Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1851 Part II NEXT-1852 Part I    
 
 
     
1850 - 1859
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850-1859
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part I
Compromise of 1850
Constitution of Prussia
The eight Kaffir War, 1850-1853
Masaryk Tomas
Kitchener Horatio Herbert
Erfurt Union
Fillmore Millard
California
Taiping Rebellion
Hong Xiuquan
Feng Yunshan
Yang Xiuqing
Shi Dakai
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part II
Protestant churches in Prussia
Public Libraries Act 1850
Schopenhauer: "Parerga und Paralipomena"
Herbert Spencer: "Social Statics"
E. B. Browning: "Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Emerson: "Representative Men"
Hawthorne: "The Scarlet Letter"
Herzen Aleksandr
Ibsen: "Catiline"
Loti Pierre
Maupassant Guy
Guy de Maupassant
"Bel-Ami"
Stevenson Robert Louis
Robert Louis Stevenson  
"Treasure Island
"
Turgenev: "A Month in the Country"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part III
Corot: "Une Matinee"
Courbet: "The Stone Breakers"
Menzel: "Round Table at Sansouci"
Millais: "Christ in the House of His Parents"
Millet: "The Sower"
Bristow George Frederick
George Frederick Bristow - Dream Land
George Frederick Bristow
Schumann: "Genoveva"
Wagner: "Lohengrin"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1850 Part IV
Bernard Claude
Clausius Rudolf
Stephenson Robert
Chebyshev Pafnuty Lvovich
Barth Heinrich
Galton Francis
Anderson Karl John
McClure Robert
McClure Arctic Expedition
Royal Meteorological Society
University of Sydney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1851 Part I
Victoria, state of Australia
Murdock Joseph Ballard
Machado Bernardino
Bourgeois Leon Victor Auguste
Foch Ferdinand
Bombardment of Sale
French coup d'état
Danilo II
Hawthorne: "The House of Seven Gables"
Gottfried Keller: "Der grune Heinrich"
Ward Humphry
Ruskin: "The Stones of Venice"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1851 Part II
Herman Melville: "Moby Dick"
Corot: "La Danse des Nymphes"
Walter Thomas Ustick
Ward Leslie
Crystal Palace
Falero Luis Ricardo
Luis Ricardo Falero
Kroyer Peder
Peder Kroyer
Hughes Edward Robert
Edward Robert Hughes
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1851 Part III
Gounod: "Sappho"
D’Indy Vincent
Vincent D'Indy - Medee
Vincent d'Indy
Verdi: "Rigoletto"
Bogardus James
Cast-iron architecture
Kapteyn Jacobus Cornelius
Helmholtz's ophthalmoscope
Neumann Franz Ernst
Ruhmkorff Heinrich Daniel
Singer Isaac Merrit
Cubitt William
Thomson William
Royal School of Mines
Carpenter Mary
"The New York Times"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1852 Part I
Joffre Joseph
Transvaal
Second French Empire
Second Anglo-Burmese War
New Zealand Constitution Act
Asquith Herbert Henry
Pierce Franklin
Delisle Leopold Victor
Fischer Kuno
First Plenary Council of Baltimore
Vaihinger Hans
Gioberti Vincenzo
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1852 Part II
Bourget Paul
Creasy Edward
Creasy: "The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo"
Charles Dickens: "Bleak House"
Theophile Gautier: "Emaux et Camees"
Moore George
Reade Charles
Harriet Beecher Stowe: "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Thackeray: "History of Henry Esmond"
Turgenev: "A Sportsman's Sketches"
Zhukovsky Vasily
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1852 Part III
Fopd Madox Brown: "Christ Washing Peter's Feet"
William Holman Hunt: "The Light of the World"
John Everett Millais: "Ophelia"
Bryullov Karl
Karl Bryullov
Stanford Charles
Charles Villiers Stanford - Piano Concerto No.2
Charles Stanford
Becquerel Henri
Gerhardt Charles Frederic
Van’t Hoff Jacobus Henricus
Mathijsen Antonius
Michelson Albert
Ramsay William
Sylvester James Joseph
United All-England Eleven
Wells Fargo & Company
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1853 Part I
Eugenie de Montijo
Crimean War
Battle of Sinop
Rhodes Cecil
Peter V
Nagpur Province
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1853 Part II
Mommsen: "History of Rome"
Matthew Arnold: "The Scholar-Gipsy"
Charlotte Bronte: "Villette"
Caine Hall
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Ruth"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Tanglewood Tales"
Charles Kingsley: "Hypatia"
Tree Herbert Beerbohm
Charlotte M. Yonge: "The Heir of Redclyffe"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1853 Part III
Haussmann Georges-Eugene
Larsson Carl
Carl Larsson
Hodler Ferdinand
Ferdinand Hodler
Van Gogh Vincent
Vincent van Gogh
Steinway Henry Engelhard
Verdi: "Il Trovatore"
Verdi: "La Traviata"
Wood Alexander
"Die Gartenlaube"
International Statistical Congress
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part I
Bloemfontein Convention
Orange Free State
Battle of the Alma
Menshikov Alexander Sergeyevich
Siege of Sevastopol (1854-1855)
Kornilov Vladimir Alexeyevich
Battle of Balaclava
Battle of Inkerman
Perry Matthew Calbraith
Gadsden Purchase
Bleeding Kansas (1854–59)
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Elgin-Marcy Treaty
Republican Party
Said of Egypt
Ostend Manifesto
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part II
Herzog Johann
Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau
Youthful Offenders Act 1854
Immaculate Conception
Patmore Coventry
Patmore: "The Angel in the House"
Sandeau Leonard
Guerrazzi Francesco Domenico
Rimbaud Arthur
Arthur Rimbaud "Poems"
Tennyson: "The Charge of the Light Brigade"
Thackeray: "The Rose and the Ring"
Thoreau: "Walden, or Life in the Woods"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part III
Courbet: "Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet"
Frith William Powell
William Frith
Millet: "The Reaper"
Angrand Charles
Charles Angrand
Gotch Thomas Cooper
Thomas Cooper Gotch
Berlioz: "The Infant Christ"
Humperdinck Engelbert
Humperdinck - Hansel und Gretel
Liszt: "Les Preludes"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1854 Part IV
Poincare Henri
Eastman George
Ehrenberg Christian Gottfried
Paul Ehrlich
Laryngoscopy
Goebel Henry
George Boole: "The Laws of Thought"
Riemann Bernhard
Wallace Alfred Russel
Southeast Asia
"Le Figaro"
Litfass Ernst
Northcote–Trevelyan Report
Maurice Frederick Denison
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1855 Part I
Alexander II
Istomin Vladimir Ivanovich
Somerset FitzRoy
Nakhimov Pavel Stepanovich
Treaty of Peshawar
Bain Alexander
Droysen Johann
Gratry Auguste
Milman Henry
Le Play Pierre
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1855 Part II
Charles Kingsley: "Westward Ho!"
Nerval Gerard
Charles Dickens "Little Dorrit"
Ganghofer Ludwig
Longfellow: "The Song of Hiawatha"
Corelli Marie
Pinero Arthur Wing
Tennyson: "Maud"
Anthony Trollope: "The Warden"
Turgenev: "Rudin"
Walt Whitman: "Leaves of Grass"
Berlioz: "Те Deum"
Verdi: "Les Vepres Siciliennes"
Chansson Ernest
Chausson - Poeme
Ernest Chausson
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1855 Part III
Rayon
Hughes David Edward
Lowell Percival
Cunard Line
"The Daily Telegraph"
Niagara Falls suspension bridge
Paris World Fair
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part I
Victoria Cross
Doctrine of Lapse
Oudh State
Ottoman Reform Edict of 1856
Congress of Paris
Treaty of Paris (1856)
Napoleon, Prince Imperial
Sacking of Lawrence
Pottawatomie massacre
Second Opium War (1856-1860)
Anglo–Persian War (1856-1857)
Buchanan James
Tasmania
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part II
Froude: "History of England"
Goldstucker Theodor
Lotze Rudolf Hermann
Motley: "Rise of the Dutch Republic"
Flaubert: "Madame Bovary"
Haggard Henry Rider
Victor Hugo: "Les Contemplations"
Charles Reade: "It Is Never Too Late to Mend"
Shaw George Bernard
Wilde Oscar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part III
Berlage Hendrik Petrus
Ferstel Heinrich
Sargent John
John Singer Sargent
Vrubel Mikhail
Mikhail Vrubel
Cross Henri Edmond
Henri-Edmond Cross
Bechstein Carl
Dargomyzhsky Alexander
Alexander Dargomyzhsky: "Rusalka"
Alexander Dargomyzhsky
Maillart Aime
Aime Maillart - Les Dragons de Villars
Sinding Christian
Sinding - Suite in A minor
Christian Sinding
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1856 Part IV
Bessemer Henry
Bessemer process
Freud Sigmund
Sigmund Freud
Peary Robert Edwin
Mauveine
Pringsheim Nathanael
Siemens Charles William
Hardie James Keir
Taylor Frederick Winslow
"Big Ben"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part I
Treaty of Paris
Indian Rebellion of 1857
Italian National Society
Manin Daniele
Taft William Howard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part II
Buckle Henry Thomas
Buckle: "History of Civilization in England"
Charles Baudelaire: "Les Fleurs du mal"
Conrad Joseph
Joseph Conrad 
"Lord Jim"
George Eliot: "Scenes from Clerical Life"
Hughes Thomas
Thomas Hughes: "Tom Brown's Schooldays"
Mulock Dinah
 Pontoppidan Henrik
Adalbert Stifter: "Nachsommer"
Sudermann Hermann
Thackeray: "The Virginians"
Anthony Trollope: "Barchester Towers"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part III
Klinger Max
Max Klinger
Millet: "The Gleaners"
Dahl Johan Christian
Johan Christian Dahl
Leoncavallo Ruggero
Ruggero Leoncavallo - Pagliacci
Ruggero Leoncavallo 
Elgar Edward
Edward Elgar - The Light of Life
Edward Elgar
Kienzl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Kienzl - Symphonic Variations
Wilhelm Kienzl
Liszt: "Eine Faust-Symphonie"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1857 Part IV
Coue Emile
Hertz Heinrich
Wagner-Jauregg Julius
Ross Ronald
Newton Charles Thomas
Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Burton Richard
Speke John Hanning
The Nile Quest
McClintock Francis
Alpine Club
"The Atlantic Monthly"
Baden-Powell Robert
Matrimonial Causes Act
North German Lloyd
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part I
Orsini Felice
Stanley Edward
Minnesota
Treaty of Tientsin
Government of India Act 1858
Law Bonar
William I
Karageorgevich Alexander
Roosevelt Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part II
Bernadette Soubirous
Carey Henry Charles
Thomas Carlyle: "History of Friedrich II of Prussia"
Hecker Isaac
Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle
Rothschild Lionel Nathan
Schaff Philip
Benson Frank
Feuillet Octave
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table"
Kainz Joseph
Lagerlof Selma
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part III
Corinth Lovis
Lovis Corinth
William Powell Frith: "The Derby Day"
Menzel: "Bon soir, Messieurs"
Segantini Giovanni
Giovanni Segantini
Khnopff Fernand
Fernand Khnopff
Toorop Jan
Cornelius Peter
Cornelius: "Der Barbier von Bagdad"
Jaques Offenbach: "Orpheus in der Unterwelt"
Puccini Giacomo
Giacomo Puccini: Donna non vidi mai
Giacomo Puccini
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1858 Part IV
Diesel Rudolf
Huxley Thomas Henry
Planck Max
Mirror galvanometer
General Medical Council
Suez Canal Company
S.S. "Great Eastern"
Webb Beatrice
Webb Sidney
Transatlantic telegraph cable
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part I
Second Italian War of Independence
Battle of Varese
Battle of Palestro
Battle of Magenta
Battle of Solferino
Oregon
Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies
Francis II of the Two Sicilies
Charles XV of Sweden
German National Association
Jaures Jean
Roon Albrecht
William II
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part II
Bergson Henri
Henri Bergson
Bergson Henri "Creative Evolution"
Charles Darwin: "On the Origin of Species"
Dewey John
Husserl Edmund
Karl Marx: "Critique of Political Economy"
John Stuart Mill: "Essay on Liberty"
Tischendorf Konstantin
Codex Sinaiticus
Villari Pasquale
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part III
Dickens: "A Tale of Two Cities"
Doyle Arthur Conan
Arthur Conan Doyle  
"SHERLOCK HOLMES"
Duse Eleonora
George Eliot: "Adam Bede"
Edward Fitzgerald: "Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam"
Ivan Goncharov: "Oblomov"
Hamsun Knut
Heidenstam Verner
Housman Alfred Edward
A.E. Housman 
"A Shropshire Lad", "Last Poems"
Victor Hugo: "La Legende des siecles"
Jerome K. Jerome
Tennyson: "Idylls of the King"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part IV
Corot: "Macbeth"
Gilbert Cass
Millet: "The Angelus"
Hassam Childe
Childe Hassam 
Seurat Georges
Georges Seurat
Whistler: "At the Piano"
Daniel Decatur Emmett: "Dixie"
Gounod: "Faust"
Verdi: "Un Ballo in Maschera"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1859 Part V
Arrhenius Svante
Kirchhoff Gustav
Curie Pierre
Drake Edwin
Drake Well
Plante Gaston
Lead–acid battery
Smith Henry John Stephen
Brunel Isambard Kingdom
Blondin Charles
Lansbury George
Samuel Smiles: "Self-Help"
 
