Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1850 Part III NEXT-1851 Part I    
1850 - 1859
History at a Glance
1850 Part I
Compromise of 1850
Constitution of Prussia
The eight Kaffir War, 1850-1853
Masaryk Tomas
Kitchener Horatio Herbert
Erfurt Union
Fillmore Millard
Taiping Rebellion
Hong Xiuquan
Feng Yunshan
Yang Xiuqing
Shi Dakai
1850 Part II
Protestant churches in Prussia
Public Libraries Act 1850
Schopenhauer: "Parerga und Paralipomena"
Herbert Spencer: "Social Statics"
E. B. Browning: "Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Emerson: "Representative Men"
Hawthorne: "The Scarlet Letter"
Herzen Aleksandr
Ibsen: "Catiline"
Loti Pierre
Maupassant Guy
Guy de Maupassant
Stevenson Robert Louis
Robert Louis Stevenson  
"Treasure Island
Turgenev: "A Month in the Country"
1850 Part III
Corot: "Une Matinee"
Courbet: "The Stone Breakers"
Menzel: "Round Table at Sansouci"
Millais: "Christ in the House of His Parents"
Millet: "The Sower"
Bristow George Frederick
George Frederick Bristow - Dream Land
George Frederick Bristow
Schumann: "Genoveva"
Wagner: "Lohengrin"
1850 Part IV
Bernard Claude
Clausius Rudolf
Stephenson Robert
Chebyshev Pafnuty Lvovich
Barth Heinrich
Galton Francis
Anderson Karl John
McClure Robert
McClure Arctic Expedition
Royal Meteorological Society
University of Sydney
1851 Part I
Victoria, state of Australia
Murdock Joseph Ballard
Machado Bernardino
Bourgeois Leon Victor Auguste
Foch Ferdinand
Bombardment of Sale
French coup d'état
Danilo II
Hawthorne: "The House of Seven Gables"
Gottfried Keller: "Der grune Heinrich"
Ward Humphry
Ruskin: "The Stones of Venice"
1851 Part II
Herman Melville: "Moby Dick"
Corot: "La Danse des Nymphes"
Walter Thomas Ustick
Ward Leslie
Crystal Palace
Falero Luis Ricardo
Luis Ricardo Falero
Kroyer Peder
Peder Kroyer
Hughes Edward Robert
Edward Robert Hughes
1851 Part III
Gounod: "Sappho"
D’Indy Vincent
Vincent D'Indy - Medee
Vincent d'Indy
Verdi: "Rigoletto"
Bogardus James
Cast-iron architecture
Kapteyn Jacobus Cornelius
Helmholtz's ophthalmoscope
Neumann Franz Ernst
Ruhmkorff Heinrich Daniel
Singer Isaac Merrit
Cubitt William
Thomson William
Royal School of Mines
Carpenter Mary
"The New York Times"
1852 Part I
Joffre Joseph
Second French Empire
Second Anglo-Burmese War
New Zealand Constitution Act
Asquith Herbert Henry
Pierce Franklin
Delisle Leopold Victor
Fischer Kuno
First Plenary Council of Baltimore
Vaihinger Hans
Gioberti Vincenzo
1852 Part II
Bourget Paul
Creasy Edward
Creasy: "The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo"
Charles Dickens: "Bleak House"
Theophile Gautier: "Emaux et Camees"
Moore George
Reade Charles
Harriet Beecher Stowe: "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Thackeray: "History of Henry Esmond"
Turgenev: "A Sportsman's Sketches"
Zhukovsky Vasily
1852 Part III
Fopd Madox Brown: "Christ Washing Peter's Feet"
William Holman Hunt: "The Light of the World"
John Everett Millais: "Ophelia"
Bryullov Karl
Karl Bryullov
Stanford Charles
Charles Villiers Stanford - Piano Concerto No.2
Charles Stanford
Becquerel Henri
Gerhardt Charles Frederic
Van’t Hoff Jacobus Henricus
Mathijsen Antonius
Michelson Albert
Ramsay William
Sylvester James Joseph
United All-England Eleven
Wells Fargo & Company
1853 Part I
Eugenie de Montijo
Crimean War
Battle of Sinop
Rhodes Cecil
Peter V
Nagpur Province
1853 Part II
Mommsen: "History of Rome"
Matthew Arnold: "The Scholar-Gipsy"
Charlotte Bronte: "Villette"
Caine Hall
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Ruth"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Tanglewood Tales"
Charles Kingsley: "Hypatia"
Tree Herbert Beerbohm
Charlotte M. Yonge: "The Heir of Redclyffe"
1853 Part III
Haussmann Georges-Eugene
Larsson Carl
Carl Larsson
Hodler Ferdinand
Ferdinand Hodler
Van Gogh Vincent
Vincent van Gogh
Steinway Henry Engelhard
Verdi: "Il Trovatore"
Verdi: "La Traviata"
Wood Alexander
"Die Gartenlaube"
International Statistical Congress
1854 Part I
Bloemfontein Convention
Orange Free State
Battle of the Alma
Menshikov Alexander Sergeyevich
Siege of Sevastopol (1854-1855)
Kornilov Vladimir Alexeyevich
Battle of Balaclava
Battle of Inkerman
Perry Matthew Calbraith
Gadsden Purchase
Bleeding Kansas (1854–59)
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Elgin-Marcy Treaty
Republican Party
Said of Egypt
Ostend Manifesto
1854 Part II
Herzog Johann
Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau
Youthful Offenders Act 1854
Immaculate Conception
Patmore Coventry
Patmore: "The Angel in the House"
Sandeau Leonard
Guerrazzi Francesco Domenico
Rimbaud Arthur
Arthur Rimbaud "Poems"
Tennyson: "The Charge of the Light Brigade"
Thackeray: "The Rose and the Ring"
Thoreau: "Walden, or Life in the Woods"
1854 Part III
Courbet: "Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet"
Frith William Powell
William Frith
Millet: "The Reaper"
Angrand Charles
Charles Angrand
Gotch Thomas Cooper
Thomas Cooper Gotch
Berlioz: "The Infant Christ"
Humperdinck Engelbert
Humperdinck - Hansel und Gretel
Liszt: "Les Preludes"
1854 Part IV
Poincare Henri
Eastman George
Ehrenberg Christian Gottfried
Paul Ehrlich
Goebel Henry
George Boole: "The Laws of Thought"
Riemann Bernhard
Wallace Alfred Russel
Southeast Asia
"Le Figaro"
Litfass Ernst
Northcote–Trevelyan Report
Maurice Frederick Denison
1855 Part I
Alexander II
Istomin Vladimir Ivanovich
Somerset FitzRoy
Nakhimov Pavel Stepanovich
Treaty of Peshawar
Bain Alexander
Droysen Johann
Gratry Auguste
Milman Henry
Le Play Pierre
1855 Part II
Charles Kingsley: "Westward Ho!"
Nerval Gerard
Charles Dickens "Little Dorrit"
Ganghofer Ludwig
Longfellow: "The Song of Hiawatha"
Corelli Marie
Pinero Arthur Wing
Tennyson: "Maud"
Anthony Trollope: "The Warden"
Turgenev: "Rudin"
Walt Whitman: "Leaves of Grass"
Berlioz: "Те Deum"
Verdi: "Les Vepres Siciliennes"
Chansson Ernest
Chausson - Poeme
Ernest Chausson
1855 Part III
Hughes David Edward
Lowell Percival
Cunard Line
"The Daily Telegraph"
Niagara Falls suspension bridge
Paris World Fair
1856 Part I
Victoria Cross
Doctrine of Lapse
Oudh State
Ottoman Reform Edict of 1856
Congress of Paris
Treaty of Paris (1856)
Napoleon, Prince Imperial
Sacking of Lawrence
Pottawatomie massacre
Second Opium War (1856-1860)
Anglo–Persian War (1856-1857)
Buchanan James
1856 Part II
Froude: "History of England"
Goldstucker Theodor
Lotze Rudolf Hermann
Motley: "Rise of the Dutch Republic"
Flaubert: "Madame Bovary"
Haggard Henry Rider
Victor Hugo: "Les Contemplations"
Charles Reade: "It Is Never Too Late to Mend"
Shaw George Bernard
Wilde Oscar
1856 Part III
Berlage Hendrik Petrus
Ferstel Heinrich
Sargent John
John Singer Sargent
Vrubel Mikhail
Mikhail Vrubel
Cross Henri Edmond
Henri-Edmond Cross
Bechstein Carl
Dargomyzhsky Alexander
Alexander Dargomyzhsky: "Rusalka"
Alexander Dargomyzhsky
Maillart Aime
Aime Maillart - Les Dragons de Villars
Sinding Christian
Sinding - Suite in A minor
Christian Sinding
1856 Part IV
Bessemer Henry
Bessemer process
Freud Sigmund
Sigmund Freud
Peary Robert Edwin
Pringsheim Nathanael
Siemens Charles William
Hardie James Keir
Taylor Frederick Winslow
"Big Ben"
1857 Part I
Treaty of Paris
Indian Rebellion of 1857
Italian National Society
Manin Daniele
Taft William Howard
1857 Part II
Buckle Henry Thomas
Buckle: "History of Civilization in England"
Charles Baudelaire: "Les Fleurs du mal"
Conrad Joseph
Joseph Conrad 
"Lord Jim"
George Eliot: "Scenes from Clerical Life"
Hughes Thomas
Thomas Hughes: "Tom Brown's Schooldays"
Mulock Dinah
 Pontoppidan Henrik
Adalbert Stifter: "Nachsommer"
Sudermann Hermann
Thackeray: "The Virginians"
Anthony Trollope: "Barchester Towers"
1857 Part III
Klinger Max
Max Klinger
Millet: "The Gleaners"
Dahl Johan Christian
Johan Christian Dahl
Leoncavallo Ruggero
Ruggero Leoncavallo - Pagliacci
Ruggero Leoncavallo 
Elgar Edward
Edward Elgar - The Light of Life
Edward Elgar
Kienzl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Kienzl - Symphonic Variations
Wilhelm Kienzl
Liszt: "Eine Faust-Symphonie"
1857 Part IV
Coue Emile
Hertz Heinrich
Wagner-Jauregg Julius
Ross Ronald
Newton Charles Thomas
Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Burton Richard
Speke John Hanning
The Nile Quest
McClintock Francis
Alpine Club
"The Atlantic Monthly"
Baden-Powell Robert
Matrimonial Causes Act
North German Lloyd
1858 Part I
Orsini Felice
Stanley Edward
Treaty of Tientsin
Government of India Act 1858
Law Bonar
William I
Karageorgevich Alexander
Roosevelt Theodore
1858 Part II
Bernadette Soubirous
Carey Henry Charles
Thomas Carlyle: "History of Friedrich II of Prussia"
Hecker Isaac
Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle
Rothschild Lionel Nathan
Schaff Philip
Benson Frank
Feuillet Octave
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table"
Kainz Joseph
Lagerlof Selma
1858 Part III
Corinth Lovis
Lovis Corinth
William Powell Frith: "The Derby Day"
Menzel: "Bon soir, Messieurs"
Segantini Giovanni
Giovanni Segantini
Khnopff Fernand
Fernand Khnopff
Toorop Jan
Cornelius Peter
Cornelius: "Der Barbier von Bagdad"
Jaques Offenbach: "Orpheus in der Unterwelt"
Puccini Giacomo
Giacomo Puccini: Donna non vidi mai
Giacomo Puccini
1858 Part IV
Diesel Rudolf
Huxley Thomas Henry
Planck Max
Mirror galvanometer
General Medical Council
Suez Canal Company
S.S. "Great Eastern"
Webb Beatrice
Webb Sidney
Transatlantic telegraph cable
1859 Part I
Second Italian War of Independence
Battle of Varese
Battle of Palestro
Battle of Magenta
Battle of Solferino
Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies
Francis II of the Two Sicilies
Charles XV of Sweden
German National Association
Jaures Jean
Roon Albrecht
William II
1859 Part II
Bergson Henri
Henri Bergson
Bergson Henri "Creative Evolution"
Charles Darwin: "On the Origin of Species"
Dewey John
Husserl Edmund
Karl Marx: "Critique of Political Economy"
John Stuart Mill: "Essay on Liberty"
Tischendorf Konstantin
Codex Sinaiticus
Villari Pasquale
1859 Part III
Dickens: "A Tale of Two Cities"
Doyle Arthur Conan
Arthur Conan Doyle  
Duse Eleonora
George Eliot: "Adam Bede"
Edward Fitzgerald: "Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam"
Ivan Goncharov: "Oblomov"
Hamsun Knut
Heidenstam Verner
Housman Alfred Edward
A.E. Housman 
"A Shropshire Lad", "Last Poems"
Victor Hugo: "La Legende des siecles"
Jerome K. Jerome
Tennyson: "Idylls of the King"
1859 Part IV
Corot: "Macbeth"
Gilbert Cass
Millet: "The Angelus"
Hassam Childe
Childe Hassam 
Seurat Georges
Georges Seurat
Whistler: "At the Piano"
Daniel Decatur Emmett: "Dixie"
Gounod: "Faust"
Verdi: "Un Ballo in Maschera"
1859 Part V
Arrhenius Svante
Kirchhoff Gustav
Curie Pierre
Drake Edwin
Drake Well
Plante Gaston
Lead–acid battery
Smith Henry John Stephen
Brunel Isambard Kingdom
Blondin Charles
Lansbury George
Samuel Smiles: "Self-Help"

