Sir Hubert Hastings
Parry, Baronet, original name in full Charles Hubert
Hastings Parry (born Feb. 27, 1848, Bournemouth,
Hampshire, Eng.—died Oct. 7, 1918, Rustington, Sussex),
composer, writer, and teacher, influential in the
revival of English music at the end of the 19th century.
While at Eton, where he
studied composition, he took the bachelor of music degree
from Oxford (1867). Among his later teachers, the pianist
Edward Dannreuther particularly influenced him.
Parry’s Scenes from
Prometheus Unbound (1880) was the first of a series of
choral works that showed his gift for the massive effects
that characterized English music of the rest of the 19th
Among his works are Blest Pair of Sirens (1887) for
chorus and orchestra; the oratorios Judith (1888), Job
(1892), and King Saul (1894); and his Songs of Farewell
(1916–18). His unison song “Jerusalem” (1916), a setting of
words from William Blake’s Milton, became almost a second
national anthem during and after World War I. His other
works include five symphonies, Symphonic Variations, chorale
preludes for organ, motets, and many songs.
In 1883 Parry was appointed
choragus (festival conductor) of the University of Oxford
and joined the staff of the Royal College of Music, London,
becoming its director in 1894.
In 1900 he became professor
of music at Oxford. He was knighted in 1898 and created a
baronet in 1903; he died without sons, and the baronetcy
His writings on music include Studies of
Great Composers (1886), The Evolution of the Art of Music
(1896), Johann Sebastian Bach (1909), and Style in Musical
original name Henri Fouques-duparc (born Jan. 21, 1848,
Paris, Fr.—died Feb. 12, 1933, Mont-de-Marsan), French
composer known for his original and lasting songs on
poems of Charles Baudelaire, Leconte de Lisle, Théophile
Gautier, and others.
Duparc studied with César
Franck at the Jesuit College of Vaugirard. In 1869 he met
Franz Liszt and Richard Wagner at Weimar and in 1870
published five songs (Cinq Mélodies, Opus 2). Two of them,
“Soupir” and “Chanson triste,” were later incorporated in
his collection of songs, written between 1868 and 1884,
including eight with orchestral accompaniment.
songs, Duparc enlarged the French song into a scena, or
opera-like scene, and brought to it a poetic sense of
musical prosody and a symphonic conception of form. In his
youth Duparc wrote two orchestral works, Aux Étoiles (To the
Stars) and Lénore, and a motet.
He was also keenly
interested in Russian literature, planning an opera, Roussalka, based on a narrative poem by Aleksandr Pushkin.
About 1890 his creative faculties began to be undermined by
doubts, and he thereafter produced little. In a spirit of
severe self-criticism, he destroyed nearly all his
subsequent works and sketches, together with his earlier
unpublished manuscripts and the correspondence addressed to
him by Wagner and contemporary poets.
During the latter part
of his life he was associated with two French Catholic
writers, Francis Jammes and Paul Claudel, and composed the
song “Testament” (1906–13), the text of which is a prose
Bottger (28 April 1806 – 29 April 1881) was a German
inorganic chemist. He conducted most of his research at
the University of Frankfurt am Main. He is credited with
discovery of nitrocellulose in 1846, independently to
Schönbein, and with the synthesis of the first
organocopper compound copper(I) acetylide Cu2C2 in 1859.
Life and work
Böttger was born in Aschersleben, Germany in 1806.
After attending the primary school there he joined
the school of the Franksche Stiftung in Halle an der
Saale at the age of eleven. In 1824, Böttger started
to study theology, but in parallel also attended the
science lectures at the University Halle. The
lectures of Johann Salomo Christoph Schweigger had a
strong influence on him. Böttger left the university
in 1828 and worked as cleric and teacher at
different locations. The contact with Schweigger
never faded and in 1831 Böttger decided to leave the
theology career. He was offered a job at the
voluntary association for chemistry in Frankfurt in
His first major work in Frankfurt was the
improvement of the electrotyping method for the
production of printing plates. Böttger received his
PhD from the University of Jena in 1837 and was
appointed as full professor in Frankfurt in 1842.
Böttger married Christiane Harpke in 1841, and they
had eight children. He and Christian Friedrich
Schönbein, a German-Swiss chemist, discovered
nitrocellulose independently in 1846. Both
scientists collaborated to earn money with the
invention, but they were not successful. The
development of the safety match in 1848 and the
synthesis of the first organocopper compound, the
explosive copper(I) acetylide Cu2C2 in 1859 were
examples for his chemistry research.
at the University of Frankfurt am Main for the rest
of his life, although he was offered positions at
other universities. He died of a liver illness in
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lord Rosse studies M1 and
names it the Crab Nebula.
William Parsons, 3rd
earl of Rosse, also called (1807–41) Lord Oxmantown
(born June 17, 1800, York, Eng.—died Oct. 31, 1867,
Monkstown, County Cork, Ire.), Irish astronomer and
builder of the largest reflecting telescope, the
“Leviathan,” of the 19th century.
In 1821 Parsons was
elected to the House of Commons. He resigned his
seat in 1834 but in 1841 inherited his father’s
title, becoming the 3rd earl of Rosse, and served as
one of the Irish peers in the House of Lords.
Lord Rosse was
obsessed with the idea of constructing a truly large
telescope and worked for five years to find an alloy
suitable for the mirror. His mirrors were made of
speculum metal, an alloy of approximately two parts
copper to one part tin by weight. (Some makers added
traces of other metals.) Adding more copper makes
the mirror less brittle and therefore less likely to
break, but the mirror is more susceptible to the
development of small surface fissures in the cooling
process, tarnishes faster, and has a less white
colour. Because he was at first unable to cast large
pieces without using too much copper, his first
36-inch (91-cm) diameter mirror was composed of 16
thin plates soldered to a brass framework.
success of this telescope encouraged Lord Rosse to
try to cast a solid 36-inch mirror. After much
experimentation he succeeded in casting and cooling
the mirror without cracking it, a serious problem in
the construction of all large telescopic mirrors.
In 1842 he began work on a
mirror of 72-inch (183-cm) diameter. Three years later the
four-ton disk was mounted, and the installation was
completed at his Birr Castle estate in Ireland. Fifty-four
feet (16 metres) in length, Lord Rosse’s telescope was used
primarily to observe nebulae on those rare occasions when
weather conditions permitted.
Drawing of the Whirlpool Galaxy by Rosse in 1845
With his telescope, however,
he discovered the remarkable spiral shape of many objects
then classed as “nebulae,” which are now recognized as
individual galaxies. His drawing of the spiral galaxy M51 is
a classic work of mid-19th-century astronomy. He studied and
named the Crab Nebula. He also made detailed observations of
the Orion Nebula. Though his telescope was dismantled in
1908, it was not until the 100-inch (254-cm) reflector was
installed in 1917 at the Mount Wilson Observatory in
California that a larger telescope was used. The telescope
was later reconstructed and the original masonry mounting
restored; these can be seen in the castle grounds at Birr,
Gottlob Frege, (born
November 8, 1848, Wismar, Mecklenburg-Schwerin—died July
26, 1925, Bad Kleinen, Germany), German mathematician
and logician, who founded modern mathematical logic.
Working on the borderline between philosophy and
mathematics—viz., in the philosophy of mathematics and
mathematical logic (in which no intellectual precedents
existed)—Frege discovered, on his own, the fundamental
ideas that have made possible the whole modern
development of logic and thereby invented an entire
Frege was the son of
Alexander Frege, a principal of a girls’ high school
in Wismar. His mother, Auguste Frege, née
Bialloblotzky, who was perhaps of Polish origin,
outlived her husband, who died in 1866. Frege
entered the University of Jena in 1869, where he
studied for two years, and then went to the
University of Göttingen for a further two—in
mathematics, physics, chemistry, and philosophy.
