Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1849 Part III NEXT-1850-1859    
 
 
     
1840 - 1849
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840-1849
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part I
Bebel August
Maximilian of Mexico
Carlota
Convention of London
British North America Act
Francia Jose Gaspar
Macdonald Jacques
William I of the Netherlands
William II of the Netherlands
Retour des cendres
Lambton John George
Vaillant Edouard-Marie
Sampson William
Smith William Sidney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part II
Ridpath John Clark
Sankey Ira David
James Fenimore Cooper: "The Pathfinder"
Blunt Wilfrid Scawen
Broughton Rhoda
Robert Browning: "Sordello"
Daudet Alphonse
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Dobson Austin
Hardy Thomas
Thomas Hardy 
"Tess of the d'Urbervilles"
Lemercier  Nepomucene
Lermontov: "A Hero of Our Times"
Modjeska Helena
Symonds John Addington
Verga Giovanni
Zola Emile
Emile Zola
"
J'accuse" (I accuse)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part III
Delacroix: "Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople"
Makart Hans
Hans Makart
Monet Claude
Claude Monet
Nasmyth Alexander
Alexander Nasmyth
Nast Thomas
Nelson's Column
Rodin Auguste
Auguste Rodin
Redon Odilon
Odilon Redon
Blechen Carl
Karl Blechen
Debain Alexandre-Francois
Donizetti: "La Fille du Regiment"
Haberl Franz Xaver
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich
Tchaikovsky - The Seasons
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky
Schneckenburger Max
Wilhelm Karl
"Die Wacht am Rhein"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part IV
Olbers Wilhelm
Blumenbach Johann Friedrich
Ball Robert
Kohlrausch Friedrich Wilhelm
Agassiz Louis
Basedow Carl Adolph
Graves disease
Maxim Hiram
Eyre Edward John
Brummell Beau
Father Damien
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Washington Temperance Society
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part I
Second Battle of Chuenpee
Barere Bertrand
Fisher John Arbuthnot
British Hong Kong
Luzzatti Luigi
Merriman John
Harrison William Henry
Tyler John
Espartero Baldomero
Hirobumi Ito
Clemenceau Georges
Edward VII
Creole case
Laurier Wilfrid
New Zealand
Lamb William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part II
Cheyne Thomas Kelly
Ludwig Feuerbach: "The Essence of Christianity"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Holst Hermann Eduard
Jebb Richard Claverhouse
Ward Lester Frank
Black William
Robert Browning: "Pippa Passes"
Buchanan Robert
Fenimore Cooper: "The Deerslayer"
Coquelin Benoit
Dickens: "The Old Curiosity Shop"
Ewing Juliana Horatia
Sill Edward Rowland
Frederick Marryat: "Masterman Ready"
Mendes Catulle
Mounet-Sully Jean
"Punch, or The London Charivari"
Sealsfield Charles
Scott Clement William
White Joseph Blanco
Ruskin: "The King of the Golden River"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part III
Chantrey Francis
Morisot Berthe
Berthe Morisot
Renoir Pierre-Auguste
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Wagner Otto
Wallot Paul
Olivier Ferdinand
Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier
Bazille Frederic
Frederic Bazille
Zandomeneghi Federico
Federico Zandomeneghi
Guillaumin Armand
Armand Guillaumin
Chabrier Emmanuel
Chabrier - Espana
Emmanuel Chabrier
Dibdin Thomas John
Dvorak Anton
Antonin Dvorak: Rusalka
Antonin Dvorak
Pedrell Felipe
Felip Pedrell: Els Pirineus
Felipe Pedrell
Rossini: "Stabat Mater"
Sax Antoine-Joseph
Schumann: Symphony No. 1
Sgambati Giovanni
Sgambati - Piano Concerto in G minor
Giovanni Sgambati
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part IV
Cooper Astley
Braid James
Hypnosis
Candolle Austin
Aniline
Kocher Emil Theodor
Kolliker Rudolf Albert
Petzval Joseph
Hudson William Henry
Warming Eugenius
Whitworth Joseph
Barnum's American Museum
Bradshaw George
Cook Thomas
Hyer Tom
"The New York Tribune"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part I
Pozzo di Borgo Charles-Andre
Las Cases Emmanuel
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Treaty of Nanking
General Strike of 1842
O’Higgins Bernardo
Giolitti Giovanni
Fiske John
Hartmann Eduard
Hyndman Henry Mayers
James William
Kropotkin Peter Alekseyevich
Anarchism
Anarchism
Lavisse Ernest
Robertson George Croom
Sorel Albert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part II
Banim John
Sue Eugene
Eugene Sue: "The Mysteries of Paris"
Bierce Ambrose
Brandes Georg
Bulwer-Lytton: "Zanoni"
Graham Maria
Coppee Francois
Cunningham Allan
Espronceda Jose
Gogol: "Dead Souls"
Howard Bronson
Lanier Sidney
Lover Samuel
MacKaye Steele
Maginn William
Mallarme Stephane
May Karl
Рое: "The Masque of the Red Death"
Quental Antero Tarquinio
Woodworth Samuel
Macaulay: "Lays of Ancient Rome"
Tupper Martin Farquhar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part III
Vereshchagin Vasily
Vasily Vereshchagin
Boldini Giovanni
Giovanni Boldini
Boito Arrigo
Arrigo Boito: Mefistofele Finale
Arrigo Boito
Glinka: "Russian and Ludmilla"
Hopkinson Joseph
"Hail, Columbia"
Lortzing: "Der Wildschiitz"
Massenet Jules
Massenet "Elegie"
Jules Massenet
Millocker Karl
Millocker: Gasparone
Karl Millocker
New York Philharmonic
Sullivan Arthur
Arthur Sullivan - The Mikado - Overture
Arthur Sullivan
Wagner: "Rienzi"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part IV
Dewar James
Doppler Christian Andreas
Flammarion Camille
Hansen Emile Christian
Long Crawford Williamson
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Charting the Ocean Depths
Mayer Julius Robert
Pelletier Pierre Joseph
Marshall Alfred
Strutt John William
Retzius Gustaf
Fremont John Charles
Darling Grace
Polka
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part I
McKinley William
Braga Teofilo
Wairau Affray
Dilke Charles
Avenarius Richard
Borrow George
Carlile Richard
Thomas Carlyle: "Past and Present"
Creighton Mandell
Liddell and Scott: "Greek-English Lexicon"
Liddell Henry
Scott Robert
Ward James
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part II
Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last of the Barons"
Elisabeth of Romania
Dickens: "Martin Chuzzlewit"
Doughty Charles Montagu
Dowden Edward
Emmett Daniel Decatur
Hood Thomas
Thomas Hood: "Song of the Shirt"
Horne Richard Hengist
James Henry
Rosegger Peter
Suttner Bertha
Harris George Washington
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part III
Allston Washington
Washington Allston
John Ruskin: "Modern Painters"
Trumbull John
John Trumbull
Werner Anton
Anton von Werner
Clairin Georges
Georges Clairin
Donizetti: "Don Pasquale"
Grieg Edward
Grieg - Solveig Song
Edward Grieg
Nilsson Christine
Patti Adelina
Richter Hans
Schumann: "Paradise and the Peri"
Wagner: "The Flying Dutchman"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part IV
British Archaeological Association
Chamberlin Thomas Chrowder
Ferrier David
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Joule James Prescott
Koch Robert
Erbium
Brunel Marc Isambard
Thames Tunnel
Dix Dorothea Lynde
Guy's, Kings and St. Thomas' Rugby Football Club
Sequoyah
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part I
Lowe Hudson
Drouet Jean-Baptiste
Oscar I of Sweden
Dole Sanford Ballard
Laffitte Jacques
Franco-Moroccan War
Polk James Knox
Herrera Jose Joaquin
Treaty of Wanghia
Breshkovsky Catherine
Comstock Anthony
Emerson: "Essays"
Grundtvig Nikolaj Frederik Severin
Hall Granville Stanley
Nietzsche Friedrich
Friedrich Nietzsche
Rice Edmund Ignatius
Riehl Alois
Stanley Arthur Penrhyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part II
Bernhardt Sarah
Sarah Bernhardt
Dumas, pere: "Le Comte de Monte Cristo"
Bridges Robert
Cable George Washington
Carte Richard
Cary Henry Francis
Disraeli: "Coningsby"
France Anatole
Hopkins Gerard Manley
Lang Andrew
Liliencron Detlev
O'Reilly John Boyle
O’Shaughnessy Arthur
Sterling John
William Thackeray: "Barry Lyndon"
Verlaine Paul
Paul Verlaine
"Poems"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part III
Eakins Thomas
Thomas Eakins
Ezekiel Moses Jacob
Moses Ezekiel
Luke Fildes Luke
Luke Fildes
Leibl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Leibl
Munkacsy Mihaly
Mihaly Munkacsy
Repin Ilya
Ilya Repin
Rousseau Henri
Henri Rousseau
Cassatt Mary
Mary Cassatt
Flotow: "Alessandro Stradella"
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E minor
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay
The Best of Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Sarasate Pablo
Pablo de Sarasate - Zigeunerweisen
Pablo de Sarasate
Verdi: "Ernani"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part IV
Grassmann Hermann Gunther
Baily Francis
Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard
DeLong George Washington
Golgi Camillo
Kielmeyer Carl Friedrich
Kinglake Alexander William
Strasburger Eduard Adolf
Huc Evariste Regis
Gabet Joseph
Sturt Charles Napier
Leichhardt Friedrich
Beckford William
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers
"Fliegende Blatter"
Hagenbeck Carl
Keller Friedrich Gottlob
Pasch Gustaf Erik
Young Men’s Christian Association
Williams George
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part I
Root Elihu
Texas
Florida
Flagstaff War
Ludwig II of Bavaria
First Anglo-Sikh War
Sonderbund
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part II
Friedrich Engels: "The Condition of the Working Class in England"
Stirner Max
Disraeli: "Sybil, or The Two Nations"
Hertz Henrik
Prosper Merimee: "Carmen"
Рое: "The Raven"
Spitteler Carl
Wergeland Henrik
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part III
Bode Wilhelm
Hill David Octavius
Ingres: The Comtesse d'Haussonville
Oberlander Adam Adolf
Crane Walter
Walter Crane
Faure Gabriel
Faure - Pavane
Gabriel Faure
Lortzing: "Undine"
Wagner: "Tannhauser"
Widor Charles-Marie
Widor - Piano Concerto No. 1
Charles Marie Widor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part IV
Armstrong William George
Bigelow Erastus Brigham
Cayley Arthur
Cornell Ezra
Submarine communications cable
Heilmann Joshua
Humboldt: "Cosmos"
Kolbe Hermann
Laveran Alphonse
McNaught William
Metchnikoff Elie
Charting the Northwest
Layard Austen Henry
Cartwright Alexander
United States Naval Academy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part I
Battle of Aliwal
Battle of Sobraon
Treaty of Lahore
Greater Poland Uprising
Krakow Uprising
Mexican-American War
Battle of Monterrey
First Battle of Tabasco
Iowa
Pasic Nikola
Evangelical Alliance
Eucken Rudolf Christoph
Pius IX
Whewell William
Young Brigham
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part II
Balzac: "La Cousine Bette"
De Amicis Edmondo
Dostoevsky: "Poor Folk"
Jokai Maurus
Lear Edward
Melville Herman
Herman Melville: "Typee"
Herman Melville
"Moby Dick or The Whale"
Sienkiewicz Henryk
George Watts: "Paolo and Francesca"
De Nittis Giuseppe
Giuseppe de Nittis
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part III
Berlioz: "Damnation de Faust"
Lortzing: "Der Waffenschmied"
Mendelssohn: "Elijah"
Deere John
Deere & Company
Henle Friedrich
Howe Elias
Waitz Theodor
Mohl Hugo
Green William Thomas
Sobrero Ascanio
Heaphy Charles
Brunner Thomas
Europeans in New Zealand
"The Daily News"
Horsley John Callcott
Smithsonian Institution
Zeiss Carl
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part I
Liberia
Second Battle of Tabasco
Battle of Churubusco
BATTLE OF MEXICO CITY
Hindenburg Paul
Sonderbund War
Beecher Henry Ward
Blanc Louis
Proudhon Pierre-Joseph
roudhon: "Philosophy of Poverty"P
Karl Marx: "The Poverty of Philosophy"
Salt Lake City
Charlotte Bronte: "Jane Eyre"
Bronte Emily
Marryat: "The Children of the New Forest"
Thackeray: "Vanity Fair"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part II
Hildebrand Adolf
Liebermann Max
Max Liebermann
Friedrich von Flotow: "Martha"
Verdi: "Macbeth"
Boole George
Edison Thomas Alva
Bell Alexander Graham
Semmelweis Ignaz Philipp
Colenso William
Factory Act of 1847
Fawcett Millicent
Siemens & Halske
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part I
Frederick VII
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Revolutions of 1848
French Revolution of 1848
June Days Uprising
Cavaignac Louis-Eugene
French Constitution of 1848
French Second Republic
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Slovak Uprising 1848-1849
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part I)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part II
First Italian War of Independence
Skirmish of Pastrengo
Battle of Goito
Battle of Custoza
Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
Revolution of 1848 in Luxembourg
Greater Poland Uprising
Moldavian Revolution of 1848
Pan-Slav Congress of 1848
Pan-Slavism
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part II)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part III
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Nasr-ed-Din
Ibrahim Pasha
Abbas I
Wisconsin
Balfour Arthur James
Seneca Falls Convention
Stanton Elizabeth Cady
Delbruck Hans
Macaulay: "History of England"
"The Communist Manifesto"
John Mill: "Principles of Political Economy"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part IV
Augier Emile
Chateaubriand: "Memoires d'Outre-Tombe"
Dumas fils: "La Dame aux Camelias"
Gaskell Elizabet
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
Murger Louis-Henri
Henri Murger: "Scenes de la vie de Boheme"
Terry Ellen
Surikov Vasily
Vasily Surikov
Uhde Fritz
Fritz von Uhde
Gauguin Paul
Paul Gauguin
Caillebotte Gustave
Gustave Caillebotte
Millais: "Ophelia"
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part V
Parry Hubert Hastings
Jerusalem by Hubert Parry
Hubert Parry
Duparc Henri
Duparc Henri: "L'invitation au voyage"
Henri Duparc
Bottger Rudolf Christian
Parsons William
Frege Gottlob
"New Prussian Newspaper"
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"
Grace William Gilbert
Kneipp Sebastian
Lilienthal Otto
Starr Belle
California Gold Rush
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part I
Battle of Chillianwala
Battle of Gujrat
Roman Republic on February 9, 1849
Battle of Novara
Victor Emmanuel II
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Peace of Milan
Taylor Zachary
Dresden Rebellion of 1849
Surrender at Vilagos
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part II
Kemble John Mitchell
Key Ellen
Arnold Matthew
Dickens: "David Copperfield"
Kingsley Charles
Scribe: "Adrienne Lecouvreur"
Strindberg August
Smith Horace
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part III
Waterhouse John William
John William Waterhouse
John Ruskin: "The Seven Lamps of Architecture"
Carriere Eugene
Eugene Carriere
Liszt: "Tasso"
Meyerbeer: "Le Prophete"
Otto Nicolai: "The Merry Wives of Windsor"
Schumann: "Manfred"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part IV
Fizeau Armand
Frankland Edward
Livingstone David
Explorations of David Livingstone
Baines Thomas
"Who's Who"
Bedford College
Bloomer Amelia
Bloomers (clothing)
Stead William Thomas
 
