Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1848 Part IV NEXT-1849 Part I    
 
 
     
1840 - 1849
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840-1849
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part I
Bebel August
Maximilian of Mexico
Carlota
Convention of London
British North America Act
Francia Jose Gaspar
Macdonald Jacques
William I of the Netherlands
William II of the Netherlands
Retour des cendres
Lambton John George
Vaillant Edouard-Marie
Sampson William
Smith William Sidney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part II
Ridpath John Clark
Sankey Ira David
James Fenimore Cooper: "The Pathfinder"
Blunt Wilfrid Scawen
Broughton Rhoda
Robert Browning: "Sordello"
Daudet Alphonse
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Dobson Austin
Hardy Thomas
Thomas Hardy 
"Tess of the d'Urbervilles"
Lemercier  Nepomucene
Lermontov: "A Hero of Our Times"
Modjeska Helena
Symonds John Addington
Verga Giovanni
Zola Emile
Emile Zola
"
J'accuse" (I accuse)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part III
Delacroix: "Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople"
Makart Hans
Hans Makart
Monet Claude
Claude Monet
Nasmyth Alexander
Alexander Nasmyth
Nast Thomas
Nelson's Column
Rodin Auguste
Auguste Rodin
Redon Odilon
Odilon Redon
Blechen Carl
Karl Blechen
Debain Alexandre-Francois
Donizetti: "La Fille du Regiment"
Haberl Franz Xaver
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich
Tchaikovsky - The Seasons
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky
Schneckenburger Max
Wilhelm Karl
"Die Wacht am Rhein"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part IV
Olbers Wilhelm
Blumenbach Johann Friedrich
Ball Robert
Kohlrausch Friedrich Wilhelm
Agassiz Louis
Basedow Carl Adolph
Graves disease
Maxim Hiram
Eyre Edward John
Brummell Beau
Father Damien
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Washington Temperance Society
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part I
Second Battle of Chuenpee
Barere Bertrand
Fisher John Arbuthnot
British Hong Kong
Luzzatti Luigi
Merriman John
Harrison William Henry
Tyler John
Espartero Baldomero
Hirobumi Ito
Clemenceau Georges
Edward VII
Creole case
Laurier Wilfrid
New Zealand
Lamb William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part II
Cheyne Thomas Kelly
Ludwig Feuerbach: "The Essence of Christianity"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Holst Hermann Eduard
Jebb Richard Claverhouse
Ward Lester Frank
Black William
Robert Browning: "Pippa Passes"
Buchanan Robert
Fenimore Cooper: "The Deerslayer"
Coquelin Benoit
Dickens: "The Old Curiosity Shop"
Ewing Juliana Horatia
Sill Edward Rowland
Frederick Marryat: "Masterman Ready"
Mendes Catulle
Mounet-Sully Jean
"Punch, or The London Charivari"
Sealsfield Charles
Scott Clement William
White Joseph Blanco
Ruskin: "The King of the Golden River"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part III
Chantrey Francis
Morisot Berthe
Berthe Morisot
Renoir Pierre-Auguste
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Wagner Otto
Wallot Paul
Olivier Ferdinand
Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier
Bazille Frederic
Frederic Bazille
Zandomeneghi Federico
Federico Zandomeneghi
Guillaumin Armand
Armand Guillaumin
Chabrier Emmanuel
Chabrier - Espana
Emmanuel Chabrier
Dibdin Thomas John
Dvorak Anton
Antonin Dvorak: Rusalka
Antonin Dvorak
Pedrell Felipe
Felip Pedrell: Els Pirineus
Felipe Pedrell
Rossini: "Stabat Mater"
Sax Antoine-Joseph
Schumann: Symphony No. 1
Sgambati Giovanni
Sgambati - Piano Concerto in G minor
Giovanni Sgambati
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part IV
Cooper Astley
Braid James
Hypnosis
Candolle Austin
Aniline
Kocher Emil Theodor
Kolliker Rudolf Albert
Petzval Joseph
Hudson William Henry
Warming Eugenius
Whitworth Joseph
Barnum's American Museum
Bradshaw George
Cook Thomas
Hyer Tom
"The New York Tribune"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part I
Pozzo di Borgo Charles-Andre
Las Cases Emmanuel
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Treaty of Nanking
General Strike of 1842
O’Higgins Bernardo
Giolitti Giovanni
Fiske John
Hartmann Eduard
Hyndman Henry Mayers
James William
Kropotkin Peter Alekseyevich
Anarchism
Anarchism
Lavisse Ernest
Robertson George Croom
Sorel Albert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part II
Banim John
Sue Eugene
Eugene Sue: "The Mysteries of Paris"
Bierce Ambrose
Brandes Georg
Bulwer-Lytton: "Zanoni"
Graham Maria
Coppee Francois
Cunningham Allan
Espronceda Jose
Gogol: "Dead Souls"
Howard Bronson
Lanier Sidney
Lover Samuel
MacKaye Steele
Maginn William
Mallarme Stephane
May Karl
Рое: "The Masque of the Red Death"
Quental Antero Tarquinio
Woodworth Samuel
Macaulay: "Lays of Ancient Rome"
Tupper Martin Farquhar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part III
Vereshchagin Vasily
Vasily Vereshchagin
Boldini Giovanni
Giovanni Boldini
Boito Arrigo
Arrigo Boito: Mefistofele Finale
Arrigo Boito