Frege spent the whole of his working life as a
teacher of mathematics at Jena: he became a
Privatdozent in May 1871, was made an
ausserordentlicher Professor (associate professor)
in July 1879, and became statutory professor of
mathematics in May 1896. He lectured in all branches
of mathematics (though his mathematical publications
outside the field of logic are extremely few) and
also on his own logical system. A great many of his
publications, however, were expressly philosophical
in character: he himself once said, “Every good
mathematician is at least half a philosopher, and
every good philosopher at least half a
mathematician.” He kept aloof from his students and
even more aloof from his colleagues.
Though Frege was
married, his wife died during World War I, leaving
him no children of his own. There was an adopted
son, Alfred, however, who became an engineer. Frege was, in
religion, a liberal Lutheran and, in politics, a
reactionary. He had a great love for the monarchy
and for the royal house of Mecklenburg, and during
World War I he developed an intense hatred of
socialism and of democracy, to which he came to
ascribe the loss of the war and the shame of the
Treaty of Versailles.
A diary kept at the end of his
life reveals, as well, a loathing of the French and of
Catholics and an anti-Semitism extending to a belief that
the Jews must be expelled from Germany.
Frege had a vivid awareness
of his own genius and a belief that it would one day be
recognized; but he became increasingly embittered at the
failure of scholars to recognize it during his lifetime. He
delighted in controversy and polemic; but the originality of
his own work, the almost total independence of his own ideas
from other influences, past or present, was quite
exceptional and, indeed, astonishing.
System of mathematical
In 1879 Frege published his Begriffsschrift (“Conceptscript”),
in which, for the first time, a system of mathematical logic
in the modern sense was presented. No one at the time,
however—philosopher or mathematician—comprehended clearly
what Frege had done, and when, some decades later, the
subject began to get under way, his ideas reached others
mostly as filtered through the minds of other men, such as
Peano; in his lifetime there were very few—one was Bertrand
Russell—to give Frege the credit due to him.
He was not yet too
downcast by the failure of the learned world to
appreciate the Begriffsschrift, which, after all,
discourages the reader by the use of a complex and
unfamiliar symbolism to express unfamiliar ideas. He
resolved, however, to compose his next book without
the use of any symbols at all.
There followed a
period of intensive work on the philosophy of logic
and of mathematics, embodied initially in his first
book, Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik (1884; The
Foundations of Arithmetic). The Grundlagen was a
work that must on any count stand as a masterpiece
of philosophical writing. The only review that the
book received, however, was a devastatingly hostile
one by Georg Cantor, the mathematician whose ideas
were the closest to Frege’s, who had not bothered to
understand Frege’s book before subjecting it to
totally unmerited scorn.
Wounded by the
reception of his second book, Frege nevertheless
devoted the next decade to producing a series of
brilliant philosophical articles in which he
elaborated his philosophy of logic. These articles
contain many deep insights, although, as Frege
systematized his theories, there appeared a certain
hardening into a kind of scholasticism. There
followed a return to the philosophy of mathematics
with the first volume of Grundgesetze der Arithmetik
(1893; partial Eng. trans., Basic Laws of
Arithmetic), in which Frege presented, in a modified
version of the symbolic system of the
Begriffsschrift, a rigorous development of the
theory of Grundlagen. This, too, received only a
single review (by Peano).
The neglect of what was to have been his chef
d’oeuvre finally embittered Frege, who had
complained, in the preface, of the apparent
ignorance of his work on the part of writers working
in allied fields. The resulting bitterness shows in
the style of Frege’s controversial writing. Seldom
has criticism of previous writers been more deadly
than in his Grundlagen; but it is expressed with a
lightness of touch and is never unfair. In volume 2
of the Grundgesetze (1903), however, the attacks
became heavyhanded and abusive—a means of getting
back at the world that had ignored him.
A worse disaster than neglect, however, was in store
for him. While volume 2 of the Grundgesetze was at
the printer’s, he received on June 16, 1902, a
letter from one of the few contemporaries who had
read and admired his works—Bertrand Russell. The
latter pointed out, modestly but correctly, the
possibility of deriving a contradiction in Frege’s
logical system—the celebrated Russell paradox. The
two exchanged many letters; and, before the book was
published, Frege had devised a modification of one
of his axioms intended to restore consistency to the
system. This he explained in an appendix to the
book. After Frege’s death, it would be shown by a
Polish logician, Stanisław Leśniewski, that Frege’s
modified axiom still leads to contradiction.
Probably Frege never discovered this. Even a brief
inspection, however, of the proofs of the theorems
in volume 1 would have revealed that several crucial
proofs would no longer go through, and this Frege
must have found out.
In any case, 1903
effectively marks the end of Frege’s productive
life. He never published the projected third volume
of the Grundgesetze, and he took no part in the
development of the subject, mathematical logic, that
he had founded, though it had progressed
considerably by the time of his death. He published
a few polemical pieces; but, with the exception of
three essays in the philosophy of logic produced
after the end of the war, he did no further creative
work. In 1912 he declined, in terms expressing deep
depression, an invitation by Russell to address a
mathematical congress in Cambridge.
At the very end of
Frege’s life, he again started to work on the
philosophy of mathematics, having arrived at the
conclusion that one of the fundamental bases of his
earlier work—the attempt to found arithmetic on
logic—had been mistaken; but the work did not
progress very far and was not published.
Up to an advanced
age, Frege hiked every summer in Mecklenburg, his
native region. He finally retired during World War I
and went to live in Bad Kleinen, in Mecklenburg.
Frege’s work represents the beginning of modern
logic because of his invention of the notation of
quantifiers and variables. (In natural language,
generality is represented by inserting an expression
like “everything” or “something” in the
argument-place of the predicate; in the notation
used in logic since Frege, the argument-place is
filled by a variable letter, say x, and the
resulting expression prefixed by a quantifier, “For
every x” or “For some x,” said to “bind” that
By means of this notation he solved the problem that
had baffled the logicians of the Middle Ages and
prevented the further advance of logic ever since,
viz., the analysis of sentences involving multiple
generality. In him there also appeared the first
clear separation between the formal characterization
of logical laws and their semantic justification.
His philosophical work is of an importance far more
general than the area to which he principally
applied it, the philosophy of mathematics: he
initiated a revolution, in fact, as profound as that
of René Descartes in the 17th century. Whereas
Descartes had made epistemology the starting point
for all philosophy, Frege gave this place to the
theory of meaning or the philosophy of language.
His work has been influential because he made the
restricted part of philosophy in which he worked
basic to all the rest. The effect was imparted in
the first place, however, through the work of
others, particularly that of Wittgenstein, who
visited him in 1914 and who revered him.
But, since John Austin’s
translation of the Grundlagen into English in 1950, the
direct influence of Frege’s writing among English-speaking
philosophers has been very great. No one supposes that Frege
said the last word on any topic; but there is scarcely a
live question in contemporary philosophy of language for
whose examination Frege’s views do not form at least the
best starting point.
Preußische Zeitung ("New Prussian Newspaper") was a
German newspaper printed in Berlin from 1848–1939. It
was known as the Kreuzzeitung or Kreuz-Zeitung ("Cross
Newspaper") because its emblem was an Iron Cross (eisernes
The newspaper was founded
during the revolutions of 1848 by Herrmann Wagener to act as
the voice for Prussian conservatives, especially Leopold and
Ernst Ludwig von Gerlach and Hans Hugo von Kleist-Retzow.
The paper became the main artery for the Prussian
Conservative Party's ideas, and it opposed Otto von
Bismarck's plans for German unification during the 1860s and
The Kreuzzeitung's most
famous writer was Theodor Fontane, who wrote the English
Article (1856-1870), while other contributors included
Friedrich Wilhelm Adami and Johann Georg Ludwig Hesekiel.
The Kreuzzeitung was taken
over by the Nazi Party on 29 August 1937; its last edition
was printed on 30 June 1939.