 
 

Gounod "Sappho". Design sketch by Edouard Despléchin for the final scene in the original 1851 production of Sapho
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1851 Part III
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Gounod: "Sappho"
 

Sapho is a 3-act opera by Gounod Charles to a libretto by Émile Augier which was premiered by the Paris Opera at the Salle Le Peletier on 16 April 1851. It was presented only 9 times in its initial production, but was a succès d'estime for the young composer, with the critics praising Act 3 in particular. It was later revived in 2-act (1858) and 4-act (1884) versions, achieving a total of 48 performances.

 
Background
The impetus for the composition of Gounod's first opera, and its acceptance for performance at France's premiere opera house, was primarily due to the influence of Pauline Viardot, who met the young composer in January or February 1850, shortly after her triumph there in Meyerbeer's Le prophète. In his memoirs Gounod relates that the violinist François Seghers, who at that time was the leader of the Concerts de la Société Sainte-Cécile on the Rue Chaussée-d'Antin, had presented some pieces by Gounod which had made a favorable impression. The Viardot family knew Seghers and through him Gounod received an invitation to play several of his compositions on the piano so they could hear them. After several hours Pauline Viardot asked Gounod why he had not yet written an opera. He responded that he did not have a libretto. When she asked with whom he might like to work, he mentioned that although he had known Augier in childhood, the latter had now become far more famous than he and would hardly care to risk working with someone with whom he had only played hoops.
 
 

Gounod "Sappho". Design sketch by Edouard Despléchin for the final scene in the original 1851 production of Sapho
 
 
Viardot immediately told Gounod to seek out Augier and tell him that she would take the responsibility to sing the principal role in Gounod's opera, if Augier would write the poem. Gounod also says that Viardot recommended his opera to the director of the company, who at that time was Nestor Roqueplan. According to her daughter, Viardot made renewal of her contract for the 1850–1851 season at the Opéra conditional on a commission for Augier and Gounod. In any case, the contract between Augier, Gounod, and Roqueplan, which was dated 1 April 1850, specified a 2-act opera to be provided by 30 September 1850 and performed no later than 1 April 1851.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
 
MARILYN HORNE " O ma lyre immortelle" Sapho (Gounod)
 
Marilyn Horne sings " O ma lyre immortelle" from Sapho by Charles Gounod
Orchestre Philharmonique de Monte Carlo
Lawrence Foster, conductor
Recording: VII. 1984, Palais des Congrès, Monte-Carlo
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Charles Gounod
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1851
 
 
D’Indy Vincent
 
Vincent d’Indy, in full Paul-Marie-Théodore-Vincent d’Indy (born March 27, 1851, Paris, France—died Dec. 1, 1931, Paris), French composer and teacher, remarkable for his attempted, and partially successful, reform of French symphonic and dramatic music along lines indicated by César Franck.
 

Vincent d’Indy
  D’Indy studied under Albert Lavignac, Antoine Marmontel, and Franck (for composition). In 1874 he was admitted to the organ class of the Paris Conservatoire, and in the same year his second Wallenstein Overture was performed. He considered French 19th-century music and the tradition of the Paris Opéra, of the Paris Conservatoire, and of French “decorative” symphony to be superficial, frivolous, and unworthy to compete with the Teutonic Bach-Beethoven-Wagner tradition.

The character of his own music revealed meticulous construction but also a certain lyricism. His harmony and counterpoint were laboriously worked out, but in his later work, free and unorthodox rhythms came easily and fluidly.