Glinka: "Russian and Ludmilla"
Hopkinson Joseph
"Hail, Columbia"
Lortzing: "Der Wildschiitz"
Massenet Jules
Massenet "Elegie"
Jules Massenet
Millocker Karl
Millocker: Gasparone
Karl Millocker
New York Philharmonic
Sullivan Arthur
Arthur Sullivan - The Mikado - Overture
Arthur Sullivan
Wagner: "Rienzi"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part IV
Dewar James
Doppler Christian Andreas
Flammarion Camille
Hansen Emile Christian
Long Crawford Williamson
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Charting the Ocean Depths
Mayer Julius Robert
Pelletier Pierre Joseph
Marshall Alfred
Strutt John William
Retzius Gustaf
Fremont John Charles
Darling Grace
Polka
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part I
McKinley William
Braga Teofilo
Wairau Affray
Dilke Charles
Avenarius Richard
Borrow George
Carlile Richard
Thomas Carlyle: "Past and Present"
Creighton Mandell
Liddell and Scott: "Greek-English Lexicon"
Liddell Henry
Scott Robert
Ward James
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part II
Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last of the Barons"
Elisabeth of Romania
Dickens: "Martin Chuzzlewit"
Doughty Charles Montagu
Dowden Edward
Emmett Daniel Decatur
Hood Thomas
Thomas Hood: "Song of the Shirt"
Horne Richard Hengist
James Henry
Rosegger Peter
Suttner Bertha
Harris George Washington
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part III
Allston Washington
Washington Allston
John Ruskin: "Modern Painters"
Trumbull John
John Trumbull
Werner Anton
Anton von Werner
Clairin Georges
Georges Clairin
Donizetti: "Don Pasquale"
Grieg Edward
Grieg - Solveig Song
Edward Grieg
Nilsson Christine
Patti Adelina
Richter Hans
Schumann: "Paradise and the Peri"
Wagner: "The Flying Dutchman"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part IV
British Archaeological Association
Chamberlin Thomas Chrowder
Ferrier David
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Joule James Prescott
Koch Robert
Erbium
Brunel Marc Isambard
Thames Tunnel
Dix Dorothea Lynde
Guy's, Kings and St. Thomas' Rugby Football Club
Sequoyah
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part I
Lowe Hudson
Drouet Jean-Baptiste
Oscar I of Sweden
Dole Sanford Ballard
Laffitte Jacques
Franco-Moroccan War
Polk James Knox
Herrera Jose Joaquin
Treaty of Wanghia
Breshkovsky Catherine
Comstock Anthony
Emerson: "Essays"
Grundtvig Nikolaj Frederik Severin
Hall Granville Stanley
Nietzsche Friedrich
Friedrich Nietzsche
Rice Edmund Ignatius
Riehl Alois
Stanley Arthur Penrhyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part II
Bernhardt Sarah
Sarah Bernhardt
Dumas, pere: "Le Comte de Monte Cristo"
Bridges Robert
Cable George Washington
Carte Richard
Cary Henry Francis
Disraeli: "Coningsby"
France Anatole
Hopkins Gerard Manley
Lang Andrew
Liliencron Detlev
O'Reilly John Boyle
O’Shaughnessy Arthur
Sterling John
William Thackeray: "Barry Lyndon"
Verlaine Paul
Paul Verlaine
"Poems"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part III
Eakins Thomas
Thomas Eakins
Ezekiel Moses Jacob
Moses Ezekiel
Luke Fildes Luke
Luke Fildes
Leibl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Leibl
Munkacsy Mihaly
Mihaly Munkacsy
Repin Ilya
Ilya Repin
Rousseau Henri
Henri Rousseau
Cassatt Mary
Mary Cassatt
Flotow: "Alessandro Stradella"
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E minor
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay
The Best of Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Sarasate Pablo
Pablo de Sarasate - Zigeunerweisen
Pablo de Sarasate
Verdi: "Ernani"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part IV
Grassmann Hermann Gunther
Baily Francis
Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard
DeLong George Washington
Golgi Camillo
Kielmeyer Carl Friedrich
Kinglake Alexander William
Strasburger Eduard Adolf
Huc Evariste Regis
Gabet Joseph
Sturt Charles Napier
Leichhardt Friedrich
Beckford William
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers
"Fliegende Blatter"
Hagenbeck Carl
Keller Friedrich Gottlob
Pasch Gustaf Erik
Young Men’s Christian Association
Williams George
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part I
Root Elihu
Texas
Florida
Flagstaff War
Ludwig II of Bavaria
First Anglo-Sikh War
Sonderbund
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part II
Friedrich Engels: "The Condition of the Working Class in England"
Stirner Max
Disraeli: "Sybil, or The Two Nations"
Hertz Henrik
Prosper Merimee: "Carmen"
Рое: "The Raven"
Spitteler Carl
Wergeland Henrik
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part III
Bode Wilhelm
Hill David Octavius
Ingres: The Comtesse d'Haussonville
Oberlander Adam Adolf
Crane Walter
Walter Crane
Faure Gabriel
Faure - Pavane
Gabriel Faure
Lortzing: "Undine"
Wagner: "Tannhauser"
Widor Charles-Marie
Widor - Piano Concerto No. 1
Charles Marie Widor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part IV
Armstrong William George
Bigelow Erastus Brigham
Cayley Arthur
Cornell Ezra