The original box section Britannia Bridge
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1850 Part IV
Claude Bernard demonstrates glycogenic function of the liver
Bernard Claude

Claude Bernard, (born July 12, 1813, Saint-Julien, France—died Feb. 10, 1878, Paris), French physiologist known chiefly for his discoveries concerning the role of the pancreas in digestion, the glycogenic function of the liver, and the regulation of the blood supply by the vasomotor nerves. On a broader stage, Bernard played a role in establishing the principles of experimentation in the life sciences, advancing beyond the vitalism and indeterminism of earlier physiologists to become one of the founders of experimental medicine. His most seminal contribution was his concept of the internal environment of the organism, which led to the present understanding of homeostasis—i.e., the self-regulation of vital processes.


Claude Bernard
  Early training.
Bernard’s father, Pierre, was a winegrower; his mother, Jeanne Saulnier, was of peasant background. When Claude was very young, his father failed in a wine-marketing venture and tried to make ends meet by teaching school. Despite his efforts, the family never prospered, and when he died, the survivors were left in debt. Educational opportunities were scarce for a poor winegrower’s son in the France of Louis XVIII. The boy studied Latin with the local priest and then was enrolled in a Jesuit-conducted school at Villefranche, where no natural science was taught. At 18 Bernard ended his secondary schooling at Thoissey without a diploma and was apprenticed to an apothecary in a Lyon suburb.

Bernard’s days were spent in menial tasks relieved by errands to a veterinary school or, on his rare times off, by visits to a theatre. He wrote a playlet, La Rose du Rhône, now lost, and then began writing Arthur de Bretagne, a historical drama in five acts. His employer was not pleased, however, and the apprenticeship came to a halt, the youth returning home in July 1833. By November 1834 he was in Paris with the completed manuscript of Arthur de Bretagne and a letter of introduction. The literary critic Saint-Marc Girardin read his play and advised him to try medicine instead of playwriting.

Bernard enrolled that same winter in the Faculty of Medicine in Paris and, in due course, was admitted as an extern in the hospitals. Outwardly reserved and even shy at that time, he had an inner strength that was to overcome poverty and discouragements.

Of 29 students passing the examination for the internship, Bernard ranked 26th. Serving in Paris hospitals were the celebrated doctors Pierre Rayer and François Magendie, and Bernard studied under the latter at both the Hôtel-Dieu and the Collège de France. Magendie noticed Bernard’s skillful dissections and took him on as a research assistant.

Bernard became involved in Magendie’s research on spinal nerves. His first publication dealt with the chorda tympani (a branch of the facial nerve), while his medical dissertation was devoted to the function of the gastric juice in nutrition (1843). These maiden publications were prophetic, for much of his later research concerned neurology and metabolism. Failing in the examination that would have qualified him to teach in the medical school, he collaborated with others in research on digestion and on the exotic poison curare, thus treading two paths that would lead him to fame. He was rather old at the age of 31 to be content with a research assistantship, however, and resigned the position late in 1844. Left in financial straits, he turned his thoughts again toward medical practice.

To save his research career, a friend arranged a marriage of convenience for him with Marie-Françoise Martin, daughter of a Paris doctor. The marriage brought him a dowry of 60,000 francs but was destined to be painfully unhappy. Their separation was to follow his election to the French Academy late in life.


