Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1850 Part IV NEXT-1851 Part II    
 
 
     
1850 - 1859
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850-1859
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part I
Compromise of 1850
Constitution of Prussia
The eight Kaffir War, 1850-1853
Masaryk Tomas
Kitchener Horatio Herbert
Erfurt Union
Fillmore Millard
California
Taiping Rebellion
Hong Xiuquan
Feng Yunshan
Yang Xiuqing
Shi Dakai
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part II
Protestant churches in Prussia
Public Libraries Act 1850
Schopenhauer: "Parerga und Paralipomena"
Herbert Spencer: "Social Statics"
E. B. Browning: "Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Emerson: "Representative Men"
Hawthorne: "The Scarlet Letter"
Herzen Aleksandr
Ibsen: "Catiline"
Loti Pierre
Maupassant Guy
Guy de Maupassant
"Bel-Ami"
Stevenson Robert Louis
Robert Louis Stevenson  
"Treasure Island
"
Turgenev: "A Month in the Country"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part III
Corot: "Une Matinee"
Courbet: "The Stone Breakers"
Menzel: "Round Table at Sansouci"
Millais: "Christ in the House of His Parents"
Millet: "The Sower"
Bristow George Frederick
George Frederick Bristow - Dream Land
George Frederick Bristow
Schumann: "Genoveva"
Wagner: "Lohengrin"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part IV
Bernard Claude
Clausius Rudolf
Stephenson Robert
Chebyshev Pafnuty Lvovich
Barth Heinrich
Galton Francis
Anderson Karl John
McClure Robert
McClure Arctic Expedition
Royal Meteorological Society
University of Sydney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1851 Part I
Victoria, state of Australia
Murdock Joseph Ballard
Machado Bernardino
Bourgeois Leon Victor Auguste
Foch Ferdinand
Bombardment of Sale
French coup d'état
Danilo II
Hawthorne: "The House of Seven Gables"
Gottfried Keller: "Der grune Heinrich"
Ward Humphry
Ruskin: "The Stones of Venice"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1851 Part II
Herman Melville: "Moby Dick"
Corot: "La Danse des Nymphes"
Walter Thomas Ustick
Ward Leslie
Crystal Palace
Falero Luis Ricardo
Luis Ricardo Falero
Kroyer Peder
Peder Kroyer
Hughes Edward Robert
Edward Robert Hughes
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1851 Part III
Gounod: "Sappho"
D’Indy Vincent
Vincent D'Indy - Medee
Vincent d'Indy
Verdi: "Rigoletto"
Bogardus James
Cast-iron architecture
Kapteyn Jacobus Cornelius
Helmholtz's ophthalmoscope
Neumann Franz Ernst
Ruhmkorff Heinrich Daniel
Singer Isaac Merrit
Cubitt William
Thomson William
Royal School of Mines
Carpenter Mary
"The New York Times"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1852 Part I
Joffre Joseph
Transvaal
Second French Empire
Second Anglo-Burmese War
New Zealand Constitution Act
Asquith Herbert Henry
Pierce Franklin
Delisle Leopold Victor
Fischer Kuno
First Plenary Council of Baltimore
Vaihinger Hans
Gioberti Vincenzo
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1852 Part II
Bourget Paul
Creasy Edward
Creasy: "The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo"
Charles Dickens: "Bleak House"
Theophile Gautier: "Emaux et Camees"
Moore George
Reade Charles
Harriet Beecher Stowe: "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Thackeray: "History of Henry Esmond"
Turgenev: "A Sportsman's Sketches"
Zhukovsky Vasily
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1852 Part III
Fopd Madox Brown: "Christ Washing Peter's Feet"
William Holman Hunt: "The Light of the World"
John Everett Millais: "Ophelia"
Bryullov Karl
Karl Bryullov
Stanford Charles
Charles Villiers Stanford - Piano Concerto No.2
Charles Stanford
Becquerel Henri
Gerhardt Charles Frederic
Van’t Hoff Jacobus Henricus
Mathijsen Antonius
Michelson Albert
Ramsay William
Sylvester James Joseph
United All-England Eleven
Wells Fargo & Company
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1853 Part I
Eugenie de Montijo
Crimean War
Battle of Sinop
Rhodes Cecil
Peter V
Nagpur Province
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1853 Part II
Mommsen: "History of Rome"
Matthew Arnold: "The Scholar-Gipsy"
Charlotte Bronte: "Villette"
Caine Hall
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Ruth"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Tanglewood Tales"
Charles Kingsley: "Hypatia"
Tree Herbert Beerbohm
Charlotte M. Yonge: "The Heir of Redclyffe"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1853 Part III
Haussmann Georges-Eugene
Larsson Carl
Carl Larsson
Hodler Ferdinand
Ferdinand Hodler
Van Gogh Vincent
Vincent van Gogh
Steinway Henry Engelhard
Verdi: "Il Trovatore"
Verdi: "La Traviata"
Wood Alexander
"Die Gartenlaube"
International Statistical Congress
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part I
Bloemfontein Convention
Orange Free State
Battle of the Alma
Menshikov Alexander Sergeyevich
Siege of Sevastopol (1854-1855)
Kornilov Vladimir Alexeyevich
Battle of Balaclava
Battle of Inkerman
Perry Matthew Calbraith
Gadsden Purchase
Bleeding Kansas (1854–59)
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Elgin-Marcy Treaty
Republican Party
Said of Egypt
Ostend Manifesto
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part II
Herzog Johann
Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau
Youthful Offenders Act 1854
Immaculate Conception
Patmore Coventry
Patmore: "The Angel in the House"
Sandeau Leonard
Guerrazzi Francesco Domenico
Rimbaud Arthur
Arthur Rimbaud "Poems"
Tennyson: "The Charge of the Light Brigade"
Thackeray: "The Rose and the Ring"
Thoreau: "Walden, or Life in the Woods"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part III
Courbet: "Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet"
Frith William Powell
William Frith
Millet: "The Reaper"
Angrand Charles
Charles Angrand
Gotch Thomas Cooper
Thomas Cooper Gotch
Berlioz: "The Infant Christ"
Humperdinck Engelbert
Humperdinck - Hansel und Gretel
Liszt: "Les Preludes"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part IV
Poincare Henri
Eastman George
Ehrenberg Christian Gottfried
Paul Ehrlich
Laryngoscopy
Goebel Henry
George Boole: "The Laws of Thought"
Riemann Bernhard
Wallace Alfred Russel
Southeast Asia
"Le Figaro"
Litfass Ernst
Northcote–Trevelyan Report
Maurice Frederick Denison
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1855 Part I
Alexander II
Istomin Vladimir Ivanovich
Somerset FitzRoy
Nakhimov Pavel Stepanovich
Treaty of Peshawar
Bain Alexander
Droysen Johann
Gratry Auguste
Milman Henry
Le Play Pierre
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1855 Part II
Charles Kingsley: "Westward Ho!"
Nerval Gerard
Charles Dickens "Little Dorrit"
Ganghofer Ludwig
Longfellow: "The Song of Hiawatha"
Corelli Marie
Pinero Arthur Wing
Tennyson: "Maud"
Anthony Trollope: "The Warden"
Turgenev: "Rudin"
Walt Whitman: "Leaves of Grass"
Berlioz: "Те Deum"
Verdi: "Les Vepres Siciliennes"
Chansson Ernest
Chausson - Poeme
Ernest Chausson
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1855 Part III
Rayon
Hughes David Edward
Lowell Percival
Cunard Line
"The Daily Telegraph"
Niagara Falls suspension bridge
Paris World Fair
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part I
Victoria Cross
Doctrine of Lapse
Oudh State
Ottoman Reform Edict of 1856
Congress of Paris
Treaty of Paris (1856)
Napoleon, Prince Imperial
Sacking of Lawrence
Pottawatomie massacre
Second Opium War (1856-1860)
Anglo–Persian War (1856-1857)
Buchanan James
Tasmania
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part II
Froude: "History of England"
Goldstucker Theodor
Lotze Rudolf Hermann
Motley: "Rise of the Dutch Republic"
Flaubert: "Madame Bovary"
Haggard Henry Rider
Victor Hugo: "Les Contemplations"
Charles Reade: "It Is Never Too Late to Mend"
Shaw George Bernard
Wilde Oscar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part III
Berlage Hendrik Petrus
Ferstel Heinrich
Sargent John
John Singer Sargent
Vrubel Mikhail
Mikhail Vrubel
Cross Henri Edmond
Henri-Edmond Cross
Bechstein Carl
Dargomyzhsky Alexander
Alexander Dargomyzhsky: "Rusalka"
Alexander Dargomyzhsky
Maillart Aime
Aime Maillart - Les Dragons de Villars
Sinding Christian
Sinding - Suite in A minor
Christian Sinding
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part IV
Bessemer Henry
Bessemer process
Freud Sigmund
Sigmund Freud
Peary Robert Edwin
Mauveine
Pringsheim Nathanael
Siemens Charles William
Hardie James Keir
Taylor Frederick Winslow
"Big Ben"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part I
Treaty of Paris
Indian Rebellion of 1857
Italian National Society
Manin Daniele
Taft William Howard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part II
Buckle Henry Thomas
Buckle: "History of Civilization in England"
Charles Baudelaire: "Les Fleurs du mal"
Conrad Joseph
Joseph Conrad 
"Lord Jim"
George Eliot: "Scenes from Clerical Life"
Hughes Thomas
Thomas Hughes: "Tom Brown's Schooldays"
Mulock Dinah
 Pontoppidan Henrik
Adalbert Stifter: "Nachsommer"
Sudermann Hermann
Thackeray: "The Virginians"
Anthony Trollope: "Barchester Towers"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part III
Klinger Max
Max Klinger
Millet: "The Gleaners"
Dahl Johan Christian
Johan Christian Dahl
Leoncavallo Ruggero
Ruggero Leoncavallo - Pagliacci
Ruggero Leoncavallo 
Elgar Edward
Edward Elgar - The Light of Life
Edward Elgar
Kienzl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Kienzl - Symphonic Variations
Wilhelm Kienzl
Liszt: "Eine Faust-Symphonie"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part IV
Coue Emile
Hertz Heinrich
Wagner-Jauregg Julius
Ross Ronald
Newton Charles Thomas
Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Burton Richard
Speke John Hanning
The Nile Quest
McClintock Francis
Alpine Club
"The Atlantic Monthly"
Baden-Powell Robert
Matrimonial Causes Act
North German Lloyd
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part I
Orsini Felice
Stanley Edward
Minnesota
Treaty of Tientsin
Government of India Act 1858
Law Bonar
William I
Karageorgevich Alexander
Roosevelt Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part II
Bernadette Soubirous
Carey Henry Charles
Thomas Carlyle: "History of Friedrich II of Prussia"
Hecker Isaac
Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle
Rothschild Lionel Nathan
Schaff Philip
Benson Frank
Feuillet Octave
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table"
Kainz Joseph
Lagerlof Selma
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part III
Corinth Lovis
Lovis Corinth
William Powell Frith: "The Derby Day"
Menzel: "Bon soir, Messieurs"
Segantini Giovanni
Giovanni Segantini
Khnopff Fernand
Fernand Khnopff
Toorop Jan
Cornelius Peter
Cornelius: "Der Barbier von Bagdad"
Jaques Offenbach: "Orpheus in der Unterwelt"
Puccini Giacomo
Giacomo Puccini: Donna non vidi mai
Giacomo Puccini
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part IV
Diesel Rudolf
Huxley Thomas Henry
Planck Max
Mirror galvanometer
General Medical Council
Suez Canal Company
S.S. "Great Eastern"
Webb Beatrice
Webb Sidney
Transatlantic telegraph cable
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part I
Second Italian War of Independence
Battle of Varese
Battle of Palestro
Battle of Magenta
Battle of Solferino
Oregon
Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies
Francis II of the Two Sicilies
Charles XV of Sweden
German National Association
Jaures Jean
Roon Albrecht
William II
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part II
Bergson Henri
Henri Bergson
Bergson Henri "Creative Evolution"
Charles Darwin: "On the Origin of Species"
Dewey John
Husserl Edmund
Karl Marx: "Critique of Political Economy"
John Stuart Mill: "Essay on Liberty"
Tischendorf Konstantin
Codex Sinaiticus
Villari Pasquale
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part III
Dickens: "A Tale of Two Cities"
Doyle Arthur Conan
Arthur Conan Doyle  
"SHERLOCK HOLMES"
Duse Eleonora
George Eliot: "Adam Bede"
Edward Fitzgerald: "Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam"
Ivan Goncharov: "Oblomov"
Hamsun Knut
Heidenstam Verner
Housman Alfred Edward
A.E. Housman 
"A Shropshire Lad", "Last Poems"
Victor Hugo: "La Legende des siecles"
Jerome K. Jerome
Tennyson: "Idylls of the King"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part IV
Corot: "Macbeth"
Gilbert Cass
Millet: "The Angelus"
Hassam Childe
Childe Hassam 
Seurat Georges
Georges Seurat
Whistler: "At the Piano"
Daniel Decatur Emmett: "Dixie"
Gounod: "Faust"
Verdi: "Un Ballo in Maschera"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part V
Arrhenius Svante
Kirchhoff Gustav
Curie Pierre
Drake Edwin
Drake Well
Plante Gaston
Lead–acid battery
Smith Henry John Stephen
Brunel Isambard Kingdom
Blondin Charles
Lansbury George
Samuel Smiles: "Self-Help"
 
