nearly 1 percent of the atmosphere; they named it argon. The following year, Ramsay liberated another inert gas from a mineral called cleveite; this proved to be helium, previously known only in the solar spectrum. In his book The Gases of the Atmosphere (1896), Ramsay showed that the positions of helium and argon in the periodic table of elements indicated that at least three more noble gases might exist. In 1898 he and the British chemist Morris W. Travers isolated these elements—called neon, krypton, and xenon—from air brought to a liquid state at low temperature and high pressure. Working with the British chemist Frederick Soddy in 1903, Ramsay demonstrated that helium (together with a gaseous emanation called radon) is continually produced during the radioactive decay of radium, a discovery of crucial importance to the modern understanding of nuclear reactions. In 1910, using tiny samples of radon, Ramsay proved that it was a sixth noble gas, and he provided further evidence that it was formed by the emission of a helium nucleus from radium. This research demonstrated the high degree of experimental skill that Ramsay had developed, but it also marked his last notable scientific contribution. Intrigued by the new science of radiochemistry, he made many unsuccessful attempts to further explore the phenomenon.

Sir William Ramsay
  Later years
Ramsay had many interests, including languages, music, and travel. He was strongly supportive of science education, a concern that grew out of his experiences at Bristol, where he had been deeply involved in the campaign to obtain government funding for the university colleges. He was the first to write textbooks based on the periodic classification of elements: A System of Inorganic Chemistry and Elementary Systematic Chemistry for the Use of Schools and Colleges (both 1891). After the turn of the 20th century, and especially following the award of the Nobel Prize, Ramsay’s time was increasingly taken up by external commitments. His fame was such that he was in demand as a consultant to industry and as an expert witness in legal cases. He expanded his range of interests to include the business world, becoming a director of some (ultimately short-lived) chemical companies. He also wrote semipopular magazine articles on science, some of which were published in his Essays Biographical and Chemical (1908). The recipient of many awards and honours, Ramsay was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1888 and knighted in 1902; and he served as president of the Chemical Society (1907–09) and the British Association for the Advancement of Science (1911). Following his retirement, he moved to Buckinghamshire and continued to work in a private laboratory at his home. Upon the outbreak of war in 1914, he became involved in efforts to secure the participation of scientific experts in the creation of government science policy. He continued to write on war-related matters until his death from cancer.

Katherine D. Watson

Encyclopædia Britannica
Spencer Herbert: "The Development Hypothesis" (first use of the word "evolution")
James Sylvester: "Calculus of Forms"
Sylvester James Joseph
James Joseph Sylvester, (born September 3, 1814, London, England—died March 15, 1897, London), British mathematician who, with Arthur Cayley, was a cofounder of invariant theory, the study of properties that are unchanged (invariant) under some transformation, such as rotating or translating the coordinate axes. He also made significant contributions to number theory and elliptic functions.

James Joseph Sylvester
  In 1837 Sylvester came second in the mathematical tripos at the University of Cambridge but, as a Jew, was prevented from taking his degree or securing an appointment there. In 1838 he became a professor of natural philosophy at University College, London (the only nonsectarian British university). In 1841 he accepted a professorship of mathematics at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, U.S., but resigned after only three months following an altercation with a student for which the school’s administration did not take his side. He returned to England in 1843.
The following year he went to London, where he became an actuary for an insurance company, retaining his interest in mathematics only through tutoring (his students included Florence Nightingale). In 1846 he became a law student at the Inner Temple, and in 1850 he was admitted to the bar. While working as a lawyer, Sylvester began an enthusiastic and profitable collaboration with Cayley.

From 1855 to 1870 Sylvester was a professor of mathematics at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich. He went to the United States once again in 1876 to become a professor of mathematics at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. While there he founded (1878) and became the first editor of the American Journal of Mathematics, introduced graduate work in mathematics into American universities, and greatly stimulated the American mathematical scene. In 1883 he returned to England to become the Savilian Professor of Geometry at the University of Oxford.

Sylvester was primarily an algebraist. He did brilliant work in the theory of numbers, particularly in partitions (the possible ways a number can be expressed as a sum of positive integers) and Diophantine analysis (a means for finding whole-number solutions to certain algebraic equations). He worked by inspiration, and frequently it is difficult to detect a proof in what he confidently asserted. His work is characterized by powerful imagination and inventiveness. He was proud of his mathematical vocabulary and coined many new terms, although few have survived. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1839, and he was the second president of the London Mathematical Society (1866–68). His mathematical output includes several hundred papers and one book, Treatise on Elliptic Functions (1876). He also wrote poetry, although not to critical acclaim, and published Laws of Verse (1870).