 
 

David Livingstone’s expedition to Lake Ngami (now in Botswana), 19th-century chromolithograph.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1849 Part IV
 
 
 
1849
 
 
French physicist Armand Fizeau measures speed of light
 
 
Fizeau Armand
 

Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau (23 September 1819 – 18 September 1896) was a French physicist, best known for measuring the speed of light in a namesake experiment.

 

Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau
  Armand-Hippolyte-Louis Fizeau, (born Sept. 23, 1819, Paris, France—died Sept. 18, 1896, Nanteuil-le-Haudouin), French physicist noted for his experimental determination of the speed of light.

Fizeau worked with Jean-Bernard-Léon Foucault on investigations of the infrared portion of the solar spectrum and made other observations of heat and light.

Unaware of Christian Doppler’s publication (1842), Fizeau in 1848 gave an explanation of the shift in wavelength in light coming from a star and showed how it could be used to measure the relative velocities of stars that lie in the same line of sight. In 1849 Fizeau found the first reasonably accurate value of the velocity of light obtained in a nonastronomical experiment.

In 1851 he carried out a series of experiments in an attempt to detect the luminiferous ether—a hypothetical material that was thought to occupy all of space and to be necessary for carrying the vibrations of light waves.

The experimental results failed to demonstrate the existence of the ether, but his work helped lead to the discarding of the ether theory in the early years of the 20th century.

 
 
Fizeau became a member of the French Academy in 1860 and was appointed superintendent of physics at the École Polytechnique, Paris, in 1863.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1849
 
 
Eng. chemist Edward Frankland isolates amyl
 
 
Frankland Edward
 

Sir Edward Frankland, KCB, FRS (18 January 1825 – 9 August 1899) was a British chemist. He was an expert in water quality and analysis, and originated the concept of combining power, or valence, in chemistry. He was also one of the originators of organometallic chemistry.

 

Sir Edward Frankland
  Biography
Edward Frankland was born in Catterall, Lancashire and baptised at Churchtown, Lancashire on 20 February 1825. As his baptismal record shows, his birth was illegitimate. His mother, Margaret "Peggy" Frankland, later married William Helm, a Lancaster cabinet-maker. “His illegitimacy cast a shadow over all his life since he was pledged to silence as to the identity of his natural father, though a handsome annuity was paid to his mother”.