 
 

Bombardment of Salé by Jean Antoine Théodore de Gudin
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1851 Part I
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Prussia recognizes German Confederation and concludes commercial treaty with Hanover
 
 

Map of the German Confederation
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Cuba declares its independence
 
 
     
 



World Countries



Cuba
     
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Victoria, Australia, proclaimed separate colony
 
 
Victoria, state of Australia
 

Victoria, state of southeastern Australia, occupying a mountainous coastal region of the continent. Victoria is separated from New South Wales to the north by the Murray River for a length of about 1,065 miles (1,715 km) and by an additional boundary of some 110 miles (180 km) linking Cape Howe and the nearest source of the Murray. The western boundary is with South Australia, and the southern coastline on the Tasman Sea and the Indian (Southern) Ocean stretches for about 1,045 miles (1,680 km) and includes the shoreline of Port Phillip Bay. Melbourne, the state capital, is at the head of the bay off Bass Strait.

 
The discovery and exploitation of petroleum and natural gas in the Gippsland Basin and Bass Strait beginning in the 1960s have provided a great boost to Victoria’s economy. Although production of oil began to decline in the late 20th century, the state has retained its role as a major source of the country’s natural gas and petroleum. Among the Australian states, Victoria is second only to New South Wales in terms of population, production, and influence in federal politics. Area 87,806 square miles (227,416 square km). Population (2011) 5,354,042.
 
 

Victoria, Australia
 
 
History

The Aborigines

Aboriginal communities had been living in Victoria for at least 40,000 years before European contact. They arrived from the north and settled along the southern coast and around large western rivers and freshwater lakes. Between 15,000 and 17,500 years ago the climate changed drastically: the mountains lost permanent ice and snow, and some rivers and lakes dried up. By roughly 12,000 years ago, the land bridge to Tasmania had been submerged.

Indigenous hunter-gatherer society as it was at the time of European settlement emerged about 5,000 years ago. On contact there were three main Aboriginal groups in Victoria: the Kurnai of Gippsland, the Yorta Yorta of the eastern Murray, and the Kulin of the Central Divide. These groups were subdivided into about 34 distinct subgroups, each with its own territory, customs, laws, language, and beliefs. The basic unit was an extended family of 50–100 members.

The Aboriginal peoples exploited the land efficiently by “firestick farming,” the use of fire to regulate and maintain plant and animal food sources. They had a range of specialized tools and weapons, and, while groups did not wander far from their own territory, they occasionally met in large gatherings for gift giving, bartering, and religious ceremonies. Around Lake Condah elaborate and unique stone buildings, weirs, and fish traps existed until the area was cleared for white farmers and missionaries in the mid-19th century. A sophisticated religious culture had developed based on an intimate relationship with the land and the elements. According to the archaeologist Sylvia Hallam,

A rich fabric of life mattered more than numbers or objects: knowledge and control of ritual lore and ecological lore, not possessions, were the basis of respect and status in Aboriginal societies.

The work of the economic historian Noel Butlin suggests that the accepted Aboriginal population of Victoria in 1788 could have been as great as 100,000, given the richness of the land. It also appears that at the time of the first European penetration into Victoria, in the 1820s, the indigenous people of the area had already been decimated by European diseases, particularly smallpox, measles, and venereal diseases, which had spread overland from Botany Bay to the east during the preceding 30 years.

  European exploration and settlement
European Victoria was founded by groups of pastoral pioneers who crossed Bass Strait from Van Diemen’s Land (renamed Tasmania in 1856) in the 1830s in search of fertile grazing land. The occupation of the area was made in defiance of a British government edict forbidding settlement in the territory, which was then part of the colony of New South Wales. In November 1834 the Henty family landed stock and stores at Portland, on the south coast, and in 1835 John Batman landed at Port Phillip. Batman’s venture led the way to the pastoral occupation of Victoria. In that same year John Pascoe Fawkner established a colony on the banks of the Yarra River. From Batman’s colony grew Victoria’s capital city, Melbourne.

Exploration by sea and land had preceded European settlement. Capt. James Cook made the first recorded sighting of the Victorian coast at Point Hicks in 1770. George Bass (1798), James Grant (1801–02), John Murray (1802), and Matthew Flinders (1802) explored and charted Victorian waters and penetrated Western Port, Portland, and Port Phillip bays. In the 1820s and ’30s overland expeditions from New South Wales opened up the hinterland. Hamilton Hume and William Hilton Hovell struck south and reached the coast of Port Phillip in 1824; Charles Sturt plotted the full reach of the Murray in 1829; Maj. Thomas Livingstone Mitchell crossed the central and western plains in 1836; and several parties penetrated the mountainous Gippsland district by 1840. Early attempts to establish convict settlements near Sorrento in 1803 and on Western Port in 1826 failed. But the Port Phillip settlement flourished. In December 1836 Capt. William Lonsdale was appointed first resident magistrate.

Lacking domestic animals, cultivation, and technology and resistant to Christian conversion, the indigenous population suffered tremendously with European expansion. Brutal frontier guerrilla war raged from 1830 to the mid-1840s, intensified in the later years by the use of paramilitary Native Police. Massacres of Aborigines, such as that by the Whyte brothers (William, George, Pringle, James, and John) at The Hummocks near Wando Vale in the Western District—where only one member of the Konongwootong Gundidj clan (which included men, women, and children) escaped slaughter—were common. By 1850 there were barely 3,500 Aborigines left in the colony. Beginning in 1837, mission stations were established, but they were largely unsuccessful, as was the Port Phillip Aboriginal Protectorate established under George Augustus Robinson in 1839.

 
 
In 1862 some of the broken remnants of the Aboriginal population were gathered on reserves such as Framlingham and Ramahyuck. Most of those lands were eventually usurped for European farming and their inhabitants dispersed. In 1886 the Aborigines Protection Act defined categories of Aboriginal Australians and forced those of mixed ancestry off the reserves. By 1917 all full-blooded Aboriginal peoples were concentrated on the two surviving mission stations largely against their will, and children were separated from their parents and placed in children’s homes or with white families.

After the 1840s, Victoria became a prosperous pastoral community, as squatters extended their grazing runs. The population rose rapidly, as British migrants arrived and more settlers crossed from Van Diemen’s Land or drove their flocks and herds south from New South Wales. By 1850 Victoria had 76,000 people and 6,000,000 sheep. Melbourne, Geelong, and Portland were its main urban centres.

 
 

Swearing Allegiance to the Southern Cross at the Eureka Stockade on 1 December 1854 – watercolour by Charles Doudiet
 
 
Independent settlement and discovery of gold
Dissatisfied with their limited representation on the Legislative Council of New South Wales, the Port Phillip pastoralists agitated for separation. In 1851 Victoria became a separate colony with an Executive Council appointed by the British crown and a Legislative Council, partly elected and partly appointed, effectively dominated by conservative landed interests.

In 1851 the discovery of gold at Warrandyte, 16 miles (26 km) from Melbourne, led to a dramatic rush; other discoveries followed. By the end of 1851 half the men of the colony were working on the goldfields. In 10 years an extraordinary wealth of gold was won, the fields at Ballarat and Bendigo being the most important. More than 200,000 immigrants arrived from Britain and 25,000 from China. By 1860 the population of Victoria had exceeded 500,000 and constituted nearly half of the Australian total.