Claude Bernard
  Research on the pancreas and the liver.
In 1847 Bernard became Magendie’s deputy at the Collège de France. This period was marked by a veritable explosion of discoveries, beginning in 1846, when Bernard solved the mystery of the carnivorous rabbits. Puzzled one day by the chance observation that some rabbits were passing clear—not cloudy—urine, just like meat-eating animals, he inferred that they had not been fed and were subsisting on their own tissues. He confirmed his hypothesis by feeding meat to the famished animals. An autopsy of the rabbits yielded an important discovery concerning the role of the pancreas in digestion: the secretions of the pancreas broke down fat molecules into fatty acids and glycerin. Bernard then showed that the principal processes of digestion take place in the small intestine, not in the stomach as was previously believed.

His work on the pancreas led to research on the liver, culminating in his second great discovery, the glycogenic function of the liver. In 1856 Bernard discovered glycogen, a white starchy substance found in the liver. He found that this complex substance was built up by the body from sugar and served as a storage reserve of carbohydrates that could be broken down to sugars as needed, thereby keeping the sugar content of the blood at a constant level. Bernard’s discovery showed that the digestive system not only breaks down complex molecules into simple ones but also does the opposite, building up complex molecules from simpler ones.

Simultaneously, he was nearing his third great achievement—explanation of the regulation of the blood supply by the vasomotor nerves. He discovered in this regard that the vasomotor nerves control the dilation and constriction of blood vessels in response to temperature changes in the environment. For example, in cold weather the blood vessels of the skin constrict in order to conserve heat, while in hot weather they expand to dissipate excess heat. This control mechanism, like the glycogenic functions of the liver, illustrates how the body maintains a stable internal environment in the midst of changing external conditions—a fundamental phenomenon known as homeostasis.

Bernard also conducted important studies on the effects of such poisons as carbon monoxide and curare on the body. He showed that carbon monoxide could substitute for oxygen and combine with hemoglobin, thereby causing oxygen starvation. His experiments with curare showed how this dread poison causes paralysis and death by attacking the motor nerves, while having no effect on the sensory nerves. He demonstrated that, because of this selectivity, curare could be used as an experimental tool in differentiating neuromuscular from primary muscular mechanisms.

Recognition and later work.
Within less than a decade, from obscurity in the shadow of Magendie, he had risen to a commanding position in science. In 1854 a chair of general physiology was created for him in the Sorbonne, and he was elected to the Academy of Sciences. When Magendie died in 1855, Bernard succeeded him as full professor at the Collège de France.

No laboratory had been provided for Bernard at the Sorbonne, but the French emperor Napoleon III, after an interview with him in 1864, remedied the deficiency, at the same time building a laboratory at the Museum of Natural History of the Jardin des Plantes. In 1868 Bernard left the Sorbonne to accept a newly established professorship in general physiology at this museum.

Magendie’s empirical method of conducting experiments without a guiding hypothesis was by then out of date, partly as a result of his own discoveries. Bernard’s historic role was to demonstrate the experimenter’s need for a guiding hypothesis to be either confirmed or refuted by the results.

For various reasons, a shift was occurring in Bernard’s scientific interests. The productive researcher was turning into a philosopher of science. Failing health after 1860 led him to spend more time at Saint-Julien, less time in the laboratory. Bernard suffered apparently from chronic enteritis, with symptoms affecting the pancreas and the liver. By way of compensation, the enforced leisure left him time for reflection, out of which would come his masterpiece, Introduction à la médecine expérimentale (1865; An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine).

This work was planned as a preface, if a very long one, to a work of greater magnitude, never completed. Bernard’s aim in the Introduction was to demonstrate that medicine, in order to progress, must be founded on experimental physiology.

  The other points in his argument are that (1) the physical and chemical sciences provide the foundation for physiology, although it is not reducible to them; (2) the notion of “vital force” does not explain life; (3) vivisection is indispensable for physiological research; and (4) biology depends on recognizing that the processes of life are mechanistically determined by physico-chemical forces. Still germane for modern science is his presentation of the concept of the milieu intérieur, or “internal environment,” of the body.

The book brought new honours to Bernard, notably election to the French Academy in 1868. His friends included such literary figures as Ernest Renan, Hippolyte Taine, and the Goncourts, besides such scientists as Louis Pasteur and Marcellin Berthelot.

The most renowned of the students trained by Bernard were Albert Dastre, Paul Bert, and Arsène d’Arsonval. Bert succeeded Bernard in the Sorbonne when the latter transferred to the Museum of Natural History in 1868. Bernard’s own experiments were taking new directions. The phenomena common to animals and plants formed the subject of lectures published posthumously. He also began research on fermentation. His findings were published after his death by Berthelot and, because they conflicted with Pasteur’s views, cast a cloud over the microbe hunter’s memory of his late colleague.

Bernard’s health had declined precipitously in the autumn of 1877. On New Year’s Day he caught cold, and shortly afterward inflammation of the kidneys set in. Soon he was confined to his bed. At his death Bernard was accorded a funeral arranged and financed by the government, the first ever granted to a scientist in France.

Reino Virtanen

Encyclopædia Britannica

R. W. Bunsen (Bunsen Robert) produces gas burner
German physicist Rudolf Clausius formulates second law of thermodynamics, and kinetic theory of gases
Clausius Rudolf
Rudolf Clausius, in full Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (born January 2, 1822, Köslin, Prussia [Poland]—died August 24, 1888, Bonn, Germany), German mathematical physicist who formulated the second law of thermodynamics and is credited with making thermodynamics a science.

Rudolf Clausius
  Clausius was appointed professor of physics at the Artillery and Engineering School at Berlin in 1850, the same year in which he presented a paper stating the second law of thermodynamics in the well-known form: “Heat cannot of itself pass from a colder to a hotter body.” He applied his results to an exhaustive development of the theory of the steam engine, stressing the concept of entropy (dissipation of available energy). He became professor of physics at Zürich Polytechnikum in 1855, and, two years later, contributed to the theory of electrolysis (the breaking down of a compound by electricity) by suggesting that molecules are made up of continually interchanging atoms and that electric force does not cause but simply directs the interchange. This view later was used as the basis of the theory of electrolytic dissociation (breakdown of molecules into charged atoms or ions).

He became professor of physics at the University of Würzburg in 1867 and at the University of Bonn in 1869. In molecular physics, Clausius restated the French physicist Sadi Carnot’s principle concerning efficiency of heat engines and thus provided a much sounder basis for the theory of heat.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Hermann von Helmholtz (Helmholtz Hermann) establishes speed of nervous impulse
Stephenson's cast-iron railroad bridge at Newcastle, England, opened
Stephenson Robert
Robert Stephenson, (born Oct. 16, 1803, Willington Quay, Northumberland, Eng.—died Oct. 12, 1859, London), outstanding English Victorian civil engineer and builder of many long-span railroad bridges, most notably the Britannia Bridge over the Menai Strait, North Wales.

Robert Stephenson
  He was the only son of George Stephenson, inventor of the railroad locomotive. He was educated at Bruce’s Academy, Newcastle upon Tyne, and at the University of Edinburgh. He assisted his father in survey work for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1821 and afterward on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. After serving as a mining engineer in Colombia, he returned to England, where he made many improvements in locomotives and in 1833 was appointed chief engineer of the London and Birmingham Railway. In this position he directed several major engineering works, such as the cutting, or excavation, at Blisworth and the Kilsby Tunnel. Next undertaking a new railroad line from Newcastle to Berwick, he spanned the Tyne River with a six-arch iron bridge, using James Nasmyth’s newly invented steam hammer to drive the bridge’s foundations. Called on to build a secure railroad bridge over the Menai Strait, between the Isle of Anglesey and the Welsh mainland, Stephenson conceived a unique tubular design, the success of which led to several other tubular bridges built by Stephenson in England and other countries. (Following a fire in 1970, the Britannia Bridge underwent extensive repairs, and the tubes were replaced by concrete decks supported by steel arches.)

Encyclopædia Britannica


The Dee bridge after the collapse
Bridge builder
The Chester & Holyhead Railway received its permission in 1845 and Robert became the chief engineer and designed an iron bridge to cross the River Dee just outside Chester. Completed in September 1846, it was inspected by the Broad of Trade Inspector, Major-General Paisley, on 20 October.[169] On 24 May 1847 the bridge gave way under a passenger train; the locomotive and driver made it across, but the tender and carriages fell into the river. Five people died. Conder attended the inquest at Chester: he recounts that Paisley was so agitated he was nearly unable to speak, Robert was pale and haggard and the foreman of the jury seemed determined to get a verdict of manslaughter. Robert had been prepared to admit liability, but was persuaded to present a defence that the cast-iron girder could only have fractured because the tender had derailed due to a broken wheel. Robert was supported by expert witnesses such Locke, Charles Vignoles, Gooch and Kennedy, and a verdict of accidental death was returned. Robert never used long cast-iron girders again and a Royal Commission was later set up to look at the use of cast iron by the railway companies.