Submarine communications cable
Heilmann Joshua
Humboldt: "Cosmos"
Kolbe Hermann
Laveran Alphonse
McNaught William
Metchnikoff Elie
Charting the Northwest
Layard Austen Henry
Cartwright Alexander
United States Naval Academy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part I
Battle of Aliwal
Battle of Sobraon
Treaty of Lahore
Greater Poland Uprising
Krakow Uprising
Mexican-American War
Battle of Monterrey
First Battle of Tabasco
Iowa
Pasic Nikola
Evangelical Alliance
Eucken Rudolf Christoph
Pius IX
Whewell William
Young Brigham
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part II
Balzac: "La Cousine Bette"
De Amicis Edmondo
Dostoevsky: "Poor Folk"
Jokai Maurus
Lear Edward
Melville Herman
Herman Melville: "Typee"
Herman Melville
"Moby Dick or The Whale"
Sienkiewicz Henryk
George Watts: "Paolo and Francesca"
De Nittis Giuseppe
Giuseppe de Nittis
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part III
Berlioz: "Damnation de Faust"
Lortzing: "Der Waffenschmied"
Mendelssohn: "Elijah"
Deere John
Deere & Company
Henle Friedrich
Howe Elias
Waitz Theodor
Mohl Hugo
Green William Thomas
Sobrero Ascanio
Heaphy Charles
Brunner Thomas
Europeans in New Zealand
"The Daily News"
Horsley John Callcott
Smithsonian Institution
Zeiss Carl
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part I
Liberia
Second Battle of Tabasco
Battle of Churubusco
BATTLE OF MEXICO CITY
Hindenburg Paul
Sonderbund War
Beecher Henry Ward
Blanc Louis
Proudhon Pierre-Joseph
roudhon: "Philosophy of Poverty"P
Karl Marx: "The Poverty of Philosophy"
Salt Lake City
Charlotte Bronte: "Jane Eyre"
Bronte Emily
Marryat: "The Children of the New Forest"
Thackeray: "Vanity Fair"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part II
Hildebrand Adolf
Liebermann Max
Max Liebermann
Friedrich von Flotow: "Martha"
Verdi: "Macbeth"
Boole George
Edison Thomas Alva
Bell Alexander Graham
Semmelweis Ignaz Philipp
Colenso William
Factory Act of 1847
Fawcett Millicent
Siemens & Halske
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part I
Frederick VII
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Revolutions of 1848
French Revolution of 1848
June Days Uprising
Cavaignac Louis-Eugene
French Constitution of 1848
French Second Republic
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Slovak Uprising 1848-1849
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part I)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part II
First Italian War of Independence
Skirmish of Pastrengo
Battle of Goito
Battle of Custoza
Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
Revolution of 1848 in Luxembourg
Greater Poland Uprising
Moldavian Revolution of 1848
Pan-Slav Congress of 1848
Pan-Slavism
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part II)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part III
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Nasr-ed-Din
Ibrahim Pasha
Abbas I
Wisconsin
Balfour Arthur James
Seneca Falls Convention
Stanton Elizabeth Cady
Delbruck Hans
Macaulay: "History of England"
"The Communist Manifesto"
John Mill: "Principles of Political Economy"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part IV
Augier Emile
Chateaubriand: "Memoires d'Outre-Tombe"
Dumas fils: "La Dame aux Camelias"
Gaskell Elizabet
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
Murger Louis-Henri
Henri Murger: "Scenes de la vie de Boheme"
Terry Ellen
Surikov Vasily
Vasily Surikov
Uhde Fritz
Fritz von Uhde
Gauguin Paul
Paul Gauguin
Caillebotte Gustave
Gustave Caillebotte
Millais: "Ophelia"
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part V
Parry Hubert Hastings
Jerusalem by Hubert Parry
Hubert Parry
Duparc Henri
Duparc Henri: "L'invitation au voyage"
Henri Duparc
Bottger Rudolf Christian
Parsons William
Frege Gottlob
"New Prussian Newspaper"
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"
Grace William Gilbert
Kneipp Sebastian
Lilienthal Otto
Starr Belle
California Gold Rush
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part I
Battle of Chillianwala
Battle of Gujrat
Roman Republic on February 9, 1849
Battle of Novara
Victor Emmanuel II
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Peace of Milan
Taylor Zachary
Dresden Rebellion of 1849
Surrender at Vilagos
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part II
Kemble John Mitchell
Key Ellen
Arnold Matthew
Dickens: "David Copperfield"
Kingsley Charles
Scribe: "Adrienne Lecouvreur"
Strindberg August
Smith Horace
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part III
Waterhouse John William
John William Waterhouse
John Ruskin: "The Seven Lamps of Architecture"
Carriere Eugene
Eugene Carriere
Liszt: "Tasso"
Meyerbeer: "Le Prophete"
Otto Nicolai: "The Merry Wives of Windsor"
Schumann: "Manfred"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part IV
Fizeau Armand
Frankland Edward
Livingstone David
Explorations of David Livingstone
Baines Thomas
"Who's Who"
Bedford College
Bloomer Amelia
Bloomers (clothing)
Stead William Thomas
 