From age 3 to 8 Edward lived and was educated in Manchester, Churchtown, Salford and Claughton. In 1833, the family moved to Lancaster  and he attended the private school of James Wallasey, where he first took an interest in chemistry, in particular, reading the work of Joseph Priestley borrowed from the Mechanics Institute Library.

At age 12, Edward moved to the Lancaster Free Grammar School (later Lancaster Royal Grammar School), that had also educated scientists William Whewell and Sir Richard Owen. According to Frankland himself, his interest in chemistry was furthered by a case held in the court of Lancaster Castle, which was adjacent to the Free Grammar School (then located on Castle Hill, Lancaster). It was an action brought by the Corporation of Liverpool against Mr. Muspratt for committing a nuisance by allowing muriatic acid gas to escape from his chemical works in Liverpool.

 
 
“I was already much interested in chemistry, my step-father allowed me to stay away from school in order to attend the trial”  Frankland wished to become a doctor, but the cost of training was “absolutely prohibitive”. So the only entrance for him was “the back door of a druggist’s shop”

In 1840, Edward was indentured by his step-father, William Helm as an apprentice to Stephen Ross, a Lancaster pharmacist. and his duties included “mortar and pestle work”, pounding and mixing large quantities of chemicals to create medicinal preparations such as ointments. During the latter part of his six year apprenticeship, Frankland also attended the Lancaster Mechanics' Institute (later to become The Storey, attending classes in a makeshift cottage laboratory made available to local apprentices and other young men by a local doctor, James Johnson. Others in that youthful circle were the scientific writer Robert Galloway (also apprenticed to Ross) and the anatomist William Turner. With support and encouragement from Johnson, Frankland acquired, in 1845, a place in the Westminster laboratory of Lyon Playfair, 1st Baron Playfair. Whilst there, Frankland attended Playfair's lecture course; at the end of it he passed the examination—the only written one he ever sat.

In summer 1847 Frankland visited Germany and met some of Playfair's chemistry contacts there, including Robert Bunsen. In August 1847 Frankland accepted a post as science-master at a boarding school in Hampshire, but the following summer he opted to return to Germany to be a full-time student at the University of Marburg. Robert Bunsen was an influential teacher at Marburg at the time, and Bunsen's reputation was one of the main attractions for Frankland. The following year Frankland accepted an invitation to move to Justus Liebig's laboratory at Giessen. By this stage Frankland already had his own research agenda and had published some original research in chemistry. In January 1850 Lyon Playfair revealed his intention to resign from his professorship at Putney College of Civil Engineering in London and arrange to have Frankland become his successor. Hence Frankland abruptly terminated his studies in Germany and returned to take up Playfair's former position in England. A year later Frankland became professor of chemistry at a newly established school now known as the University of Manchester. In 1857 he became lecturer in chemistry at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, and in 1863 professor of chemistry at the Royal Institution, London. For two decades Frankland also had a teaching role at the Royal School of Mines in London; and he taught briefly (from 1859 to 1861) at the Royal India Military College at Addiscombe, Surrey.

Edward Frankland was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1853 and awarded the Society's Royal Medal in 1857 and its Copley Medal in 1894. He was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1897. He died while on a holiday in Norway, and was buried near his home in Reigate, Surrey.

His son Percy Frankland was also a noted chemist and a Fellow of the Royal Society.

 
 

Sir Edward Frankland
  Scientific work
From an early age, Frankland engaged in original research with great success. Analytical problems, such as the isolation of certain organic radicals, attracted his attention at first, but he soon turned to chemical syntheses, and he was only about twenty-five years of age when an investigation, doubtless suggested by the work of his master, Robert Bunsen and Hermann Kolbe, on cacodyl, yielded the interesting discovery of organometallic compounds. After his return to England he achieved the synthesis of diethylzinc and dimethylzinc by the reaction of ethyl iodide and methyl iodide with metallic zinc.

The theoretical deductions Frankland drew from considering these bodies were even more interesting and important than the bodies themselves. Perceiving a molecular isonomy between them and the inorganic compounds of the metals from which they may be formed, Frankland saw their true molecular type in the oxygen, sulphur or chlorine compounds of those metals, from which he held them to be derived by the substitution of an organic group for the oxygen, sulphur, &c. In this way they enabled him to overthrow the theory of conjugate compounds, and they further led him in 1852 to publish the conception that the atoms of each elementary substance have a definite saturation capacity, so that they can only combine with a certain limited number of the atoms of other elements.

 
The theory of valency thus founded has dominated the subsequent development of chemical doctrine, and forms the groundwork upon which the fabric of modern structural chemistry reposes.

In applied chemistry Frankland's great work was in connection with water-supply. Appointed a member of the second royal commission on the pollution of rivers in 1868, he was provided by the government with a completely equipped laboratory, in which, for a period of six years, he carried on the inquiries necessary for the purposes of that body, and was thus the means of bringing to light an enormous amount of valuable information respecting the contamination of rivers by sewage, trade-refuse, &c., and the purification of water for domestic use. In 1865, when he succeeded August Wilhelm von Hofmann at the School of Mines, he undertook the duty of making monthly reports to the registrar-general on the character of the water supplied to London, and these he continued down to the end of his life. At one time he was an unsparing critic of its quality, but in later years he became strongly convinced of its general excellence and wholesomeness.

Frankland's analyses were both chemical and bacteriological, and his dissatisfaction with the processes in vogue for the former at the time of his appointment caused him to spend two years in devising new and more accurate methods. In 1859 Frankland passed a night on the very top of Mont Blanc in company with John Tyndall. One of the purposes of the expedition was to discover whether the rate of combustion of a candle varies with the density of the atmosphere in which it is burnt, a question which was answered in the negative. Other observations made by Frankland at the time formed the starting-point of a series of experiments which yielded far-reaching results. He noticed that at the summit the candle gave a very poor light, and was thereby led to investigate the effect produced on luminous flames by varying the pressure of the atmosphere in which they are burning.

 
 

Sir Edward Frankland
  He found that pressure increases luminosity, so that hydrogen, for example, the flame of which gives no light in normal circumstances, burns with a luminous flame under a pressure of ten or twenty atmospheres, and the inference he drew was that the presence of solid particles is not the only factor that determines the light-giving power of a flame, Further, he showed that the spectrum of a dense ignited gas resembles that of an incandescent liquid or solid, and he traced a gradual change in the spectrum of an incandescent gas under increasing pressure, the sharp lines observable when it is extremely attenuated broadening out to nebulous bands as the pressure rises, till they merge in the continuous spectrum as the gas approaches a density comparable with that of the liquid state. An application of these results to solar physics in conjunction with Sir Norman Lockyer led to the view that at least the external layers of the sun cannot consist of matter in the liquid or solid forms, but must be composed of gases or vapours.

Frankland and Lockyer were also the discoverers of helium, along with Pierre Jules César Janssen. In 1868 they noticed, in the solar spectrum, a bright yellow line which did not correspond to any substance then known. It was this line which they attributed to the then hypothetical element, helium. This was the first time an element was discovered on an extraterrestrial world before being found on the earth.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1849
 
 
David Livingstone crosses Kalahari Desert and discovers Lake Ngami
 
 
Livingstone David
 

David Livingstone, (born March 19, 1813, Blantyre, Lanarkshire, Scotland—died May 1, 1873, Chitambo [now in Zambia]), Scottish missionary and explorer who exercised a formative influence upon Western attitudes toward Africa.

 

David Livingstone
  Early life
Livingstone grew up in a distinctively Scottish family environment of personal piety, poverty, hard work, zeal for education, and a sense of mission. His father’s family was from the island of Ulva, off the west coast of Scotland. His mother, a Lowlander, was descended from a family of Covenanters, a group of militant Presbyterians. Both were poor, and Livingstone was reared as one of seven children in a single room at the top of a tenement building for the workers of a cotton factory on the banks of the Clyde. At age 10 he had to help his family and was put to work in a cotton mill, and with part of his first week’s wages he bought a Latin grammar. Although he was brought up in the Calvinist faith of the established Scottish church, Livingstone, like his father, joined an independent Christian congregation of stricter discipline when he came to manhood. By this time he had acquired those characteristics of mind and body that were to fit him for his African career.

In 1834 an appeal by British and American churches for qualified medical missionaries in China made Livingstone determined to pursue that profession. To prepare himself, while continuing to work part-time in the mill, he studied Greek, theology, and medicine for two years in Glasgow.

 
 
In 1838 he was accepted by the London Missionary Society. The first of the Opium Wars (1839–42) put an end to his dreams of going to China, but a meeting with Robert Moffat, the notable Scottish missionary in southern Africa, convinced him that Africa should be his sphere of service.

On November 20, 1840, he was ordained as a missionary; he set sail for South Africa at the end of the year and arrived at Cape Town on March 14, 1841.
 