The Neue Rheinische
Zeitung: Organ der Demokratie ("New Rhenish Newspaper:
Organ of Democracy") was a German daily newspaper,
published by Marx Karl
Cologne between 1 June 1848 and 19 May 1849. It is
recognised by historians as one of the most important
dailies of the Revolutions of 1848 in Germany. The paper
was regarded by its editors and readers as the successor
of an earlier Cologne newspaper, the Rheinische Zeitung
("Rhenish Newspaper"), also edited for a time by Karl
Marx, which had been suppressed by state censorship over
five years earlier.
The Neue Rheinische Zeitung: Organ der Demokratie
("New Rhenish Newspaper: Organ of Democracy") was
founded 1 June 1848 in Cologne (Köln), part of
Rhineland. The paper was established by Karl Marx,
Frederick Engels, as well as leading members of the
Communist League living in Cologne immediately upon
the return of Marx and Engels to Germany following
the outbreak of the 1848 Revolution. The paper's
editorial staff included Joseph Weydemeyer, with
Marx serving as editor-in-chief.
The paper was named
after an earlier newspaper edited by Karl Marx in
Cologne from 1842 to 1843, the Rheinische Zeitung.
The paper had the subtitle "Organ of Democracy,"
referring not to the establishment of parliamentary
democracy, but to the revolutionary "Democratic
front" which included the progressive petty
bourgeoisie, the working class, and the peasantry.
The paper was
financed through the sale of shares of stock,
contributions and loans, and paid advertising. The
paper was produced as a 4-page broadsheet, with the
use of occasional special supplements.
Circulation of the paper ranged from 3,000 to 6,000
copies per issue, a number far in excess of the
membership of the Communist League itself, which
specialists estimate had between 200 and 300
participants. This effectively rendered the
publication into what one historian has called "the
leading centre of the Communist League, directing
the political activity of its members throughout
Germany during the revolutionary period."
The 19 June 1848
edition of Neue Rheinische Zeitung.
A total of 301 editions of the
Neue Rheinische Zeitung (NRZ) were produced during the
course of its existence. To these Marx himself contributed a
total of not fewer than 80 articles over the course of its
existence. Since editorial contributions to the NRZ were
unsigned and handwritten manuscripts have not survived, a
precise count is impossible, however.
The Neue Rheinische Zeitung (NRZ) was outspoken in its
criticism of Prussia and Austria for Monarchist
counter-revolution, and actively agitated for their defeat.
The paper was also critical of the willingness of the
liberal bourgeoisie to compromise with Monarchist forces —
policies which Marx and his comrades believed would have
negative impacts upon the German revolution.
More than three
decades after the publication's termination, Marx's
close associate Frederick Engels recalled that the
NRZ had a political program with two main points: "a
single, indivisible, democratic German republic, and
War with Russia, including the restoration of
With respect to foreign affairs, Engels recalled
that the NRZ sought "to support every revolutionary
people and to call for a general war of
revolutionary Europe against the mighty bulwark of
European reaction — Russia."
This policy was
intended to undermine both the authority of Prussia
and Tsarist Russia, both considered reactionary and
militaristic powers, with war against Russia seen as
a necessary prerequisite for establishment of a
unified and democratic Germany.
Marx and Engels believed that "if Germany could be
successfully brought to make war against Russia, it
would be the end for the Habsburgs and Hohenzollerns
and the revolution would triumph along the whole
The tone of the
newspaper was described by Engels as "by no means
solemn, serious, or enthusiastic," instead treating
political opponents with "mockery and derision" in a
manner entertaining to readers. The paper sought to
foster the idea that the German events of the spring
of 1848 were the starting point of a long
revolutionary process akin to the French Revolution
of 1789-1794. The paper attempted to undermine the
notion that the formal resolutions of various
"National Assemblies" were capable of changing state
policy in any fundamental way.
existence the NRZ was persecuted by the Prussian
government, which brought lawsuits against it
charging the NRZ with having "slandered" government
officials. As the revolutionary upsurge of 1848
ebbed, the government's hindrance of the publication
became steadily more effective, culminating in Karl
Marx's expulsion from Germany — a move which
effectively killed the paper.
On 2 March 1849, Prussian soldiers came to Marx's
home to arrest one of the writers. Marx refused to
turn over the writer, and the soldiers eventually
On 16 May 1849 Marx
received an official note from the royal government
"The tendency of the Neue Rheinische Zeitung to
provoke in its readers contempt for the present
government, and incite them to violent revolution
and the setting up of a social republic has become
stronger in its latest pieces.... The right of
hospitality which he has so disgracefully abused is
therefore to be withdrawn from its editor-in-chief,
Dr. Karl Marx, and since he has not obtained
permission to prolong his stay in these states, he
is ordered to leave them within 24 hours. If he
should not comply voluntarily with this demand, he
is to be forcibly conveyed across the frontier."
order, combined with the growing threat of arrest or
exile of its writers forced the NRZ to publish its
last issue on 19 May 1849, known as the "red issue"
as it was printed entirely in red ink. Marx closed
with a sharp rebuttal against the suppression of the
"Why these absurd phrases, these official lies? The
trend and tone of the latest pieces of the Neue
Rheinische Zeitung do not differ a whit from its
first 'sample piece."
"And the 'social republic'? Have we proclaimed it
only in the 'latest pieces' of the Neue Rheinische
Zeitung? Did we not speak plainly and clearly enough
for these dullards who failed to see the 'red'
thread running through all our comments and reports
on the European movement?"
have no compassion and we ask no compassion from
you. When our turn comes, we shall not make excuses
for the terror. But the royal terrorists, the
terrorists by the grace of God and the law, are in
practice brutal, disdainful, and mean, in theory
cowardly, secretive, and deceitful, and in both
In January 1850 Marx launched a new publication, a monthly
magazine called Neue Rheinische Zeitung:
Politsch-ökonomische Revue ("New Rhenish Newspaper:
Politico-Economic Review"). Edited in London and printed in
Hamburg, the periodical managed only six issues before
best-known content of the NRZ were a series of five articles
on economics published by Marx in April 1849 — a series
unfinished due to the suppression of the paper. First
gathered under a single set of covers under the title
Wage-labor and Capital in 1880, this material was
subsequently revised by Engels in 1891 and frequently
reprinted thereafter as an accessible popularization of
The great bulk of the
journalism of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels in the NRZ
became systematically accessible to an English readership
only in 1977, with the publication of volumes 7, 8, and 9 of
the Marx-Engels Collected Works. It was then that a total of
357 of the 422 articles contained therein were published in
English for the first time.
In 2005 an online newspaper
calling itself Neue Rheinische Zeitung was established.
Grace, (born July 18, 1848, Downend, Gloucestershire,
Eng.—died Oct. 23, 1915, London), greatest cricketer in
Victorian England, whose dominating physical presence,
gusto, and inexhaustible energy made him a national
He evolved the modern
principles of batting and achieved many notable
performances on rough and unpredictable wickets,
such as are unknown to modern players.
In his career in first-class cricket (1865–1908),
Grace scored 54,896 runs, registered 126 centuries
(100 runs in a single innings), and, as a bowler,
took 2,809 wickets. In 84 matches for Gentlemen
versus Players he amassed 6,000 runs and took 271
wickets. In August 1876 he scored, in consecutive
innings, 344 out of 546 for Marylebone Cricket Club
versus Kent; 177 out of 262 for the Gloucestershire
county team versus Nottinghamshire; and 318, not
out, for Gloucestershire versus Yorkshire. In 1880
he was on the English team that played the first
Test match against Australia in England. Late in
life he could still handle a bat: in his last match,
on July 25, 1914, when he was 66, his score was 69,
not out, for Eltham.