 
 

Sailing to California at the beginning of the Gold Rush
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1848 Part V
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Donizetti Gaetano d. (b. 1797)
 
 

Gaetano Donizetti
 
 
 
 
DONIZETTI Messa di Requiem - T.Sojat, M.Rosca, Prague Virtuosi, A.Rahbari, 1997
 
Gaetano DONIZETTI: Messa di Requiem, in D minor "in morte di Vincenzo Bellini" for 5 Soli, Choir and Orchestra (1835)
0:10 / 1. INTRODUZIONE | Requiem (Soli; Choir) [8'28'']
8:38 / 2. KYRIE (Choir) [2'39'']
11:18 / 3. GRADUALE |a| Requiem (Choir) [1'51'']
13:10 / 4. GRADUALE |b| In memoria aeterna (Choir) [2'51'']
16:01 / 5. SEQUENTIA |a| Dies irae (Choir) [3'00'']
19:01 / 6. SEQUENTIA |b| Tuba mirum (Soli: T, B, Br) [3'05'']
22:07 / 7. SEQUENTIA |c| Judex ergo (Soli: T, B) [4'37'']
26:45 / 8. SEQUENTIA |d| Rex tremendae majestatis (Soli: S, B; Choir) [4'24'']
31:09 / 9. SEQUENTIA |e| Ingemisco (Solo T) [4'40'']
35:50 / 10. SEQUENTIA |f| Praeces meae (Soli: Ms, T, B) [2'31'']
38:21 / 11. SEQUENTIA |g| Confutatis maledictis (Soli; Choir) [2'24'']
40:45 / 12. SEQUENTIA |h| Oro supplex (Solo B) [3'02'']
43:48 / 13. SEQUENTIA |i| Lacrymosa, Dies illa (Choir) [4'32'']
48:20 / 14. OFFERTORIUM | Domine Jesu Christe (Solo B; Choir) [5'10'']
53:31 / 15. LUX AETERNA (Choir) [1'34'']
55:05 / 16. LIBERA ME DOMINE (Soli; Choir) [7'10'']
Tiziana K. Sojat, soprano (S) - Jaroslava Horska-Maxova, mezzosoprano (Ms) - Vittorio Giammarrusco, tenor (T) - Zdenek Hlavka, baritone (Br) - Marcel Rosca, bass (B) - Virtuosi di Praga - Prague Chamber Choir - Alexander RAHBARI, conductor (rec: 1 May 1997, Korunni Studios, Prague - (p) 1997 Discover Internat.)
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Gaetaho Donizetti
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

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1848
 
 
Parry Hubert Hastings
 

Sir Hubert Hastings Parry, Baronet, original name in full Charles Hubert Hastings Parry (born Feb. 27, 1848, Bournemouth, Hampshire, Eng.—died Oct. 7, 1918, Rustington, Sussex), composer, writer, and teacher, influential in the revival of English music at the end of the 19th century.

 

Sir Hubert Hastings Parry
  While at Eton, where he studied composition, he took the bachelor of music degree from Oxford (1867). Among his later teachers, the pianist Edward Dannreuther particularly influenced him.

Parry’s Scenes from Prometheus Unbound (1880) was the first of a series of choral works that showed his gift for the massive effects that characterized English music of the rest of the 19th century.

Among his works are Blest Pair of Sirens (1887) for chorus and orchestra; the oratorios Judith (1888), Job (1892), and King Saul (1894); and his Songs of Farewell (1916–18). His unison song “Jerusalem” (1916), a setting of words from William Blake’s Milton, became almost a second national anthem during and after World War I. His other works include five symphonies, Symphonic Variations, chorale preludes for organ, motets, and many songs.

In 1883 Parry was appointed choragus (festival conductor) of the University of Oxford and joined the staff of the Royal College of Music, London, becoming its director in 1894.

In 1900 he became professor of music at Oxford. He was knighted in 1898 and created a baronet in 1903; he died without sons, and the baronetcy became extinct.

His writings on music include Studies of Great Composers (1886), The Evolution of the Art of Music (1896), Johann Sebastian Bach (1909), and Style in Musical Art (1911).

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
 
Jerusalem by Hubert Parry
 
Parry's "Jerusalem" performed at the Musikfestspiele Potsdam Sanssouci by the Deutsches Filmorchester Babelsberg and Deborah Hawksley under the direction of Scott Lawton.
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Hubert Parry
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

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1848
 
 
Duparc Henri
 

Henri Duparc, original name Henri Fouques-duparc (born Jan. 21, 1848, Paris, Fr.—died Feb. 12, 1933, Mont-de-Marsan), French composer known for his original and lasting songs on poems of Charles Baudelaire, Leconte de Lisle, Théophile Gautier, and others.

 

Henri Duparc
  Duparc studied with César Franck at the Jesuit College of Vaugirard. In 1869 he met Franz Liszt and Richard Wagner at Weimar and in 1870 published five songs (Cinq Mélodies, Opus 2). Two of them, “Soupir” and “Chanson triste,” were later incorporated in his collection of songs, written between 1868 and 1884, including eight with orchestral accompaniment.

In these songs, Duparc enlarged the French song into a scena, or opera-like scene, and brought to it a poetic sense of musical prosody and a symphonic conception of form. In his youth Duparc wrote two orchestral works, Aux Étoiles (To the Stars) and Lénore, and a motet.

He was also keenly interested in Russian literature, planning an opera, Roussalka, based on a narrative poem by Aleksandr Pushkin. About 1890 his creative faculties began to be undermined by doubts, and he thereafter produced little. In a spirit of severe self-criticism, he destroyed nearly all his subsequent works and sketches, together with his earlier unpublished manuscripts and the correspondence addressed to him by Wagner and contemporary poets.
During the latter part of his life he was associated with two French Catholic writers, Francis Jammes and Paul Claudel, and composed the song “Testament” (1906–13), the text of which is a prose prayer.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
 
Duparc Henri: "L'invitation au voyage"
 
Dame Kiri Te Kanawa sings "L'invitation au voyage" by Henri Duparc (1848-1933). Piano / Roger Vignoles. Recorded from the recital "Chanson de la France" , 1986.
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Henri Duparc
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

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1848
 
 
Berzelius Jons Jakob , Swed. chemist, d. (b. 1779)
 
 

Jons Jacob Berzelius
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Bottger: first safety matches
 
 
Bottger Rudolf Christian
 

Rudolf Christian Bottger (28 April 1806 – 29 April 1881) was a German inorganic chemist. He conducted most of his research at the University of Frankfurt am Main. He is credited with discovery of nitrocellulose in 1846, independently to Schönbein, and with the synthesis of the first organocopper compound copper(I) acetylide Cu2C2 in 1859.