 

David Livingstone
  Initial explorations
For the next 15 years, Livingstone was constantly on the move into the African interior: strengthening his missionary determination; responding wholeheartedly to the delights of geographic discovery; clashing with the Boers and the Portuguese, whose treatment of the Africans he came to detest; and building for himself a remarkable reputation as a dedicated Christian, a courageous explorer, and a fervent antislavery advocate. Yet so impassioned was his commitment to Africa that his duties as husband and father were relegated to second place.

From Moffat’s mission at Kuruman on the Cape frontier, which Livingstone reached on July 31, 1841, he soon pushed his search for converts northward into untried country where the population was reputed to be more numerous. This suited his purpose of spreading the Gospel through “native agents.”

By the summer of 1842, he had already gone farther north than any other European into the difficult Kalahari country and had familiarized himself with the local languages and cultures. His mettle was dramatically tested in 1844 when, during a journey to Mabotsa to establish a mission station, he was mauled by a lion. The resulting injury to his left arm was complicated by another accident, and he could never again support the barrel of a gun steadily with his left hand and thus was obliged to fire from his left shoulder and to take aim with his left eye.

 
 
On January 2, 1845, Livingstone married Moffat’s daughter, Mary, and she accompanied him on many of his journeys until her health and the family’s needs for security and education forced him to send her and their four children back to Britain in 1852. Before this first parting with his family, Livingstone had already achieved a small measure of fame as surveyor and scientist of a small expedition responsible for the first European sighting of Lake Ngami (August 1, 1849), for which he was awarded a gold medal and monetary prize by the British Royal Geographical Society. This was the beginning of his lifelong association with the society, which continued to encourage his ambitions as an explorer and to champion his interests in Britain.
 
 

David Livingstone
  Opening the interior
With his family safely in Scotland, Livingstone was ready to push Christianity, commerce, and civilization—the trinity that he believed was destined to open up Africa—northward beyond the frontiers of South Africa and into the heart of the continent. In a famous statement in 1853 he made his purpose clear: “I shall open up a path into the interior, or perish.” On November 11, 1853, from Linyanti at the approaches to the Zambezi and in the midst of the Makololo peoples whom he considered eminently suitable for missionary work, Livingstone set out northwestward with little equipment and only a small party of Africans. His intention was to find a route to the Atlantic coast that would permit legitimate commerce to undercut the slave trade and that would also be more suitable for reaching the Makololo than the route leading through Boer territory. (In 1852 the Boers had destroyed his home at Kolobeng and attacked his African friends.) After an arduous journey that might have wrecked the constitution of a lesser man, Livingstone reached Luanda on the west coast on May 31, 1854. In order to take his Makololo followers back home and to carry out further explorations of the Zambezi, as soon as his health permitted—on September 20, 1854—he began the return journey. He reached Linyanti nearly a year later on September 11, 1855. Continuing eastward on November 3, Livingstone explored the Zambezi regions and reached Quelimane in Mozambique on May 20, 1856. His most spectacular visit on this last leg of his great journey was to the thundering, smokelike waters on the Zambezi at which he arrived on November 17, 1855, and with typical patriotism named Victoria Falls after his queen. Livingstone returned to England on December 9, 1856, a national hero.
 
News from and about him during the previous three years had stirred the imagination of English-speaking peoples everywhere to an unprecedented degree.

Livingstone recorded his accomplishments modestly but effectively in his Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa (1857), which quickly sold more than 70,000 copies and took its place in publishing history as well as in that of exploration and missionary endeavour. Honours flowed in upon him. His increased income meant that he was now able to provide adequately for his family, which had lived in near poverty since returning to Britain.

He was also able to make himself independent of the London Missionary Society. After the completion of his book, Livingstone spent six months speaking all over the British Isles. In his Senate House address at Cambridge on December 4, 1857, he foresaw that he would be unable to complete his work in Africa, and he called on young university men to take up the task that he had begun. The publication of Dr. Livingstone’s Cambridge Lectures (1858) roused almost as much interest as his book, and out of his Cambridge visit came the Universities’ Mission to Central Africa in 1860, on which Livingstone set high hopes during his second expedition to Africa.
 
 

The journeys of Livingstone in Africa between 1851 and 1873
 
 
The Zambezi expedition
This time Livingstone was away from Britain from March 12, 1858, to July 23, 1864. He went out originally as British consul at Quelimane:

for the Eastern Coast and independent districts of the interior, and commander of an expedition for exploring eastern and central Africa, for the promotion of Commerce and Civilization with a view to the extinction of the slave-trade.

This expedition was infinitely better organized than Livingstone’s previous solitary journeys. It had a paddle steamer, impressive stores, 10 Africans, and 6 Europeans (including his brother Charles and an Edinburgh doctor, John Kirk). That Livingstone’s by then legendary leadership had its limitations was soon revealed. Quarrels broke out among the Europeans, and some were dismissed. Disillusionment with Livingstone set in among members both of his own expedition and of the abortive Universities’ Mission that followed it to central Africa. It proved impossible to navigate the Zambezi by ship, and Livingstone’s two attempts to find a route along the Ruvuma River bypassing Portuguese territory to districts around Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) also proved impractical. Livingstone and his party had been the first Britons to reach (September 17, 1859) these districts that held out promise of colonization.
To add to Livingstone’s troubles, his wife, who had been determined to accompany him back to Africa, died at Shupanga on the Zambezi on April 27, 1862.

  His eldest son, Robert, who was to have joined his father in 1863, never reached him and went instead to the United States, where he died fighting for the North in the Civil War on December 5, 1864.

The British government recalled the expedition in 1863, when it was clear that Livingstone’s optimism about economic and political developments in the Zambezi regions was premature. Livingstone, however, showed something of his old fire when he took his little vessel, the Lady Nyassa, with a small untrained crew and little fuel, on a hazardous voyage of 2,500 miles (4,000 km) across the Indian Ocean and left it for sale in Bombay (now Mumbai). Furthermore, within the next three decades the Zambezi expedition proved to be anything but a disaster. It had amassed a valuable body of scientific knowledge, and the association of the Lake Nyasa regions with Livingstone’s name and the prospects for colonization that he envisaged there were important factors for the creation in 1893 of the British Central Africa Protectorate, which in 1907 became Nyasaland and in 1966 the republic of Malawi.

Back in Britain in the summer of 1864, Livingstone, with his brother Charles, wrote his second book, Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi and Its Tributaries (1865). Livingstone was advised at this time to have a surgical operation for the hemorrhoids that had troubled him since his first great African journey. He refused, and it is probable that severe bleeding hemorrhoids were the cause of his death at the end of his third and greatest African journey.

 
 

This photograph of Livingstone and his (now motherless)
daughter Anna Mary was taken on his return from the Zambezi in 1864.
 
 
Quest for the Nile
Livingstone returned to Africa, after another short visit to Bombay, on January 28, 1866, with support from private and public bodies and the status of a British consul at large. His aim, as usual, was the extension of the Gospel and the abolition of the slave trade on the East African coast, but a new object was the exploration of the central African watershed and the possibility of finding the ultimate sources of the Nile. This time Livingstone went without European subordinates and took only African and Asian followers.

Trouble, however, once more broke out among his staff, and Livingstone, prematurely aged from the hardships of his previous expeditions, found it difficult to cope. Striking out from Mikindani on the east coast, he was compelled by Ngoni raids to give up his original intention of avoiding Portuguese territory and reaching the country around Lake Tanganyika by passing north of Lake Nyasa.

The expedition was forced south, and in September some of Livingstone’s followers deserted him. To avoid punishment when they returned to Zanzibar, they concocted the story that Livingstone had been killed by the Ngoni. Although it was proved the following year that he was alive, a touch of drama was added to the reports circulating abroad about his expedition.

Drama mounted as Livingstone moved north again from the south end of Lake Nyasa. Early in 1867 a deserter carried off his medical chest, but Livingstone pressed on into central Africa.

  He was the first European to reach Lake Mweru (November 8, 1867) and Lake Bangweulu (July 18, 1868).
Assisted by Arab traders, Livingstone reached Lake Tanganyika in February 1869. Despite illness, he went on and arrived on March 29, 1871, at his ultimate northwesterly point, Nyangwe, on the Lualaba leading into the Congo River. This was farther west than any European had penetrated.

When he returned to Ujiji on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika on October 23, 1871, Livingstone was a sick and failing man. Search parties had been sent to look for him because he had not been heard from in several years, and Henry M. Stanley, a correspondent of the New York Herald, found the explorer, greeting him with the now famous quote, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” (The exact date of the encounter is unclear, as the two men wrote different dates in their journals; Livingstone’s journal suggests that the meeting took place sometime in October 24–28, 1871, while Stanley reported November 10.) Stanley brought much-needed food and medicine, and Livingstone soon recovered.

He joined Stanley in exploring the northern reaches of Lake Tanganyika and then accompanied him to Unyanyembe, 200 miles (320 km) eastward. But he refused all Stanley’s pleas to leave Africa with him, and on March 14, 1872, Stanley departed for England to add, with journalistic fervour, to the saga of David Livingstone.

Livingstone moved south again, obsessed by his quest for the Nile sources and his desire for the destruction of the slave trade, but his illness overcame him.