Gold transformed Victoria from a pastoral backwater into the most celebrated colony of the empire. The comparatively well-educated and skilled artisans lured by gold produced a society renowned for its attachment to 19th-century middle-class values and institutions. Although actual opportunities soon contracted and a Melbourne working class rapidly emerged, Victoria was noted for its economic individualism and opportunism and for its material progress and financial speculation, as well as for its imperial loyalty and political pragmatism.

The establishment of the University of Melbourne (1853), the Melbourne Public Library (1856), and the forerunner of the National Gallery of Victoria (1861) were manifestations of “Marvellous Melbourne’s” confidence. The city also expresses its pride by hosting the annual Melbourne Cup (first run 1861), Australia’s richest horse race, and through its passion for Australian rules football, played with quasi-religious devotion unknown elsewhere in the country. Even the disastrous Victorian Exploring Expedition under Robert O’Hara Burke and William John Wills from Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria in 1860 and the frontier discontent that culminated in the hanging of the extraordinary bushranger (outlaw) Ned Kelly in 1880 failed to dent the optimism of “the rush to be rich.”

The gold rushes produced a spectacular but short-lived boom. By 1854 Melbourne was suffering from a severe economic depression. Financial stringency and waning alluvial yields aggravated discontent on the goldfields. The miners resented the fee demanded for a mining license and the brutal fashion in which it was collected by the goldfields’ police. This discontent culminated in a rebellion at Eureka, near Ballarat. Licenses were burned and a republican flag was hoisted. On Dec. 3, 1854, soldiers and police stormed the rebels’ stockade. According to some sources, 30 miners and at least 4 soldiers were killed.
But the incident hastened the redress of the miners’ grievances and gave colonial radicals symbols and martyrs.

  Victoria attained self-government in 1855. The new constitution set up two houses of Parliament—a Legislative Council of 34 members, elected on a limited property franchise, and a Legislative Assembly, elected on a wider property and income franchise. The Legislative Council remained the stronghold of the wealthy conservative landowners and the main obstacle to land reform. But in the 1860s a series of land acts, designed to encourage small freeholders and to “unlock” the large grazing leases of the pastoralists, helped establish small wheat farmers in the Mallee and Wimmera regions. Victoria, previously an importer of flour, became Australia’s largest wheat producer by the end of the century. In other districts, however, the wealthy pastoralists managed by guile and financial manipulation to evade the land acts, and very many of them acquired freeholds to large estates at low prices, especially in the fertile Western District.

In 1871 the property qualification for the Legislative Council was reduced and the tenure of its members shortened. In 1888 additional electoral reforms for both houses were passed. With few exceptions, single-member constituencies became the rule for the Legislative Assembly. In 1899 plural voting for the assembly was abolished, and in 1900 postal voting was introduced. A free, compulsory, and secular educational system was established in 1872. The introduction of an eight-hour working day in 1856 began a series of social and industrial reforms, which produced a minimum wage and standard hours and conditions of employment in the 1890s. Victoria also embarked on constructing Australia’s largest manufacturing sector, sheltered behind a high protective tariff; for a century it was the financial capital of the country.

By the end of the 1880s the state’s prosperity had expanded into a speculative boom. The crash came in 1891, aggravated by a sharp fall in the prices of Victoria’s main exports, wool and wheat. In 1891–92 nearly two dozen finance societies and land banks collapsed, and in 1893 all but three of the trading banks closed their doors. The depression that followed was marked by high unemployment and industrial unrest; it lasted almost 20 years. These disasters transformed Victorian politics and socioeconomic attitudes and behaviour. The confidence of the middle class was eroded. Men of property rallied to defend the old order, but often without intellectual or even spiritual convictions. Almost overnight, Victoria, once Australia’s most radical and progressive colony, became a bulwark of conservatism. All parties were forced in some measure to recognize the peculiar problems of society by introducing a form of state socialism, particularly in the provision of railways, electric power (the State Electricity Commission produced its first electricity and fuel from the Yallourn brown coal deposits in 1924), state housing, and irrigation schemes. Effective political power was monopolized by interests committed to the preservation of 19th-century notions of property and social conformity. Yet Victorian politics, until the late 1970s, were also distinguished by strands of liberalism, intellectual and religious disputations, and, within the labour movement, by radical and socialist ideas more intense than in other Australian states.

 
 

The Victorian Parliament House, built in 1856, stands in Spring Street, Melbourne. The building was intended to be finished with a dome, but was not completed due to budget constraints.
 
 
Federation and the state of Victoria
In 1891 the first Australian National Convention met in Sydney to consider proposals for the creation of an Australian federation. On Jan. 1, 1901, Victoria and the other five colonies joined as states to become the Commonwealth of Australia, and on May 9 the first federal Parliament was opened in Melbourne. It was moved to Canberra in 1927.

After federation it was recognized that the states needed to standardize their constitutional structures. In Victoria the number of members in the Legislative Council was reduced in 1903, the franchise for council elections and property qualifications for membership in the council were liberalized, and adult suffrage was introduced in 1908. In 1923 women were allowed to stand as candidates for election to both houses. Preferential voting was introduced for the Legislative Assembly in 1923 and for the Legislative Council in 1933, while voting was made compulsory for the assembly in 1926 and for the council in 1935.

Political developments after federation were marked by the rise of the Country (now National) and Australian Labor parties, leading in the 1920s to the creation of a three-party pattern in place of the former Liberal-Conservative two-party system. The existence of three parties partly accounts for the instability of Victorian government. Between 1901 and 1955 there were 31 ministries, mostly composite. Labor first won office, as a minority government, in 1913 and formed coalition governments on five subsequent occasions. It succeeded in winning political power only in 1952, when it gained a majority under John Cain. In 1914 the Victorian Farmers’ Union was founded, sending four of its members to Parliament in 1917. In 1926 it changed its name to the United Country Party, and from 1935, led by Albert Dunstan, it governed for eight years with the support of the Labor Party.

The Country Party’s influential role in Victorian politics was partly explained by the unequal size of rural and urban electoral districts. Between 1924 and 1945 each rural vote was the equivalent of two urban votes. In 1953–54 an electoral redistribution, planned by a section of the Liberal Party and carried through by a Labor government, destroyed the crucial influence of the Country Party in the Legislative Assembly. The rebel Liberal Party was annihilated at the 1955 election. A breakaway group from official Labor, the Democratic Labor Party, under the charismatic Bartholomew Augustine Santamaria and supported by the turbulent and influential Roman Catholic archbishop Daniel Mannix, exercised powerful, indirect political influence until its demise in the 1970s. The Legislative Council, which retained its gerrymandered electorate despite the introduction of full adult suffrage in 1950, continued to provide opportunities for political intrigue and remained a divisive force in the Victorian political system, often vetoing bills originating in the assembly.

From 1955 to 1972 Victoria was governed by the Liberal Party under Sir Henry Bolte—a shrewd, earthy, and assertive leader and the state’s most successful 20th-century politician. His administration coincided with a lengthy period of general Australian prosperity symbolized by Melbourne’s hosting of the 1956 Olympic Games, the exploitation of Bass Strait oil and natural gas, the founding of two new universities (Monash [1958] and La Trobe [1964]) and several smaller colleges, and the opening of the Arts Centre in Melbourne in 1968. Victoria’s traditional primacy in finance and the manufacturing industry continued.

  Bolte was succeeded as premier by two other Liberals, Sir Rupert Hamer (1972–81) and Lindsay Thompson, who was defeated by Labor’s John Cain, Jr. Cain’s administration (1982–90) was marked by vigorous intervention in education, social welfare, health, transportation, public utilities, industry and commerce, and antidiscrimination initiatives. Victoria’s economy in the 1980s grew at a slightly faster rate than that of Australia as a whole, with high levels of disposable income, lower levels of unemployment than the national average, and higher levels of participation in the construction, finance, and retail sectors. While Victoria remained Australia’s premier manufacturing state, industry declined somewhat.

Cain’s cautious, dour, and reformist government fell victim to the collapse of plans for massive state investment in high-technology industries and to the frenzy of entrepreneurial speculation that followed the federal Labor government’s deregulation of the Australian banking and financial sector. Victoria (with New South Wales) was further disadvantaged by comparatively low per capita federal disbursements. By 1990 the Victorian government had accrued the largest debt ever incurred by a peacetime government in Australian history.

Even the State Bank had to be sold to the Commonwealth Bank, which itself was privatized a short while later. Cain resigned in August 1990 and was succeeded by Joan Kirner—the first woman to lead the state—amid a deepening economic crisis. Public debt grew, industry stagnated, and increasingly business and cultural enterprises were transferred to Sydney. Ironically, Victoria faced a repeat of the financial disasters and economic slump that marked the recession of the 1880s, a century earlier. Some contributing factors were peculiar to Victoria; others, however, were simply more severe manifestations of general Australian economic difficulties.

In the early 1990s the state’s economy began a gradual recovery. The election of 1992 brought in a coalition government led by Jeff Kennett that almost immediately began implementing a liberalizing agenda. Publicly owned trains, trams, and buses were leased to private operators; the government-operated Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria was dismantled; and the state-owned electricity company was sold. Refurbished sporting venues, new sports facilities, expanded arts and cultural centres, improved infrastructure, and development of the mid-city area gave new life to Melbourne. Moreover, local government was completely overhauled, with municipal amalgamations emerging on the fringes of the metropolis.

Although Kennett revitalized Melbourne, he increasingly came to be viewed as overly Melbourne-centred. Privatization had not been an unqualified success, and education, health, and welfare cuts had engendered public apprehension. In 1999 Kennett’s coalition government lost to Labor under Steve (S.P.) Bracks.

The Bracks government introduced proportional representation for the Legislative Council and ended the long-standing veto power of the Upper House, invested more in community services, returned some of the trains and trams to public ownership, revised prison privatization, and continued road construction.

Bracks, a consensus grassroots politician, won reelection in 2002 and 2006 before retiring in favour of John Brumby in 2007.