D’Indy’s most important stage works were Le Chant de le Cloche (1883; “The Song of the Clock”), Fervaal (1895), Le Légende de Saint Christophe (1915; “The Legend of Saint Christopher”), and Le Rêve de Cinyras (1923; “The Dream of Cinyras”). Among his symphonic works, Symphonie sur un chant montagnard français (1886; “Symphony on a French Mountaineer’s Chant”), with solo piano, based entirely on one of the folk songs d’Indy had collected in the Ardeche district, and Istar (variations; 1896) represent his highest achievements.

His 105 scores also include keyboard works, secular and religious choral writings, and chamber music. Among the latter are some of his best compositions: Quintette (1924); a suite for flute, string trio, and harp (1927); and the Third String Quartet (1928–29). He also made arrangements of the hundreds of folk songs that he collected in the Vivarais.

 
 

In 1894 d’Indy became one of the founders of the Schola Cantorum in Paris. It was through courses at this academy that he spread his theories and initiated the revival of interest in Gregorian plainchant and music of the 16th and 17th centuries. D’Indy also published studies of Franck (1906), Ludwig van Beethoven (1911), and Richard Wagner (1930). In France, Paul Dukas, Albert Roussel, and Déodat de Sévérac were among his disciples. Outside France, particularly in Greece, Bulgaria, Portugal, and Brazil, his influence was lasting upon composers interested in shaping folk music into symphonic forms.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
 
Vincent D'Indy - Medee
 
Médée, Op. 47, 1898
Orchestral Suite after the Tragedy by Catulle Mendès

I. Prélude. Très lent – Vif... [0:00]
II. Pantomime. Assez lent – Danse. Un peu plus vite [8:53]
III. L’Attente de Médée. Très lent – Très animé... [12:08]
IV. Médée et Jason. Modérément animé – Animé... [17:17]
V. Le Triomphe Auroral. Très lent – Plus vite... [20:53]

Iceland Symphony Orchestra
Rumon Gamba, conductor

 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Vincent d'Indy
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Lortzing Albert, German composer, d. (b. 1801)
 
 

Albert Lortzing
 
 
 
 
Albert Lortzing - Zar und Zimmermann - Lieblich roten sich die Wangen
 
Het Volendams Opera Koor met Albert Lortzing Zar und Zimmermann Lieblich roten sich die Wangen
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Albert Lortzing
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Verdi: "Rigoletto"
 

Rigoletto is an opera in three acts by Verdi Giuseppe. The Italian libretto was written by Francesco Maria Piave based on the play Le roi s'amuse by Victor Hugo. Despite serious initial problems with the Austrian censors who had control over northern Italian theatres at the time, the opera had a triumphant premiere at La Fenice in Venice on 11 March 1851.

 

Act 1, Scene 2 stage set by Giuseppe Bertoja for the world premiere of Rigoletto
 
 

It is considered by many to be the first of the operatic masterpieces of Verdi's middle-to-late career. Its tragic story revolves around the licentious Duke of Mantua, his hunch-backed court jester Rigoletto, and Rigoletto's beautiful daughter Gilda. The opera's original title, La maledizione (The Curse), refers to the curse placed on both the Duke and Rigoletto by a courtier whose daughter had been seduced by the Duke with Rigoletto's encouragement. The curse comes to fruition when Gilda likewise falls in love with the Duke and eventually sacrifices her life to save him from the assassins hired by her father.

 
 
 
 
Luciano Pavarotti " La donna e mobile" Met, 1981
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Giuseppe Verdi
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Cast-iron frame building constructed by American James Bogardus
 
 
Bogardus James
 

James Bogardus (March 14, 1800 – April 13, 1874) was an American inventor and architect, the pioneer of American cast-iron architecture, for which he took out a patent in 1850.

 

James Bogardus
  James Bogardus, (born March 14, 1800, Catskill, N.Y., U.S.—died April 13, 1874, New York City), inventor and builder who popularized cast-iron construction, which was commonly used in American industrial and commercial building from 1850 to 1880. He did so by shipping prefabricated sections from his factory in New York City to construction sites, and he further popularized the new method of building by his authorship of Cast Iron Buildings: Their Construction and Advantages (1858). This method of supporting the weight of construction by columns, rather than the walls, was a significant step toward later development of skeleton framing and skyscrapers. Bogardus’ first use of these methods (1848) was in his own five-story factory in New York City.
His other inventions included a means of engraving postage stamps that was used by the British government, the ring flier used for many years in cotton spinning, and rubber cutting, glass pressing, and deep-sea sounding and drilling machines.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
63 Nassau Street is a landmark building located between Fulton and John Streets in the Financial District of Manhattan, New York City. It was built in the Italianate style c.1844, and had its cast-iron facade, attributed to James Bogardus, added in 1857-59, making it one of the first cast-iron buildings in the city. The attribution to Bogardus, a pioneer in the architectural use of cast iron, comes because of medallions of Benjamin Franklin identical to those on four other Bogardus projects, all now demolished. George Washington was also once represented with medallions.

The building is an extremely rare extant example of the work of Bogardus, one of only five known Bogardus buildings in the United States. The building was designated a New York City landmark on May 15, 2007.

Structural detail
The 5-story, 3-bay Italianate style cast-iron front facade was originally composed of superimposed arcades, with a 2-story arcade capped by an intermediate modillioned foliate cornice, surmounted by a 3-story arcade.

The arcades are formed by elongated fluted Corinthian columns (most of the capitals’ leaves are now missing); rope moldings, which also surround the spandrel panels; molded arches with faceted keystones and molded paneled reveals; and foliate spandrels. The ground floor was first altered in 1919.

Between the second and third floors the building featured a series of wreath-encircled portraits of George Washington and Benjamin Franklin cast, like the rest of the facade, in iron. The two portraits of Washington are missing from the facade as of 2008.

 
63 Nassau Street
 
 
Similar portraits once appeared on two other Bogardus buildings, the Baltimore Sun building in Baltimore, Maryland, and the New York building of Harper & Brothers. Both of those buildings have been torn down.

The facade is terminated by a widely-projecting, modillioned foliate cornice supported by a corbel table. Windows were originally two-over-two double-hung wood sash. These were replaced by wood casement windows with transoms prior to 1928 on the upper three stories, and by single-pane windows on the second story during the 1980s. The northern storefront consists of a deeply recessed entrance with glass door and transom,flanking show windows set above recessed bases, and a mosaic tile floor. A metallic signage band extends partially into the second story. The southern metal-and-glass storefront is non-historic, with a fixed awning.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
254-260 Canal Street, also known as the Bruce Building, on the corner of Lafayette Street in the Chinatown neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, was built in 1856-57 and was designed in the Italian Renaissance revival style. The cast iron elements of the facade may have been provided by James Bogardus, a pioneer in the use of cast iron in architecture. The building was constructed for George Bruce, a prosperous printer and inventor of new technologies in the printing industry, which was then one of New York's leading industries. It was converted to offices in 1987 by architect Jack L. Gordon.
 
 

254-260 Canal Street
 
 
The use of cast iron columns in the large, five-story tall building enabled the installation of large windows that improved manufacturing conditions and efficiency. The lot had become available because a lumber mill standing on the site had recently been destroyed by fire, making fire-retardant cast iron construction attractive. The mildly Italinate style of the building, makes it a particularly handsome example of nineteenth century industrial architecture. It has been called "Beautiful!" and "an important early example of cast-iron architecture in New York City". If the cast iron did in fact come from Bogardus' iron works, the building would be "the largest and most important of his extant works."

The building was designated a New York City landmark in 1985, and was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2006.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
The Hopkins Store at 75 Murray Street between West Broadway and Greenwich Street in the TriBeCa neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, was built in 1857-58 and features a cast-iron facade in the Venetian Renaissance style from the foundry of James Bogardus, one of the earliest of the few remaining facades created by the self-described inventor of cast-iron architecture.

The original tenants were Francis and John Hopkins, who had a glassware business. Beginning c.1920 the building was the location of Knickerbocker Annunciator, a supplier of elevator traveling cable, electronic cable, and annunciators.

The building was converted to residential use in 1994-95, at which time it was restored.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Hopkins Store at 75 Murray Street
 
 
 
Cast-iron architecture
 

Cast-iron architecture is a form of architecture where cast iron plays a central role. It was a prominent style in the Industrial Revolution era when cast iron was relatively cheap and modern steel had not yet been developed.

 
Structural use
Cast iron has been used for centuries and was used in architecture in the pre-modern period. It was in 18th century Britain that new production methods first allowed cast iron to be produced cheaply enough and in large enough quantities to regularly be used in large building projects. One of the first important projects was The Iron Bridge in Shropshire, a precedent-setting structure made almost entirely of cast iron. However, it was grossly over-designed, and the makers (principally Abraham Darby) suffered financially as a result. The quality of the iron used in the bridge is not high, and nearly 80 brittle cracks are visible in the present structure. Later designers and engineers, such as Thomas Telford, improved both the design and quality of the material in bridges (for example, at Buildwas upstream of Coalbrookdale) and aqueducts (such as the world-famous Pontcysyllte Aqueduct in North Wales).
 