 

Rudolf Christian Bottger
  Life and work
Böttger was born in Aschersleben, Germany in 1806. After attending the primary school there he joined the school of the Franksche Stiftung in Halle an der Saale at the age of eleven. In 1824, Böttger started to study theology, but in parallel also attended the science lectures at the University Halle. The lectures of Johann Salomo Christoph Schweigger had a strong influence on him. Böttger left the university in 1828 and worked as cleric and teacher at different locations. The contact with Schweigger never faded and in 1831 Böttger decided to leave the theology career. He was offered a job at the voluntary association for chemistry in Frankfurt in 1835.

His first major work in Frankfurt was the improvement of the electrotyping method for the production of printing plates. Böttger received his PhD from the University of Jena in 1837 and was appointed as full professor in Frankfurt in 1842. Böttger married Christiane Harpke in 1841, and they had eight children. He and Christian Friedrich Schönbein, a German-Swiss chemist, discovered nitrocellulose independently in 1846. Both scientists collaborated to earn money with the invention, but they were not successful. The development of the safety match in 1848 and the synthesis of the first organocopper compound, the explosive copper(I) acetylide Cu2C2 in 1859 were examples for his chemistry research.
 
 
Böttger stayed at the University of Frankfurt am Main for the rest of his life, although he was offered positions at other universities. He died of a liver illness in 1881.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1848
 
 
Lord Rosse studies M1 and names it the Crab Nebula.
 
 
Parsons William
 

William Parsons, 3rd earl of Rosse, also called (1807–41) Lord Oxmantown (born June 17, 1800, York, Eng.—died Oct. 31, 1867, Monkstown, County Cork, Ire.), Irish astronomer and builder of the largest reflecting telescope, the “Leviathan,” of the 19th century.

 

William Parsons
  In 1821 Parsons was elected to the House of Commons. He resigned his seat in 1834 but in 1841 inherited his father’s title, becoming the 3rd earl of Rosse, and served as one of the Irish peers in the House of Lords.

Lord Rosse was obsessed with the idea of constructing a truly large telescope and worked for five years to find an alloy suitable for the mirror. His mirrors were made of speculum metal, an alloy of approximately two parts copper to one part tin by weight. (Some makers added traces of other metals.) Adding more copper makes the mirror less brittle and therefore less likely to break, but the mirror is more susceptible to the development of small surface fissures in the cooling process, tarnishes faster, and has a less white colour. Because he was at first unable to cast large pieces without using too much copper, his first 36-inch (91-cm) diameter mirror was composed of 16 thin plates soldered to a brass framework.

The moderate success of this telescope encouraged Lord Rosse to try to cast a solid 36-inch mirror. After much experimentation he succeeded in casting and cooling the mirror without cracking it, a serious problem in the construction of all large telescopic mirrors.

 
 
In 1842 he began work on a mirror of 72-inch (183-cm) diameter. Three years later the four-ton disk was mounted, and the installation was completed at his Birr Castle estate in Ireland. Fifty-four feet (16 metres) in length, Lord Rosse’s telescope was used primarily to observe nebulae on those rare occasions when weather conditions permitted.
 
 

Drawing of the Whirlpool Galaxy by Rosse in 1845
 
 
With his telescope, however, he discovered the remarkable spiral shape of many objects then classed as “nebulae,” which are now recognized as individual galaxies. His drawing of the spiral galaxy M51 is a classic work of mid-19th-century astronomy. He studied and named the Crab Nebula. He also made detailed observations of the Orion Nebula. Though his telescope was dismantled in 1908, it was not until the 100-inch (254-cm) reflector was installed in 1917 at the Mount Wilson Observatory in California that a larger telescope was used. The telescope was later reconstructed and the original masonry mounting restored; these can be seen in the castle grounds at Birr, Ire.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1848
 
 
Frege Gottlob
 

Gottlob Frege, (born November 8, 1848, Wismar, Mecklenburg-Schwerin—died July 26, 1925, Bad Kleinen, Germany), German mathematician and logician, who founded modern mathematical logic. Working on the borderline between philosophy and mathematics—viz., in the philosophy of mathematics and mathematical logic (in which no intellectual precedents existed)—Frege discovered, on his own, the fundamental ideas that have made possible the whole modern development of logic and thereby invented an entire discipline.

 

Gottlob Frege
  Frege was the son of Alexander Frege, a principal of a girls’ high school in Wismar. His mother, Auguste Frege, née Bialloblotzky, who was perhaps of Polish origin, outlived her husband, who died in 1866. Frege entered the University of Jena in 1869, where he studied for two years, and then went to the University of Göttingen for a further two—in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and philosophy. Frege spent the whole of his working life as a teacher of mathematics at Jena: he became a Privatdozent in May 1871, was made an ausserordentlicher Professor (associate professor) in July 1879, and became statutory professor of mathematics in May 1896. He lectured in all branches of mathematics (though his mathematical publications outside the field of logic are extremely few) and also on his own logical system. A great many of his publications, however, were expressly philosophical in character: he himself once said, “Every good mathematician is at least half a philosopher, and every good philosopher at least half a mathematician.” He kept aloof from his students and even more aloof from his colleagues.

Though Frege was married, his wife died during World War I, leaving him no children of his own. There was an adopted son, Alfred, however, who became an engineer. Frege was, in religion, a liberal Lutheran and, in politics, a reactionary. He had a great love for the monarchy and for the royal house of Mecklenburg, and during World War I he developed an intense hatred of socialism and of democracy, to which he came to ascribe the loss of the war and the shame of the Treaty of Versailles.