 
 
Since the late 20th century, environmental issues have figured prominently in Victorian politics and society. Victoria endured severe drought from 1997 to 2008 and extensive bushfires in 2002–03. In February 2009 a heat wave combined with dry conditions and strong winds to fuel wildfires that not only killed some 200 people but also obliterated several small towns to the northeast of Melbourne; it was the deadliest bushfire incident in the state’s—and Australia’s—history to that date. Meanwhile, irrigators in the Murray-Darling Basin experienced serious water shortages, and disproportionate water pricing and usage within and between those states drawing from the basin became a pressing political issue. Other environmental concerns have focused on increased greenhouse-gas emissions, especially in the Latrobe Valley, the removal of cattle from the alpine uplands of the eastern region, and the dredging of Port Phillip Bay to accommodate large container ships.

Social issues have centred largely on antagonisms between urban and rural areas and on drug-related gang violence. On the economic front, manufacturing industries have declined, but the service sector, particularly higher education, tourism, and heritage enterprises, has expanded. By the early 21st century, the state had reestablished a pattern of economic growth that regularly exceeded the national average, after nearly two decades of economic sluggishness.

Duncan Bruce Waterson

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
     
 



World Countries



Australia
     
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Murdock Joseph Ballard
 

Rear Admiral Joseph Ballard Murdock (13 February 1851 – 20 March 1931), sometimes spelled Murdoch, was an officer in the United States Navy. He fought in the Spanish-American War, was Commander-in-Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet, and came out of retirement to serve during World War I. In retirement, he was a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives. He also was an author of books on naval and scientific subjects.

 

Joseph Ballard Murdock
  Naval career
Murdock was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on 13 February 1851, the son of The Reverend John N. Murdock and the former Martha Ballard. After an education in public schools in Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts, he was appointed to the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, from the 4th Congressional District of Massachusetts on 26 July 1866. He graduated on 7 June 1870.

Murdock‍'​s first tour was aboard the gunboat USS Nipsic in the North Atlantic Squadron from July 1870 to November 1872; he was promoted to ensign on 13 July 1871 while aboard Nipsic. After leaving Nipsic, he stood for an examination and then was on leave until March 1873. He served aboard the screw sloop-of-war USS Monongahela in the South Atlantic Squadron from September 1873 to July 1874 and was promoted to master on 2 February 1874 while aboard Monongahela. He then was assigned to the screw sloop-of-war USS Lancaster from July 1874 to July 1875. Murdock next had duty with the United States Coast Survey – which became the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1878 during his tour – from October 1875 to June 1879.
 
 
From August 1879 to September 1880 he was aboard the frigate USS Constitution in the Training Squadron, and he was promoted to lieutenant on 10 March 1880 while aboard Constitution.

After a tour as an instructor at the Naval Academy from October 1880 to September 1883, Murdock took a leave of absence until August 1884, followed by special duty in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, until December 1885. He returned to sea that month, assigned to the gunboat and dispatch vessel USS Dolphin, remaining aboard her until December 1886, when he reported to the Naval Torpedo Station at Newport, Rhode Island, for a tour of duty that lasted until March 1888.

 
 
Murdock served aboard the screw steamer USS Pensacola from March to April 1888, then aboard the screw sloop-of-war USS Omaha in the Asiatic Squadron from April 1888 to March 1891. He had special duty in Europe from March to November 1891, then reported to the New York Navy Yard in Brooklyn, New York, on 2 November 1891 for electrical duty.

Leaving the navy yard, Murdock served aboard the protected cruiser USS Atlanta in the North Atlantic Squadron from April to December 1894, then aboard the protected cruiser USS Minneapolis in the North Atlantic Squadron and the European Squadron from December 1894 to March 1897.

He was at the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island, from April 1897 to April 1898, when, upon the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, he became executive officer of the troop transport and auxiliary cruiser USS Panther, seeing action aboard her in the blockade of Cuba, the landing of United States Marines along the Cuban coast, and in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba before the war ended in August 1898.

Leaving Panther in October 1898, Murdock returned to the Naval War College that month, being promoted to lieutenant commander on 3 March 1899 and remaining at the college until October 1899.

He was executive officer of the armored cruiser USS New York from October 1899 to November 1900, when he returned to the Naval War College. He was promoted to commander on 16 June 1901 during this tour at the war college.

Near the end of 1902, Murdock was selected to be the commanding officer of the gunboat USS Alliance in the Atlantic Training Squadron.

On 17 May 1904, he became the first commanding officer of the new protected cruiser USS Denver upon her commissioning at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and commanded her in operations along the United States East Coast and in the Caribbean until October 1905.

  Murdock was promoted to captain on 22 January 1906 and on 30 April 1906 became a member of the Naval Examining Board and of the Naval Retiring Board. He was commanding officer of the battleship USS Rhode Island during the round-the-world cruise of the Great White Fleet between December 1907 and February 1909. He returned to the New York Navy Yard to serve as both its commandant and as commander of the Third Naval District from 15 May 1909 to 21 March 1910 and was promoted to rear admiral on 20 November 1909. From 1910 to April 1911 he commanded the Second Division and Battleship Division Three of the United States Atlantic Fleet with the battleship USS Minnesota as his flagship.

Murdock became commander-in-chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet on 16 May 1911. In mid-1911, Rear Admiral Reginald F. Nicholson was chosen to succeed Murdock as commander-in-chief of the fleet as of November 1911, but Murdock had gained distinction in his handling of unrest in China related to the Xinhai Revolution of that year, and United States Secretary of State Philander C. Knox requested that Murdock be kept on as fleet commander-in-chief to allow continuity until the situation in China stabilized. Nicholson instead was dispatched to the Asiatic Fleet to command its Yangtze Patrol. In February 1912, with the Chinese crisis having abated, it was again proposed that Nicholson succeed Murdock, but Knox again asked that Murdock stay on as fleet commander-in-chief. On 20 July 1912, Nicholson finally received orders to take command of the Asiatic Fleet, and he relieved Murdock on 24 July 1912.

Returning to the United States, Murdock finished his naval career with a stint as a member of the General Board of the United States Navy and of the Joint Army and Navy Board. He retired from the Navy after 43 years of service on 13 February 1913 at the mandatory retirement age of 62. After the United States entered World War I, however, Murdock was recalled to active Navy service to be president of the general court martial at the Portsmouth Navy Yard in Kittery, Maine. He served from 2 May 1918 until 1 May 1919, when he resumed his retirement.

 
 
Political career
Murdock had a summer home in Hill, New Hampshire, of which he had been a legal resident since 1884, and in retirement he moved permanently to Hill and lived there for the rest of his life. He became involved in New Hampshire politics as a member of the Republican Party, and he was a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1921 to 1927. While in office, he was Chairman of the House Committee on National Affairs and a member of the Appropriations Committee and of the Forestry Committee (later Commission).

Personal life
Murdock was a member of the American Philosophical Society, Franklin Institute, Union Club of Boston, Army and Navy Club of Washington, D.C., Sons of the Revolution, and Society of Colonial Wars. He was an author who wrote papers and monographs on naval and scientific subjects such as electricity.

Murdock married the former Anne Dillingham (25 December 1852–3 November 1930) on 26 June 1879. She died in their home in Hill a few months before Murdock‍ '​s death.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1851
 
 
Machado Bernardino
 

Bernardino Luís Machado, (born March 28, 1851, Rio de Janeiro—died April 29, 1944, Porto, Port.), Brazilian-born political leader who was twice president of Portugal (1915–17, 1925–26).

 

Official portrait of President Bernardino Machado by Henrique Medina.
  A professor at Coimbra University, Lisbon, from 1879, Machado was elected twice to the chamber of peers as representative of the university (1890, 1894). He was also minister of public works (1893) and created the first labour court in Portugal.

In 1902, after espousing republicanism, he was elected president of the governing board of the Republican Party. With the overthrow of the monarchy (1910), he served as minister of foreign affairs (1910–11), deputy to the constituent assembly and senator (1911), and minister (later ambassador) to Brazil (1912).

While he was prime minister and minister of the interior in 1914, he wished to commit Portugal to the side of Great Britain in World War I, but Portugal did not formally join the Allies until March 1916.

Elected president on Aug. 6, 1915, he was overthrown by the rightist revolution of Dec. 8, 1917. He became president again on Dec. 11, 1925, but was once more deposed (May 28, 1926) by a military revolt, which soon brought Gen. António Oscar de Fragoso Carmona to power.

Machado went into exile, but in 1940 he was allowed to return home.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1851
 
 
Bourgeois Leon Victor Auguste
 

Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois (21 May 1851 – 29 September 1925) was a French statesman. His ideas influenced the Radical Party regarding a wide range of issues. He promoted progressive taxation such as progressive income taxes and social insurance schemes, along with economic equality, expanded educational opportunities, and cooperative solidarism. In foreign policy, he called for a strong League of Nations, and the maintenance of peace through compulsory arbitration, controlled disarmament, economic sanctions, and perhaps an international military force.

 

Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois
  Biography
Bourgeois was born in Paris, and was trained in law. After holding a subordinate office (1876) in the department of public works, he became successively prefect of the Tarn (1882) and the Haute-Garonne (1885), and then returned to Paris to enter the Ministry of the Interior. He became prefect of police in November 1887, at the critical moment of Jules Grévy's resignation from the presidency. In the following year he entered the Chamber, being elected deputy for the Marne, in opposition to General Boulanger, and joined the Radical Left.
He was under-secretary for home affairs in Charles Floquet's ministry of 1888, and resigned with it in 1889, being then returned to the chamber for Reims. In the Pierre Tirard's ministry, which succeeded, he was Minister of the Interior, and subsequently, on 18 March 1890, Minister of Public Instruction in the cabinet of Freycinet, a post for which he had qualified himself by the attention he had given to educational matters. In this capacity, he was responsible for some important reforms in secondary education in 1890.

He retained his office in Émile Loubet's cabinet in 1892, and was Minister of Justice under Alexandre Ribot at the end of that year, when the Panama scandals were making the office one of peculiar difficulty.

 
 
He energetically pressed the Panama prosecution, so much so that he was accused of having put wrongful pressure on the wife of one of the defendants in order to procure evidence. To meet the charge, he resigned in March 1893 but again took office and retired only with the rest of the Freycinet ministry.

In November 1895, he formed his own cabinet, distinctively radical, which fell as the result of a constitutional crisis arising from the persistent refusal of the Senate to vote supply. He was an eminent Freemason and eight of his cabinet members were Freemasons.