The legend of Grace
presents him as shaggy and ponderous, with a huge
yellow cap atop a swarthy, bearded face. In his
heyday, however, he possessed an athletic figure and
was a swift runner. Although he practiced medicine,
cricket was his life, to the extent that a biography
(by A.A. Thomson, 1957) is entitled simply Great
Cricketer. Of him, the famous bowler J.C. Shaw
remarked: “I puts the ball where I likes, but he
puts it where he likes.” His brother Edward Mills
(1841–1911) was also a redoubtable cricketer.
First settlers arrive in New Zealand
Sebastian Kneipp introduces
cold-water cures at Worrishofen,
(May 17, 1821, Stephansried, Germany – June 17, 1897, in
Bad Wörishofen) was a Bavarian priest and one of the
founders of the naturopathic medicine movement. He is
most commonly associated with the "Kneipp Cure" form of
hydrotherapy, the application of water through various
methods, temperatures and pressures which he claimed to
have therapeutic or healing effects.
In Norway, he is
mostly known for his wholemeal bread recipe. Kneippbrød
is the most commonly eaten bread in Norway.
Kneipp was born in 1821 in Bavaria. His father was a
weaver, and Kneipp trained as a weaver until he was
23 when he began training for the priesthood. He
fell ill with tuberculosis, and claimed that he was
healed by a "water cure" that he read in a book that
he found. He was ordained as a Catholic priest in
19th century, there was a popular revival in the
application of hydrotherapy, instigated around 1829
by Vincent Priessnitz, a peasant farmer in
Gräfenberg, then part of the Austrian Empire. This
revival was continued by Kneipp, "an able and
enthusiastic follower" of Priessnitz, "whose work he
took up where Priessnitz left it", after he came
across a treatise on the cold water cure. At
Worishofen, while serving as the confessor to the
monastery, he began offering treatments of
hydrotherapy, botanical treatments, exercise and
diet to the people who lived in the village. Some of
his suggested treatments included "ice cold baths
and walking barefoot in the snow" and other "harsh"
methodologies. In 1893, M. E. Bottey described
Kneipp's water cures as "dangerous in most cases".".
Worishofen became known as a place with a reputation
for spiritual healing. In addition to "peasants",
Kneipp's clients also included Archduke Franz
Ferdinand of Austria and his father, Archduke Karl
Ludwig as well as Pope Leo XIII.
Others took Kneipp's processes
back to their home countries to found alternative therapy
spas and colleges. In America, Kneipp Societies were
founded, which, under the influence of Benedict Lust,
changed their name to Naturopatic Society of America.
Kneipp's book My Water Cure
was published in 1886 with many subsequent editions, and
translated into many languages. He also wrote "Thus Shalt
Thou Live", "My Will", The care of children in sickness and
In 1891, he founded Kneipp
Bund, and organization that promotes water healing.
Kneipp died in 1897.
Archduke Josef dedicated his medical atlas to Kneipp.[
Kneipp's likeness was featured on a stamp. His recipe for
whole wheat bread, called Kneippbrød, is the most commonly
eaten bread in Norway.
(born May 23, 1848, Anklam, Prussia—died Aug. 10, 1896,
Berlin), German aviation pioneer. Lilienthal was the
most significant aeronautical pioneer in the years
between the advancements of the Englishman George Cayley
and the American Wright brothers.
Trained as a
mechanical engineer, Lilienthal established his own
machine shop and flight factory following service in
the Franco-German War. Lilienthal began to conduct
studies of the forces operating on wings in a stream
of air in the late 1870s. The results of that
research appeared in 1889 in a book entitled Der
Vogelflug als Grundlage der Fliegekunst (“Bird
Flight as the Basis of Aviation”) and in an
important series of articles that provided a
foundation for the final effort to achieve
mechanical flight. As transmitted by Octave Chanute,
Lilienthal’s friend and American correspondent, the
tables of data served as the starting point for the
earliest aircraft designs of the Wright brothers.
Having explored the
physical principles governing winged flight,
Lilienthal began to design and build gliders on the
basis of the information he had gathered. Between
1891 and 1896, he completed some 2,000 flights in at
least 16 distinct glider types. His career as a
builder and pilot of gliders coincided with the
development of high-speed and stroboscopic
photography. Images of Lilienthal flying through the
air aboard his standard glider appeared around the
globe in newspapers and the great illustrated
magazines of the period. Those pictures convinced
millions of readers in Europe and the United States
that the age of flight was at hand. Lilienthal broke
his back in a glider crash on Aug. 9, 1896, and died
in a Berlin hospital the next day.
Shirley Reed Starr (February 5, 1848 – February 3,
1889), better known as Belle Starr, was a notorious
with the James-Younger gang and other outlaws. She was
convicted of horse theft in 1883. Her story was
popularized by novelist Richard Fox and later became a
popular character in television and movies.
Belle Starr was born as Myra Maybelle Shirley on her
father's farm near Carthage, Missouri. Her family called her
May. Her father was John Shirley. Her mother, Eliza
Hatfield, was related to the Hatfields of the famous family
feud. In the 1860s, her father sold the farm and moved the
family to Carthage, where he bought an inn and livery stable
on the town square.
May Shirley received a
classical education and learned piano, while graduating from
Missouri's Carthage Female Academy, a private institution
that her father had helped to found.
of Belle Starr, "Queen of the Oklahoma Outlaws"
During the Civil
After a Union attack on Carthage in 1864, the
Shirleys moved to Scyene, Texas. According to
legend, it was at Scyene that the Shirleys became
associated with a number of Missouri-born criminals,
including Jesse James and the Youngers. In fact, she
knew the Younger brothers and the James boys because
she had grown up with them in Missouri. Her brother,
John A. M. "Bud" Shirley, was called Captain Shirley
by local Confederate sympathizers. He does not
appear on any list of Quantrill's Raiders, but rode
with a group who were called partisans by some and
bushwackers by Union sympathizers. Bud Shirley was
killed in 1864 in Sarcoxie, Missouri, while he and
another scout were being fed at the home of a
Confederate sympathizer. Union troops surrounded the
house and when Bud attempted to escape, he was shot
After the Civil War
Following the war, the Reed family also moved to
Scyene and May Shirley married Jim Reed in 1866,
after having had an earlier crush on him as a teen.
Two years later, she gave birth to her first child,
Rosie Lee (nicknamed Pearl). Belle always harbored a
strong sense of style, which would feed into her
later legend. A crack shot, she used to ride
sidesaddle while dressed in a black velvet riding
habit and a plumed hat, carrying two pistols, with
cartridge belts across her hips. Jim turned to crime
and was wanted for murder in Arkansas, which caused
the family to move to California, where their second
child, James Edwin (Eddie), was born in 1871. Later
returning to Texas, Jim Reed was involved with
several criminal gangs. While Jim initially tried
his hand at farming, he would grow restless and fell
in with bad company—the Starr clan, a Cherokee
Indian family notorious for whiskey, cattle, and
horse thievery in the Indian Territory (now
Oklahoma), as well as his wife's old friends the
James and Younger gangs.
In April 1874, despite a lack
of any evidence, a warrant was issued for her arrest for a
stagecoach robbery by her husband and others. Jim Reed was
killed in August of that year in Paris, Texas, where he had
settled down with his family.
Marriage to Sam Starr
Allegedly, Belle was briefly married for three weeks to
Charles Younger, uncle of Cole Younger in 1878, but this is
not substantiated by any evidence. In 1880 she did marry a
Cherokee man named Sam Starr and settled with the Starr
family in the Indian Territory. There, she learned ways of
organizing, planning and fencing for the rustlers, horse
thieves and bootleggers, as well as harboring them from the
law. Belle's illegal enterprises proved lucrative enough for
her to employ bribery to free her cohorts from the law
whenever they were caught.
In 1883, Belle and Sam were
charged with horse theft and tried before "The Hanging
Judge" Isaac Parker's Federal District Court in Fort Smith,
Arkansas; the prosecutor was United States Attorney W. H. H.