 
 

Henry Morton Stanley, raising his hat at left, meeting David Livingstone at Ujiji
(now in Tanzania), 1871.
 
 
In May 1873, at Chitambo in what is now northern Zambia, Livingstone’s African servants found him dead, kneeling by his bedside as if in prayer. In order to embalm Livingstone’s body, they removed his heart and viscera and buried them in African soil.

In a difficult journey of nine months, they carried his body to the coast. It was taken to England and, in a great Victorian funeral, was buried in Westminster Abbey on April 18, 1874. The Last Journals of David Livingstone were published in the same year.
 
 

David Livingstone
  Influence
In his 30 years of travel and Christian missionary work in southern, central, and eastern Africa—often in places where no European had previously ventured—Livingstone may well have influenced Western attitudes toward Africa more than any other individual before him.

His discoveries—geographic, technical, medical, and social—provided a complex body of knowledge that is still being explored.

In spite of his paternalism and Victorian prejudices, Livingstone believed wholeheartedly in the African’s ability to advance into the modern world.

He was, in this sense, a forerunner not only of European imperialism in Africa but also of African nationalism.

George Albert Shepperson

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 

Explorations of David Livingstone.
 
 
 
Explorations of David Livingstone
 
 
David Livingstone (1813-73) had originally come to the notice of the Royal Geographical Society in 1849 when he had been the first European to cross the Kalahari and to stand on the shore of Lake Ngami (now the Ngami depression). He was born near Glasgow, into a family of straitened means, strict living, and religious fervor. Largely self-educated, he qualified as a doctor and was accepted for service with the London Missionary Society, a Protestant interdenominational body with interests in southern Africa. He arrived at the Cape in 1841 on the way to Kuruman (in Bechuanaland. now Botswana), some 1000 miles (1600 kilometers) to the north — to the station built by the veteran missionary Robert Moffat, whose daughter Livingstone was to many in 1845. The young couple were perpetually on the move, building three successive mission stations in an effort to establish themselves beyond territory constantly in dispute between Boer farmers and the local people.
 
 

David Livingstone’s expedition to Lake Ngami (now in Botswana), 19th-century chromolithograph.

In 1850 Livingstone took his family with him on his second expedition to Lake Ngami. He is shown here in the foreground with one of his children. "Wagon traveling," he wrote, "is a prolonged system of picnicking, excellent for the health and agreeable to those who ... delight in being in the open air."
 
 
Missionary expeditions
 
In 1849 Livingstone undertook his first expedition to Lake Ngami, together with William Cotton Oswell, a wealthy big game hunter who paid all expenses and was to become a lifelong friend. In 1850 Livingstone again visited Ngami, taking his wife and four children with him. In 1851 the same party reached the Cuando and Zambezi rivers, beyond which lay a "blank on the map." The region contains a vast watershed, abounding in streams, swamps, rivers, and seasonal floods, from which the Zambezi River flows south and east to the Indian Ocean, and the Congo (Zaire) River flows north and west to the Atlantic.
Livingstone's understanding of the nature of the ground he was to traverse, his careful notes and well-designed maps, have placed him in the front rank of geographers. It is often claimed that others — the Hungarian Laszlo Magyar, for instance, and the Portuguese Candido — reached the source of the Zambezi and crossed the continent before him, but it was Livingstone who recorded the geography and gave it to the world. His 1851 journey convinced him that only by prospecting further north could he find sites for mission stations out of the range of Boer harassment. He sent his wife and family off to England and prepared himself for his great adventure.
 
 

The steam launch the Ma Robert (named after Mrs Livingstone),
caused endless problems on the Zambezi Expedition.
 
 
Across Africa
 
Collecting supplies in Cape Town, Livingstone set out alone for the homelands of the Makolo, and Sekeletu, their chief between the Cuando and Zambezi rivers. He traveled west with a handpicked group of African companions — not hired porters — to prospect an avenue of trade with the coast which might be the means of combating the slave trade that was beginning to penetrate inland. Returning disappointed, he made his way down the Zambezi River and visited the great falls of "Mosi-oa-tunya," or "the smoke that thunders," which Livingstone called "Victoria."
Livingstone returned to England in 1856, convinced that his purpose in life must be to fight the slave trade, and that the best way of doing this was to encourage "industrial pursuits" and the cultivation of land by the African people, thus giving them goods (other than human beings) to trade in. He spent most of his time in England drumming up the support of the British people.
 
 

Explorations of David Livingstone:
1849-1851
1853-1856
1858-1864
 
 
The Zambezi Expedition
 
In 1858 Livingstone led an expedition to Africa, sponsored by the British Government and by the RGS. His aim was to open up the Zambezi as a highway into the interior. But he had six colleagues all wanting directions and encouragement, and he needed to establish relations with the Portuguese authorities who controlled the Zambezi River some way beyond Tete. Livingstone had neither the gift for handling colleagues and subordinates (nor the wish to acquire it), and he detested the Portuguese.
The Zambezi Expedition, which had taken such a hold on Livingstone's imagination, was also ill-conceived from a practical point of view. Livingstone allowed himself to assume that the river was navigable as far upstream as the Victoria Falls, yet on his way downstream in 1856 he had cut across country between Zumbo and Tete, and so had never reconnoitered the part of the river which contains the steep fall of the Kebrabasa (Cabora Bassa) Gorge. The river was impassable at this point, and the energies of the expedition were diverted to the ascent of the Shire River into Lake Nyasa (Malawi).
Many things went wrong: the steam launch from which much was expected gave endless trouble; the Universities Mission, led by Bishop Mackenzie, tailed to establish itself on the Shire River; Mary Livingstone died of fever. Not even the ascent of the Shire and the geographical information gained on the lake could redeem the Zambezi Expedition, which was recalled in 1864.
 
 

Thomas Baines

One of the members of the Zambezi Expedition was Thomas Baines (1820-75), an artist from King's Lynn, Norfolk, who first came to Africa in 1848 and is perhaps our chief witness of what southern Africa looked like in the middle years of the 19th century. His appointment to Livingstone's expedition was a disaster, since he was treated most unjustly by the great man, who never withdrew false charges made against the artist.


Baines survived, however, as did the splendid pictures which were the best things to come out of a mismanaged expedition. His fine painting of the Victoria Falls was done on a later visit to the Zambezi River with James Chapman in 1861.

 
 
Baines Thomas
 

(John) Thomas Baines (27 November 1820 – 8 May 1875) was an English artist and explorer of British colonial southern Africa and Australia.


Thomas Baines. Self-portrait at age 38. Oil on canvas. William Fehr Collection
  Life and work
Born in King's Lynn, Norfolk, Baines was apprenticed to a coach painter at an early age. When he was 22 he left England for South Africa aboard the "Olivia" (captained by a family friend William Roome) and worked for a while in Cape Town as a scenic and portrait artist, and as official war artist during the so-called Eighth Frontier War for the British Army.

In 1855 Baines joined Augustus Gregory's 1855–1857 Royal Geographical Society sponsored expedition across northern Australia as official artist and storekeeper. The expedition's purpose was to explore the Victoria River district in the north-west and to evaluate the entire northern area of Australia in terms of its suitability for colonial settlement. His association with the North Australian Expedition was the highpoint of his career, and he was warmly commended for his contribution to it, to the extent that Mount Baines and the Baines River were named in his honour.

In 1858 Baines accompanied David Livingstone along the Zambezi, and was one of the first white men to view Victoria Falls. In 1869 Baines led one of the first gold prospecting expeditions to Mashonaland in what later became Rhodesia.

From 1861 to 1862 Baines and James Chapman undertook an expedition to South West Africa.

 
 
Chapman's Travels in the Interior of South Africa (1868) and Baines' Explorations in South-West Africa (1864), provide a rare account of different perspectives on the same trip. This was the first expedition during which extensive use was made of both photography and painting, and in addition both men kept journals in which, amongst other things, they commented on their own and each other's practice.

Baines made some of the drawings for the engravings illustrating Alfred Russel Wallace's 1869 book The Malay Archipelago.

 
 

Thomas Baines.
Thomas Baines with Aborigines near the mouth of the Victoria River, 1857.
National Library of Australia
 
 
In 1870 Baines was granted a concession to explore for gold between the Gweru and Hunyani rivers by Lobengula, leader of the Matabele nation. Thomas Baines died in Durban in 1875.

Baines is today best known for his detailed paintings and sketches which give a unique insight into colonial life in southern Africa and Australia. Many of his pictures are held by the National Library of Australia, National Archives of Zimbabwe, National Maritime Museum, Brenthurst Library and the Royal Geographical Society. There are also numerous paintings at the Castle of Good Hope in Cape Town.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 

Thomas Baines. Kaffirs having made their fortunes leaving the Colony, 1848
 
 

Thomas Baines spent many years in southern Africa, painting scenes of exploration
and settlement. This picture shows the area around Sudbury in Cape Province.
 
 
see also: Southern Africa
 
 

Europeans, mounted on horseback and equipped with guns, had little difficulty in quelling any threat from the Aborigines, as shown in this painting by Thomas Baines, official artist to an expedition in northwest Australia in 1855.
 
 
see also: Across the Blue Mountains
 
 
 
1849
 
 
"Who's Who"
 
Who's Who (or "Who is Who") is the title of a number of reference publications, generally containing concise biographical information on a particular group of people. The title is also used as an expression meaning a collection or group of noted persons; as in the sentence, "The actors in the film were a Who's Who of the great American comedians of the time".
 