The original box section Britannia Bridge, circa 1852.
The Britannia Bridge was built for the Chester & Holyhead Railway to cross the Menai Straits from Wales to the island of Anglesey. The bridge needed to be 1,511 feet (461 m) long, and the Admiralty insisted on a single span 100 feet (30 m) above the water. Problems during the launch of the wrought-iron steamship the Prince of Wales meant that she fell with her hull not supported for 110 feet (34 m), but was undamaged. Robert was inspired by this and with William Fairbairn and Eaton Hodgkinson designed a wrought-iron tubular bridge large enough for a train to pass through. They experimented with models in 1845 and 1846, and decided to use similar design on the 400-foot (120 m) Conwy Bridge to gain experience. The first Conwy tube was floated into position in March 1848 and lifted the following month, allowing a single line railway to open on 1 May. The second tube was lifted into position that October; on these days Brunel was with Robert supporting his friend. The positioning of the first of the four tubes for the Britannia Bridge was carried out in June 1849, when both Brunel and Locke were with Robert, and this was lifted into position in October. The second tube was in lifted into place 7 January 1850, a single line was open to public traffic through these tubes 18 March 1850, and the second line was open 19 October.

The High Level Bridge in Newcastle
The route north of Newcastle to Edinburgh along the coast, via Morpeth and Berwick, had been recommended by George in 1838, and Hudson promoted this route for the Newcastle and Berwick Railway in 1843. The required Act, which, was given Royal Assent in 1845, included a high level road and rail bridge across the Tyne at Newcastle and the Royal Border Bridge across the Tweed at Berwick. The High Level Bridge is 1,372 feet (418 m) long and 146 feet (45 m) high and made from cast-iron bows held taut by horizontal wrought-iron strings. The first train crossed the Tyne on a temporary wooden structure in August 1848; the iron bridge was formally opened by Queen Victoria in September 1849, Robert having been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June. The bridge across the Tweed is a 28-arch stone viaduct, and was opened by the Queen on 29 August 1850. At the celebratory dinner Robert sat beside the Queen; he had just been offered a knighthood, but had declined.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pafnuti L. Chebyshev: "On Primary Numbers"
Chebyshev Pafnuty Lvovich

Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev, (born May 4 [May 16, New Style], 1821, Okatovo, Russia—died November 26 [December 8], 1894, St. Petersburg), founder of the St. Petersburg mathematical school (sometimes called the Chebyshev school), who is remembered primarily for his work on the theory of prime numbers and on the approximation of functions.


Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev
  Chebyshev became assistant professor of mathematics at the University of St. Petersburg (now St. Petersburg State University) in 1847. In 1860 he became a correspondent and in 1874 a foreign associate of the Institut de France. He developed a basic inequality of probability theory called Chebyshev’s inequality, a generalized form of the Bienaymé-Chebyshev inequality, and used the latter inequality to give a very simple and precise demonstration of the generalized law of large numbers—i.e., the average value for a large sample of identically distributed random variables converges to the average for individual variables.

Chebyshev proved Joseph Bertrand’s conjecture that for any n > 3 there must exist a prime between n and 2n. He also contributed to the proof of the prime number theorem (see number theory: prime number theorem), a formula for determining the number of primes below a given number. He studied theoretical mechanics and devoted much attention to the problem of obtaining rectilinear motion from rotary motion by mechanical linkage. The Chebyshev parallel motion is a three-bar linkage that gives a very close approximation to exact rectilinear motion. His mathematical writings covered a wide range of subjects, including the theory of probabilities, quadratic forms, orthogonal functions, the theory of integrals, gearings, the construction of geographic maps, and formulas for the computation of volumes.

His important work on the approximation of functions by means of Chebyshev polynomials advanced applied mathematics. His Teoria sravneny (1849; “Theory of Congruences”) made him widely known in the mathematical world and was used as a textbook in Russian universities for many years.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Barth Heinrich

Heinrich Barth (16 February 1821 – 25 November 1865) was a German explorer of Africa and scholar.

Barth is thought to be one of the greatest of the European explorers of Africa, as his scholarly preparation, ability to speak and write Arabic, learning African languages, and character meant that he carefully documented the details of the cultures he visited. He was among the first to comprehend the uses of oral history of peoples, and collected many. He established friendships with African rulers and scholars during his five years of travel (1850–1855). After the deaths of two European companions, he completed his travels with the aid of Africans. Afterwards, he wrote and published a five-volume account of his travels in both English and German. It has been invaluable for scholars of his time and since.


Heinrich Barth
Barth was born in Hamburg. He was educated at the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums and the University of Berlin, where he graduated in 1844. He studied under the guidance of scholars such as Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Ranke, Friedrich von Schelling and Jakob Grimm, who all laid the foundations of human geography and historical research in the modern sense, as an expression of the Enlightenment.

Barth had already visited Italy and Sicily; he formed a plan to journey through the Mediterranean countries. After studying Arabic in London, he set out on his travels in 1845. He acted for the British Foreign Office in 1850.

In North Africa and the Near East

From Tangier, Barth made his way overland across North Africa. He also traveled through Egypt, ascending the Nile to Wadi Halfa and crossing the desert to the port of Berenice on the Red Sea. While in Egypt, he was attacked and wounded by robbers.

Crossing the Sinai peninsula, he traversed Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor, Turkey and Greece, everywhere examining the remains of antiquity; and returned to Berlin in 1847. For a time he was engaged there as Privatdozent.

He described his travels in his book, Wanderungen durch die Küstenländer des Mittelmeeres, which was published in 1849.
Christian Bunsen, the Prussian ambassador to Westminster, encouraged the appointment of scholars, including Barth and Adolf Overweg, a Prussian astronomer, to the expedition of James Richardson, an explorer of the Sahara.

He had been selected by the British government to open up commercial relations with the states of the central and western Sudan. The party left Marseilles in late 1849, and departed from Tripoli early in 1850. They crossed the Sahara Desert with great difficulty.

Route of Barth's journey through Africa between 1850 and 1855
The deaths of Richardson (March 1851) and Overweg (September 1852), who died of unknown diseases, left Barth to carry on the scientific mission alone. Barth was the first European to visit Adamawa in 1851. When he returned to Tripoli in September 1855, his journey had extended over 24° of latitude and 20° of longitude, from Tripoli in the north to Adamawa and Cameroon in the south, and from Lake Chad and Bagirmi in the east to Timbuktu (September 1853) in the west — upward of 12,000 miles (19,000 km). He studied minutely the topography, history, civilizations, languages, and resources of the countries he visited. His success as an explorer and historian of Africa was based both on his patient character and his scholarly education.

Heinrich Barth approaching Timbuktu on September 7th 1853 as depicted by Martin Bernatz.
In Sudan, the Sahara and Western Africa
Barth was interested in the history and culture of the African peoples, rather than the possibilities of commercial exploitation. Due to his level of documentation, his journal has become an invaluable source for the study of 19th-century Sudanic Africa. Although Barth was not the first European visitor who paid attention to the local oral traditions, he was the first who seriously considered its methodology and use for historical research. Barth was the first true scholar to travel and study in West Africa. Earlier explorers such as René Caillié, Dixon Denham and Hugh Clapperton had no academic knowledge.

Barth was fluent in Arabic and seven African languages and was able to investigate the history of some regions, particularly the Songhay Empire. He established close relations with a number of African scholars and rulers, from Umar I ibn Muhammad al-Amin in Bornu, through the Katsina and Sokoto regions to Timbuktu. There his friendship with Ahmad al-Bakkai al-Kunti led to his staying in his house; he also received protection from al-Kunti against an attempt to seize him.


Heinrich Barth's house in Timbuktu (in 1908 before its collapse)
Barth returned from Great Britain to Germany, where he prepared a collection of Central African vocabularies (Gotha, 1862–1866). In 1858 he undertook another journey in Asia Minor, and in 1862 visited the Turkish provinces in Europe.

In the following year he was granted a professorship of geography (without chair or regular pay) at Berlin University and appointed president of the Geographical Society. His admission to the Prussian Academy of Sciences was denied, as it was claimed that he had achieved nothing for historiography and linguistics. They did not fully understand his achievements, which have been ratified by scholars over time.