The Bourgeois ministry seemed to think that popular opinion would enable them to override what they regarded as an unconstitutional action on the part of the upper house. However, the public was indifferent and the Senate triumphed. The blow damaged Bourgeois's career as an homme de gouvernement. As Minister of Public Instruction in the Brisson cabinet of 1898 he organized courses for adults in primary education. After this short ministry he represented his country with dignity and effect at the Hague Peace Convention, and in 1903 was nominated a member of the permanent court of arbitration.

He held somewhat aloof from the political struggles of the Waldeck-Rousseau and Combes ministries, travelling considerably in foreign countries.

 
 

Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois
  In 1902 and 1903, he was elected president of the Chamber. In 1905, he replaced the duc d'Audiffret-Pasquier as senator for the department of Marne, and in May 1906 became Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Sarrien cabinet. He was responsible for the direction of French diplomacy in the conference at Algeciras. He was delegate to both Hague Conferences held on 1899 and 1907. Bourgeois also became delegate to Paris Peace Conference and strongly supported the Japanese Racial Equality Proposal as "an indisputable principle of justice". Following World War I, he became President of the Council of the League of Nations and won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in 1920.

A social republican, Leon Bourgeois sought a middle ground between socialism and capitalism which he termed “solidarism,” where the better off had a social debt to the poor which they should pay by the income tax, thus providing the state with the necessary revenue to finance social measures for those living in poverty. However, the Senate opposed his proposal and opposition grew until his resignation as prime minister.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1851
 
 
Foch Ferdinand
 
Ferdinand Foch, (born Oct. 2, 1851, Tarbes, France—died March 20, 1929, Paris), marshal of France and commander of Allied forces during the closing months of World War I, generally considered the leader most responsible for the Allied victory.
 
Early years.
Foch was the son of a civil servant. His family had originally lived in Valentine, a village in the Comminges area to which he used to return every year. As a young child he had been inspired by the stories of the campaigns of his maternal grandfather, who had been an officer during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras, and by the age of six he was reading the descriptions of military battles he found in historical works.

In 1869 he entered the Jesuit school of Saint-Clément in Metz in order to prepare for the entrance examination for the Polytechnic School. In Metz the experience of France’s defeat in the Franco-German War left an indelible impression on him. When he passed his examinations in July 1870, the war had already broken out. Once back home, he enlisted in the army but did not take part in the fighting. In 1871, after the armistice, when he returned to Saint-Clément, he was forced to live alongside the German soldiers who were there. Metz had become a German city. His pain and anger made him resolve to become a soldier and return Metz and the Lorraine region to France.

 
 

Ferdinand Foch
  Rise in the military hierarchy.
After two years at the Polytechnic School in Paris, Foch entered artillery training school (1873). As an artillery officer, he proved himself to be both an ardent cavalryman and an experienced technician. After appointment to the Artillery Committee in Paris, he was married (1883) and acquired the château of Trofeunteuniou in Brittany, which then became his second family home.

In 1885 he entered the War College for the first of three periods there over the next 25 years. He returned as a major in 1895 to teach general tactics, soon becoming a full professor. In 1908, when he was a brigadier general, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau appointed him head of the school. Foch in the meantime also had held commands and served on various staffs, thus adding to his experience and judgment. He formulated his doctrine of action in two works: Des principes de la guerre (1903; The Principles of War) and De la conduite de la guerre (1904; “On the Conduct of War”). “Thought” and “will” were the key words of these teachings.

After commanding a division in 1911 and briefly commanding an army corps, he was, in August 1913, put in command of the XX Army Corps in Nancy, which protected the Lorraine frontier. It seemed to be the crowning point of Foch’s career because he would reach retirement age in three years.

 
 
Under Joffre in World War I.
When war broke out on Aug. 2, 1914, Foch first fought on the right flank, in Lorraine. On August 28 a dangerous gap appeared in the centre, and the commander in chief, Joseph Joffre, called Foch to command the army detachment—which later became the IX Army—that was being formed there. The enemy tried to break through, but Foch held on. His tenacity made it possible for Joffre to win at the First Battle of the Marne. The same was true at the battles of the Yser and of Ypres, where he had been sent by Joffre to coordinate the efforts of the English, the French, and the Belgians, who were being severely attacked.

For two thankless years—1915 and 1916—Foch, commanding the Northern Army Group, vainly tried to break through the German line in Artois and at the Somme, but he could not compensate for the lack of equipment and supplies. In May 1917 he was appointed chief of the war minister’s general staff, a position that made him adviser to the Allied armies. But advising was not commanding. Russia was about to collapse, thus allowing Germany to bring all its forces back to the Western Front, where the Belgians, English, and French were lined up under separate commands. Foch predicted that when the Germans struck this poorly consolidated front, each force would think only of its own fate, and that the front would be broken up. He advocated establishing a single command, but the British prime minister David Lloyd George and Clemenceau (again appointed premier in November) refused to listen to Foch.

Events, however, were to prove Foch right. On March 21, 1918, the British front in Picardy collapsed under the impact of the German attack. By March 24, British commander Field Marshal Douglas Haig was thinking about his embarkation ports, and French commander General Philippe Pétain was thinking about Paris. The severance of the two armies had begun. The Germans, who quickly perceived the situation, were already crying victory.

 
 

Ferdinand Foch
  Commander of the Allied armies
Lloyd George and Clemenceau realized that Foch was only person who could fill the void. By early May, Foch had been made commander in chief of all Allied armies on the Western and Italian fronts.

The battle of two wills began: Erich Ludendorff, who was in virtual command of the German forces, versus Foch. Ludendorff, who had the initiative and superiority in numbers, redoubled his attacks. Foch resorted to parrying while waiting for the arrival of the American armies. He urged his men on to the limits of their endurance and succeeded in stopping Ludendorff in Picardy and then in Flanders.

But, in order to support the English, who were being pushed back to the sea by Ludendorff, Foch withdrew troops from the French front. Ludendorff took advantage of this. On May 27 he broke through that front, and his troops spread as far as the Marne. On June 9 a new gap appeared at the Oise: Foch stopped it up again. Ludendorff then decided to gamble everything he had before the Americans joined the battle. On July 15 he made a massive attack in Champagne. Two days later he was stopped; he had lost.

It was now Foch’s turn to strike. In two offensives on July 18 and on August 8, Foch drove Ludendorff back to a defensive position. The honour of marshal of France was conferred on Foch on August 6, just as he was intensifying his offensive on the Germans, giving no respite to the enemy nor to his own troops. Finally, the German army, already exhausted and dwindling in numbers, was threatened with disintegration by the revolution in Germany and was abandoned by its allies.

 
 
Germany was forced to ask for an armistice, the conditions of which were dictated by Marshal Foch in the name of the Allies on Nov. 11, 1918, at Rethondes. On November 26 Foch returned to Metz, having succeeded in his lifelong goal of giving Alsace and Lorraine back to France.

After the war Foch was showered with honours, including being made marshal of Great Britain and of Poland. He was buried near Napoleon under the dome of the Church of Saint-Louis, in the Invalides in Paris.

Charles-André Laffargue

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Bombardment of Sale
 

The Bombardment of Salé was a naval attack against the Moroccan city of Salé that took place between 26 and 27 November 1851, in response to the looting of a French cargo ship by residents of the city. After seven hours of fighting, the Moroccan artillery suffered severe damage, and the French bombarded the city through the night, damaging the city's infrastructure and the Great Mosque of Salé.

French losses were minimal, with only four dead and 18 wounded. Between 18 and 22 Moroccans died, two-thirds of whom were civilians. The French forces withdrew, and both sides claimed victory.

 
Background
After the French conquest of Algeria, Abdelkader El Djezairi declared war against France, and requested assistance from Sultan Abd al-Rahman of Morocco. When the Sultan responded favorably, it triggered the Franco-Moroccan War. France sent warships to bombard Tangier on 6 August 1844, destroying large parts of the city and its defenses. The French then bombarded Essaouira, and occupied the Iles Purpuraires. After the French army defeated the Moroccan cavalry at the Battle of Isly on 14 August 1844, Sultan Abd al-Rahman asked for peace with France, leading to the signing of the Treaty of Tangier on 10 September 1844. Morocco's defeat caused a revolt in Rabat; in Salé, the city's nobility, known as the Sharif, sent a letter to the Sultan complaining about the lack of weapons and ammunition in the city.

Meanwhile, the French government's anger against Morocco was increasing. A series of incidents in October 1849 damaged relations between both countries; a series of assassinations directed at the French frontier had occurred, and the French Consul had requested the dismissal of Pacha Ouchda, who was believed to have caused these issues. From 1845 to 1851, Morocco had a serious agricultural crisis caused by a drought, resulting in crop failure. The people of Morocco were suffering as the price of wheat and barley reached unprecedented heights. In Salé, many people were starving, and the agricultural crisis and anger towards France ultimately led to the bombardment of Salé.

 
 

Bombardment of Salé by Jean Antoine Théodore de Gudin
 
 
Preliminaries
On 1 April 1851, a French cargo ship carrying 98 tons of goods from Gibraltar to Rabat capsized near the coast of Salé. A few tons of goods were rescued, and were stored in the city for safekeeping. Salé turned out to be less than safe, however; by the next day, hundreds of townspeople were scavenging and stealing the goods. The thieves were thwarted by Abdelhadi Zniber[fr], but only temporarily. By the end of the raids, the French had lost 11,391 franc germinals worth of goods.

French diplomat Nicolas Prosper Bourée[fr] reported the situation in Salé to the French, and accused the people in the city of piracy. Bourée recommended sending military forces to the city; the French government obliged.

On 10 November 1851, the French Secretary of the Navy tasked Louis Dubourdieu[fr] with the execution of the action against Salé, and five vessels were assigned to him in this regard: Henri IV (armed with 100 cannons and captained by Louis Henri de Gueydon), the Sane (14 cannons), the Gomer (14 cannons), the Narval (4 cannons), and the Caton (6 cannons). The fleet gathered in Cádiz on 19 November, and after being supplied with food and coal, sailed for Salé on 21 November.