The title "Who's Who" is in the public domain, and thousands of Who's Who compilations of varying scope and quality have been published by various authors and publishers. The oldest and best known is the annual British publication Who's Who, a reference work on contemporary prominent people. Another reputable and long standing publication is Canadian Who's Who, which has published biographies of prominent Canadians based on merit alone since 1910.

However, many publications using the title are vanity publications, where the inclusion criterion is the biographee's willingness to buy the book, with the business model consisting of selling books directly to the biographees.

 
 
Notable examples
Who's Who, a listing of prominent British people since 1849; people who have died since 1897 are listed in Who Was Who
Marquis Who's Who, a series of books published by Marquis, primarily listing prominent American people but including Who's Who in the World.
[[WHO'S WHO Edition European business (EU) (* Canadian Who's Who, a listing of prominent Canadians since 1910

Who's Who in Australia, a listing of prominent Australians since 1923
Who's Who in American Art, a listing of prominent American artists
Kraks Blå Bog, Denmark's Who's Who
Who's Who in Europe, a listing of prominent Europeans since 1965
(French) Who's Who in France, a listing of prominent French or people living in France since 1953
Swiss Who's Who, a biographical dictionary of prominent Swiss or people living in Switzerland
Who's Who in British History
Who's Who in Scotland, a listing of prominent Scots since 1986
Who's Who, by Metron Publications, a listing of prominent Greeks since 1992
Who's Who in the DC Universe a listing of DC Comics characters
Who's Who Among American High School Students listing what it deems to be American high school and college students who particularly excel in the realm of academic achievement. The publishing company closed in 2007.

 
The Swedish Vem är det (1969)
 
 

Who's Who Among Students in American Universities & Colleges, published by Randall-Reilly Publishing Co., LLC is a list of high achieving college students nominated by the college faculty.
Who's Who in American Real Estate, a resource tool of professional real estate agents in America since 1983.
Who's Who of Southern Africa, a resource tool of noteworthy people in Southern Africa, and a professional networking platform. It is not the same as the official print publication, but a website which anyone may join and create their own profile.
Hinterland Who's Who, a series of 60-second public service ads profiling Canadian animals and birds, produced by Environment Canada in the 1960s
International Who's Who by Europa Publications, a Taylor and Francis imprint
Who's Who in the CIA, a book published in East Berlin in 1968 with the assistance of the KGB and the HVA purporting to reveal the identities of thousands of CIA officers.
Who's Who International SA, Lausanne, Switzerland created in 1958.
Hübners Who Is Who (de), by Who is Who, Verlag für Personenenzyklopädien AG, Zürich, which has a number of national editions throughout Europe:
one common edition for some German-speaking countries (Austria, Germany and Luxembourg): Who is who in dem deutschen Sprachgebiet, as well as the separate national editions for
Austria: Who is Who in Österreich
and Germany: Who is Who in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Poland: Who is Who w Polsce
Czech Republic: Who is ...? (v České republice)
Slovakia: Who is Who v Slovenskej republike
Hungary: Who is Who Magyarországon
Romania: Enciclopedia Personalităţilor din România: Who is Who
Greece and Cyprus: Who is Who στην Ελλάδα
Turkey: Türkiye’de Who is Who
Russia (including Belarus, and Russians from the other countries of the former USSR): Who is Who в России
Vietnam: Ai là ai
Yugoslavia: Ko je ko u Jugoslaviji (1970)

 

Similar publications
Some Who's Who books have a title in the language of the country concerned:

Croatian: Tko je tko u Hrvatskoj, bilingual edition (1993)
Danish: Kraks Blå Bog (since 1910) annually
German: Wer ist's? (1905–1935) and Wer ist wer? (de) (since 1951) almost annually
German: for East Germany: Wer war wer in der DDR? (de)[2]
Norwegian: Hvem er Hvem? (since 1912) 14 editions in the 20th century
South Africa: Who's Who of Southern Africa (since 1910) annually
Spanish: ¿Quién es quién?
Swedish: Vem är det (since 1912) every second year

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1849
 
 
Bedford College
 

Bedford College, University of London, was founded in London in 1849 as a higher education college for the education of women. It was the first institution of its type for women in the United Kingdom.

 
In 1900, the college became a constituent school of the University of London. It played a leading role in the advancement of women in higher education, and also in public life in general. The college became fully coeducational in the 1960s. In 1985, Bedford College merged with another of the University of London's colleges – Royal Holloway College. The merged institution was named Royal Holloway and Bedford New College (RHBNC). While this is still the official name, for day-to-day use the college is called Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL).
 
 
History of Bedford College
The college was founded by Elizabeth Jesser Reid (née Sturch), a social reformer and anti-slavery activist, who had been left a private income by her late husband, Dr. John Reid, which she used to patronise various philanthropic causes. Mrs. Reid and her circle of well-educated friends were firm believers in the need for improving education for women. In 1849, she leased a house at 47 Bedford Square in the Bloomsbury area of London, and opened the Ladies College in Bedford Square. The intention was to provide a liberal and non-sectarian education for women, something no other institution in the United Kingdom provided at the time. Reid placed £1,500 (GBP) with three male trustees, and persuaded a number of her friends to serve on the management committees and act as teaching professors.

At the outset, the governance of the College was in the hands of the Ladies Committee (comprising some influential women), and the General Committee made up of the Ladies, the professors of the college and three trustees.

 
Green plaque at Bedford Square, London
 
 
The General Committee (later the Council) soon took over the running of the College, while the Ladies Committee directed the work of the Lady Visitors, who were responsible for the welfare and discipline of the students, and also acted as their chaperones. Initially the professors were shocked by the generally low educational standards of the women entering the college, who for the most part came in having had home-based, governess education. In response to this, Reid founded a school close to the college in 1853, in an attempt to provide a better standard of entry. In 1860, the college expanded into 48 Bedford Square, which enabled it to become a residential establishment. "The Residence" was under the charge of a matron, who introduced the practice of students helping towards the running of the house, and keeping their own accounts.
 
 
Elizabeth Reid died in 1866, and left the college in the hands of three female trustees. These three women defied the views of the Council that the existing funds should be invested in the running of the school (which was closed in 1868), and instead ensured that the trust fund was used to improve conditions and teaching at the college, and establish it as a fully fledged institute of higher education. The trustees insisted upon a new constitution (as the college had no legal charter at the time). The Council was replaced by a Committee of Management, and the college was reconstituted as an Association under the Board of Trade, and officially became known as Bedford College.

In 1874, the Bedford Square lease expired and the college moved to 8 and 9 York Place, off Baker Street. The two houses acted as one, with the college using the downstairs rooms, and the upstairs being the Residence. As numbers began to rise, the college expanded with the addition of extensions housing science laboratories.
In the late-1870s, an entrance examination was introduced, and a preparatory department set up for those who did not meet the standards required for college-level entry.

  In 1878, degree examinations of the University of London were opened to women. Bedford College students began gaining University of London Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science and Masters degrees from the early-1880s.

In 1900, when the University of London became a teaching university (where it had previously been only a degree-awarding body), Bedford College became one of the university's constituent colleges. The college applied to the Privy Council for a Royal Charter to take the place of its Deed of Incorporation. Royal Assent for the new chartered body was received in 1909, and the College became officially recognised as Bedford College for Women.

Continued growth of the college led to a search for new premises, which culminated in the purchase of the lease of a site at Regent's Park in 1908. A major fund-raising effort was undertaken to provide the new site with modern amenities. The new purpose-built buildings were designed by the architect Basil Champneys, and were officially opened by Queen Mary in 1913. The buildings continued to be extended and rebuilt throughout the 70 years that the college spent at Regent's Park, especially following extensive damage caused by wartime bombing.

 
 

Bedford firsts include:

· first woman professor at an English university (Caroline Spurgeon)

· first Social Sciences department in the UK, established 1918

· first woman Vice-Chancellor

· first women factory inspectors under the 1913 Health Act

· first woman to be appointed to the Companionship of the Order of the Bath

· one of the first two women Fellows of the Royal Society

· fourth woman chairman of the TUC - Trades Union Congress, Marie Patterson

· the first art school in England where women could draw from life

· first bob cut: Bedford launched the fashion for bobbed hair (when the first bobbed head was seen it is recorded that it "nearly caused other students to faint.")

After a brief period of admitting a small number of male postgraduate students, the college became fully coeducational when 47 men passed through clearing in 1965, and the name reverted to Bedford College.