Encyclopædia Britannica

The U.S. imports sparrows from Germany as defense against caterpillars
Saltwater aquarium in London
United All-England Eleven
The United All-England Eleven (UEE) was an English cricket team formed in 1852 by players breaking away from William Clarke's All-England Eleven (AEE). Key UEE players included John Wisden and Jemmy Dean, who became joint secretaries of the team.
The team was part of a movement in cricket that used Clarke's idea of professional teams touring the country on the newly created railways. The introduction of railways meant that, for the first time, cricket teams found that touring was feasible. Together with Clarke's team, the UEE players monopolised the best cricket talent until the rise of county cricket in the 1860s.

Clarke would have nothing to do with the UEE, but he died in 1856, and from 1857 to 1866 the matches between the AEE and the UEE were perhaps the most important contests of the English season - certainly judged by the quality of the players.

Between 1850 and 1880, 19 such teams were formed including the United North of England Eleven and the United South of England Eleven. The teams functioned by charging game organisers for their services and the organisers recouped their costs through a paying audience.

By 1859, the New York Times could say that the first English team to tour overseas was composed of players from "the two leading professional elevens of England" when a team composed of six players from both the AEE and UEE visited Canada and the USA that September.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wells Fargo & Company

Wells Fargo & Company is an American multinational banking and financial services holding company which is headquartered in San Francisco, California, with "hubquarters" throughout the country. It is the fourth largest bank in the U.S. by assets and the second largest bank by market capitalization. Wells Fargo is the second largest bank in deposits, home mortgage servicing, and debit cards. In 2011, Wells Fargo was the 23rd largest company in the United States.

In 2007 it was the only bank in the United States to be rated AAA by S&P, though its rating has since been lowered to AA- in light of the financial crisis of 2007–08. The firm's primary U.S. operating subsidiary is national bank Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., which designates its main office as Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Wells Fargo in its present form is a result of a merger between San Francisco–based Wells Fargo & Company and Minneapolis-based Norwest Corporation in 1998 and the subsequent 2008 acquisition of Charlotte-based Wachovia. Following the mergers, the company transferred its headquarters to Wells Fargo's headquarters in San Francisco and merged its operating subsidiary with Wells Fargo's operating subsidiary in Sioux Falls.

Wells Fargo is one of the "Big Four Banks" of the United States, along with JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, and Citigroup—its main competitors. The company operates across 35 countries and has over 70 million customers globally. In 2012, it had more than 9,000 retail branches and over 12,000 automated teller machines in 39 states and the District of Columbia. As of April 14, 2015, Wells Fargo became the world's second biggest bank by market capitalization, worth $281 billion, first being ICBC.

In February 2014 Wells Fargo was named the world's most valuable bank brand for the second year running in The Banker and Brand Finance study of the top 500 banking brands.

  Early history

Soon after gold was discovered in early 1848 at Sutter's Mill near Coloma, California, financiers and entrepreneurs from all over North America and the world flocked to California, drawn by the promise of huge profits. Vermont native Henry Wells and New Yorker William G. Fargo watched the California boom economy with keen interest. Before either Wells or Fargo could pursue opportunities offered in the West, however, they had business to attend to in the East.

Wells, founder of Wells and Company, and Fargo, a partner in Livingston, Fargo and Company, were major figures in the young and fiercely competitive express industry. In 1849 a new rival, John Butterfield, founder of Butterfield, Wasson & Company, entered the express business. Butterfield, Wells, and Fargo soon realized that their competition was destructive and wasteful, and in 1850 they decided to join forces to form the American Express Company.

Soon after the new company was formed, Wells, the first president of American Express, and Fargo, its vice-president, proposed expanding their business to California. Fearing that American Express's most powerful rival, Adams and Company (later renamed Adams Express Company), would acquire a monopoly in the West, the majority of the American Express Company's directors balked. Undaunted, Wells and Fargo decided to start their own business while continuing to fulfill their responsibilities as officers and directors of American Express.