 
 
A diary kept at the end of his life reveals, as well, a loathing of the French and of Catholics and an anti-Semitism extending to a belief that the Jews must be expelled from Germany.

Frege had a vivid awareness of his own genius and a belief that it would one day be recognized; but he became increasingly embittered at the failure of scholars to recognize it during his lifetime. He delighted in controversy and polemic; but the originality of his own work, the almost total independence of his own ideas from other influences, past or present, was quite exceptional and, indeed, astonishing.

 
 
System of mathematical logic.
In 1879 Frege published his Begriffsschrift (“Conceptscript”), in which, for the first time, a system of mathematical logic in the modern sense was presented. No one at the time, however—philosopher or mathematician—comprehended clearly what Frege had done, and when, some decades later, the subject began to get under way, his ideas reached others mostly as filtered through the minds of other men, such as Peano; in his lifetime there were very few—one was Bertrand Russell—to give Frege the credit due to him.
 
 
He was not yet too downcast by the failure of the learned world to appreciate the Begriffsschrift, which, after all, discourages the reader by the use of a complex and unfamiliar symbolism to express unfamiliar ideas. He resolved, however, to compose his next book without the use of any symbols at all.

There followed a period of intensive work on the philosophy of logic and of mathematics, embodied initially in his first book, Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik (1884; The Foundations of Arithmetic). The Grundlagen was a work that must on any count stand as a masterpiece of philosophical writing. The only review that the book received, however, was a devastatingly hostile one by Georg Cantor, the mathematician whose ideas were the closest to Frege’s, who had not bothered to understand Frege’s book before subjecting it to totally unmerited scorn.

Wounded by the reception of his second book, Frege nevertheless devoted the next decade to producing a series of brilliant philosophical articles in which he elaborated his philosophy of logic. These articles contain many deep insights, although, as Frege systematized his theories, there appeared a certain hardening into a kind of scholasticism. There followed a return to the philosophy of mathematics with the first volume of Grundgesetze der Arithmetik (1893; partial Eng. trans., Basic Laws of Arithmetic), in which Frege presented, in a modified version of the symbolic system of the Begriffsschrift, a rigorous development of the theory of Grundlagen. This, too, received only a single review (by Peano).

The neglect of what was to have been his chef d’oeuvre finally embittered Frege, who had complained, in the preface, of the apparent ignorance of his work on the part of writers working in allied fields. The resulting bitterness shows in the style of Frege’s controversial writing. Seldom has criticism of previous writers been more deadly than in his Grundlagen; but it is expressed with a lightness of touch and is never unfair. In volume 2 of the Grundgesetze (1903), however, the attacks became heavyhanded and abusive—a means of getting back at the world that had ignored him.

  Contradictions in Frege’s system.
A worse disaster than neglect, however, was in store for him. While volume 2 of the Grundgesetze was at the printer’s, he received on June 16, 1902, a letter from one of the few contemporaries who had read and admired his works—Bertrand Russell. The latter pointed out, modestly but correctly, the possibility of deriving a contradiction in Frege’s logical system—the celebrated Russell paradox. The two exchanged many letters; and, before the book was published, Frege had devised a modification of one of his axioms intended to restore consistency to the system. This he explained in an appendix to the book. After Frege’s death, it would be shown by a Polish logician, Stanisław Leśniewski, that Frege’s modified axiom still leads to contradiction. Probably Frege never discovered this. Even a brief inspection, however, of the proofs of the theorems in volume 1 would have revealed that several crucial proofs would no longer go through, and this Frege must have found out.

In any case, 1903 effectively marks the end of Frege’s productive life. He never published the projected third volume of the Grundgesetze, and he took no part in the development of the subject, mathematical logic, that he had founded, though it had progressed considerably by the time of his death. He published a few polemical pieces; but, with the exception of three essays in the philosophy of logic produced after the end of the war, he did no further creative work. In 1912 he declined, in terms expressing deep depression, an invitation by Russell to address a mathematical congress in Cambridge.

At the very end of Frege’s life, he again started to work on the philosophy of mathematics, having arrived at the conclusion that one of the fundamental bases of his earlier work—the attempt to found arithmetic on logic—had been mistaken; but the work did not progress very far and was not published.

Up to an advanced age, Frege hiked every summer in Mecklenburg, his native region. He finally retired during World War I and went to live in Bad Kleinen, in Mecklenburg.

 
 

Gottlob Frege
  Influence of Frege’s work.
Frege’s work represents the beginning of modern logic because of his invention of the notation of quantifiers and variables. (In natural language, generality is represented by inserting an expression like “everything” or “something” in the argument-place of the predicate; in the notation used in logic since Frege, the argument-place is filled by a variable letter, say x, and the resulting expression prefixed by a quantifier, “For every x” or “For some x,” said to “bind” that variable.)

By means of this notation he solved the problem that had baffled the logicians of the Middle Ages and prevented the further advance of logic ever since, viz., the analysis of sentences involving multiple generality. In him there also appeared the first clear separation between the formal characterization of logical laws and their semantic justification.

His philosophical work is of an importance far more general than the area to which he principally applied it, the philosophy of mathematics: he initiated a revolution, in fact, as profound as that of René Descartes in the 17th century. Whereas Descartes had made epistemology the starting point for all philosophy, Frege gave this place to the theory of meaning or the philosophy of language.

His work has been influential because he made the restricted part of philosophy in which he worked basic to all the rest. The effect was imparted in the first place, however, through the work of others, particularly that of Wittgenstein, who visited him in 1914 and who revered him.
 