Barth died in Berlin aged 44. His grave is preserved in the Protestant Friedhof III der Jerusalems- und Neuen Kirchengemeinde (Cemetery No. III of the congregations of Jerusalem's Church and New Church) in Berlin-Kreuzberg, south of Hallesches Tor.


Barth (1850-1855)

see also:

Navigation of the Niger
Barth wrote and published accounts of his travels simultaneously in English and German, under the title Reisen und Entdeckungen in Nord- und Zentralafrika (Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa; 1857–1858, 5 volumes., approx. 3,500 pages). It was considered one of the finest works of its kind at the time,being cited by Darwin. It is still used by historians of Africa, and remains an important scientific work on African cultures of the age.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Galton Francis

Sir Francis Galton, (born Feb. 16, 1822, near Sparkbrook, Birmingham, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Jan. 17, 1911, Grayshott House, Haslemere, Surrey), English explorer, anthropologist, and eugenicist, known for his pioneering studies of human intelligence. He was knighted in 1909.


Sir Francis Galton
  Early life.
Galton’s family life was happy, and he gratefully acknowledged that he owed much to his father and mother. But he had little use for the conventional classical and religious teaching he received in school and church. Indeed, he later confessed in a letter to Charles Darwin that the traditional biblical arguments had made him “wretched.” His parents had planned that he should study medicine, and a tour of medical institutions on the Continent in his teens—an unusual experience for a student of his age—was followed by training in hospitals in Birmingham and London. But at this time, in Galton’s words, “a passion for travel seized me as if I had been a migratory bird.” A visit to the University of Giessen, Germany, to attend lectures on chemistry was broken off in favour of travel in southeastern Europe. From Vienna he made his way through Constanza, Constantinople, Smyrna, and Athens, and he brought back from the caves of Adelsberg (present-day Postojina, Slovenia) specimens of a blind amphibian named Proteus—the first to reach England. On his return Galton went to Trinity College, Cambridge, where, as a result of overwork, he broke down in his third year. But he recovered quickly on changing his mode of life, as he did from similar attacks later.

Travels and exploration.
After leaving Cambridge without taking a degree, Galton continued his medical studies in London. But before they were completed, his father died, leaving him “a sufficient fortune to make me independent of the medical profession.”

Galton was then free to indulge his craving for travel. Leisurely expeditions in 1845–46 up the Nile with friends and into the Holy Land alone were preliminaries to a carefully organized penetration into unexplored parts of southwestern Africa. After consulting the Royal Geographical Society, Galton decided to investigate a possible opening from the south and west to Lake Ngami, which lies north of the Kalahari desert some 550 miles east of Walvis Bay. The expedition, which included two journeys, one northward, the other eastward, from the same base, proved to be difficult and not without danger. Though the explorers did not reach Lake Ngami, they gained valuable information. As a result, at the age of only 31, Galton was in 1853 elected a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and, three years later, of the Royal Society. In 1853, too, Galton married. There were no children of the marriage. Galton wrote 9 books and some 200 papers. They deal with many diverse subjects, including the use of fingerprints for personal identification, the correlational calculus (a branch of applied statistics)—in both of which Galton was a pioneer—twins, blood transfusions, criminality, the art of travel in undeveloped countries, and meteorology. Most of Galton’s publications disclose his predilection for quantifying; an early paper, for example, dealt with a statistical test of the efficacy of prayer. Moreover, over a period of 34 years, he concerned himself with improving standards of measurement.

Sir Francis Galton by Charles Wellington Furse
  Advocacy of eugenics.
Although he made contributions to many fields of knowledge, eugenics remained Galton’s fundamental interest, and he devoted the latter part of his life chiefly to propagating the idea of improving the physical and mental makeup of the human species by selective parenthood. Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, was among the first to recognize the implications for mankind of Darwin’s theory of evolution. He saw that it invalidated much of contemporary theology and that it also opened possibilities for planned human betterment. Galton coined the word eugenics to denote scientific endeavours to increase the proportion of persons with better than average genetic endowment through selective mating of marriage partners. In his Hereditary Genius (1869), in which he used the word genius to denote “an ability that was exceptionally high and at the same time inborn,” his main argument was that mental and physical features are equally inherited—a proposition that was not accepted at the time. It is surprising that when Darwin first read this book, he wrote to the author: “You have made a convert of an opponent in one sense for I have always maintained that, excepting fools, men did not differ much in intellect, only in zeal and hard work.”
This book doubtless helped Darwin to extend his evolution theory to man. Galton, unmentioned in Origin of Species (1859), is several times quoted in Darwin’s Descent of Man (1871). Galton’s conviction that mental traits are no less inherited than are physical characteristics was strong enough to shape his personal religious philosophy. “We cannot doubt,” he wrote, “the existence of a great power ready to hand and capable of being directed with vast benefit as soon as we have learned to understand and apply it.”

Galton’s Inquiries into Human Faculty (1883) consists of some 40 articles varying in length from 2 to 30 pages, which are mostly based on scientific papers written between 1869 and 1883. The book can in a sense be regarded as a summary of the author’s views on the faculties of man. On all his topics, Galton has something original and interesting to say, and he says it with clarity, brevity, distinction, and modesty. Under the terms of his will, a eugenics chair was established at the University of London.

In the 20th century Galton’s name has been mainly associated with eugenics. Insofar as eugenics takes primary account of inborn differences between human beings, it has come under the suspicion of those who hold that cultural (social and educational) factors heavily outweigh inborn, or biological, factors in their contribution to human differences. Eugenics is accordingly often treated as an expression of class prejudice, and Galton as a reactionary. Yet to some extent this view misrepresents his thought, for his aim was not the creation of an aristocratic elite but of a population consisting entirely of superior men and women. His ideas, like those of Darwin, were limited by a lack of an adequate theory of inheritance; the rediscovery of the work of Mendel came too late to affect Galton’s contribution in any significant way.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Anderson Karl John

Karl John (Karl Johan) Andersson (March 4, 1827, in Värmland, Sweden – July 9, 1867 in Angola) was a Swedish explorer, hunter and trader as well as an amateur naturalist and ornithologist.

He is most famous for the many books he published about his travels, and for being one of the most notable explorers of southern Africa, mostly in present day Namibia.


Charles John Andersson.
Early life

Karl Johan Andersson was born on March 4, 1827, in Värmland in Sweden. He was the illegitimate child of the English bear hunter Llewellyn Lloyd and Lloyd's Swedish servant.

Andersson grew up in Sweden. Early in his life he went on hunting expeditions with his father, experienced Swedish nature and started a collection of biology specimens.

In 1847 he started studies at the University of Lund.

In 1849 he departed for London, intending to sell his collection to raise money for travels around the world. In London he met with the explorer Francis Galton, with whom he organised an expedition to Southern Africa. On midsummer day in 1850 they arrived at the Cape of Good Hope and then travelled to Walvis Bay, in modern-day Namibia.

They then trekked into the interior, at the time little explored by Europeans. They intended to reach Lake Ngami, but failed on that expedition.

Galton returned home to England, while Andersson stayed in the area and reached Lake Ngami in 1853. In 1855 he returned to London, where he published his book "Lake Ngami", in which he describes his travels. He returned to Africa the same year.

Back in south west Africa, Andersson was hired as manager for mines in what was then called Damaraland and Namaqualand.


Charles John Andersson.
  However, he only held the position for a brief time, and continued his explorations. In 1859 he reached the Okavango River, an expedition that he recorded in his book The Okavango River.

After his return, he travelled to the Cape, where he married. Andersson and his wife settled in Otjimbingwe (in modern central Namibia).

Andersson had repeated financial problems. Even though his main interests were exploration and natural history, he often needed to earn money through trade and hunting. He lacked the money needed to publish his books and Galton declined to lend him any.


In 1867, despite serious illness, Andersson travelled north towards the Portuguese settlements in modern Angola, in order to establish a better trading route to Europe. He was unable to cross the Cunene River, so he had to turn back. His condition had worsened during his journey to the Cunene and, on the return journey, he died on 9 July 1867. He was buried by another Swede, Axel Eriksson.
After his death, Andersson's wife and children continued to live in Africa, in the Cape Colony.