 

Close up view of cast-iron detailing at the Ca' D'Oro Building in Glasgow, Scotland, erected in 1872
 
 
Architectural use
Cast iron was first used in pagoda construction in Tang Dynasty China. Texts written in the 9th century by the Japanese Buddhist monk Ennin describe in detail the cast iron pagodas and statues widespread in China at the time. Persecution of Buddhism in China led to the destruction of many of these structures. Ditherington Flax Mill, built in 1796, is considered the first iron-framed building in the world.

The Commissioner's House of the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda designed by Edward Holl and built in the 1820s is considered to be the first residence that used cast iron in its structural framework. In the 1850s the cheapness and availability of cast iron led James Bogardus of New York City to advocate and design buildings using cast iron components. Cast iron could be cast into a wide array of shapes and designs, allowing elaborate facades that were far cheaper than traditional stone carved ones. These facades could also be painted a wide array of colours. Many of these buildings had elaborate neo-classical or Romanesque designs. Mostly used on commercial and industrial buildings there are many surviving examples, especially in the SoHo and Tribeca areas of New York and the western downtown area of Louisville, Kentucky. One of the most intact ensembles in the American West can be seen in the Skidmore/Old Town Historic District, a National Historic Landmark in Portland, Oregon. In Europe the best preserved examples of Victorian cast-iron warehouses can be viewed in Glasgow, Scotland, a city which experienced an enormous expansion in the late 19th century.
  In the old cities of the southern United States, the use of cast-iron in architecture was pervasive in the late 1800s. New Orleans and Richmond have particularly concentrated and well preserved examples cast iron, often in the form of elaborate porches. In New Orleans' French Quarter multi story iron porches cantilever off of masonry walls where as Richmond porches in neighborhoods such as Church Hill and Jackson Ward are more often single story structures resting on brick piers. Numerous foundries in both cities produced unique ornamental and structural designs in iron.

Cast iron columns had the advantage of being slender, compared with masonry columns capable of supporting similar weight. That saved space in factories and other kinds of buildings, and enabled architects of theaters, churches and synagogues to improve sight lines when supporting balconies.

Cast iron also became the standard support structure in the construction of greenhouses, and this type of design led to the monumental Crystal Palace built in London in 1851. Designed by Joseph Paxton, the glass and cast iron structure was much imitated around the world.

In the late 19th century modern steel was developed, and it proved far more suitable than cast iron for structural and support purposes. The fashion for cast iron facades also faded in this era. Many of the innovations of the cast iron period were carried over to the new steel frame buildings, and were essential to the development of the modern skyscraper.

 
 

Cast iron supporting structure, ceiling of the reading room of the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, Paris.
 
 
Catastrophic failures
Cast iron has some architectural advantages, and some weaknesses. It is strong in compression, but weak in tension and bending. Its strength and stiffness deteriorate when subjected to high heat, such as in a fire. In the early era of the industrial revolution cast iron was often used in factory construction, in part owing to the misconception that such structures would be fireproof. William Strutt pioneered this innovation, building a number of industrial buildings using cast iron supports. Cast iron was strong enough to support the heavy machinery but was vulnerable to the frequent fires that would occur in such factories. There were also numerous building collapses caused by fracture of brittle cast iron beams. These often occurred when the bottom side of the beam was in tension, often from defects such as blow holes within the beams. Such internal defects were common in large beams.
 
 

Original Tay Bridge from the north
 
 
Cast iron was also used widely in bridge construction for the new railway system, sometimes with horrific results, especially when cast iron girders were used instead of arches. The first use was at the Water Street terminus of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1830 to a design by William Fairbairn, a successful design which was demolished about 1900 owing to the widespread concern about cast iron under bridges on the rail network in Britain. Robert Stephenson built a longer bridge over the river Dee, mistakenly adding wrought iron trusses to strengthen the structure. This led to the Dee bridge disaster of 1847, which killed five when the bridge collapsed.

Following the disaster such trussed bridges were demolished and cast-iron was replaced with wrought iron composite beams formed by riveting sheets together, and then steel rolled beams when steel became available in the late 1860s and 1870s. Cast iron continued to be used in railway under bridges, and there were a number of serious failures involving loss of life. The most serious accident occurred in 1879 with the Tay Bridge disaster when the centre part of the bridge collapsed in a storm as an express train was passing over. The whole train was lost with more than 75 passengers and crew. The weakest parts of the bridge were cast iron lugs holding tie bars in place, and cast iron in new bridges was effectively abandoned after the disaster. Most small cast iron beam structures were demolished and replaced after the Norwood Junction rail accident of 1891.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1851
 
 
Kapteyn Jacobus Cornelius
 

Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn, (January 19, 1851, Barneveld, Gelderland – June 18, 1922) was a Dutch astronomer. He carried out extensive studies of the Milky Way and was the discoverer of evidence for galactic rotation.

 

Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn
  Kapteyn was born in Barneveld to Gerrit J. and Elisabeth C. (née Koomans) Kapteyn,[1] [2] and went to the University of Utrecht to study mathematics and physics in 1868. In 1875, after having finished his thesis, he worked for three years at the Leiden Observatory, before becoming the first Professor of Astronomy and Theoretical Mechanics at the University of Groningen, where he remained until his retirement in 1921.

Between 1896 and 1900, lacking an observatory, he volunteered to measure photographic plates taken by David Gill, who was conducting a photographic survey of southern hemisphere stars at the Royal Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope. The results of this collaboration was the publication of Cape Photographic Durchmusterung, a catalog listing positions and magnitudes for 454,875 stars in the Southern Hemisphere.

In 1897, as part of the above work, he discovered Kapteyn's Star. It had the highest proper motion of any star known until the discovery of Barnard's Star in 1916.

In 1904, studying the proper motions of stars, Kapteyn reported that these were not random, as it was believed in that time; stars could be divided into two streams, moving in nearly opposite directions. It was later realized that Kapteyn's data had been the first evidence of the rotation of our Galaxy, which ultimately led to the finding of galactic rotation by Bertil Lindblad and Jan Oort.

 
 

In 1906, Kapteyn launched a plan for a major study of the distribution of stars in the Galaxy, using counts of stars in different directions. The plan involved measuring the apparent magnitude, spectral type, radial velocity, and proper motion of stars in 206 zones. This enormous project was the first coordinated statistical analysis in astronomy and involved the cooperation of over forty different observatories.

He was awarded the James Craig Watson Medal in 1913. Kapteyn later retired in 1921 at the age of seventy, but on the request of his former student and director of Leiden Observatory Willem de Sitter, Kapteyn went back to Leiden to assist in upgrading the observatory to contemporary astronomical standards.

His life-work, First attempt at a theory of the arrangement and motion of the sidereal system was published in 1922, and described a lens-shaped island universe of which the density decreased away from the center, now known as the Kapteyn Universe. In his model the Galaxy was thought to be 40,000 light years in size, the sun being relatively close (2,000 light years) to its center. The model was valid at high galactic latitudes but failed in the galactic plane because of the lack of knowledge of interstellar absorption.

It was only after Kapteyn's death, in Amsterdam, that Robert Trumpler determined that the amount of interstellar reddening was actually much greater than had been assumed. This discovery increased the estimate of the galaxy's size to 100,000 light years, with the sun replaced to a distance of 30,000 light years from the galactic center.

The astronomy institute of the University of Groningen is named after Kapteyn. A street in the city of Groningen is also named after Kapteyn: the J.C. Kapteynlaan. And the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes at the Canary island of La Palma named the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope (JKT) after him.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Daguerre Louis , one of the fathers of photography, d. (b. 1789)
 
 

Portrait of Louis Daguerre in 1844 by Jean-Baptiste Sabatier-Blot.
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Helmholtz's ophthalmoscope
 

In 1851, Helmholtz (Helmholtz Hermann) revolutionized the field of ophthalmology with the invention of the ophthalmoscope; an instrument used to examine the inside of the human eye.

 
This made him world famous overnight. Helmholtz's interests at that time were increasingly focused on the physiology of the senses. His main publication, entitled Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik (Handbook of Physiological Optics or Treatise on Physiological Optics), provided empirical theories on depth perception, color vision, and motion perception, and became the fundamental reference work in his field during the second half of the nineteenth century. In the third and final volume, published in 1867, Helmholtz described the importance of unconscious inferences for perception. The Handbuch was first translated into English under the editorship of James P. C. Southall on behalf of the Optical Society of America in 1924-5. His theory of accommodation went unchallenged until the final decade of the 20th century.
 