Clayton. She was found guilty and served nine months at the
Detroit House of Corrections in Detroit, Michigan. Belle
proved to be a model prisoner and during her time in jail
she won the respect of the prison matron, while Sam was more
incorrigible and was assigned to hard labor.
In 1886, she escaped
conviction on another theft charge, but on December 17, Sam
Starr was involved in a gunfight with Officer Frank West.
Both men were killed, while Belle's life as an outlaw
queen—and what had been the happiest relationship of her
life—abruptly ended with her husband's death.
Belle Starr, Fort Smith,
Unsolved murder For the last
two-plus years of her life, gossips and scandal sheets
linked her to a series of men with colorful names, including
Jack Spaniard, Jim French and Blue Duck, after which, in
order to keep her residence on Indian land, she married a
relative of Sam Starr, Jim July Starr, who was some 15 years
On February 3, 1889, two
days before her 41st birthday, she was killed. She was
riding home from a neighbor's house in Eufaula, Oklahoma,
when she was ambushed. After she fell off her horse, she was
shot again to make sure she was dead. Her death resulted
from shotgun wounds to the back and neck and in the shoulder
and face. Legend says she was shot with her own double
According to Frank
"Pistol Pete" Eaton, her death was due to different
circumstances. She had been attending a dance. Frank
Eaton had been the last person to dance with Belle
Starr when Edgar Watson, clearly intoxicated had
asked to dance with her. When Belle Starr declined,
he later followed her. When on the way home, she
stopped to give her horse a drink at a creek, he
shot and killed her. According to Frank Eaton,
Watson was tried, convicted and executed by hanging
for the murder.
However, another story
says there were no witnesses and no one was ever
convicted of the murder. Suspects with apparent
motive included her new husband and both of her
children, as well as Edgar J. Watson, one of her
sharecroppers, because he was afraid she was going
to turn him in to the authorities as an escaped
murderer from Florida with a price on his head.
Watson, who was killed in 1910, was tried for her
murder, but was acquitted, and the ambush has
entered Western lore as "unsolved".
One source suggests
her son, whom she had allegedly beaten for
mistreating her horse, may have been her killer.
Although an obscure figure outside Texas throughout
most of her life, Belle's story was picked up by the
dime novel and National Police Gazette publisher,
Richard K. Fox. Fox made her name famous with his
novel Bella Starr, the Bandit Queen, or the Female
Jesse James, published in 1889 (the year of her
murder). This novel is still often cited as a
historical reference. It was the first of many
popular stories that used her name.
Belle Star, "A
Wild Western Amazon", as depicted in the National
Belle's son, Eddie Reed, was convicted of horse theft and
receiving stolen property in July 1889. Judge Parker sent
him to prison in Columbus, Ohio. Belle's daughter, Rosie
Reed, also known as Pearl Starr, became a prostitute to
raise funds for Eddie's release. She did eventually obtain a
presidential pardon in 1893. Ironically, Eddie became a
deputy in Fort Smith and killed two outlaw brothers named
Crittenden in 1895, and was himself killed in a saloon in
Claremore, Oklahoma on December 14, 1896.
Pearl operated several
bordellos in Van Buren and Fort Smith, Arkansas, from the
1890s to World War I.
The California Gold
Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold
was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in
Coloma, California. All told, the news of gold brought
some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the
United States and abroad. Of the 300,000, approximately
half arrived by sea, and half came overland from the
east, on the California Trail and the Gila River trail.
Sailing to California at the beginning of the Gold Rush
The gold-seekers, called
"forty-niners" (as a reference to 1849), traveled by sailing
ship and covered wagon and often faced substantial hardships
on the trip. While most of the newly arrived were Americans,
the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin
America, Europe, Australia, and Asia. At first, loose gold
and gold nuggets could be picked up off the ground. Later,
gold was recovered from streams and riverbeds using simple
techniques, such as panning. More sophisticated methods were
developed and later adopted elsewhere. At its peak,
technological advances reached a point where significant
financing was required, and mining companies became
important. Gold worth tens of billions of today's dollars
was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However,
many returned home with only a little more than what they
had originally started with.
The effects of the Gold
Rush were substantial. San Francisco grew from a small
settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of
about 36,000 by 1852. Roads and other towns
were built throughout California. In 1849 a state
constitution was written, and a governor and legislature
were chosen. California became a state as part of the
Compromise of 1850.
New methods of
transportation developed as steamships came into regular
service. By 1869 railroads were built across the country
from California to the eastern United States. Agriculture
and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs
of the settlers. At the beginning of the Gold Rush, there
was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a
system of "staking claims" was developed. The Gold Rush also
resulted in attacks on Native Americans, who were often
forcibly removed from their lands. Gold mining also caused
environmental harm to rivers and lakes.
History The California Gold Rush began at Sutter's Mill,
near Coloma. On January 24, 1848, James W. Marshall,
a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John
Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a
lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the
American River. Marshall brought what he found to
John Sutter, and the two privately tested the metal.
After the tests showed that it was gold, Sutter
expressed dismay: he wanted to keep the news quiet
because he feared what would happen to his plans for
an agricultural empire if there were a mass search
However, rumors soon started to spread and were
confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper
publisher and merchant Samuel Brannan. The most
famous quote of the California Gold Rush was by
Brannan; after he had hurriedly set up a store to
sell gold prospecting supplies, Brannan strode
through the streets of San Francisco, holding aloft
a vial of gold, shouting "Gold! Gold! Gold from the
At the time gold
was discovered, California was part of the Mexican
territory of Alta California, though it had been
occupied by the U.S. in the Mexican-American War.
The area was ceded to the U.S. in the Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2, 1848, less than two
weeks after the discovery.
On August 19, 1848,
the New York Herald was the first major newspaper on
the East Coast to report the discovery of gold. On
December 5, 1848, President James Polk confirmed the
discovery of gold in an address to Congress. Soon,
waves of immigrants from around the world, later
called the "forty-niners," invaded the Gold Country
of California or "Mother Lode".
California goldfields (yellow) in the Sierra
Nevada and northern California. Red dot: place of
As Sutter had feared, he was
ruined; his workers left in search of gold, and squatters
took over his land and stole his crops and cattle.
San Francisco had been a tiny
settlement before the rush began. When residents learned
about the discovery, it at first became a ghost town of
abandoned ships and businesses, but then boomed as merchants
and new people arrived. The population of San Francisco
exploded from perhaps about 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000
full-time residents by 1850. Miners lived in tents, wood
shanties, or deck cabins removed from abandoned ships.
In what has been referred
to as the "first world-class gold rush," there was no easy
way to get to California; forty-niners faced hardship and
often death on the way. At first, most Argonauts, as they
were also known, traveled by sea. From the East Coast, a
sailing voyage around the tip of South America would take
five to eight months, and cover some 18,000 nautical miles
(33,000 kilometres). An alternative was to sail to the
Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama, take canoes and
mules for a week through the jungle, and then on the Pacific
side, wait for a ship sailing for San Francisco. There was
also a route across Mexico starting at Veracruz. Many
gold-seekers took the overland route across the continental
United States, particularly along the California Trail. Each
of these routes had its own deadly hazards, from shipwreck
to typhoid fever and cholera.
To meet the demands of the
arrivals, ships bearing goods from around the world came to
San Francisco as well. Ships' captains found that their
crews deserted to go to the goldfields. The wharves and
docks of San Francisco became a forest of masts, as hundreds
of ships were abandoned. Enterprising San Franciscans turned
the abandoned ships into warehouses, stores, taverns,
hotels, and one into a jail. Many of these ships were later
destroyed and used for landfill to create more buildable
land in the boomtown.