His father published notes from some of his expeditions in the book "Notes of Travel in South-Western Africa".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

see also: Southern Africa
McClure Arctic Expedition

The McClure Arctic Expedition of 1850, among numerous British search efforts to determine the fate of the Franklin's lost expedition, is distinguished as the voyage during which Robert McClure became the first person to confirm and transit the Northwest Passage by a combination of sea travel and sledging. McClure and his crew spent three years locked in the pack ice aboard the HMS Investigator before abandoning it before making their escape across the ice.

Rescued by the HMS Resolute, which was itself later lost to the ice, McClure returned to England in 1854, where he was knighted and rewarded for completing the passage.

McClure Robert

Sir Robert John Le Mesurier McClure (or M'Clure) (28 January 1807 – 17 October 1873) was an Irish explorer of the Arctic. In 1854, he was the first to transit the Northwest Passage (by boat and sledge), as well as the first to circumnavigate the Americas.


Sir Robert John Le Mesurier
  Sir Robert John Le Mesurier , (born Jan. 28, 1807, Wexford, County Wexford, Ire.—died Oct. 17, 1873, London), Irish naval officer who discovered a waterway, known as the Northwest Passage, linking the Pacific and Atlantic oceans through Arctic North America. He completed the route, partly by ship and partly overland, during 1850–54.

In 1850 McClure took command of the Investigator, one of two ships sent to find the British explorer Sir John Franklin, missing in the North American Arctic since 1845.

From the Pacific, McClure entered the Bering Strait and, heading eastward north of Alaska, found two entrances to the Northwest Passage around Banks Island, now part of the Northwest Territories of Canada. The Investigator became trapped in the ice of Mercy Bay just north of Banks Island, compelling him to abandon the ship, but his party was rescued by two ships at nearby Melville Island.

The rescue ships were in turn abandoned, and the party proceeded on foot to Beechey Island and then returned home by ship. McClure was knighted in 1854.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Lady Jane Franklin pressed the search for the Franklin Expedition, missing since 1847, into a national priority. McClure had served as first lieutenant of the HMS Enterprise under James Clark Ross in 1848, which returned in 1849 without discovering a trace of the lost explorer. Faced with a continuing lack of progress, the British Admiralty on January 15, 1850 ordered a new expedition to "obtain intelligence, and to render assistance to Sir John Franklin and his companions, and not for the purposes of geographical or scientific research," although a completion of the proposed Northwest Passage from the opposite direction would not be without merit.

Two ships were assigned to this task. The Enterprise was returned to the search under Captain Richard Collinson, and the Investigator under Commander Robert J. McClure in his first Arctic command. Extensive repairs were required for both ships, which had already weathered Arctic service, including the installation of a modern Sylvester's Heating Apparatus. The Investigator, her figurehead representing a walrus, had been fitted with a 10-horsepower locomotive engine and strengthened extensively in 1848.

Preserved meat was secured from Gamble of Cork, Ireland, and although some spoilage was experienced, it had no major impact on the voyage (subsequently discovered to be the case with Franklin).

Double rations of preserved limes were provisioned to offset scurvy. A seven-month voyage across the Atlantic, around Cape Horn, and up the Pacific to the Bering Strait was planned to reach the pack ice during the most ice-free Arctic season. The ships were provisioned for a 3-year voyage.


Map drawn by Robert McClure detailing the Northwest Passage, including the 1851 route of the Investigator.
The initial voyage
On January 10, 1850, the rapidly prepared ships set out from Woolrich, England, then completing the loading of supplies in Plymouth on the 20th. The crew numbered 66, including German clergyman John Miertsching, who served as Inuit interpreter. By March 5 they had crossed the equator southward and slave ships were observed in the latitude of Rio de Janeiro, described by the expedition surgeon Alexander Armstrong as 'suspicious.' Their southernmost extent, the Strait of Magellan, was obtained on March 15, the Enterprise always well ahead of the slower Investigator. The two ships lost direct contact after the strait was completed, although McClure reported (by bottle-message) that he considered their company formally parted on February 1, 1850.

Continuing north through several storms, nearly 1000 lbs of stored biscuit was ruined by water leakage, but was later offset by fresh supplies from the Sandwich Islands. On June 15, the Investigator re-crossed the equator amid clear skies and tropical birds, already having journeyed nearly 15,000 miles. Spirits ran high, with McClure noting of the crew in his journal, "I have much confidence in them. With such a spirit what may not be expected, even if difficulties should arise?" On July 1, they made port at Honolulu, taking on fresh provisions, and having missed the Enterprise by only one day. Five days later McClure set out heading north-west, and aided by prevailing winds made the Arctic Circle on July 28, bypassing his consort ship and HMS Herald. The crew busied themselves by readying the arctic gear as they prepared to explore the Arctic alone.

The Arctic reached
Rather than waiting to rendezvous with the Enterprise, the unusual decision was made to take the Investigator alone into the ice near Cape Lisburne. On July 20, McClure had sent a letter (via the Herald) notifying the Secretary of the Admiralty of this intent, stating that since the Enterprise had already detached from the expedition, and proceeding on alone was the best contingency plan available to insure the success of their mission. The ice fields were sighted on August 2 at 72°1′ north. Unable to find open leads, they rounded Point Barrow and entered unexplored waters and the first ice floes.

Meanwhile the Enterprise, arriving at Point Barrow about a fortnight later than the Investigator, found its passage blocked by ice and had to turn back and winter in Hong Kong, losing an entire season before returning again the following year, this time successfully. The two ships never made contact for the remainder of their journeys, and the Enterprise carried out its own separate Arctic explorations.

On August 8, McClure and the Investigator made contact with local Inuit, who offered no news of Franklin, and were unaccustomed to seeing sailing ships. Making their way along the coast east of Point Barrow, message cairns were left at the site of each landing, crews occasionally trading with local Inuit but obtaining no news of Franklin.

The progress north-west was frustrated by ice and shoals, and at one time the Investigator became grounded so firmly that all stores had to be unloaded to her boats (one of which capsized, losing 3344 lbs of dried beef) before she could be freed. Alternating between pressing ice flows, then open water, McClure's continued to advance to the north-east, reaching the solid pack ice on August 19.

Contact was made with several groups of local Inuit near Point Warren near the Mackenzie River, one of which reported the death of a European. It was soon determined not to be a member of Franklin's party, but that of an overland expedition of Sir John Richardson two years earlier. The ice to the north remained impenetrable, but they made Franklin Bay to the west by September 3 amid much wildlife in air and sea. After sighting an extent of Banks Island, claiming it as "Baring Land", a brief land exploration was made, presumably the first.


see also: Charting the Northwest
A rock formation at a prominent cape was named Nelson Head on September 7 after its imagined resemblance to Lord Nelson. The coast was followed in hopes of access to the north.

Periods of good progress were made, until a wind change caused the ice to close in around the Investigator on September 10, just as they had discovered a route of some promise, the Prince of Wales Strait. Their progress through the ice was deliberate and slow, aided at times by the use of ice anchors and saws. Daily temperatures were now around 10°F. By the 16th, they had reached 73°10′ N, 117°10′ W, logged as her most advanced position. Just short of Barrow's Strait, the rudder was unshipped and winter preparations were begun. A year's worth of provisions were brought on deck in anticipation of the ship being crushed by the pack ice. The dangerously drifting pack finally ground to a halt on September 23.

At times violently shifted by the grinding pack ice, the Investigator endured just south of Princess Royal Island, the pack becoming less violent by September 27, 1850. On the last day of September, the temperature fell below zero for the first time, as the top-gallant masts were taken down for the winter and the last birds were observed. Periods of calm were often punctuated by violent ice movement. McClure noted "The crushing, creaking, and straining are beyond description, and the officer of the watch, when speaking to me, is obliged to put his mouth close to my ear, on account of the deafening noise." The ship was lifted several feet, and black powder was used to blast any nearby hummocks that threatened.

Several explorations across the ice to land were made, and observations left McClure with no doubt as to the existence of a Northwest Passage. In mid-October, formal possession of Prince Albert's Land and several nearby islands was taken. The crew began the routines that would characterize their Winter Quarters, which included lessons in reading, writing, and arithmetic. Hunting opportunities were sparse, although five musk oxen were taken around this time, extending rations (some lost to spoilage) with fresh meat.

The Northwest Passage
On October 21, Captain McClure embarked on a seven-man sledge trip north-east to confirm his observations of a Northwest Passage. McClure provided that confirmation upon his return on the 31st, having seen an unblocked strait to the distant Melville Island from a 600-foot peak (180 m) on Banks Island. The entry placed in the ship's log read:

"October 31st, the Captain returned at 8.30. A.M., and at 11.30. A.M., the remainder of the parting, having, upon the 26th instant, ascertained that the waters we are now in communicate with those of Barrow Strait, the north-eastern limit being in latitude 73°31′, N. longitude 114°39′, W. thus establishing the existence of a NORTH-WEST PASSAGE between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans."