American Express Co. receipt, New York, New York, 6 August 1853
Foundation of Wells Fargo
On March 18, 1852, they organized Wells, Fargo & Company, a joint-stock association with an initial capitalization of $300,000, to provide express and banking services to California. The original board of directors comprised Wells, Fargo, Johnston Livingston, Elijah P. Williams, Edwin B. Morgan, James McKay, Alpheus Reynolds, Alexander M.C. Smith and Henry D. Rice. Of these, Wells, Fargo, Livingston and McKay were also on the board of American Express.

Financier Edwin B. Morgan of Aurora, New York, was appointed Wells Fargo's first president. They commenced business May 20, 1852, the day their announcement appeared in The New York Times. The company's arrival in San Francisco was announced in the Alta California of July 3, 1852. The immediate challenge facing Morgan and Danford N. Barney, who became president in November 1853, was to establish the company in two highly competitive fields under conditions of rapid growth and unpredictable change. At the time, California regulated neither the banking nor the express industry, so both fields were wide open. Anyone with a wagon and team of horses could open an express company; and all it took to open a bank was a safe and a room to keep it in. Because of its comparatively late entry into the California market, Wells Fargo faced well-established competition in both fields.

From the beginning, the fledgling company offered diverse and mutually supportive services: general forwarding and commissions; buying and selling of gold dust, bullion, and specie (or coin); and freight service between New York and California. Under Morgan's and Barney's direction, express and banking offices were quickly established in key communities bordering the gold fields, and a network of freight and messenger routes was soon in place throughout California. Barney's policy of subcontracting express services to established companies, rather than duplicating existing services, was a key factor in Wells Fargo's early success.

Expansion into Overland Mail services
In 1855 Wells Fargo faced its first crisis when the California banking system collapsed as a result of unsound speculation. A run on Page, Bacon & Company, a San Francisco bank, began when the collapse of its St. Louis, Missouri, parent was made public. The run soon spread to other major financial institutions all of which, including Wells Fargo, were forced to close their doors. The following Tuesday Wells Fargo reopened in sound condition, despite a loss of one-third of its net worth. Wells Fargo was one of the few financial and express companies to survive the panic, partly because it kept sufficient assets on hand to meet customers' demands rather than transferring all its assets to New York.

Surviving the Panic of 1855 gave Wells Fargo two advantages. First, it faced virtually no competition in the banking and express business in California after the crisis; second, Wells Fargo attained a reputation for dependability and soundness. From 1855 through 1866, Wells Fargo expanded rapidly, becoming the West's all-purpose business, communications, and transportation agent. Under Barney's direction, the company developed its own stagecoach business, helped start and then took over the Overland Mail Company, and participated in the Pony Express. This period culminated with the 'grand consolidation' of 1866, when Wells Fargo consolidated under its own name the ownership and operation of the entire overland mail route from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean and many stagecoach lines in the western states.

In its early days, Wells Fargo participated in the staging business to support its banking and express businesses. But the character of Wells Fargo's participation changed when it helped start the Overland Mail Company. Overland Mail was organized in 1857 by men with substantial interests in four of the leading express companies—American Express, United States Express, Adams Express, and Wells Fargo. John Butterfield, the third founder of American Express, was made Overland Mail's president. In 1858 Overland Mail was awarded a government contract to carry the U.S. mail over the southern overland route from Memphis and St. Louis to California. From the beginning, Wells Fargo was Overland Mail's banker and primary lender.

Wells, Fargo & Co. 1868 display advertisement from The Salt Lake Daily Telegraph (Utah Territory)
In 1859, there was a crisis when Congress failed to pass the annual post office appropriation bill, thereby leaving the post office with no way to pay for the Overland Mail Company's services. As Overland Mail's indebtedness to Wells Fargo climbed, Wells Fargo became increasingly disenchanted with Butterfield's management strategy. In March 1860, Wells Fargo threatened to foreclose. As a compromise, Butterfield resigned as president of Overland Mail, and control of the company passed to Wells Fargo. Wells Fargo, however, did not acquire ownership of the company until the consolidation of 1866.

Wells Fargo's involvement in Overland Mail led to its participation in the Pony Express in the last six of the express's 18 months of existence. Russell, Majors and Waddell launched the privately owned and operated Pony Express. By the end of 1860, the Pony Express was in deep financial trouble; its fees did not cover its costs and, without government subsidies and lucrative mail contracts, it could not make up the difference. After Overland Mail, by then controlled by Wells Fargo, was awarded a $1 million government contract in early 1861 to provide daily mail service over a central route (the Civil War had forced the discontinuation of the southern line), Wells Fargo took over the western portion of the Pony Express route from Salt Lake City to San Francisco. Russell, Majors & Waddell continued to operate the eastern leg from Salt Lake City to St. Joseph, Missouri, under subcontract.