 

Early model of the Helmholtz ophthalmoscope, 1851.
 
 
Helmholtz continued to work for several decades on several editions of the handbook, frequently updating his work because of his dispute with Ewald Hering who held opposite views on spatial and color vision. This dispute divided the discipline of physiology during the second half of the 1800s.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1851
 
 
Franz Neumann: law of electromagnetic induction
 
 
Neumann Franz Ernst
 

Franz Ernst Neumann (September 11, 1798 – May 23, 1895) was a German mineralogist, physicist and mathematician.

 

Franz Ernst Neumann
  Biography
Neumann was born in Joachimsthal, Margraviate of Brandenburg, located not far from Berlin. In 1815 he interrupted his studies at Berlin to serve as a volunteer in the Hundred Days against Napoleon, and was wounded in the Battle of Ligny. Subsequently he entered Berlin University as a student of theology, but soon turned to scientific subjects. His earlier papers were mostly concerned with crystallography, and the reputation they gained him led to his appointment as Privatdozent at the University of Königsberg, where in 1828 he became extraordinary, and in 1829 ordinary, professor of mineralogy and physics. His 1831 study on the specific heats of compounds included what is now known as Neumann's Law: the molecular heat of a compound is equal to the sum of the atomic heats of its constituents.

Devoting himself next to optics, he produced memoirs which entitle him to a high place among the early searchers after a true dynamical theory of light. In 1832, by the aid of a particular hypothesis as to the constitution of the ether, he reached by a rigorous dynamical calculation results agreeing with those obtained by Augustin Louis Cauchy, and succeeded in deducing laws of double refraction closely resembling those of Augustin-Jean Fresnel. In studying double refraction, with his deduction of the elastic constants (on which the optical properties depend) Neumann employed the assumption that the symmetry of the elastic behavior of a crystal was equal to that of its form.

 
 
In other words, he assumed that the magnitudes of the components of a physical property in symmetric positions are equivalent. This assumption substantially reduced the number of independent constants and greatly simplified the elastic equations. However, four decades passed before Neumann elaborated his application of symmetry in a course on elasticity in 1873. This principle was later formalized by his student Woldemar Voigt (1850–1918) in 1885: ‘‘the symmetry of the physical phenomenon is at least as high as the crystallographic symmetry,’’ which became a fundamental postulate of crystal physics known as ‘‘Neumann’s principle’’. In 1900, Voigt attributed this principle to Neumann’s 1832 paper even though, at most, all that was present in that work was an implicit assumption that the symmetry of the phenomenon was equal to that of the crystal.

Bernhard Minnigerode (1837–1896), another student of Neumann, first expressed this relation in written form in 1887 in the journal Neues Jahrb. Mineral Geol. Paleontol. (Vol. 5, p. 145).
 
 
Later, Neumann attacked the problem of giving mathematical expression to the conditions holding for a surface separating two crystalline media, and worked out from theory the laws of double refraction in strained crystalline bodies.

He also made important contributions to the mathematical theory of electrodynamics, and in papers published in 1845 and 1847 established mathematically the laws of the induction of electric currents. His last publication, which appeared in 1878, was on spherical harmonics (Beiträge zur Theorie der Kugelfunctionen).

With the mathematician Carl Gustav Jacobi, he founded in 1834 the mathematisch-physikalisches Seminar which operated in two sections, one for mathematics and one for mathematical physics.

Not every student took both sections. In his section on mathematical physics Neumann taught mathematical methods and as well as the techniques of an exact experimental physics grounded in the type of precision measurement perfected by his astronomer colleague Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel.
  The objective of his seminar exercises was to perfect one's ability to practice an exact experimental physics through the control of both constant and random experimental errors. Only a few students actually produced original research in the seminar; a notable exception was Gustav Robert Kirchhoff who formulated Kirchhoff's Laws on the basis of his seminar research. This seminar was the model for many others of the same type established after 1834, including Kirchhoff's own at Heidelberg University.

Neumann retired from his professorship in 1876, and died at Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia) in 1895 at the age of 96.

His children were talented. His son, Carl Gottfried Neumann (1832–1925), became in 1858 Privatdozent, and in 1863 extraordinary professor of mathematics at Halle. He was then appointed to the ordinary chair of mathematics successively at Basel (1863), Tübingen (1865) and Leipzig (1868).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1851
 
 
H. D. Ruhmkorff invents high tension induction coil
 
 
Ruhmkorff Heinrich Daniel
 

Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff (Rühmkorff) (January 15, 1803 in Hanover – December 19, 1877 in Paris) was a German instrument maker who commercialised the induction coil (often referred to as the Ruhmkorff coil.)

 
Ruhmkorff was born in Hanover. He changed the "ü" to "u" in his name when living abroad. After an apprenticeship with a German mechanic, he moved to England. Biographies say that he worked with the inventor Joseph Bramah, but this is unlikely since Bramah died in 1814. He may, though, have worked for the Bramah company. In 1855, he set up a shop in Paris, where he gained a reputation for the high quality of his electrical apparatus.

Although Ruhmkorff is often credited with the invention of the induction coil, it was in fact invented by Nicholas Callan in 1836. Ruhmkorff's first coil, which he patented in 1851, utilized long windings of copper wire to achieve a spark of approximately 2 inches (50 mm) in length. In 1857, after examining a greatly improved version made by an American inventor, Edward Samuel Ritchie, Ruhmkorff improved his design (as did other engineers), using glass insulation and other innovations to allow the production of sparks more than 30 centimetres long. Ruhmkorff patented the first version of his induction coil in 1851, and its success was such that in 1858 he was awarded a 50,000-franc prize by Napoleon III for the most important discovery in the application of electricity. He died in Paris in 1877.

 
 
The "Ruhmkorff" lamp
In several of Jules Verne's science-fiction novels, so-called "Ruhmkorff lamps" are mentioned. These were an early form of portable electric lamp. The lamp consisted of a Geissler tube that was excited by a battery-powered Ruhmkorff induction coil. Initially the lamp generated white light by using a Geissler tube filled with carbon dioxide.

However, the carbon dioxide tended to break down. Hence in later lamps, the Geissler tube was filled with nitrogen (which generated red light), and the glass was replaced with glass containing uranium salts (which fluoresced with a green light).

Intended for use by miners, the lamp was actually developed both by Alphonse Dumas, an engineer at the iron mines of Saint-Priest and of Lac, near Privas, in the départment of Ardèche, France, and by Dr. Camille Benoît, a medical doctor in Privas. In 1864, the French Academy of Sciences awarded Dumas and Benoît a prize of 1,000 francs for their invention.

 
Jules Verne's "Ruhmkorff lamp"
 
 
This lamp could be considered as a predecessor of modern fluorescent lanterns, because as in the "Ruhmkorff lamp", portable actual ones uses an inverter (oscillator + step-up transformer) to convert low voltage DC current from dry cells or storage batteries to AC or even pulsating current at a voltage high enough as to ionize the fluorescent tube and power it at the required nominal level. This one has no nitrogen nor C02, neither uranium glass; instead a modern fluorescent tube is filled with argon at a very low pressure, along with a few milligrams of mercury. Their electrodes are usually constituted by a triple wounded tungsten wire covered with electron emitting substances, as alkaline metal oxides, that easily gives free electrons to aid to ionizing, striking and sustaining the electric arc. The inner walls of the tube are coated with a thin layer of fluorescent substances that when are excited by the 253,7 nM line of UV radiation from mercury arc, emits visible light, usually in the range of 6500ºK (daylight). The spectral characteristics (coloration) of such a light depends entirely on the chemical nature of those "phosphors".
 
 

Ruhmkorff inductor
 
 
Modern inverters for portable fluorescent lanterns does not relies on electromechanical and electromagnetic vibrating switching contacts to produce the required current interruptions on primary circuit to provide induced voltages through the secondary winding as occurs in Ruhmkorff coils; instead, the primary of the transformer is switched by means of one or two transistors self oscillating at frequencies of tens or even hundreds of thousand cycles per second which results in smaller and lighter devices having also a very good efficiency in lumens/watt for a given battery consumption or a longer battery charge life for a given light flux when compared with incandescent lamps. Additionally, such high frequencies virtually eliminates the stroboscopic effect very noticeable in those cases when tubes are powered by means of low frequency alternating or pulsating currents; at the same time the whole device is fully noiseless, unlike true Ruhmkorff coils that makes its characteristics buzzing noise when are in action, even if them are contained in closed casings or boxes. Indeed the principle of modern fluorescent portable lamps or lanterns remains the same as in the Dumas & Benoit original mining electric lamp.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1851
 
 
Isaac Singer devises the continuous stitch sewing machine
 
 
Singer Isaac Merrit
 

Isaac Merritt Singer (October 27, 1811 – July 23, 1875) was an American inventor, actor, and entrepreneur. He made important improvements in the design of the sewing machine and was the founder of the Singer Sewing Machine Company. Many had patented sewing machines before Singer, but his success was based on the practicality of his machine, the ease with which it could be adapted to home use, and its availability on an installment payment basis. Singer fathered at least 24 children with various wives and mistresses.