 
But, since John Austin’s translation of the Grundlagen into English in 1950, the direct influence of Frege’s writing among English-speaking philosophers has been very great. No one supposes that Frege said the last word on any topic; but there is scarcely a live question in contemporary philosophy of language for whose examination Frege’s views do not form at least the best starting point.

Michael A.E. Dummett

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1848
 
 
"New Prussian Newspaper"
 

The Neue Preußische Zeitung ("New Prussian Newspaper") was a German newspaper printed in Berlin from 1848–1939. It was known as the Kreuzzeitung or Kreuz-Zeitung ("Cross Newspaper") because its emblem was an Iron Cross (eisernes Kreuz).

 
The newspaper was founded during the revolutions of 1848 by Herrmann Wagener to act as the voice for Prussian conservatives, especially Leopold and Ernst Ludwig von Gerlach and Hans Hugo von Kleist-Retzow. The paper became the main artery for the Prussian Conservative Party's ideas, and it opposed Otto von Bismarck's plans for German unification during the 1860s and 1870s.

The Kreuzzeitung's most famous writer was Theodor Fontane, who wrote the English Article (1856-1870), while other contributors included Friedrich Wilhelm Adami and Johann Georg Ludwig Hesekiel.

The Kreuzzeitung was taken over by the Nazi Party on 29 August 1937; its last edition was printed on 30 June 1939.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1848
 
 
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"
 

The Neue Rheinische Zeitung: Organ der Demokratie ("New Rhenish Newspaper: Organ of Democracy") was a German daily newspaper, published by Marx Karl  in Cologne between 1 June 1848 and 19 May 1849. It is recognised by historians as one of the most important dailies of the Revolutions of 1848 in Germany. The paper was regarded by its editors and readers as the successor of an earlier Cologne newspaper, the Rheinische Zeitung ("Rhenish Newspaper"), also edited for a time by Karl Marx, which had been suppressed by state censorship over five years earlier.

 
Publication history
Establishment

The Neue Rheinische Zeitung: Organ der Demokratie ("New Rhenish Newspaper: Organ of Democracy") was founded 1 June 1848 in Cologne (Köln), part of Rhineland. The paper was established by Karl Marx, Frederick Engels, as well as leading members of the Communist League living in Cologne immediately upon the return of Marx and Engels to Germany following the outbreak of the 1848 Revolution. The paper's editorial staff included Joseph Weydemeyer, with Marx serving as editor-in-chief.

The paper was named after an earlier newspaper edited by Karl Marx in Cologne from 1842 to 1843, the Rheinische Zeitung. The paper had the subtitle "Organ of Democracy," referring not to the establishment of parliamentary democracy, but to the revolutionary "Democratic front" which included the progressive petty bourgeoisie, the working class, and the peasantry.

The paper was financed through the sale of shares of stock, contributions and loans, and paid advertising. The paper was produced as a 4-page broadsheet, with the use of occasional special supplements.

Development
Circulation of the paper ranged from 3,000 to 6,000 copies per issue, a number far in excess of the membership of the Communist League itself, which specialists estimate had between 200 and 300 participants. This effectively rendered the publication into what one historian has called "the leading centre of the Communist League, directing the political activity of its members throughout Germany during the revolutionary period."

 
The 19 June 1848 edition of Neue Rheinische Zeitung.
 
 
A total of 301 editions of the Neue Rheinische Zeitung (NRZ) were produced during the course of its existence. To these Marx himself contributed a total of not fewer than 80 articles over the course of its existence. Since editorial contributions to the NRZ were unsigned and handwritten manuscripts have not survived, a precise count is impossible, however.
 
 
Political line
The Neue Rheinische Zeitung (NRZ) was outspoken in its criticism of Prussia and Austria for Monarchist counter-revolution, and actively agitated for their defeat. The paper was also critical of the willingness of the liberal bourgeoisie to compromise with Monarchist forces — policies which Marx and his comrades believed would have negative impacts upon the German revolution.
 
 
More than three decades after the publication's termination, Marx's close associate Frederick Engels recalled that the NRZ had a political program with two main points: "a single, indivisible, democratic German republic, and War with Russia, including the restoration of Poland."

With respect to foreign affairs, Engels recalled that the NRZ sought "to support every revolutionary people and to call for a general war of revolutionary Europe against the mighty bulwark of European reaction — Russia."

This policy was intended to undermine both the authority of Prussia and Tsarist Russia, both considered reactionary and militaristic powers, with war against Russia seen as a necessary prerequisite for establishment of a unified and democratic Germany.

Marx and Engels believed that "if Germany could be successfully brought to make war against Russia, it would be the end for the Habsburgs and Hohenzollerns and the revolution would triumph along the whole line."

The tone of the newspaper was described by Engels as "by no means solemn, serious, or enthusiastic," instead treating political opponents with "mockery and derision" in a manner entertaining to readers. The paper sought to foster the idea that the German events of the spring of 1848 were the starting point of a long revolutionary process akin to the French Revolution of 1789-1794. The paper attempted to undermine the notion that the formal resolutions of various "National Assemblies" were capable of changing state policy in any fundamental way.

Throughout its existence the NRZ was persecuted by the Prussian government, which brought lawsuits against it charging the NRZ with having "slandered" government officials. As the revolutionary upsurge of 1848 ebbed, the government's hindrance of the publication became steadily more effective, culminating in Karl Marx's expulsion from Germany — a move which effectively killed the paper.

  Suppression
On 2 March 1849, Prussian soldiers came to Marx's home to arrest one of the writers. Marx refused to turn over the writer, and the soldiers eventually left.