In the early 1980s, Bedford College had approximately 1,700 students and 200 academic staff based in 20 departments.

 
Merger with Royal Holloway
In 1985, Bedford College merged with Royal Holloway College, another college of the University of London which, like Bedford College, had been a college for women only when it was first founded. The merged institution took Royal Holloway College's premises in Egham, Surrey, just outside London, as its main campus and took on the name of Royal Holloway and Bedford New College (RHBNC). The decision to drop the Bedford name from day-to-day use caused some discontent among graduates of Bedford College, who felt that their old college had now essentially been taken over by Royal Holloway, and that Bedford College's name and history as a pioneering institution in the field of women's education were being forgotten. In an attempt to give more prominence to the Bedford name, the merged college named a large, newly built library in the centre of its campus the "Bedford Library". Relations between RHUL and some of the Bedford College alumni remain somewhat strained, but many other Bedford College alumni maintain links with RHUL, supporting alumni events and other college work.

Bedford College's old premises in Regent's Park is now the home of Regent's University London.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1849
 
 
Amelia Bloomer begins American women's dress reform
 
 
Bloomer Amelia
 

Amelia Jenks Bloomer (May 27, 1818 – December 30, 1894) was an American women's rights and temperance advocate. Even though she did not create the women's clothing reform style known as bloomers, her name became associated with it because of her early and strong advocacy.

 

Amelia Jenks Bloomer
  Early life
Amelia Bloomer was born in 1818 in Homer, New York. Bloomer came from a family of modest means and received only a few years of formal education in the local district school. After a brief stint as a school teacher at the age of 17, she decided to relocate, and moved in with her newly married sister Elvira, then living in Waterloo. Within a year she had moved into the home of the Oren Chamberlain family to act as the live-in governess for their three youngest children.

When she was 22, she married attorney Dexter Bloomer who encouraged her to write for his New York newspaper, the Seneca Falls County Courier.

She spent her early years in Cortland County, New York. Bloomer and her family moved to Iowa in 1852. She died at Council Bluffs, Iowa. She is commemorated together with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Sojourner Truth, and Harriet Ross Tubman in the calendar of saints of the Episcopal Church on July 20. Her home at Seneca Falls, New York, known as the Amelia Bloomer House, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.

 
 
Social activism
In 1848, Bloomer attended the Seneca Falls Convention, the first women's rights convention. The following year, she began editing the first newspaper for women, The Lily. It was published biweekly from 1849 until 1853. The newspaper began as a temperance journal, but came to have broad mix of contents ranging from recipes to moralist tracts, particularly when influenced by temperance activist and suffragette Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. Bloomer felt that because women lecturers were considered unseemly, writing was the best way for women to work for reform. Originally, The Lily was to be for “home distribution” among members of the Seneca Falls Ladies Temperance Society, which had formed in 1848, and eventually had a circulation of over 4,000. The paper encountered several obstacles early on, and the Society’s enthusiasm died out. Bloomer felt a commitment to publish and assumed full responsibility for editing and publishing the paper. Originally, the title page had the legend “Published by a committee of ladies.” But after 1850 – only Bloomer’s name appeared on the masthead. This newspaper was a model for later periodicals focused on women's suffrage.
 
 


Amelia Bloomer

  Bloomer described her experience as the first woman to own, operate and edit a news vehicle for women:

It was a needed instrument to spread abroad the truth of a new gospel to woman, and I could not withhold my hand to stay the work I had begun. I saw not the end from the beginning and dreamed where to my propositions to society would lead me.

In her publication, Bloomer promoted a change in dress standards for women that would be less restrictive in regular activities.

The costume of women should be suited to her wants and necessities. It should conduce at once to her health, comfort, and usefulness; and, while it should not fail also to conduce to her personal adornment, it should make that end of secondary importance.

In 1851, New England temperance activist Elizabeth Smith Miller (aka Libby Miller) adopted what she considered a more rational costume: loose trousers gathered at the ankles, like women's trousers worn in the Middle East and Central Asia, topped by a short dress or skirt and vest. The costume was worn publicly by actress Fanny Kemble.
Miller displayed her new clothing to Stanton, her cousin, who found it sensible and becoming, and adopted it immediately. In this garb Stanton visited Bloomer, who began to wear the costume and promote it enthusiastically in her magazine.

 
 
Articles on the clothing trend were picked up in The New York Tribune. More women wore the fashion which was promptly dubbed The Bloomer Costume or "Bloomers". However, the Bloomers were subjected to ceaseless ridicule in the press and harassment on the street. Bloomer herself dropped the fashion in 1859, saying that a new invention, the crinoline, was a sufficient reform that she could return to conventional dress.

Bloomer remained a suffrage pioneer and writer throughout her life, writing for a wide array of periodicals. Although Bloomer was far less famous than some other suffragettes, she made many significant contributions to the women’s movement — particularly concerning dress reform and the temperance movement. Bloomer led suffrage campaigns in Nebraska and Iowa, and served as president of the Iowa Woman Suffrage Association from 1871 until 1873.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Bloomers (clothing)
 

Bloomers are divided women's garments for the lower body.

 
Fashion bloomers (skirted)
Also called the "Turkish dress", "American dress", or simply "reform dress", bloomers were an innovation of readers of the Water-Cure Journal, a popular health periodical that in October 1849 began urging women to develop a style of dress that was not so harmful to their health as the current fashion.

It also represented an unrestricted movement, unprecedented by previous women's fashions, that allowed for greater freedom—both metaphorical and physical—within the public sphere. The fashionable dress of that time consisted of a skirt that dragged several inches on the floor, worn over layers of starched petticoats stiffened with straw or horsehair sewn into the hems.

In addition to the heavy skirts, prevailing fashion called for a "long waist" effect, achieved with a whale-bone-fitted corset that pushed the wearer’s internal organs out of their normal place. The result was a feminine population which, as one medical professor warned his students, was of no use as cadavers from which to study human anatomy.

Women responded with a variety of costumes, many inspired by the pantaloons of Turkey, and all including some form of pants. By the summer of 1850, various versions of a short skirt and trousers, or "Turkish dress", were being worn by readers of the Water-Cure Journal as well as women patients at the nation’s health resorts.

After wearing the style in private, some began wearing it in public. In the winter and spring of 1851, newspapers across the country carried startled sightings of the dresses.

 
Bloomer Suit. 1850s fashion bloomers
 
 
Bloomer craze of 1851
In February 1851, Elizabeth Smith Miller of Peterboro, New York wore the "Turkish dress" to Seneca Falls, New York, home of Amelia Bloomer and her temperance journal, The Lily. The next month Bloomer announced to her readers that she had adopted the dress and, in response to many inquiries, printed a description of her dress and instructions on how to make it. By June many newspapers had dubbed it the "Bloomer dress".

During the summer of 1851, the nation was seized by a "bloomer craze". Health reformer Mary Gove Nichols drafted a Declaration of Independence from the Despotism of Parisian Fashion and gathered signatures to it at lectures on woman’s dress. Managers of the textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts, gave a banquet for any of their female workers who adopted the safer dress before July 4. In Toledo, Ohio, sixty women turned out in Turkish costume at one of the city’s grandest social events. Bloomer balls and bloomer picnics were held; dress reform societies and bloomer institutes were formed. A grand festival in favor of the costume was held at New York City’s Broadway Tabernacle in September. In August, a woman who had spent six months sailing from Philadelphia around the Horn to California with the reform dress packed in her trunk disembarked to find that the dress had preceded her and was being displayed in the window of a San Francisco dress shop. Interest was sparked in England when Hannah Tracy Cutler and other women delegates wore the new dress to an international peace convention in London.

 
 
Women's rights
The Bloomer also became a symbol of women's rights in the early 1850s. The same women—Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucy Stone, and Susan B. Anthony—who adopted the new dress also advocated women's right to vote. Crowds gathered to not only hear the women's radical words, but also their scandalous dress. However, after three years, fearing that the new dress was drawing attention away from the suffragist cause, many of these women returned to corsets, long skirts, and more conventional forms of dress.
In similar suit, the Dress Reform Association, formed in 1856, called the outfit the "American costume" and focused on its health benefits rather than political symbolism. Following the American Civil War, interest in the Bloomer costume waned almost completely until its resurgence in the 1890s.

The “bloomer” was a physical and metaphorical representation of feminist reform, in the 1850s. This garment originated, in late 1849, for the purpose of developing a style of dress, for women that was less harmful to their health. Because it was less restricting than the previously popular attire, it provided more physical freedom for women.

 
Fashion bloomers
 
 
Being a completely new and distinctively different form of dress, the bloomer garment also provided women with metaphorical freedom, in the sense that it gave women more diverse dress options and the opportunity and power to wear what they choose.

Some individuals, at the time, even argued that the Bloomer dress should be adopted for moral reasons. “A reporter noted that a group of “very intelligent appearing, lady-like women” met in Milford, Massachusetts, in July 1852. The purpose of their meeting was to consider the propriety of adopting bloomers. The women unanimously passed a resolution approving the costume, declaring the existing fashion to be “moral evils,” and arguing that the bloomer would facilitate women’s efforts to engage in good works.”