 

Isaac Merritt Singer
  Isaac Merrit Singer, (born Oct. 27, 1811, Pittstown, N.Y., U.S.—died July 23, 1875, Torquay, Devon, Eng.), American inventor who developed and brought into general use the first practical domestic sewing machine.

At the age of 19 Singer became an apprentice machinist, and in 1839 he patented a rock-drilling machine. Ten years later he patented a metal- and wood-carving machine. While working in a Boston machine shop in 1851, Singer was asked to repair a Lerow and Blodgett sewing machine; 11 days later he had designed and built an improved model, which he patented and sold through I.M. Singer & Company. The first to embody features allowing continuous and curved stitching, his machine employed an overhanging arm holding the needle bar over a horizontal table, thus making it possible to sew on any part of the work. His basic design features have been followed in almost all subsequent machines.

Because Singer had embodied in his machine the basic eye-pointed needle and the lock stitch developed by Elias Howe of the United States, Howe won a patent-infringement suit against him in 1854. The suit did not prevent Singer from manufacturing his machine, however, and in June 1851 he formed a partnership with Edward Clark. By 1860 their company had become the largest producer of sewing machines in the world. Singer secured 12 additional patents for improvements to his machine.

 
 
Singer pioneered the use of installment credit plans, which have had a profound effect on consumer sales in modern society. In 1863 Singer and Clark formed the Singer Manufacturing Company, and Singer retired to England.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1851
 
 
William Cubitt builds King's Cross Station, London
 
 
Cubitt William
 
Sir William Cubitt (1785–1861) was an eminent English civil engineer and millwright. Born in Norfolk, England, he was employed in many of the great engineering undertakings of his time. He invented a type of windmill sail and the prison treadwheel, and was employed as chief engineer, at Ransomes of Ipswich, before moving to London. He worked on canals, docks, and railways, including the South Eastern Railway and the Great Northern Railway. He was the chief engineer of Crystal Palace erected at Hyde Park in 1851.

He was president of the Institution of Civil Engineers between 1850 and 1851.

 
Early life
The son of Joseph Cubitt of Bacton Wood, near Dilham, Norfolk, a miller, by his wife, Miss Lubbock, he was born at Dilham and attended the village school. His father moved to South Repps, and William at an early age was employed in the mill, but in 1800 was apprenticed to James Lyon, a cabinet-maker at Stalham, from whom he parted after four years. At Bacton Wood Mills he again worked with his father in 1804, and also constructed a machine for splitting hides. He then joined an agricultural machine maker named Cook, at Swanton, where they constructed horse threshing machines and other implements.
 
 

Sir William Cubitt
  Engineer and inventor
Cubitt became known for the accuracy and finish of his patterns for the iron castings of machines. Self-regulating windmill sails were invented and patented by him in 1807, at which period he settled at Horning, Norfolk, in business as a millwright. He in 1812 sought and obtained an engagement in the works of Messrs. Ransome of Ipswich, where he soon became the chief engineer. For nine years he held this situation, and then became a partner in the firm, a position which he held until he moved to London in 1826. Already Cubitt was concerned with the employment of criminals; and for the purpose of using their labour he invented the treadmill, with the object, for example, of grinding corn, and not at first contemplating the use of the machine as a means of punishment. This invention was brought out about 1818, and was immediately adopted in the major gaols of the United Kingdom. From 1814 Cubitt had been acting as a civil engineer, and after his move to London he was fully engaged in important works. He was extensively employed in canal engineering, and the Oxford canal and the Liverpool Junction canal are among his works under this head. The improvement of the River Severn was carried out by him, and he made a series of reports on rivers. The Bute docks at Cardiff, the Middlesbrough docks and the coal drops on the Tees, and the Black Sluice drainage were undertakings which he successfully accomplished.
 
 
Railway man
After the introduction of railways Cubitt's evidence was sought in parliamentary contests. As engineer-in-chief he constructed the South Eastern Railway: he adopted the scheme of employing a monster charge of 18,000 lb. of gunpowder for blowing down the face of Round Down Cliff, between Folkestone and Dover (26 January 1843), and then constructing the line of railway along the beach, with a tunnel beneath the Shakespeare Cliff. On the Croydon Railway the atmospheric system was tried by him.

On the Great Northern, to which Cubitt was the consulting engineer, he introduced the latest innovations. The Hanoverian government asked his advice on the subject of the harbour and docks at Harburg. The works for supplying Berlin with water were carried out under his direction; and he was surveyor for the Paris and Lyon railway.

On the completion of the railway to Folkestone, and the establishment of a line of steamers to Boulogne, he superintended the improvement of the port there, and then became the consulting engineer to the Boulogne and Amiens railway. Among his last works were the two large landing-stages at Liverpool, and the bridge for carrying the London turnpike road across the River Medway at Rochester, Kent.

  Cubitt joined the Institution of Civil Engineers as a member in 1823, became a member of council in 1831, vice-president in 1836, and held the post of president in 1850 and 1851.

While president in 1851 he had major responsibility for the erection of the Great Exhibition building in Hyde Park. At the expiration of his services he was knighted by the queen at Windsor Castle on 23 December 1851.

He became a Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 April 1830, and was also a fellow of the Royal Irish Academy, and a member of other learned societies.

One of Cubitt's nephews and his protégé on the South Eastern and Great Northern railways, James Moore C. E., was appointed Chief Engineer for the Hobson's Bay Railway company and designed the first commercial steam railway in Melbourne. Moore replaced another of Cubitt's assistants, William Snell Chauncy.

Later life
Cubitt retired from business in 1858, and died at his residence on Clapham Common, Surrey, on 13 October 1861, and was buried in Norwood cemetery on 18 October.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
see also: Crystal Palace
 

 

 
1851
 
 
William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, begins papers on the laws of conservation and dissipation of energy
 
 
Thomson William
 

William Thomson, Baron Kelvin, in full William Thomson, Baron Kelvin of Largs, also called (1866–92) Sir William Thomson (born June 26, 1824, Belfast, County Antrim, Ire. [now in Northern Ireland]—died Dec. 17, 1907, Netherhall, near Largs, Ayrshire, Scot.), Scottish engineer, mathematician, and physicist who profoundly influenced the scientific thought of his generation.

 

William Thomson, Baron Kelvin
  Thomson, who was knighted and raised to the peerage in recognition of his work in engineering and physics, was foremost among the small group of British scientists who helped to lay the foundations of modern physics. His contributions to science included a major role in the development of the second law of thermodynamics; the absolute temperature scale (measured in kelvins); the dynamical theory of heat; the mathematical analysis of electricity and magnetism, including the basic ideas for the electromagnetic theory of light; the geophysical determination of the age of the Earth; and fundamental work in hydrodynamics. His theoretical work on submarine telegraphy and his inventions for use on submarine cables aided Britain in capturing a preeminent place in world communication during the 19th century. The style and character of Thomson’s scientific and engineering work reflected his active personality. While a student at the University of Cambridge, he was awarded silver sculls for winning the university championship in racing single-seater rowing shells. He was an inveterate traveler all of his life, spending much time on the Continent and making several trips to the United States.
 
 
In later life he commuted between homes in London and Glasgow. Thomson risked his life several times during the laying of the first transatlantic cable.

Thomson’s worldview was based in part on the belief that all phenomena that caused force—such as electricity, magnetism, and heat—were the result of invisible material in motion. This belief placed him in the forefront of those scientists who opposed the view that forces were produced by imponderable fluids. By the end of the century, however, Thomson, having persisted in his belief, found himself in opposition to the positivistic outlook that proved to be a prelude to 20th-century quantum mechanics and relativity. Consistency of worldview eventually placed him counter to the mainstream of science.