The first winter and summer
The sun departed on November 11, with temperatures averaging −10°F with the below-deck temperature of 48°F, the crew in good health. Below deck air quality was maintained by increased ventillation and regular airing out of the quarters. 1851 was welcomed in as the crew amused themselves, occasionally catching foxes or spotting seals. Winter temperatures averaging −37°F, and on February 3 the sun returned after 83 days of darkness. An emergency depot of provisions and a whaleboat were made on the nearby island. Reindeer, Arctic fox, hare, raven, wolf and a polar bear were observed as local expeditions resumed.

As spring returned, the decks of the Investigator were cleared of snow and repairs begun. Additional local expeditions were mounted, but none with the object of attempting to meet with concurrent regional rescue expeditions; the Resolute under Captain Horatio Austin, believed to be near Melville Island, the Assistance under Captain Erasmus Ommanney, the Pioneer under Lt. John B. Cator, and the Intrepid under Sherard Osborn as well as more distant ships under Captain William Penney, Admiral Sir John Ross, the expedition under Lt. Edwin De Haven and the overland expedition of John Rae.

By mid-May, additional hunting and exploration parties were sent out to supplement the provisions as temperatures rose above zero, some returning with frostbitten invalids, one having met an isolated group of Inuit seal hunters. One party went around Banks Island and showed that it was an island. Another party was on the south shore of Victoria Island at about the same time that John Rae (explorer) passed 40 miles to the south. No traces of Franklin were found. As summer returned, the seven-foot thick ice showed signs of diminishing, the surfaces pooling with water. An early break up was anticipated.

Preparations were made for the ship's anticipated release from the ice. Late June temperatures reached a high of 53°F, but the ice maintained its hold on the Investigator until it was released on July 14, soon under sail amid the grinding floe near the Princess Royal Islands. Progress northward was made, the ship often attached to larger floes, and there was even some anticipation of completing the passage in that direction. However, with August this progress slowed to a crawl as the ice offered few chances to advance through the solid northerly ice.

On August 14, they attained their northern-most position at 73°14′19″ N, 115°32′30″ W in the Prince of Wales Strait. It was later suggested that, if the Investigator had been equipped with a screw propeller, she could have pressed the 45 miles to Melville Island, completed the Northwest Passage, and returned to England in that same year.

The decision to abandon the strait and proceed around the south coast of Baring Island (his name for Banks Island) led them to open water and a wider area of search. Rounding to the north east, they continued through the loose ice until conditions compelled them to secure the ship to an iceberg for protection. Explorations of the nearby coast were made, revealing abandoned Inuit camps and the unusual discovery of petrified wood from an extensive forest at 74°27′ N. As winter showed signs of return, they were threatened by the ice several times while still attached to their iceberg. These events were successfully managed by the crew, often by blasting the ice, but McClure chose not to set off from the iceberg for nearby open water, passing several opportunities to do so.

  The second winter and summer in Mercy Bay
Subsequent efforts to move the ship further eastward made slow progress, but occasional stretches of open water contributing to their progress towards Melville Island. Rather than following the pack ice east, McClure chose to take refuge in an open bay. On September 23 the ice made an end to their progress, as the ship was made ready for a second winter – entering the bay they now occupied seen by some of the crew as a dire mistake. Ship's surgeon Armstrong went so far as to state "Entering this bay was the fatal error of our voyage." The pack ice would have taken them within 50 miles of Melville Island, and improved their chance of an early break-up in the spring. The location of their wintering was 74°6′ N. 117°55′ W., and was subsequently named Mercy Bay.

Diminishing provisions, as well as the subsequent caching of food at the Princess Royal Islands left them with fewer than ideal stores. By October, heating was briefly curtailed until the more severe periods of winter, with temperatures below deck holding near −10°F. Hunting parties were generally successful, although their exploration frustratingly revealed extents of open water that would have provided escape, only 8 miles outside of Mercy Bay. As winter pressed on, the weakening hunting parties frequently required rescue. On November 10, the final 'housing in' of the ship commenced, largely sealing it for the winter. The crew busied themselves in the manufacture of needed items, and adopted patches of gun wadding as their currency. Tedium was severe, with two crewmen briefly going mad with boredom. In December, storms rose up as temperatures continued to fall.

1852 began with the crew generally healthy, maintained largely by the reindeer venison provided by the hunters, temperatures reaching −51°F. Frequent hunting of nearby reindeer continued to supplement the provisions, although the hunters suffered from the cold and occasionally required rescue. Despite the occasional fresh meat, the crew continued to gradually weaken. Of all the ships searching for Franklin the previous year, now only Enterprise and Investigator, separated, remained in the arctic.

On April 11, Captain McClure led seven men out by sledge with 28 days of provisions to reach Melville Island across the ice, and hopefully to make contact with other English explorers in the area. In late April the first case of scurvy was observed, with several others soon to follow. McClure's party returned on May 7, relating that poor visibility and soft snow had hampered their progress. They did not reach Melville Island, but obtained enough of a view of the straight and large harbor to determine that Captain Austin's forces were not present. They did, however, find the cairn left by Sir Edward Parry during his 1819–20 expedition, which also contained a June 1851 communication from Captain Austin. This did not, however, include the information that traces of Franklin's expedition had been found the previous year at Beechey Island.

June found the crews preparing for their expected liberation from the ice of Mercy Bay, and although temperatures rose, it was cooler than the previous year. Cases of scurvy continued to increase, although hunting and gathering of the emerging sorrel provided improvement. By mid-month, the ice outside the bay was already in motion, showing some open water by the 31st. The bay ice remained fixed. By September all hopes of freeing the ship had evaporated, and McClure planned for the possibility of abandoning the ship in the spring, writing that "nothing but the most urgent necessity will induce me to take such a step."


Robert McClure and the crew of the Investigator made their ship fast to an iceberg in Mercy Bay, Banks Island, in the fall of 1851. They had eventually to abandon ship in the spring of 1853, but were rescued and returned to England -the first men to complete the Northwest Passage, albeit in more than one ship.
The third winter
On September 8, McClure announced his plan for springtime escape, in which 26 of the crew would make for Cape Spencer (550 miles away), where Austin had left a cache and a boat, and from there, to seek rescue on Baffin Bay. A smaller party of 8 men would proceed back along the shore of Banks Land, to the cache and boat set by McClure in 1851, then making for the Hudson's Bay Company's post on the Mackenzie River for rescue. This would stretch the provisions for the crews remaining on board the Investigator. To this end, food rations were immediately reduced, and hunting success became ever more critical, which now included mice.

With October, the health of the crew continued to decline, the coming winter the coldest yet. The ship was prepared for winter as temperatures below deck were below freezing. Full darkness returned on November 7. Morale and physical activity, including hunting, waned. The officers continued hunting, often requiring rescue as temperatures reached −65°F. 1852 ended with the crew weaker and more afflicted than ever before, although not a single member of the crew had been lost.

1853 brought the coldest conditions yet, once reaching −67°F. The crew passed the days with minimal activity, working on small projects of necessity and hunting when possible, since McClure had prepared no diversions for his crew. Rations were thin and the sick bay was full, even minor illnesses bringing exaggerated disability to the weakened crew. McClure continued preparing for his spring escape parties, planning to send the weaker able men in order to improve the long-term chances of those left behind. Crew selections were made and announced on March 3, to the disappointment of those to be left behind. Full rations were restored to those men preparing to set out in mid-April, and their health improved. Still, on April 5, the first crew member, John Boyle, succumbed to illness, which impacted morale and underscored the dire nature of their situation.

  Relief and the fourth winter
Preparations for the escape parties continued, despite their slim chances for success. On April 6, a detail of men digging Boyle's grave observed a figure approaching from seaward. It was Lieutenant Bedford Pim of H.M.S. Resolute, which was wintering off Melville Island under Captain Henry Kellett 28 days away by sledge. The Resolute was accompanied by the Intrepid, laying supply depots off Melville Island for the continued search of Franklin and now McClure (having located one of McClure's stashed messages from 1852). Afterwards, Pim described meeting McClure:

"Who are you, and where (did) you come from?"
"Lieutenant Pim, Herald, Capt. Kellett." This was more inexplicable to M'Clure, as I was the last person he shook hands with in Behring's Straits.