 
 

The Battle of Isly in 1844
 
 
Bombardment
On 24 November, some of the French ships traveled to Tangier, where they picked up Consul Julius Doazan and his secretary, Fleurat, on Narval. Later that evening, Caton reached Salé and offered safe passage to Rabat for the British consul Elton and his family, in anticipation of the bombardment of the city. The following day, at 11:00 a.m., Caton anchored between the cities of Rabat and Salé. Its commander demanded an apology over the thefts and raids and immediate repayment for the stolen goods, under threat of bombardment. The rais in the ports of both cities promised to answer to the French demands within three hours. Two hours later, all of the French ships had reached the mouth of the Bou Regreg, between Rabat and Salé.

The French crews of Henri IV received a telegraph from Admiral de Gueydon, suggesting that the bombardment of the city would begin soon, which the crews welcomed with enthusiasm. By then, a large crowd of people in Rabat and Salé had gathered to observe the French ships after they were spotted by Moroccan artillery operators. Admiral de Gueydon decided against starting the bombardment until consul Elton was aboard Canton; the consul did not come aboard the ship until four hours later.

  At dawn on 26 November though, the British steamer Janus joined Caton, and took the consul as its passenger.

The Moroccan soldiers in both Rabat and Salé prepared to repel the French attack, and armed themselves with artillery. On the French side, Sané had moved to the fort at the entrance to the Bou Regreg river; Henri IV was a short distance from the Moroccan batteries north of Salé.

Gomer moved to a suitable position to attack, and both Narval and Caton would provide logistical support.

The French opened fire on the forts of Salé at 10:00 a.m., and the Moroccans retaliated instantly with forty batteries of artillery weapons. An hour into the confrontation, the batteries in Salé were destroyed, and the artillery in Rabat were damaged to a level that they became almost useless.

The French fire intensified, but at 3:30 p.m., the damaged batteries were removed from the city by Moroccan forces; however, resistance did not stop until 5:00 p.m. Sane and Gomer, lacking for ammunition, withdrew from the battle, while Henri IV continued its barrage on the city until 7:00 a.m. the next morning.

 
 

Gomer, a steam frigate with 14 cannons
 
 
Aftermath
The following day, Dubourdieu sent a report to the Minister of War describing the French losses. Henri IV took several hits, with 1 dead and 9 wounded. The Sane suffered more damage than the Gomer, but neither was seriously damaged. Three men were killed on the Sane, and nine were wounded.

The damage to Salé was considerable; a wall from the Almohad Caliphate was severely damaged, and the Great Mosque of Salé was struck by six cannonballs. Several homes were destroyed, and many were burnt down. Between 12 and 15 civilians were killed, along with six to seven soldiers. Tactically, the battle was a victory for France. In order to prevent Tangier from receiving a similar bombardment, Morocco agreed to pay 100,000 francs to the French on November 29, 1851.

Politically, however, the battle is considered a failure for France. Initially, France had desired a revolt against the governor of Salé to force repayment and avoid destruction of the city, but this did not occur. The French demanded that those who killed Christians in the city be sentenced to death, and that thieves have their hands cut off; however, the governor of Salé simply banished these people from the city.

Following this confrontation, diplomatic relations between France and Morocco ended for several months,[19] until a French diplomatic mission returned in 1852. After the bombardment, Dubourdieu was promoted to Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor, and then to vice-admiral in February 1852.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1851
 
 
Coup d'etat of Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III); plebiscite in France favors new constitution
 
 
French coup d'état
 

The French coup d'état of 2 December 1851 was a self-coup staged by Prince Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (at the time President of the French Second Republic), ended in the successful dissolution of the French National Assembly, and the subsequent re-establishment of the French Empire the next year. Louis-Napoléon, nephew of Napoléon Bonaparte, facing the prospect of having to leave office in 1852, staged the coup in order to stay in office and implement his reform program, including the reestablishment of universal suffrage (previously abolished by the legislature). His decisions and the extension of his mandate for 10 years were popularly endorsed by referendum. Only a year later, the Prince-President reclaimed his uncle's throne as Emperor of the French under the regnal name Napoleon III.

 
Causes
In 1848, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President of France through universal male suffrage, taking 74% of the vote. He did this with the support of the Parti de l'Ordre after running against Louis Eugène Cavaignac. Subsequently, he was in constant conflict with the members (députés) of the Assemblée Nationale.

Contrary to the Party's expectations that Louis-Napoleon would be easy to manipulate (Adolphe Thiers had called him a "cretin whom we will lead [by the nose]"), he proved himself an agile and cunning politician. He succeeded in imposing his choices and decisions on the Assemblée, which had once again become conservative in the aftermath of the June Days Uprising in 1848. He broke away from the control of the Parti de l'Ordre and created the Ministère des Commis, appointing General Hautpoul as its head, in 1849. On 3 January 1850, he dismissed Changarnier, a dissident in the Parti de l'Ordre, thereby provoking an open conflict within the party. He also actively encouraged the creation of numerous anti-parliament newspapers and acquired the support of 150 members of Parliament, the "Parti de l'Elysée". The provisions of the constitution that prohibited an incumbent president from seeking re-election appeared to force the end of Louis-Napoleon's rule in December 1852. Not one to admit defeat, Louis-Napoleon spent the first half of 1851 trying to force changes to the constitution through Parliament so he could be re-elected. Bonaparte travelled through the provinces and organised petitions to rally popular support.

 
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte,
President of the French Second Republic, in 1851
 
 
Two-thirds of the General Council supported Louis-Napoleon's cause, but in the Assembly, supporters of the Duke of Orléans, led by Thiers, concluded an alliance with the far left to oppose Louis-Napoleon's plans. In January 1851, the Parliament voted no confidence in the Ministère des Commis. On 19 July, it refused the constitutional reform proposed by Louis-Napoleon, also scrapping universal suffrage in an effort to break popular support for Bonaparte.
 
 
Preparations for the coup
The coup d'état was meticulously planned from 20 August 1851. Preparations and planning for this coup took place at Saint-Cloud. Among the conspirators were Persigny, a loyal companion of Louis-Napoleon, the Duke of Morny, and General Jacques Leroy de Saint Arnaud. On 14 October, Louis-Napoleon asked the Parliament to restore universal male suffrage but the request was turned down. His request for a reconsideration of the constitutional reform proposal was also turned down on 13 November. Prepared to strike, Louis-Napoleon appointed General Saint-Arnaud as the Minister of War and a circular was issued reminding soldiers of their pledge of "passive obedience". Followers of the President were appointed to various important positions: General Magnan as the Commander of the Troops of Paris, and Maupas, Prefect of Haut-Garonne as Prefect of Police of Paris. Convinced that the coup was now inevitable after the latest refusal, Louis-Napoleon fixed the anniversary of the coronation of Napoleon in 1804, and the victory of Austerlitz in 1805, as the day for the coup. The operation was christened Rubicon, alluding to Julius Caesar.
 
 

D'Allonville's cavalry in the street of Paris during Napoleon III's coup.
 
 
The coup of 2 December 1851
On the morning of 2 December, troops led by Saint-Arnaud occupied strategic points in Paris, from the Champs-Élysées to the Tuileries. Top opposition leaders were arrested and six edicts promulgated to establish the rule of Louis-Napoleon. The Assemblée Nationale was dissolved, and universal suffrage restored. Louis-Napoleon declared that a new constitution was being framed and said he intended to restore a "system established by the First Consul."
 
 
Reacting to this coup, parliamentarians took refuge in the mayor's office of the 20th arrondissement of Paris and 220 of them voted to oust Louis-Napoleon from power. Most prominent among these were liberals like Remusat and moderates like Pascal Duprat, who were arrested soon after. A Parisian insurrection led by the likes of Victor Hugo and Victor Schoelcher erupted despite tight control by the Army.

The insurgents were soon defeated. On 3 December, parliamentarian Alphonse Baudin was killed and on 4 December, 200 more people fell victim to the revolution. The Italian journalist Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina was among the rebels and was expelled from France. By evening, the revolt of Paris was suppressed and the city returned to normal.

Revolt in other places
The coup triggered revolts in other places across France. On 5 December, rebellions were reported in big cities, small towns and rural areas in the south-west of France. The department of Basses-Alpes even declared itself administered by a "Committee of Resistance" but the army, still loyal to the President, succeeded in quelling the rebellion.

A total of 32 departments were put under a state of alert from 8 December and the rebellious areas were controlled in a few days. Opponents were arrested and some were forced to flee. Victor Hugo fled to Brussels, then Jersey, and finally settled with his family on the Channel Island of Guernsey at Hauteville House, where he would live in exile until 1870 when Louis-Napoleon fled after his defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. By the end of the rebellion, 26,000 people were arrested, 9,530 were sent to Algeria and 250 to the prison of Cayenne.

  Peace returns
The Bonapartists were finally assured of a victory. Generals Vaillant and Harispe became Marshal of France on 11 December. A new constitution was being drafted. A referendum was organised to ratify the new order and the coup was portrayed as a security operation.

On 20 and 21 December, the French population were recorded as having voted for acceptance of the new regime by an overwhelming majority of 7,145,000 to 600,000, although the official tally and free nature of the vote were questioned by dissidents like Victor Hugo. Louis-Napoléon now had the power to draft a new constitution.

Consequences
Following a referendum in December 1851, a new constitution was adopted in January 1852. It dramatically expanded the powers of the president, who was elected for a period of 10 years with no term limits. He not only possessed executive power, but was vested with the power of legislative initiative, thereby reducing the scope of the Parliament. Louis-Napoleon was automatically reelected to a fresh term as president. For all intents and purposes, he now held all governing power in the nation.

The authoritarian republic proved to be only a stopgap, as Louis-Napoleon immediately set about restoring the empire. In less than a year, following another referendum on 7 November 1852, the Second French Empire was proclaimed. On the symbolic and historic date of 2 December 1852, President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte became Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
see also: French Second Republic
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Danilo II converts Montenegro into a secular principality
 
 
Danilo II
 
 

Danilo II, in full Danilo Petrović Njegoš (born May 25, 1826, Njegoš, Montenegro—died Aug. 13, 1860, Kotor), prince-bishop (1851–52) and then prince (1852–60) of Montenegro, who elevated Montenegro to a hereditary principality.

 

Danilo II
  He became ruler of Montenegro upon the death of his uncle, Peter II Petrović Njegoš, the elective prince-bishop, and assumed the title of prince the following year (1852).