“And now I’m dressed like a little girl, in a dress both loose and short,
Oh with what freedom I can sing, and walk all ‘round about!
And when I get a little strength, some work I think I can do,
‘Twill give me health and comfort, and make me useful too.”

— The Sibyl magazine, April 15,1859.

Although feminists, such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and numerous others, essentially, claimed that women within society who took on the “feminist dress” look without being fully knowledgeable of all the issues were imposters, individuals could demonstrate reform without being an expert in the issues. In The Sibyl poem, the feeling and element of reform was demonstrated through simplicity and the subtle appreciation of this small step in women’s fashion parallel to a small step for women, in general. During the 1850s, feminist reformers were fighting numerous battles to bring change and further equality to women everywhere. Although feminists believed that it was more important to focus on the issues, and that giving into fashionable trends was exactly what they were battling against, their popularized simple change in dress, symbolically, furthered women’s liberation.

 
 
Opposition to Bloomer dress
Bloomer’s promotion of the style as a freedom dress rather than as a health dress did nothing to recommend it to the orthodox clergy and other critics of the woman’s rights movement, who denounced the wearing of pants by women as a usurpation of male authority. Associating it with the woman’s rights movement, the New York Sunday Mercury published a woodcarving representing the woman’s rights convention held in Akron, Ohio, in May 1851. It depicted every woman in coat, breeches, and high boots, sitting cross-legged and smoking cigars, when in truth not a bloomer was present. Some young women were denied church membership for wearing the dress. Public meetings were called to put down the fad, and the very same newspapers that had previously praised the dress began ridiculing and condemning "Bloomerism". In August 1851, Harper’s Monthly reprinted a cartoon and article from a London newspaper ridiculing the American dress, one month after it had printed a sketch of the "Oriental Costume" and pronounced it tasteful, elegant, and graceful.

Bloomers in the West
Lucy Stone, one of the nation’s most famous orators and the woman’s rights movement’s most prominent spokesperson during the 1850s, helped popularize the dress by wearing it as she addressed immense audiences in over twenty states, the District of Columbia, and Ontario between 1851 and 1855. She had begun wearing the dress as a health measure while recuperating from typhoid fever during the winter of 1850–51, and she wore it exclusively for three years. In 1856 a National Dress Reform Association organized and one of its officers, Dr. Lydia Sayer Hasbrouck, who had worn the dress since 1849, established a journal, the Sibyl, as the society's organ.

 
1851 caricature of fashion bloomers
 
 
From July 1856 through June 1864, that paper carried news of dress reform to subscribers from New England to California and published the names of nearly a thousand women who sent in their names as wearers of the reform dress. A letter-writer from Iowa said it was especially suited for life on the prairie and reported that many women from various parts of the state wore it all the time. Readers from Illinois, Arkansas, Michigan, Wisconsin, Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota, and Oregon attested to its popularity among western women. In 1860, an English traveler reported meeting a bloomer wearer in Laramie, Wyoming, and a traveler to Pike’s Peak reported that "the bloomer costume is considerably in vogue and appears peculiarly adapted to overland travel".
 
 
Civil War nurses and the bloomer
When Dorthea Dix was appointed superintendent of army nurses in June 1861, she issued a statement banning the bloomer from army hospitals and requiring women to abandon it before entering nursing service.

But as western communities organized battalions of soldiers, they also formed corps of volunteer nurses to accompany them, and many of these nurses adopted the reform dress for field service.

All members of one such corps, organized by Dr. Fedelia Harris Reid of Berlin, Wisconsin, and called the "Wisconsin Florence Nightengale Union", wore the bloomer not only in the field, but also while caring for patients at a military hospital in St. Louis. Four bloomer wearers were among the nurses who accompanied Minnesota’s First Regiment.

Dr. Mary E. Walker, who earned the Congressional Medal of Honor for her medical services during the Civil War, wore the reform dress while working in a military hospital in Washington, D.C., as well as for field work. As she accompanied troops in the South, she wrote to the Sibyl that New Orleans women of wealth and standing had worn it to Haiti and Cuba.

The dress was still being worn by members of the utopian Oneida Community in 1867 but gradually it was abandoned by all but a very few stalwart wearers willing to defy society's mores.
  Bloomers and bicycles
In 1893, the Woman’s Congress of the World’s Columbian Exposition revived interest in the bloomer as an aid in improving women’s health through physical exercise. Their session on women’s dress opened with Lucy Stone reminiscing about the bloomer movement of the 1850s; her extolling the bloomer as the "cleanest, neatest, most comfortable and most sensible garment" she had ever worn; and young women modeling different versions of the dress. The following year Annie "Londonderry" Cohen Kopchovsky donned the bloomer during her famous bicycle trip around the world, and an updated version of the bloomer soon became the standard "bicycle dress" for women during the bicycle craze of the 1890s.

In 1909, fashion designer Paul Poiret attempted to popularize harem pants worn below a long flaring tunic, but this attempted revival of fashion bloomers under another name did not catch on.

Athletic bloomers (unskirted)
In the 19th and 20th centuries

During the late 19th century, athletic bloomers (also known as "rationals" or "knickerbockers") were skirtless baggy knee-length trousers, fastened to the leg a little below the knees; at that time, they were worn by women only in a few narrow contexts of athletic activity, such as bicycle-riding, gymnastics, and sports other than tennis . Bloomers were usually worn with stockings and after 1910 often with a sailor middy blouse.

 
 
Bloomers became shorter by the late 1920s. In the 1930s, when it become respectable for women to wear pants and shorts in a wider range of circumstances, styles imitating men's shorts were favored, and bloomers tended to become less common. However, baggy knee-length gym shorts fastened at or above the knees continued to be worn by girls in school physical education classes through to the 1950s in some areas. Some schools in New York City and Sydney still wore them as part of their uniforms into the 1980s. In Japan their use persisted into the early 2000s.[29]

The Bloomington, Illinois entry in the Three-I League of minor league baseball, despite being an all-male team, was tagged with the nickname "Bloomers" for several decades in the early 1900s.

 
 

1890s caricature of athletic bloomers
 
 
Bloomers in Japan
Known as buruma (ブルマ), also burumā (ブルマー), bloomers were introduced in Japan as women's clothing for physical education in 1903. After the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, a newer style of bloomers which fit the body closer, similar to volleyball uniforms, became commonplace. Around the mid-1990s, however, schools and individuals began to choose sports shorts instead, citing modesty concerns. Some people are interested in bloomers in clothing fetish context.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
see also: The Costume History
 
 
see also: Victorian era
 
 
 
1849
 
 
Cape Colony forbids landing of convicts
 
 
 
1849
 
 
Julie ("Madame") Recamier d. (b. 1777)
 
 

Recamier Julie.
Portrait by François Pascal Simon Gérard, 1802
 
 

Portrait of Madame Récamier by Jacques-Louis David (1800, Louvre)
 
 
 
1849
 
 
Stead William Thomas
 
William Thomas Stead, (born July 5, 1849, Embleton, Northumberland, England—died April 15, 1912, at sea, North Atlantic), British journalist, editor, and publisher who founded the noted periodical Review of Reviews (1890).
 

William Thomas Stead
  Stead was educated at home by his father, a clergyman, until he was 12 years old and then attended Silcoates School at Wakefield. He became an apprentice in a merchant’s countinghouse and in about 1870 began to contribute to the Liberal daily newspaper Northern Echo at Darlington. The following year he was invited to become the Echo’s editor. He and the paper diligently supported Prime Minister W.E. Gladstone. In 1880 he went to London as assistant editor of the Pall Mall Gazette under John Morley, later Viscount Morley. When Morley went into Parliament, Stead succeeded him as editor and made of the Pall Mall Gazette a sprightly and unconventional journal. He introduced such modern journalistic techniques as the use of illustrations. He also developed the interview form in newspaper writing. His press campaigns effected many changes, including the improvement of British naval defenses.

In 1890 Stead decided to give up daily journalism in favour of the monthly journal he founded, Review of Reviews. He was known for his crusades in the journal’s pages on behalf of such diverse causes as British-Russian friendship, ending child prostitution, the reform of England’s criminal codes, and the maintenance of international peace. As editor and publisher of the Review of Reviews, he wrote on psychic phenomena, spiritualism, the “civic church,” and many other subjects. In 1894, Stead traveled to Chicago to attend the World’s Fair. He was horrified by the conditions he observed behind the glamour of the Fair and made a thorough investigation of the city’s underworld. His findings, published in If Christ Came to Chicago!: A Plea for the Union of All Who Love in the Service of All Who Suffer (1894), are recognized as a model of journalistic research.

 
 
In 1904 Stead tried to found a newspaper, The Daily Paper, but it failed, and he narrowly avoided bankruptcy.

Stead was a passenger on the British transatlantic liner Titanic when the ship struck an iceberg and sank, and he was one of the approximately 1,500 passengers who perished.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
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