But Thomson’s consistency enabled him to apply a few basic ideas to a number of areas of study. He brought together disparate areas of physics—heat, thermodynamics, mechanics, hydrodynamics, magnetism, and electricity—and thus played a principal role in the great and final synthesis of 19th-century science, which viewed all physical change as energy-related phenomena. Thomson was also the first to suggest that there were mathematical analogies between kinds of energy. His success as a synthesizer of theories about energy places him in the same position in 19th-century physics that Sir Isaac Newton has in 17th-century physics or Albert Einstein in 20th-century physics. All of these great synthesizers prepared the ground for the next grand leap forward in science.

 
 

William Thomson, Baron Kelvin
  Early life
William Thomson was the fourth child in a family of seven. His mother died when he was six years old. His father, James Thomson, who was a textbook writer, taught mathematics, first in Belfast and later as a professor at the University of Glasgow; he taught his sons the most recent mathematics, much of which had not yet become a part of the British university curriculum. An unusually close relationship between a dominant father and a submissive son served to develop William’s extraordinary mind.

William, age 10, and his brother James, age 11, matriculated at the University of Glasgow in 1834. There William was introduced to the advanced and controversial thinking of Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier when one of Thomson’s professors loaned him Fourier’s pathbreaking book The Analytical Theory of Heat, which applied abstract mathematical techniques to the study of heat flow through any solid object.
Thomson’s first two published articles, which appeared when he was 16 and 17 years old, were a defense of Fourier’s work, which was then under attack by British scientists.

 
 
Thomson was the first to promote the idea that Fourier’s mathematics, although applied solely to the flow of heat, could be used in the study of other forms of energy—whether fluids in motion or electricity flowing through a wire.

Thomson won many university awards at Glasgow, and at the age of 15 he won a gold medal for “An Essay on the Figure of the Earth,” in which he exhibited exceptional mathematical ability. That essay, highly original in its analysis, served as a source of scientific ideas for Thomson throughout his life. He last consulted the essay just a few months before he died at the age of 83.

Thomson entered Cambridge in 1841 and took a B.A. degree four years later with high honours. In 1845 he was given a copy of George Green’s An Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism. That work and Fourier’s book were the components from which Thomson shaped his worldview and that helped him create his pioneering synthesis of the mathematical relationship between electricity and heat. After finishing at Cambridge, Thomson went to Paris, where he worked in the laboratory of the physicist and chemist Henri-Victor Regnault to gain practical experimental competence to supplement his theoretical education.

 
 

William Thomson, Baron Kelvin
  The chair of natural philosophy (later called physics) at the University of Glasgow fell vacant in 1846. Thomson’s father then mounted a carefully planned and energetic campaign to have his son named to the position, and at the age of 22 William was unanimously elected to it. Despite blandishments from Cambridge, Thomson remained at Glasgow for the rest of his career. He resigned his university chair in 1899, at the age of 75, after 53 years of a fruitful and happy association with the institution. He was making room, he said, for younger men.

Thomson’s scientific work was guided by the conviction that the various theories dealing with matter and energy were converging toward one great, unified theory. He pursued the goal of a unified theory even though he doubted that it was attainable in his lifetime or ever. The basis for Thomson’s conviction was the cumulative impression obtained from experiments showing the interrelation of forms of energy. By the middle of the 19th century it had been shown that magnetism and electricity, electromagnetism, and light were related, and Thomson had shown by mathematical analogy that there was a relationship between hydrodynamic phenomena and an electric current flowing through wires. James Prescott Joule also claimed that there was a relationship between mechanical motion and heat, and his idea became the basis for the science of thermodynamics.

 
 
In 1847, at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Thomson first heard Joule’s theory about the interconvertibility of heat and motion. Joule’s theory went counter to the accepted knowledge of the time, which was that heat was an imponderable substance (caloric) and could not be, as Joule claimed, a form of motion. Thomson was open-minded enough to discuss with Joule the implications of the new theory. At the time, though he could not accept Joule’s idea, Thomson was willing to reserve judgment, especially since the relationship between heat and mechanical motion fit into his own view of the causes of force. By 1851 Thomson was able to give public recognition to Joule’s theory, along with a cautious endorsement in a major mathematical treatise, “On the Dynamical Theory of Heat.” Thomson’s essay contained his version of the second law of thermodynamics, which was a major step toward the unification of scientific theories.

Thomson’s work on electricity and magnetism also began during his student days at Cambridge. When, much later, James Clerk Maxwell decided to undertake research in magnetism and electricity, he read all of Thomson’s papers on the subject and adopted Thomson as his mentor. Maxwell—in his attempt to synthesize all that was known about the interrelationship of electricity, magnetism, and light—developed his monumental electromagnetic theory of light, probably the most significant achievement of 19th-century science. This theory had its genesis in Thomson’s work, and Maxwell readily acknowledged his debt.

 
 

William Thomson, Baron Kelvin
  Thomson’s contributions to 19th-century science were many. He advanced the ideas of Michael Faraday, Fourier, Joule, and others. Using mathematical analysis, Thomson drew generalizations from experimental results. He formulated the concept that was to be generalized into the dynamic theory of energy.

He also collaborated with a number of leading scientists of the time, among them Sir George Gabriel Stokes, Hermann von Helmholtz, Peter Guthrie Tait, and Joule. With these partners, he advanced the frontiers of science in several areas, particularly hydrodynamics. Furthermore, Thomson originated the mathematical analogy between the flow of heat in solid bodies and the flow of electricity in conductors.

Thomson’s involvement in a controversy over the feasibility of laying a transatlantic cable changed the course of his professional work. His work on the project began in 1854 when Stokes, a lifelong correspondent on scientific matters, asked for a theoretical explanation of the apparent delay in an electric current passing through a long cable. In his reply, Thomson referred to his early paper “On the Uniform Motion of Heat in Homogeneous Solid Bodies, and its Connexion with the Mathematical Theory of Electricity” (1842). Thomson’s idea about the mathematical analogy between heat flow and electric current worked well in his analysis of the problem of sending telegraph messages through the planned 3,000-mile (4,800-km) cable.

 
 
His equations describing the flow of heat through a solid wire proved applicable to questions about the velocity of a current in a cable.

The publication of Thomson’s reply to Stokes prompted a rebuttal by E.O.W. Whitehouse, the Atlantic Telegraph Company’s chief electrician. Whitehouse claimed that practical experience refuted Thomson’s theoretical findings, and for a time Whitehouse’s view prevailed with the directors of the company. Despite their disagreement, Thomson participated, as chief consultant, in the hazardous early cable-laying expeditions. In 1858 Thomson patented his telegraph receiver, called a mirror galvanometer, for use on the Atlantic cable. (The device, along with his later modification called the siphon recorder, came to be used on most of the worldwide network of submarine cables.) Eventually the directors of the Atlantic Telegraph Company fired Whitehouse, adopted Thomson’s suggestions for the design of the cable, and decided in favour of the mirror galvanometer. Thomson was knighted in 1866 by Queen Victoria for his work.

 
 

William Thomson, Baron Kelvin
  Later life
After the successful laying of the transatlantic cable, Thomson became a partner in two engineering consulting firms, which played a major role in the planning and construction of submarine cables during the frenzied era of expansion that resulted in a global network of telegraph communication. Thomson became a wealthy man who could afford a 126-ton yacht and a baronial estate.

Thomson’s interests in science included not only electricity, magnetism, thermodynamics, and hydrodynamics but also geophysical questions about tides, the shape of the Earth, atmospheric electricity, thermal studies of the ground, the Earth’s rotation, and geomagnetism. He also entered the controversy over Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution. Thomson opposed Darwin, remaining “on the side of the angels.” Thomson challenged the views on geologic and biological change of the early uniformitarians, including Darwin, who claimed that the Earth and its life had evolved over an incalculable number of years, during which the forces of nature always operated as at present. On the basis of thermodynamic theory and Fourier’s studies, Thomson in 1862 estimated that more than one million years ago the Sun’s heat and the temperature of the Earth must have been considerably greater and that these conditions had produced violent storms and floods and an entirely different type of vegetation.

 
 
His views, published in 1868, particularly angered Darwin’s supporters. Thomas Henry Huxley replied to Thomson in the 1869 Anniversary Address of the President of the Geological Society of London. Thomson’s speculations as to the age of the Earth and the Sun were inaccurate, but he did succeed in pressing his contention that biological and geologic theory had to conform to the well-established theories of physics.
 
 

Lord Kelvin by Hubert von Herkomer
  In an 1884 series of lectures at Johns Hopkins University on the state of scientific knowledge, Thomson wondered aloud about the failures of the wave theory of light to explain certain phenomena. His interest in the sea, roused aboard his yacht, the Lalla Rookh, resulted in a number of patents: a compass that was adopted by the British Admiralty; a form of analog computer for measuring tides in a harbour and for calculating tide tables for any hour, past or future; and sounding equipment. He established a company to manufacture these items and a number of electrical measuring devices. Like his father, he published a textbook, Treatise on Natural Philosophy (1867), a work on physics coauthored with Tait that helped shape the thinking of a generation of physicists.