Two days later, Pim left for the Resolute, about 80 miles east, followed soon by McClure and six men, who would journey for 16 days.

Despite the encouraging news of relief, conditions aboard the Investigator were still deteriorating. Scurvy advanced with the reduced rations, and on April 11 another crewman died, and another on the following day. Some exercise was possible for the crew, breathing aided by the modern Jeffreys respirator.

On April 15, the 28-man traveling party, now concentrated on Melville Island alone, set out on three sledges. Four days later, McClure reached the ships and met with Captain Kellett and Commander McClintock. McClure returned on May 19, with the surgeon of the Resolute, Dr. W.T. Domville.
A medical survey was made to determine whether the Investigator could be adequately manned if freed from the ice. The assessment fell short of the requirements, "utterly unfit to undergo the rigour of another winter in this climate," making the abandonment of the Investigator inevitable, ordered by Captain Kellett of the Resolute.

The official announcement was made, and all men were put back on full rations for the first time in 20 months. A beach supply depot was established by the end of May, accompanied by a cairn and a monument to the fallen crew members.

On June 3, final flags were raised and the remaining crew abandoned the Investigator, travelling by sledge to the Resolute, with 18 days of provisions and McClure leading the way on foot. Progress across the thawing pack ice was slow, as the four sledges weighed between 1,200 and 1,400 lbs. The weakened crew made Melville Island on June 12, and reached the ships on the 17th.

A party of invalids had been taken from the Resolute to Beechey Island and the North Star to be returned to England in October 1853, along with the first news of the Investigator and the Northwest Passage to the outside world. Hunting supplemented the provisions while the Resolute and Intrepid waited for their own release from the ice. The breakup came on August 18 and the ships followed the edge of the pack ice before becoming fixed in the ice in early November at 70°41′ N, 101°22′ W. The combined crews prepared for another winter in the ice, while another crewman died on the 16th. Far from shore, no effective hunting could be resumed. With 1854 began the fifth year of Arctic service for the crew of the Investigator.

Escape and return
Plans were made to detach the crew of the Investigator to the North Star at Beechey Island in the spring of 1854. These three sledge parties set out on April 10–12. The journey was severe, but the crews were in improved condition. Socks routinely froze to feet and had to be cut off to fight frostbite. Despite these unfavorable circumstances, the North Star was reached on April 23–27 by the parties. Even with this relief, another man succumbed at Beechey Island. They occupied themselves searching the surrounding area for additional traces of Franklin, as Beechey Island was now known to be his first winter quarters. Meanwhile, the Resolute and Intrepid were themselves abandoned, with their crews joining the Beechey Island camp on May 28.

An exploration party by the Resolute had earlier made contact with Captain Collinson and the Enterprise and learned of their own path of search. A report on the condition of the Investigator, now abandoned some 12 months, was also obtained and indicated that she was tattered, leaking but otherwise intact and held by the ice – Mercy Bay was still solid. By mid-August, the North Star was herself released from the ice, although two other nearby ships (Assistance and her tender Pioneer) were abandoned on the 25th. They proceeded along Greenland and reached the English port of Ramsgate on October 6, 1854, having been gone four years and ten months and losing five men.

  Aftermath and controversy
Upon return to England, McClure was immediately court martialled and pardoned for the loss of the Investigator, according to custom. he was awarded a share of the £10,000 prize for completing a Northwest Passage, knighted and decorated. He never made another Arctic voyage.

Despite this overall success, several points of controversy were raised:

-When the ambitious McClure severed contact with their consort ship Enterprise before reaching Arctic waters, he essentially initiated a solo voyage. Described alternately as a combination of faulty communications or outright deception, this decision increased the risk to the expedition by eliminating the benefits of cooperation.
-The voyage's September 1851 progress was stalled by McClure's decision not to push more aggressively towards open water. Much effort was made with little advancement after that, which was considered by ship's surgeon Armstrong to be a critical failure contributing to their subsequent problems.
-Armstrong also considered the entry into Mercy Bay (which became their second winter quarters and final position) rather than following the coastal ice floes to be a major mistake. It eliminated any possible future opportunities to press towards Melville Island through the pack ice.

Failing to attempt a meeting with Captain Austin on Melville Island in April 1851 may also have contributed to the hardships endured.
-McClure's two-party escape plan for spring 1853 was viewed by the ship's surgeon as recklessly dangerous, considering the weakened state of the crews and the extents of their proposed journeys. It has also been suggested that the plan was simply a ploy to eliminate the weakest two-thirds of the crew to extend the rations for McClure and his chosen few aboard the Investigator.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

see also: John Franklin Canadian and Arctic expedition
see also: British Admiralty Expeditions
see also: Search for a Northern Seaway
Old-age insurance in France
Population of U.S., 23 million (3.2 million Black slaves)
Royal Meteorological Society
The Royal Meteorological Society traces its origins back to 3 April 1850 when the British Meteorological Society was formed as a society the objects of which should be the advancement and extension of meteorological science by determining the laws of climate and of meteorological phenomena in general.
Along with nine others, including James Glaisher, John Drew, Edward Joseph Lowe, The Revd Joseph Bancroft Reade, and Samuel Charles Whitbread, Dr John Lee, an astronomer, of Hartwell House, near Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire founded in the library of his house the British Meteorological Society, which became the Royal Meteorological Society. It became The Meteorological Society in 1866, when it was incorporated by Royal Charter, and the Royal Meteorological Society in 1883, when Her Majesty Queen Victoria granted the privilege of adding 'Royal' to the title.

Along with 74 others, the famous meteorologist Luke Howard joined the original 15 members of the Society at its first ordinary meeting on 7 May 1850. As of 2008 it has more than 3,000 members worldwide. The chief executive of the Society is Dr Liz Bentley.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
University of Sydney, Australia, established
University of Sydney
The University of Sydney (commonly referred to as Sydney University, Sydney Uni, USYD, or Sydney) is an Australian public university in Sydney. Founded in 1850, it is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of its most prestigious, ranked as the world's 27th most reputable university. In 2013, it was ranked 37th and in the top 0.3% in the QS World University Rankings. Five Nobel and two Crafoord laureates have been affiliated with the university as graduates and faculty. Its campus is ranked in the top 10 of the world's most beautiful universities by the British Daily Telegraph and The Huffington Post, spreading across the inner-city suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington.
The university comprises 16 faculties and schools, through which it offers bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. In 2011 it had 32,393 undergraduate and 16,627 graduate students.

Sydney University is a member of the prestigious Group of Eight, Academic Consortium 21, the Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU), the Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning, the Australia-Africa Universities Network (AAUN), the Association of Commonwealth Universities and the Worldwide Universities Network. The University is also colloquially known as one of Australia's sandstone universities.

In 1848, in the New South Wales Legislative Council, William Wentworth, a graduate of the University of Cambridge and Charles Nicholson, a medical graduate from the University of Edinburgh Medical School, proposed a plan to expand the existing Sydney College into a larger university. Wentworth argued that a state university was imperative for the growth of a society aspiring towards self-government, and that it would provide the opportunity for "the child of every class, to become great and useful in the destinies of his country". It would take two attempts on Wentworth's behalf, however, before the plan was finally adopted.

The university was established via the passage of the University of Sydney Act, on 24 September 1850 and was assented on 1 October 1850 by Sir Charles Fitzroy. Two years later, the university was inaugurated on 11 October 1852 in the Big Schoolroom of what is now Sydney Grammar School. The first principal was John Woolley, the first professor of chemistry and experimental physics was John Smith. On 27 February 1858 the university received its Royal Charter from Queen Victoria, giving degrees conferred by the university rank and recognition equal to those given by universities in the United Kingdom.

  By 1859, the university had moved to its current site in the Sydney suburb of Camperdown.

In 1858, the passage of the electoral act provided for the university to become a constituency for the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as soon as there were 100 graduates of the university holding higher degrees eligible for candidacy.

This seat in the Parliament of New South Wales was first filled in 1876, but was abolished in 1880 one year after its second member, Edmund Barton, who later became the first Prime Minister of Australia, was elected to the Legislative Assembly.

Most of the estate of John Henry Challis was bequeathed to the university, which received a sum of £200,000 in 1889. This was thanks in part due to William Montagu Manning (Chancellor 1878–95) who argued against the claims by British Tax Commissioners.

The following year seven professorships were created: anatomy; zoology; engineering; history; law; logic and mental philosophy; and modern literature.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The University of Sydney in the early 1870s, viewed from Parramatta Road

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