He defeated the Turks near Ostrog in 1853 but refrained from attacking them during the Crimean War. His pacific policy produced much discontent among the warlike mountaineers, which culminated in an open revolt. His demand for the recognition of Montenegrin independence and other claims were set aside by the Congress of Paris.

In 1858 his brother Mirko, “the Sword of Montenegro,” routed the Turks with great slaughter at Grahovo. Committed to the modernization of his country, Danilo II in 1855 promulgated a new code assuring civil and religious liberty to his subjects.

He also reorganized the army and introduced the first modern system of taxation to Montenegro. On Aug. 11, 1860, he was shot at Persano on the Bocche de Cattaro by a Montenegrin whom he had exiled after the revolt, and he died two days afterward.
He left no male offspring and was succeeded by Nicholas, the son of his brother Mirko.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1851
 
 
Cooper James Fenimore, American novelist, d. (b. 1789)
 
 

James Fenimore Cooper
 
 
see also: James Fenimore Cooper
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Hawthorne: "The House of Seven Gables"
 

The House of the Seven Gables is a Gothic novel written beginning in mid-1850 by American author Hawthorne Nathaniel and published in April 1851 by Ticknor and Fields of Boston. The novel follows a New England family and their ancestral home. In the book, Hawthorne explores themes of guilt, retribution, and atonement and colors the tale with suggestions of the supernatural and witchcraft. The setting for the book was inspired by a gabled house in Salem belonging to Hawthorne's cousin Susanna Ingersoll and by ancestors of Hawthorne who had played a part in the Salem Witch Trials of 1692. The book was well received upon publication and later had a strong influence on the work of H. P. Lovecraft. The House of the Seven Gables has been adapted several times to film and television.

 
Plot
The novel is set in the mid-19th century, although it includes glimpses into the history of the house, which was built in the late 17th century. The house of the title is a gloomy New England mansion, haunted since its construction by fraudulent dealings, accusations of witchcraft, and sudden death. The current resident, the dignified but desperately poor Hepzibah Pyncheon, opens a shop in a side room to support her brother Clifford, who is about to leave prison after serving thirty years for murder. She refuses all assistance from her wealthy but unpleasant cousin, Judge Jaffrey Pyncheon. A distant relative, the lively and pretty young Phoebe, turns up and quickly becomes invaluable, charming customers and rousing Clifford from depression. A delicate romance grows between Phoebe and the mysterious attic lodger Holgrave, who is writing a history of the Pyncheon family. In between, certain glimpses are provided at the history of the house and the Pyncheon family. The house was built on ground wrongfully seized from its rightful owner, Matthew Maule, by Colonel Pyncheon, the founder of the Massachusetts branch of the family, when the former was accused of practicing witchcraft and executed. According to legend, upon his death hour Maule laid a curse upon the Pyncheon family; and indeed during the house warming festivities, Colonel Pyncheon was found dead in his armchair. (It is, however, left ambiguous whether he actually died from the curse or a family-inherent disease.) His portrait remains in the house as an everlasting reminder of its dark past and the presence of the curse in the spirit of the house and its inhabitants.
Phoebe returns to her country home for a brief visit, but plans to return soon. Just before she leaves, Clifford stands at the large arched window above the stairs and has a sudden urge to jump upon viewing the mass of humanity passing before him and thinking of his youth lost to prison.
 
First edition title page.
 
 
This incident, coupled with Phoebe's departure — she was the only happy and beautiful thing in the home for the depressed Clifford to dwell on — sends him into a bed-ridden state.

Judge Pyncheon arrives at the house one day and threatens to have Clifford committed to an insane asylum if he does not disclose information regarding mystical "eastern lands" of Maine that the family is rumored to own, the deed to which has been lost. Before Clifford can be brought before the Judge (which, it is implied, would completely destroy Clifford's sanity), the Judge mysteriously dies while sitting in the same chair that Colonel Pyncheon had died in. Hepzibah and Clifford escape on a train (then a very new form of transport) after the Judge dies, but soon return after the first excitement and thrill of new freedom is gone and they are driven back to the house.

The next day, upon Phoebe's return, the Judge's body is discovered, and the townsfolk begin to murmur about Hepzibah and Clifford's sudden disappearance. To Phoebe's relief, Hepzibah and Clifford return shortly. Events from past and present throw light on the circumstances which sent Clifford to prison, proving his innocence: He was framed for the death of his uncle by Jaffrey, who was desperately looking for the legendary deed around the house at that time. Holgrave is discovered to be a descendant of Maule but bears the Pyncheon family no ill will, mostly due to his feelings for Phoebe; and the deed is discovered hidden behind the old Colonel's portrait, although it has long since become worthless as the land is already settled. The romance ends with the characters leaving the old house to start a new life in the countryside, free of the burdens of the past.

 
 
Characters
Hepzibah Pyncheon – Hepzibah is an unmarried older woman, a descendant of the Pyncheon who built the house of the title. Though a member of the upper class, she is destitute. At the beginning of the novel, she has opened a cent-shop in the first floor of the house because of the financial ruin of her side of the family.
Holgrave – A daguerreotypist who boards at the house. He is, unbeknownst to any of the other characters, a descendant of the original Matthew Maule, who had been hanged as a witch at the instigation of the original Colonel Jaffrey Pyncheon in order to gain Maule's property. He falls in love with Phoebe.
Phoebe Pyncheon – Although a Pyncheon, she is from the country and not a member of the Salem aristocracy. She moves in with her Cousin Hepzibah and takes over the shop. Her cheerfulness and beauty make the shop a success and charm the reclusive Clifford, whom she serves as a kind of caretaker. Phoebe shows a willingness to work that is absent in Hepzibah and Clifford. She falls in love with Holgrave.
Alice Pyncheon – Alice is the haughty beauty whose ghost now haunts the House of The Seven Gables. Holgrave writes a story about Alice, which he reads to Phoebe. In Holgrave's story, Matthew Maule, grandson and namesake of the accused witch, is approached by Alice's greedy father, who wishes him to find some documents that he believes will make him rich. Maule demands the help of Alice and puts her into a hypnotic trance, supposedly to help locate the documents. In reality, Maule used his powers for selfish revenge against the family he saw as robbing him of his land.
 
1875 illustration of Clifford Pyncheon, John Dalziel
 
 
After awakening from her trance, Alice was subject at any time to Maule's commands. She sang, danced, and laughed like a madwoman in all manner of inappropriate situations, leaving no vestige of her pride. Alice eventually dies of sickness obtained by another of Maule's humiliating errands, and a mortified Maule realized too late that his petty desire for personal satisfaction had caused the needless death of a beautiful and refined young woman.
Colonel Pyncheon- The founder of the Pyncheon family, the colonel was cursed by Matthew Maule as he died saying “God will give him blood to drink!” The Colonel later died on the day that his new house was finished on the exact spot that Maule’s house had been.
Judge Jaffrey Pyncheon – He is a well-to-do judge and political aspirant who lives on a comfortable estate out of town. In appearance and character he so strongly resembles the "original" Colonel Pyncheon, who built the house, that some people mistake portraits of the ancestor for the descendant. In fact, he is just as vicious and unrelenting as his ancestor in his hunt for a lost land deed, the purported source of new wealth for the dissolute Pyncheon clan.
Matthew Maule- Original owner of the land where the house of seven gables is built. Colonel Pyncheon had him hung as a wizard to take over his property.
Clifford Pyncheon – Clifford is Hepzibah's elderly, nearly bed-ridden brother who comes to live in the house after being released from prison, where he was serving a sentence for the alleged murder of his uncle; as it turns out, he was framed by his own cousin, Jaffrey.
Uncle Venner – A jovial old man (older than Hepzibah) who is the only neighbor to the Pyncheons still in good standing with them.
Ned Higgins – A young precocious boy who drops by Hepzibah's cent shop every now and then to deplete her supply of gingerbread cookies.
 
 
Background
The novel begins:

Halfway down a by-street of one of our New England towns stands a rusty wooden house, with seven acutely peaked gables, facing towards various points of the compass, and a huge, clustered chimney in the midst. The street is Pyncheon Street; the house is the old Pyncheon House; and an elm-tree, of wide circumference, rooted before the door, is familiar to every town-born child by the title of the Pyncheon Elm.

The Pyncheon family actually existed and were ancestors of American novelist Thomas Pynchon. Hawthorne, however, did not base the story on a real family and was surprised that several "Pynchon jackasses" claimed a connection. He considered changing the fictional family's name or adding a disclaimer in the preface, though no such edits were made.

The House of the Seven Gables in Salem, Massachusetts — today a museum accompanying a settlement house — was at one time owned by Hawthorne's cousin, Susanna Ingersoll, and she entertained him there often. Its seven-gabled state was known to Hawthorne only through childhood stories from his cousin; at the time of his visits, he would have seen just three gables due to architectural renovations. Reportedly, Ingersoll inspired Hawthorne to write the novel, though Hawthorne also stated that the book was a work of complete fiction, based on no particular house.

 
 
Major themes
Hawthorne, frequently haunted by the sins of his ancestors in the Salem witch trials, examines guilt, retribution, and atonement in this novel. His Pyncheon family carries a great burden — for almost 200 years — as a result of the dishonest, amoral way that the land on which the titular house sits was acquired. In the Preface to the novel, he states that its moral is that "the wrongdoing of one generation lives into the successive ones and... becomes a pure and uncontrollable mischief." It is not until the Pyncheon family and the Maule family are joined in the marriage of Phoebe and Holgrave that the “curse” is broken and remaining family members can breathe easy.

However, an opposing theme also emerges. Hawthorne, though guilt-ridden with respect to his ancestors' past, actually does suggest in a number of scenes that the Maule family really are witches. Alice Pyncheon is indirectly killed by Maule's grandson, using his wizard powers (or, more likely, the powers of mesmerism) to enchant her. Meanwhile, the narrator details a phantasm of Colonel Pyncheon's descendants returning to attempt to shake the Colonel's picture off the wall, only to be prevented by the original Maule's ghost and magic.
Yet Hawthorne, as ever concerned with the moral and emotional truths behind peoples' actions and appearances, refers to actual witchcraft within the Maule line only within the framing devices of works of the imagination (the incidents above take place within respectively a story written by Holgrave and a dreamlike nighttime reverie hypothesized by the narrator). Similarly, the overall imaginative framework of the novel itself provides a vehicle for Hawthorne to confront the moral and emotional experience of magic: Holgrave, Maule's descendant, gradually enchants Phoebe, throwing over her "love's web of sorcery."