Thomson was said to be entitled to more letters after his name than any other man in the Commonwealth. He received honorary degrees from universities throughout the world and was lauded by engineering societies and scientific organizations. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1851 and served as its president from 1890 to 1895. He published more than 600 papers and was granted dozens of patents. He died at his estate in Scotland and was buried in Westminster Abbey, London.

Harold I. Sharlin

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Royal School of Mines
 

Royal School of Mines comprises the departments of Earth Science and Engineering, and Materials at Imperial College London.

 
History
The Royal School of Mines was established in 1851, as the Government School of Mines and Science Applied to the Arts. The School developed from the Museum of Economic Geology, a collection of minerals, maps and mining equipment made by Sir Henry De la Beche, and opened in 1841. The museum also provided some student places for the study of mineralogy and metallurgy. Sir Henry was the director of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, and when the collections outgrew the premises the museum and the survey were placed on an official footing, with government assistance. The Museum of Practical Geology and the Government School of Mines and Science Applied to the Arts opened in a purpose-designed building in Jermyn Street in 1851. The officers of the Geological Survey became the lecturers and professors of the School of Mines. The Royal College of Chemistry was merged into it in 1853. The name was changed in 1863 to the Royal School of Mines, and was moved to South Kensington in 1872, leaving the Museum of Practical Geology behind in Jermyn Street. In 1907, the RSM was incorporated into Imperial College of Science and Technology, but remains a "Constituent College" of Imperial. The last Dean of the Royal School of Mines was Professor John Monhemius before the position was removed.

Today, the RSM no longer exists as an academic entity. The RSM is both the building in which the departments are housed, and the student body that organises social events, sports teams, clubs and societies for students within those departments.

 
Royal School of Mines entrance in London's Albertopolis.
 
 
Connection with India
The Indian School of Mines, in the city of Dhanbad of India was established in 1926 by the British India Government on the lines of Royal School of Mines of London, by Lord Irwin, the then Viceroy of India. At that time India was ruled by Britain.
 
 
The building
Designed by Sir Aston Webb, the RSM building is Classical in style with Ionic pilasters. It was erected between 1909 and 1913 specifically to house the school, which was previously resident in the Huxley Building on Exhibition Road, now the Henry Cole Wing of the Victoria and Albert Museum. The foundation stone was laid by King Edward VII on 8 July 1909.

The RSM was the last of many buildings that Webb designed for the Albertopolis area (including the Cromwell Road frontage of the V&A) and, some would argue, his least resolved. Constructed in Portland stone, the entrance is formed by a three storey, semicircular niche, flanked by two memorials (sculpted by Paul Raphael Montford, 1916–1920) to Alfred Beit and Julius Wernher who were major benefactors to the school. The western wing of the building is named after Webb, while the eastern end is named after the Goldsmiths' Company who helped to finance the building of the RSM.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1851
 
 
The schooner "America" wins race around Isle of Wight and brings the America's Cup to the U.S.
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Mary Carpenter: "Reformatory Schools... for Juvenile Offenders"
 
 
Carpenter Mary
 

Mary Carpenter, (born April 3, 1807, Exeter, Devon, Eng.—died June 14, 1877, Bristol, Gloucestershire), British philanthropist, social reformer, and founder of free schools for poor children, the “ragged schools.”

 
Ragged school, any of the 19th-century English and Scottish institutions maintained through charity and fostering various educational and other services for poor children, such as elementary schooling, industrial training, religious instruction, clothing clubs, and messenger and bootblack brigades. The schools were allied in 1844 with the founding of the Ragged School Union in London. They rapidly died out after 1870 with the introduction of national compulsory education, though a few remained into the 20th century.
 
 

Mary Carpenter
  Carpenter was educated in the school run by her father, a Unitarian minister. In 1829 she and her mother and sisters opened a girls’ school in Bristol. Later she founded a ragged school in a Bristol slum (1846), a reformatory for boys (1852), and one of England’s first reformatory schools for girls (1854).

In 1833, through the Indian leader Ram Mohun Roy and the Boston philanthropist Joseph Tuckerman, she became interested in India, which she visited four times. After her third visit (1869–70) Carpenter decided that she could supervise her model school for Hindu girls more effectively from England than in India. In the year of her return, she established the National Indian Association to inform English opinion on the needs of India. Three years later she visited North America and reported on the defects of the prison systems there, particularly in Canada.
Carpenter supported the movement for higher education for women and wrote pamphlets and books on ragged schools, reformatories, juvenile delinquency, and Indian social reform, all of which aroused interest and were responsible for legislation affecting reformatories and industrial schools.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1851
 
 
First double-decker bus introduced
 
 
A double-decker bus is a bus that has two storeys or decks. Double-decker buses are used for mass transit in the United Kingdom, an iconic example being the red London bus. Double-decker buses are also used in many other cities around the world.

Early double-deckers put the driver in a separate cab. Passenger access was via an open platform at the rear, and a conductor would collect fares. Modern double-deckers have a main entrance door at the front, and the driver takes fares, thus halving the number of bus workers aboard, but slowing the boarding process. The rear open platform, popular with passengers, was abandoned for "health and safety" reasons.

Double-deckers are primarily for commuter transport but open-top models are used as sight-seeing buses for tourists. William Gladstone, speaking of London's double-deck horse drawn omnibuses, once observed, "...the best way to see London is from the top of a bus".

 
 

Left, double-decker bus Schneider Brillié P2; Center, double decker horse-drawn omnibus,
between 1907 and 1911
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Gold found in Victoria, New South Wales, Australia (Victoria, state of Australia)
 
 

Victoria, Australia
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Knickerbocker Baseball Team beats Washington at Red House Grounds, New York
 
 
 
1851
 
 
"The New York Times"
 

The New York Times, morning daily newspaper published in New York City, long the newspaper of record in the United States and one of the world’s great newspapers. Its strength is in its editorial excellence; it has never been the largest newspaper in terms of circulation.

 
The Times was established in 1851 as a penny paper that would avoid sensationalism and report the news in a restrained and objective fashion. It enjoyed early success as its editors set a pattern for the future by appealing to a cultured, intellectual readership instead of a mass audience. But its high moral tone was no asset in the heated competition of other papers for readers in New York City. Despite price increases, the Times was losing $1,000 a week when Adolph Simon Ochs bought it in 1896.

Ochs built the Times into an internationally respected daily. Aided by an editor he hired away from the New York Sun, Carr Van Anda, Ochs placed greater stress than ever on full reporting of the news of the day, maintained and emphasized existing good coverage of international news, eliminated fiction from the paper, added a Sunday magazine section, and reduced the paper’s newsstand price back to a penny. The paper’s imaginative and risky exploitation of all available resources to report every aspect of the sinking of the Titanic in April 1912 greatly enhanced its prestige. In its coverage of two world wars the Times continued to enhance its reputation for excellence in world news.

In 1971 the Times became the centre of controversy when it published a series of reports based on the “Pentagon Papers,” a secret government study of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War that had been covertly given to the Times by government officials. The U.S. Supreme Court found that the publication was protected by the freedom-of-the-press clause in the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The publication of the “Pentagon Papers” brought the Times a Pulitzer Prize in 1972, and by 2015 the paper had won 114 Pulitzers, considerably more than any other news organization.

 
First published issue of New-York Daily Times, on September 18, 1851.
 
 
Later in the 1970s the paper, under Adolph Ochs’s grandson, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, introduced sweeping changes in the organization of the newspaper and its staff and brought out a national edition transmitted by satellite to regional printing plants.

The Times continued to utilize technology to expand its circulation, launching an online edition in 1995 and employing colour photography in its print edition in 1997. The publication introduced a subscription service called TimesSelect in 2005 and charged subscribers for access to portions of its online edition, but the program was discontinued two years later, and all news, editorial columns, and much of its archival content was opened to the public. In 2006 the Times launched an electronic version, the Times Reader, which allowed subscribers to download the current print edition. The following year the publication relocated to the newly constructed New York Times Building in Manhattan. Soon thereafter it began—like many industry publications—to struggle to redefine its role in the face of free Internet content. In 2011 the Times instituted a subscription plan for its digital edition that limited free access to content.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Maine and Illinois begin to enforce prohibition against liquor
 
 
 
1851
 
 
Population statistics (in millions): China, 430; Germany, 34: France, 33; Great Britain, 20.8; U.S. 23
 
 
 

 
 
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