The Pony Express ended when Transcontinental Telegraph lines were completed in late 1861. Overland mail and express services were continued, however, by the coordinated efforts of several companies. From 1862 to 1865, Wells Fargo operated a private express line between San Francisco and Virginia City, Nevada; Overland Mail stagecoaches covered the route from Carson City, Nevada, to Salt Lake City; and Ben Holladay, who had acquired the business of Russell, Majors & Waddell, ran a stagecoach line from Salt Lake City to Missouri.


Wells Fargo & Co. franked cover from Austin, Nevada Territory, to San Francisco, Cal. July 6, 1870
Takeover of Holladay Overland
By 1866, Holladay had built a staging empire with lines in eight western states and was challenging Wells Fargo's supremacy in the West. A showdown between the two transportation giants in late 1866 resulted in Wells Fargo's purchase of Holladay's operations. The 'grand consolidation' spawned a new enterprise that operated under the Wells Fargo name and combined the Wells Fargo, Holladay, and Overland Mail lines and became the undisputed stagecoach leader. Barney resigned as president of Wells Fargo to devote more time to his own business, the United States Express Company; Louis McLane replaced him when the merger was completed on November 1, 1866.

The Wells Fargo stagecoach empire was short lived. Although the Central Pacific Railroad, already operating over the Sierra Mountains to Reno, Nevada, carried Wells Fargo's express, the company did not have an exclusive contract. Moreover, the Union Pacific Railroad was encroaching on the territory served by Wells Fargo stagelines. Ashbel H. Barney, Danforth Barney's brother and cofounder of United States Express Company, replaced McLane as president in 1869. The transcontinental railroad was completed in that year, causing the stage business to dwindle and Wells Fargo's stock to fall.

  Takeover of the Pacific Union Express Company
Central Pacific promoters, led by Danielle Pepe, organized the Pacific Union Express Company to compete with Wells Fargo.

The Tevis group also started buying up Wells Fargo stock at its sharply reduced price.

On October 4, 1869, William Fargo, his brother Charles, and Ashbel Barney met with Tevis and his associates in Omaha, Nebraska.

There Wells Fargo agreed to buy the Pacific Union Express Company at a much-inflated price and received exclusive express rights for ten years on the Central Pacific Railroad and a much needed infusion of capital.

All of this, however, came at a price: control of Wells Fargo shifted to Tevis.

Ashbel Barney resigned in 1870 and was replaced as president by William Fargo.

In 1872 William Fargo also resigned to devote full-time to his duties as president of American Express.

Lloyd Tevis replaced Fargo as president of Wells Fargo.

The company expanded rapidly under Tevis' management. The number of banking and express offices grew from 436 in 1871 to 3,500 at the turn of the century. During this period, Wells Fargo also established the first transcontinental express line, using more than a dozen railroads. The company first gained access to the lucrative East Coast markets beginning in 1888; successfully promoted the use of refrigerated freight cars in California; had opened branch banks in Virginia City, Carson City, and Salt Lake City, Utah by 1876; and opened a branch bank in New York City by 1880. Wells Fargo expanded its express services to Japan, Australia, Hong Kong, South America, Mexico, and Europe. In 1885 Wells Fargo also began selling money orders. In 1892 John J. Valentine, Sr., a long time Wells Fargo employee, was made president of the company.

Until 1876, both banking and express operations of Wells Fargo in San Francisco were carried on in the same building at the northeast corner of California and Montgomery Streets. In 1876 the locations were separated, with the banking department moving to a building at the northeast corner of California and Sansome Streets. The bank moved in 1891 to the corner of Sansome and Market Streets, where it remained until 1905.

Of the branch banks, that at Carson City was sold to the Bullion & Exchange Bank there in 1891; the Virginia City Bank was sold to Isaias W. Hellman's Nevada Bank in 1891; and the Salt Lake City Bank was sold to the Walker Brothers there in 1894. The New York City branch remained until the Wells Fargo & Company bank merged with Hellman's bank in 1905.

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Wells Fargo 1870 ad

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