  Publication history and response
The House of the Seven Gables was Hawthorne's follow-up to his highly successful novel The Scarlet Letter. He began writing it while living in Lenox, Massachusetts in August 1850. By October, he had chosen the title and it was advertised as forthcoming, though the author complained of his slow progress a month later: "I write diligently, but not so rapidly as I hoped... I find the book requires more care and thought than the 'Scarlet Letter'". He hoped the book would be complete by November but would not push himself to commit to a deadline. As he forewarned, "I must not pull up my cabbage by the roots, by way of hastening its growth." By mid-January 1851, he wrote to his publisher James Thomas Fields that the book was nearly finished, "only I am hammering away a little on the roof, and doing a few odd jobs that were left incomplete." He sent the finished manuscript to Fields by the end of the month. His wife Sophia Hawthorne reported to her mother on January 27 that he had read her the ending the night before: "There is unspeakable grace and beauty in the conclusion, throwing back upon the sterner tragedy of the commencement an ethereal light, and a dear home-loveliness and satisfaction."

The House of the Seven Gables was released in the second week of April 1851. Two printings were issued in the first month, a third in May, and a fourth in September 1851, totaling 6,710 copies in its first year (slightly more than The Scarlet Letter in its first year). Hawthorne earned 15% in royalties from the $1.00 cover price. After its publication, Hawthorne said, "It sold finely and seems to have pleased a good many people".

Hawthorne's friend Henry Wadsworth Longfellow called it "a weird, wild book, like all he writes." Fanny Kemble reported that the book caused a sensation in England equal to Jane Eyre.

 
 
English critic Henry Chorley also noted that, with The Scarlet Letter and The House of the Seven Gables, "few will dispute [Hawthorne's] claim to rank amongst the most original and complete novelists that have appeared in modern times." Some did not agree. "The book is an affliction", claimed fellow author Catharine Maria Sedgwick. "It affects one like a passage through the wards of an insane asylum." A review in the Christian Examiner complained the book was "more complex, the characterization more exaggerated, and the artistic execution less perfect" than the author's previous novel. Even so, Boston critic Edwin Percy Whipple simply called it his "greatest work". Hawthorne's friend Herman Melville, however, praised the book for its dark themes in a letter to the author:

There is a certain tragic phase of humanity which, in our opinion, was never ore powerfuly emboied than by Hawthorne. We mean the tragicalness of human thought in its own unbiased, native, and profounder workings. We think that into no recorded mind has the intense feeling of the visible truth ever entemored more deeply than into this man's.

 
 
Influence
The novel was an inspiration for horror fiction writer H. P. Lovecraft, who called it "New England's greatest contribution to weird literature" in his essay Supernatural Horror in Literature. Seven Gables likely influenced Lovecraft's short stories "The Picture in the House", "The Shunned House" and novella The Case of Charles Dexter Ward.

Adaptations
The novel was adapted for the screen in 1940 with Margaret Lindsay as Hepzibah, George Sanders as Jaffrey, Vincent Price as Clifford, Dick Foran as Holgrave, and Nan Grey as Phoebe. In this adaptation, Hepzibah and Clifford were made lovers rather than brother and sister, and the film ends with a double wedding. Also, Clifford was well aware of Holgrave's true identity, and the two are working together to settle a score with Jaffrey. It was directed by Joe May with a screenplay by Lester Cole. There was also a silent short in 1910 and a remake in 1967. It was also loosely adapted as one of the three stories in the 1963 film Twice-Told Tales, along with "Rappaccini's Daughter" and "Dr. Heidegger's Experiment". All three sections featured Vincent Price. The novel was adapted to a 60-minute television production in 1960 for The Shirley Temple Show with Shirley Temple as Phoebe, Robert Culp as Holgrave, Agnes Moorehead as Hepzibah, and Martin Landau as Clifford.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
see also: Nathaniel Hawthorne
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Heine Heinrich: "Romanzero"
 
 

Heine Heinrich. Zeitgenössischer Einband und Titelblatt der Erstausgabe
 
 
 
     
 
Heinrich Heine

"Poems and Ballads"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Gottfried Keller: "Der grune Heinrich"
 

Green Henry (German: Der grüne Heinrich) is a partially autobiographical novel by the Swiss author Keller Gottfried, first published in 1855, and extensively revised in 1879. Truth is freely mingled with fiction, and there is a generalizing purpose to exhibit the psychic disease that affected the whole generation of the transition from romanticism to realism in life and art. The work stands with Goethe's Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship and Adalbert Stifter's Der Nachsommer as one of the three most important examples of a Bildungsroman.

 
Plot
Green Henry details the life of Heinrich Lee from childhood through his first romantic encounters, his fledgling attempts at becoming a painter in Munich, and his eventual installation as a chancery clerk. The story gets its name from the color that Heinrich affected in dress. Heinrich is a Swiss burgher's son, brought up too tenderly by a widowed mother. After youthful pranks and experiences, and a not altogether justified dismissal from school, he idles away some time in his mother's village in activities of which the description is far better worthwhile than was the reality. He determines to be a painter, and goes to Munich's artistic Bohemia. From there, he finds his way to a count's mansion, and then he returns home to his dying mother and an all-too-tardy and brief repentance. The much revised second version has Heinrich abandoning art to enter the civil service. This experience affords occasion for extended political reflections. The tone of the reminiscences makes it clear that Keller would have the reader understand that Heinrich has lived through and risen out of his instability and irresolution and sees life steadily and cheerfully at last.

Development
Green Henry was written from 1850 to 1855. It is the most personal of all of Keller's works, and is significantly influenced by Jean-Jacques Rousseau's doctrine of a return to nature. At first intended as a short narrative of the collapse of the life of a young artist, the book expanded as its composition progressed into a huge work that treats, in poetically transfigured manner, all the events in Keller's life up to his return to Zürich in 1842. Its reception by the literary world was cool, but after a revised edition was issued in 1879, it won general and often extravagant praise.

 
Cover of the first edition
 
 
Evaluation
Benjamin W. Wells reviewed the book so:

Keen insight, fresh humor and instinct for realistic narration are its outstanding merits; its faults are lack of proportion, occasional garrulity and obtruded moralizing, but most of all the doubt that it leaves in the reader whether the Heinrich who had shown such persistent lack of character, especially in his relations with his mother, would so quickly be capable of discovering, rather than recovering, a normal balance of mind.

Jacob Wittmer Hartmann characterizes the 2nd edition of 1879 and a “rounded and satisfying artistic product.” The New International Encyclopædia praises the 2nd edition as a significant improvement over the first.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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American literature
     
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Longfellow Henry Wadsworth: "The Golden Legend"
 
 

Longfellow: "The Golden Legend"
 
 
 
     
 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

"The Song of Hiawatha"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Ward Humphry
 
Mrs. Humphry Ward, née Mary Augusta Arnold (born June 11, 1851, Tasmania, Australia—died March 24, 1920, London, England), English novelist whose best-known work, Robert Elsmere, created a sensation in its day by advocating a Christianity based on social concern rather than theology.
 

Mrs. Humphry Ward
  The daughter of a brother of the poet Matthew Arnold, she grew up in an atmosphere of religious searching. Her father resigned his position as a school official in Australia to become a Roman Catholic but later returned temporarily to the Anglican Church and settled the family at Oxford. In 1872 she married Humphry Ward, a fellow of Brasenose College. In 1881 they moved to London, where she wrote for the Pall Mall Gazette and other periodicals.

Mary Augusta Ward’s rejection of a supernaturally oriented Christianity in favour of a strong social commitment found eloquent expression in her novel Robert Elsmere (1888), the story of a young Anglican clergyman’s conversion to the belief that “Religion consists alone in the service of the people.” The popularity of this controversial work was only increased by William Gladstone’s polemical reply, “Robert Elsmere and the Battle of Belief” (1888). Ward followed its success with more than 20 other novels, notably David Grieve (1892), Sir George Tressady (1896), and Helbeck of Bannisdale (1898). By the turn of the century she had become firmly established as a best-selling author.

Ward worked tirelessly for social improvement; she was responsible for the foundation of the Invalid Children’s School (1899) and for the establishment of evening play centres by the London County Council in 1905. She opposed the Women’s Suffrage Movement, however, fearing in emancipation a loss of women’s moral influence. In 1908 she founded the Anti-Suffrage League. Her autobiography, A Writer’s Recollections, was published in 1918.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Ruskin: "The Stones of Venice"
 
The Stones of Venice is a three-volume treatise on Venetian art and architecture by English art historian Ruskin John , first published from 1851 to 1853.
 
"The Stones of Venice" examines Venetian architecture in detail, describing for example over eighty churches. He discusses architecture of Venice's Byzantine, Gothic and Renaissance periods, and provides a general history of the city. As well as an being an art historian, Ruskin was a social reformer. In the chapter "The Nature of Gothic" (from volume 2), Ruskin gives his views on how society should be organised.

We want one man to be always thinking, and another to be always working, and we call one a gentleman, and the other an operative; whereas the workman ought often to be thinking, and the thinker often to be working, and both should be gentlemen, in the best sense. As it is, we make both ungentle, the one envying, the other despising, his brother; and the mass of society is made up of morbid thinkers and miserable workers. Now it is only by labour that thought can be made healthy, and only by thought that labour can be made happy, and the two cannot be separated with impunity.

  Research and publication
Ruskin set out to prove how Venetian architecture exemplified the principles he discussed in his earlier work, The Seven Lamps of Architecture.

Ruskin had visited Venice before, but he made two visits to Venice with his wife Effie specially to research the book.

The first visit was in the winter of 1849-50. The first volume of The Stones of Venice appeared in 1851 and Ruskin spent another winter in Venice researching the next two volumes.
His research methods included sketching and photography (by 1849 he had acquired his own camera so that he could take daguerrotypes).

Various shortened editions of the book have been published, including one edited by J.G. Links published in the USA in 1960.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
see also: John Ruskin  "The King of the Golden River"  Illustrations by Maria L. Kirk
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1850 Part IV NEXT-1851 Part II