Merchant ships fill San Francisco harbor, 1850–51
Within a few years, there was
an important but lesser-known surge of prospectors into far
Northern California, specifically into present-day Siskiyou,
Shasta and Trinity Counties. Discovery of gold nuggets at
the site of present-day Yreka in 1851 brought thousands of
gold-seekers up the Siskiyou Trail and throughout
California's northern counties. Settlements of the Gold Rush
era, such as Portuguese Flat on the Sacramento River, sprang
into existence and then faded. The Gold Rush town of
Weaverville on the Trinity River today retains the oldest
continuously used Taoist temple in California, a legacy of
Chinese miners who came. While there are not many Gold Rush
era ghost towns still in existence, the remains of the
once-bustling town of Shasta have been preserved in a
California State Historic Park in Northern California.
Gold was also discovered in
Southern California but on a much smaller scale. The first
discovery of gold, at Rancho San Francisco in the mountains
north of present-day Los Angeles, had been in 1842, six
years before Marshall's discovery, while California was
still part of Mexico. However, these first deposits, and
later discoveries in Southern California mountains,
attracted little notice and were of limited consequence
By 1850, most of the easily
accessible gold had been collected, and attention turned to
extracting gold from more difficult locations. Faced with
gold increasingly difficult to retrieve, Americans began to
drive out foreigners to get at the most accessible gold that
remained. The new California State Legislature passed a
foreign miners tax of twenty dollars per month ($570 per
month as of 2015), and American prospectors began organized
attacks on foreign miners, particularly Latin Americans and
In addition, the huge
numbers of newcomers were driving Native Americans out of
their traditional hunting, fishing and food-gathering areas.
To protect their homes and livelihood, some Native Americans
responded by attacking the miners. This provoked
counter-attacks on native villages. The Native Americans,
out-gunned, were often slaughtered. Those who escaped
massacres were many times unable to survive without access
to their food-gathering areas, and they starved to death.
Novelist and poet Joaquin Miller vividly captured one such
attack in his semi-autobiographical work, Life Amongst the
Forty-niners The first
people to rush to the goldfields, beginning in the
spring of 1848, were the residents of California
themselves—primarily agriculturally oriented
Americans and Europeans living in Northern
California, along with Native Americans and some
Californios (Spanish-speaking Californians). These
first miners tended to be families in which everyone
helped in the effort. Women and children of all
ethnicities were often found panning next to the
men. Some enterprising families set up boarding
houses to accommodate the influx of men; in such
cases, the women often brought in steady income
while their husbands searched for gold.
Word of the Gold Rush
spread slowly at first. The earliest gold-seekers
were people who lived near California or people who
heard the news from ships on the fastest sailing
routes from California. The first large group of
Americans to arrive were several thousand Oregonians
who came down the Siskiyou Trail. Next came people
from the Sandwich Islands, and several thousand
Latin Americans, including people from Mexico, from
Peru and from as far away as Chile, both by ship and
overland. By the end of 1848, some 6,000 Argonauts
had come to California.
Only a small number
(probably fewer than 500) traveled overland from the
United States that year.
Panning for gold on the Mokelumne River
Some of these "forty-eighters",
as the earliest gold-seekers were sometimes called, were
able to collect large amounts of easily accessible gold—in
some cases, thousands of dollars worth each day. Even
ordinary prospectors averaged daily gold finds worth 10 to
15 times the daily wage of a laborer on the East Coast. A
person could work for six months in the goldfields and find
the equivalent of six years' wages back home. Some hoped to
get rich quick and return home, and others wished to start
businesses in California.
By the beginning of 1849,
word of the Gold Rush had spread around the world, and an
overwhelming number of gold-seekers and merchants began to
arrive from virtually every continent. The largest group of
forty-niners in 1849 were Americans, arriving by the tens of
thousands overland across the continent and along various
sailing routes (the name "forty-niner" was derived from the
year 1849). Many from the East Coast negotiated a crossing
of the Appalachian Mountains, taking to riverboats in
Pennsylvania, poling the keelboats to Missouri River wagon
train assembly ports, and then travelling in a wagon train
along the California Trail. Many others came by way of the
Isthmus of Panama and the steamships of the Pacific Mail
Steamship Company. Australians and New Zealanders picked up
the news from ships carrying Hawaiian newspapers, and
thousands, infected with "gold fever", boarded ships for
Forty-niners came from
Latin America, particularly from the Mexican mining
districts near Sonora and Chile. Gold-seekers and
merchants from Asia, primarily from China, began
arriving in 1849, at first in modest numbers to Gum
San ("Gold Mountain"), the name given to California
The first immigrants from Europe, reeling from the
effects of the Revolutions of 1848 and with a longer
distance to travel, began arriving in late 1849,
mostly from France, with some Germans, Italians, and
Britons. Most of these national groups arrived from
seafaring, coastal regions.
It is estimated that approximately 90,000 people
arrived in California in 1849—about half by land and
half by sea. Of these, perhaps 50,000 to 60,000 were
Americans, and the rest were from other countries.
By 1855, it is estimated at least 300,000
gold-seekers, merchants, and other immigrants had
arrived in California from around the world.
The largest group continued to be Americans, but
there were tens of thousands each of Mexicans,
Chinese, Britons, Australians French, and Latin
Americans, together with many smaller groups of
miners, such as Filipinos, Basques and Turks.
People from small
villages in the hills near Genova, Italy were among
the first to settle permanently in the Sierra Nevada
foothills; they brought with them traditional
agricultural skills, developed to survive cold
winters. A modest number of miners of African
ancestry (probably less than 4,000) had come from
the Southern States, the Caribbean and Brazil.
A notable number of
immigrants were from China. Several hundred Chinese
arrived in California in 1849 and 1850, and in 1852
more than 20,000 landed in San Francisco. Their
distinctive dress and appearance was highly
recognizable in the goldfields, and created a degree
of animosity towards the Chinese.
"Independent Gold Hunter on His Way to California",
circa 1850. The gold hunter is loaded down with
every conceivable appliance, much of which would be
useless in California. The prospector says: "I am
sorry I did not follow the advice of Granny and go
around the Horn, through the Straights, or by
There were also women in the
Gold Rush. They held various roles including prostitutes,
single entrepreneurs, married women, poor and wealthy women.
They were of various ethnicities including Anglo-American,
Hispanic, Native, European, Chinese, and Jewish. The reasons
they came varied: some came with their husbands, refusing to
be left behind to fend for themselves, some came because
their husbands sent for them, and others came (singles and
widows) for the adventure and economic opportunities. On the
trail many people died from accidents, cholera, fever, and
myriad other causes, and many women became widows before
even setting eyes on California. While in California, women
became widows quite frequently due to mining accidents,
disease, or mining disputes of their husbands. Life in the
goldfields offered opportunities for women to break from
their traditional work.
Chinese gold miners in California.
When the Gold Rush began, the California goldfields
were peculiarly lawless places. When gold was
discovered at Sutter's Mill, California was still
technically part of Mexico, under American military
occupation as the result of the Mexican–American
War. With the signing of the treaty ending the war
on February 2, 1848, California became a possession
of the United States, but it was not a formal
"territory" and did not become a state until
September 9, 1850.
California existed in the unusual condition of a
region under military control. There was no civil
legislature, executive or judicial body for the
entire region. Local residents operated under a
confusing and changing mixture of Mexican rules,
American principles, and personal dictates.
While the treaty
ending the Mexican–American War obliged the United
States to honor Mexican land grants, almost all the
goldfields were outside those grants. Instead, the
goldfields were primarily on "public land", meaning
land formally owned by the United States government.
However, there were no legal rules yet in place, and
no practical enforcement mechanisms.
The benefit to the
forty-niners was that the gold was simply "free for
the taking" at first. In the goldfields at the
beginning, there was no private property, no
licensing fees, and no taxes.
The miners informally adapted Mexican mining law
that had existed in California. For example, the
rules attempted to balance the rights of early
arrivers at a site with later arrivers; a "claim"
could be "staked" by a prospector, but that claim
was valid only as long as it was being actively
Miners worked at a
claim only long enough to determine its potential.
If a claim was deemed as low-value—as most
were—miners would abandon the site in search for a
better one. In the case where a claim was abandoned
or not worked upon, other miners would "claim-jump"
the land. "Claim-jumping" meant that a miner began
work on a previously claimed site.
Disputes were sometimes handled personally and
violently, and were sometimes addressed by groups of
prospectors acting as arbitrators. This often led to
heightened ethnic tensions. In some areas the influx
of many prospectors could lead to a reduction of the
existing claim size by simple pressure.
Four hundred million years ago, California lay at
the bottom of a large sea; underwater volcanoes
deposited lava and minerals (including gold) onto
the sea floor. By tectonic forces these minerals and
rocks came to the surface of the Sierra Nevada, and
eroded. Water carried the exposed gold downstream
and deposited it in quiet gravel beds along the
sides of old rivers and streams. The forty-niners
first focused their efforts on these deposits of
the gold in the California gravel beds was so richly
concentrated, early forty-niners were able to
retrieve loose gold flakes and nuggets with their
hands, or simply "pan" for gold in California's
rivers and streams, a form of placer mining.
However, panning cannot take place on a large scale,
and industrious miners and groups of miners
graduated to placer mining "cradles" and "rockers"
or "long-toms" to process larger volumes of gravel.
Miners would also engage in "coyoteing". This method
involved digging a shaft 6 to 13 meters (20 to 43
ft) deep into placer deposits along a stream.
Tunnels were then dug in all directions to reach the
richest veins of pay dirt.
In the most complex
placer mining, groups of prospectors would divert
the water from an entire river into a sluice
alongside the river, and then dig for gold in the
newly exposed river bottom. Modern estimates by the
U.S. Geological Survey are that some 12 million
ounces (370 t) of gold were removed in the first
five years of the Gold Rush (worth over US$16
billion at December 2010 prices).
In the next stage,
by 1853, hydraulic mining was used on ancient
gold-bearing gravel beds on hillsides and bluffs in
the goldfields. In a modern style of hydraulic
mining first developed in California, a
high-pressure hose directed a powerful stream or jet
of water at gold-bearing gravel beds. The loosened
gravel and gold would then pass over sluices, with
the gold settling to the bottom where it was
collected. By the mid-1880s, it is estimated that 11
million ounces (340 t) of gold (worth approximately
US$15 billion at December 2010 prices) had been
recovered by "hydraulicking". This style of
hydraulic mining later spread around the world.
A byproduct of
these extraction methods was that large amounts of
gravel, silt, heavy metals, and other pollutants
went into streams and rivers. As of 1999 many areas
still bear the scars of hydraulic mining, since the
resulting exposed earth and downstream gravel
deposits do not support plant life.
After the Gold Rush had
concluded, gold recovery operations continued. The final
stage to recover loose gold was to prospect for gold that
had slowly washed down into the flat river bottoms and
sandbars of California's Central Valley and other
gold-bearing areas of California (such as Scott Valley in
Siskiyou County). By the late 1890s, dredging technology
(also invented in California) had become economical, and it
is estimated that more than 20 million ounces (620 t) were
recovered by dredging (worth approximately US$28 billion at
December 2010 prices).
Excavating a river bed after the water has been diverted.
Both during the Gold Rush and
in the decades that followed, gold-seekers also engaged in
"hard-rock" mining, that is, extracting the gold directly
from the rock that contained it (typically quartz), usually
by digging and blasting to follow and remove veins of the
gold-bearing quartz. By 1851, quartz mining had become the
major industry of Coloma. Once the gold-bearing rocks were
brought to surface, the rocks were crushed and the gold
separated, either using separation in water, using its
density difference from quartz sand, or by washing the sand
over copper plates coated with mercury (with which gold
forms an amalgam). Loss of mercury in the amalgamation
process was a source of environmental contamination.
Eventually, hard-rock mining wound up becoming the single
largest source of gold produced in the Gold Country. The
total production of gold in California from then till now is
estimated at 118 million ounces (3700 t).
Recent scholarship confirms that merchants made far
more money than miners during the Gold Rush. The
wealthiest man in California during the early years
of the rush was Samuel Brannan, the tireless
self-promoter, shopkeeper and newspaper publisher.
Brannan opened the first supply stores in
Sacramento, Coloma, and other spots in the
goldfields. Just as the rush began he purchased all
the prospecting supplies available in San Francisco
and re-sold them at a substantial profit. However,
some gold-seekers too made substantial money. For
example, within a few months in 1848, one small
group of prospectors working on the Feather River
retrieved a sum of gold worth more than $3 million
by 2010 prices.
On average, half the
gold-seekers made a modest profit, after taking all
expenses into account. Most, however, especially
those arriving later, made little or wound up losing
money. Similarly, many unlucky merchants set up in
settlements which disappeared, or which succumbed to
one of the calamitous fires that swept the towns
that sprang up. By contrast, a businessman who went
on to great success was Levi Strauss, who first
began selling denim overalls in San Francisco in
through good fortune and hard work, reaped great
rewards in retail, shipping, entertainment, lodging,
Forty-niner panning for gold
preparation, sewing, and laundry were highly profitable
businesses often run by women (married, single, or widowed)
who realized men would pay well for a service done by a
woman. Brothels also brought in large profits, especially
when combined with saloons and gaming houses.
By 1855, the economic climate
had changed dramatically. Gold could be retrieved profitably
from the goldfields only by medium to large groups of
workers, either in partnerships or as employees. By the
mid-1850s, it was the owners of these gold-mining companies
who made the money. Also, the population and economy of
California had become large and diverse enough that money
could be made in a wide variety of conventional businesses.
Sluice for separation of gold from dirt with water
Path of the gold
Once extracted, the gold itself took many paths.
First, much of the gold was used locally to purchase
food, supplies and lodging for the miners. It also
went towards entertainment, which consisted of
anything from a traveling theater to alcohol,
gambling, and prostitutes.
These transactions often took place using the
recently recovered gold, carefully weighed out.
These merchants and vendors, in turn, used the gold
to purchase supplies from ship captains or packers
bringing goods to California.
The gold then left
California aboard ships or mules to go to the makers
of the goods from around the world. A second path
was the Argonauts themselves who, having personally
acquired a sufficient amount, sent the gold home, or
returned home taking with them their hard-earned
"diggings". For example, one estimate is that some
US$80 million worth of California gold was sent to
France by French prospectors and merchants.
As the Gold Rush
progressed, local banks and gold dealers issued
"banknotes" or "drafts"—locally accepted paper
currency—in exchange for gold, and private mints
created private gold coins.
With the building of the San Francisco Mint in 1854,
gold bullion was turned into official United States
gold coins for circulation. The gold was also later
sent by California banks to U.S. national banks in
exchange for national paper currency to be used in
the booming California economy.
The arrival of hundreds of thousands of new people
in California within a few years, compared to a
population of some 15,000 Europeans and Californios
beforehand, had many dramatic effects.
government and commerce
The Gold Rush propelled California from a sleepy,
little-known backwater to a center of the global
imagination and the destination of hundreds of
thousands of people. The new immigrants often showed
remarkable inventiveness and civic-mindedness. For
example, in the midst of the Gold Rush, towns and
cities were chartered, a state constitutional
convention was convened, a state constitution
written, elections held, and representatives sent to
Washington, D.C. to negotiate the admission of
California as a state.
agriculture (California's second "Gold Rush") began
during this time. Roads, schools, churches, and
civic organizations quickly came into existence. The
vast majority of the immigrants were Americans.
Pressure grew for better communications and
political connections to the rest of the United
States, leading to statehood for California on
September 9, 1850, in the Compromise of 1850 as the
31st state of the United States.
Between 1847 and
1870, the population of San Francisco increased from
500 to 150,000. The Gold Rush wealth and population
increase led to significantly improved
transportation between California and the East
Coast. The Panama Railway, spanning the Isthmus of
Panama, was finished in 1855. Steamships, including
those owned by the Pacific Mail Steamship Company,
began regular service from San Francisco to Panama,
where passengers, goods and mail would take the
train across the Isthmus and board steamships headed
to the East Coast. One ill-fated journey, that of
the S.S. Central America, ended in disaster as the
ship sank in a hurricane off the coast of the
Carolinas in 1857, with approximately three tons of
California gold aboard.
the first steamship, the SS California (1848),
showed up on February 28, 1849. Soon steamships were
carrying miners the 125 miles (201 km) up the
Sacramento River to Sacramento, California.
Excavating a gravel bed with jets, circa 1863.
Impact on Native Americans According to
Washington, D.C.'s National Museum of the American Indian,
the California Gold Rush was a cause of a major, but little
known, genocide on the Native Americans. The Native
Americans resided in The Great Basin, east of the Sierra
Nevada and west of the Rocky Mountains, which supported
Native American people for more than 14,000 years. They were
resourceful with the barren environment; having to travel
long distances by foot to find food, Great Basin Indians
developed technologies to sustain their lifestyle throughout
the 19th and into the 20th centuries.
"During the Gold Rush, miners,
loggers, and settlers formed vigilante groups and local
militias to hunt Indians living outside the mission
communities—a genocide largely ignored by American history.
The Native population, estimated at 150,000 in 1845, was by
1870 less than 30,000." This means that less than 20% of the
The human and
environmental costs of the Gold Rush were
substantial. Native Americans, dependent on
traditional hunting, gathering and agriculture,
became the victims of starvation, as gravel, silt
and toxic chemicals from prospecting operations
killed fish and destroyed habitats. The surge in the
mining population also resulted in the disappearance
of game and food gathering locales as gold camps and
other settlements were built amidst them. Later
farming spread to supply the settlers' camps, taking
more land away from the Native Americans.
Native Americans also
succumbed in large numbers to newly introduced
diseases such as smallpox, influenza and measles.
Some estimates indicate the death rates to be
between 80 and 90 percent in Native American
populations during smallpox epidemics.
Depiction of an attack by Native Americans on
By far the most destructive
element of the Gold Rush on California Indians was the
violence against them and their environment by miners and
settlers. Miners often saw Native Americans as impediments
to their mining activities.Ed Allen, interpretive lead for
Marshall Gold Discovery State Historic Park, reported that
there were times when miners would kill up to 50 or more
Natives in one day. During the 1852 Bridge Gulch Massacre, a
group of settlers attacked a tribe of Wintu Indians in
response to the killing of a citizen named J. R. Anderson.
After his killing, the sheriff led a group of men to track
down the Indians, who the men then attacked at Natural
Bridge. Only three children survived the massacre that was
against a different tribe of Wintu than the one that killed
Americans were also deceived by settlers. Near Sacramento,
California land baron John Sutter built, "a private empire
on 50,000 acres of Indian land near Sacramento, kidnapped
Natives and forced them to work for him in conditions that
were akin to slavery." In addition to this, Sutter
apparently would pay the Natives who worked for him with
insignificant pieces of tin that could only be redeemed at
In some areas, systematic
attacks against tribespeople in or near mining districts
occurred. Various conflicts were fought between natives and
settlers. According to population historian Russell
Thornton, estimates of the pre-Columbian population of
California was at least 310,000, and perhaps as much as
705,000. By 1849, due to Spanish and Mexican colonization
and epidemics this number had decreased to 100,000. The
factors of disease, however do not minimize the tone of
racial violence directed towards California Indians. Peter
Burnett, California's first governor declared that
California was a battleground between the races and that
there were only two options towards California Indians,
extinction or removal. California, apart from legalizing
slavery for Native Americans also directly paid out $25,000
in bounties for Indian scalps with varying prices for adult
male, adult female and child sizes. From 1849 until 1890 the
Indigenous population of California had fallen below 20,000,
primarily because of these killings. According to the
government of California, some 4,500 Native Americans
suffered violent deaths between 1849 and 1870.
Furthermore, California with a consortium of other new
Western states stood in opposition of ratifying the eighteen
treaties signed between tribal leaders and federal agents in
After the initial boom had
ended, explicitly anti-foreign and racist attacks, laws and
confiscatory taxes sought to drive out foreigners—not just
Native Americans—from the mines, especially the Chinese and
Latin American immigrants mostly from Sonora, Mexico and
Chile. The toll on the American immigrants was severe as
well: one in twelve forty-niners perished, as the death and
crime rates during the Gold Rush were extraordinarily high,
and the resulting vigilantism also took its toll.
Gold fields and sailing routes to California, 1849
The Gold Rush stimulated economies around the world
as well. Farmers in Chile, Australia, and Hawaii
found a huge new market for their food; British
manufactured goods were in high demand; clothing and
even prefabricated houses arrived from China.
The return of large amounts of California gold to
pay for these goods raised prices and stimulated
investment and the creation of jobs around the
world. Australian prospector Edward Hargraves,
noting similarities between the geography of
California and his home country, returned to
Australia to discover gold and spark the Australian
Within a few years after the end of the Gold Rush,
in 1863, the groundbreaking ceremony for the western
leg of the First Transcontinental Railroad was held
The line's completion, some six years later,
financed in part with Gold Rush money, united
California with the central and eastern United
States. Travel that had taken weeks or even months
could now be accomplished in days.
California's name became indelibly connected with
the Gold Rush, and fast success in a new world
became known as the "California Dream."
California was perceived as a place of new
beginnings, where great wealth could reward hard
work and good luck. Historian H. W. Brands noted
that in the years after the Gold Rush, the
California Dream spread across the nation:
“ The old American
Dream ... was the dream of the Puritans, of Benjamin
Franklin's "Poor Richard"... of men and women
content to accumulate their modest fortunes a little
at a time, year by year by year. The new dream was
the dream of instant wealth, won in a twinkling by
audacity and good luck. [This] golden dream ...
became a prominent part of the American psyche only
after Sutter's Mill. ”
Overnight California gained the international
reputation as the "golden state". Generations of
immigrants have been attracted by the California
Dream. California farmers, oil drillers, movie
makers, airplane builders, and "dot-com"
entrepreneurs have each had their boom times in the
decades after the Gold Rush.
Whites, Native Americans and blacks engaged in gold
prospecting, c. 1850.
The literary history of the
Gold Rush is reflected in the works of Mark Twain (The
Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County), Bret Harte (A
Millionaire of Rough-and-Ready), Joaquin Miller (Life
Amongst the Modocs), and many others.
Included among the modern
legacies of the California Gold Rush are the California
state motto, "Eureka" ("I have found it"), Gold Rush images
on the California State Seal, and the state nickname, "The
Golden State", as well as place names, such as Placer
County, Rough and Ready, Placerville (formerly named "Dry
Diggings" and then "Hangtown" during rush time), Whiskeytown,
Drytown, Angels Camp, Happy Camp, and Sawyers Bar. The San
Francisco 49ers National Football League team, and the
similarly named athletic teams of California State
University, Long Beach, are named for the prospectors of the
California Gold Rush.
In addition. the standard
route shield of state highways in California is in the shape
of a miner's spade to honor the California Gold Rush. Today,
aptly named State Route 49 travels through the Sierra Nevada
foothills, connecting many Gold Rush-era towns such as
Placerville, Auburn, Grass Valley, Nevada City, Coloma,
Jackson, and Sonora. This state highway also passes very
near Columbia State Historic Park, a protected area
encompassing the historic business district of the town of
Columbia; the park has preserved many Gold Rush-era
buildings, which are presently occupied by tourist-oriented