On 16 May 1849 Marx received an official note from the royal government declaring:

"The tendency of the Neue Rheinische Zeitung to provoke in its readers contempt for the present government, and incite them to violent revolution and the setting up of a social republic has become stronger in its latest pieces.... The right of hospitality which he has so disgracefully abused is therefore to be withdrawn from its editor-in-chief, Dr. Karl Marx, and since he has not obtained permission to prolong his stay in these states, he is ordered to leave them within 24 hours. If he should not comply voluntarily with this demand, he is to be forcibly conveyed across the frontier."

This expulsion order, combined with the growing threat of arrest or exile of its writers forced the NRZ to publish its last issue on 19 May 1849, known as the "red issue" as it was printed entirely in red ink. Marx closed with a sharp rebuttal against the suppression of the NRZ:

"Why these absurd phrases, these official lies? The trend and tone of the latest pieces of the Neue Rheinische Zeitung do not differ a whit from its first 'sample piece."

"And the 'social republic'? Have we proclaimed it only in the 'latest pieces' of the Neue Rheinische Zeitung? Did we not speak plainly and clearly enough for these dullards who failed to see the 'red' thread running through all our comments and reports on the European movement?"

"We have no compassion and we ask no compassion from you. When our turn comes, we shall not make excuses for the terror. But the royal terrorists, the terrorists by the grace of God and the law, are in practice brutal, disdainful, and mean, in theory cowardly, secretive, and deceitful, and in both respects disreputable."

 
 
Legacy
In January 1850 Marx launched a new publication, a monthly magazine called Neue Rheinische Zeitung: Politsch-ökonomische Revue ("New Rhenish Newspaper: Politico-Economic Review"). Edited in London and printed in Hamburg, the periodical managed only six issues before folding.

The best-known content of the NRZ were a series of five articles on economics published by Marx in April 1849 — a series unfinished due to the suppression of the paper. First gathered under a single set of covers under the title Wage-labor and Capital in 1880, this material was subsequently revised by Engels in 1891 and frequently reprinted thereafter as an accessible popularization of Marxist economics.

The great bulk of the journalism of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels in the NRZ became systematically accessible to an English readership only in 1977, with the publication of volumes 7, 8, and 9 of the Marx-Engels Collected Works. It was then that a total of 357 of the 422 articles contained therein were published in English for the first time.

In 2005 an online newspaper calling itself Neue Rheinische Zeitung was established.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
  IDEAS that Changed the World
Karl Marx
"Manifesto of the Communist Party"
- Marxism

Friedrich Engels
First International
     
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Grace William Gilbert
 

William Gilbert Grace, (born July 18, 1848, Downend, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died Oct. 23, 1915, London), greatest cricketer in Victorian England, whose dominating physical presence, gusto, and inexhaustible energy made him a national figure.

 

William Gilbert Grace
  He evolved the modern principles of batting and achieved many notable performances on rough and unpredictable wickets, such as are unknown to modern players.

In his career in first-class cricket (1865–1908), Grace scored 54,896 runs, registered 126 centuries (100 runs in a single innings), and, as a bowler, took 2,809 wickets. In 84 matches for Gentlemen versus Players he amassed 6,000 runs and took 271 wickets. In August 1876 he scored, in consecutive innings, 344 out of 546 for Marylebone Cricket Club versus Kent; 177 out of 262 for the Gloucestershire county team versus Nottinghamshire; and 318, not out, for Gloucestershire versus Yorkshire. In 1880 he was on the English team that played the first Test match against Australia in England. Late in life he could still handle a bat: in his last match, on July 25, 1914, when he was 66, his score was 69, not out, for Eltham.

The legend of Grace presents him as shaggy and ponderous, with a huge yellow cap atop a swarthy, bearded face. In his heyday, however, he possessed an athletic figure and was a swift runner. Although he practiced medicine, cricket was his life, to the extent that a biography (by A.A. Thomson, 1957) is entitled simply Great Cricketer. Of him, the famous bowler J.C. Shaw remarked: “I puts the ball where I likes, but he puts it where he likes.” His brother Edward Mills (1841–1911) was also a redoubtable cricketer.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1848
 
 
First settlers arrive in New Zealand (Dunedin)
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Sebastian Kneipp introduces cold-water cures at Worrishofen, Germany
 
 
Kneipp Sebastian
 

Sebastian Kneipp (May 17, 1821, Stephansried, Germany – June 17, 1897, in Bad Wörishofen) was a Bavarian priest and one of the founders of the naturopathic medicine movement. He is most commonly associated with the "Kneipp Cure" form of hydrotherapy, the application of water through various methods, temperatures and pressures which he claimed to have therapeutic or healing effects.

In Norway, he is mostly known for his wholemeal bread recipe. Kneippbrød is the most commonly eaten bread in Norway.

 

Sebastian Kneipp
  History
Kneipp was born in 1821 in Bavaria. His father was a weaver, and Kneipp trained as a weaver until he was 23 when he began training for the priesthood. He fell ill with tuberculosis, and claimed that he was healed by a "water cure" that he read in a book that he found. He was ordained as a Catholic priest in 1852.

In the 19th century, there was a popular revival in the application of hydrotherapy, instigated around 1829 by Vincent Priessnitz, a peasant farmer in Gräfenberg, then part of the Austrian Empire. This revival was continued by Kneipp, "an able and enthusiastic follower" of Priessnitz, "whose work he took up where Priessnitz left it", after he came across a treatise on the cold water cure. At Worishofen, while serving as the confessor to the monastery, he began offering treatments of hydrotherapy, botanical treatments, exercise and diet to the people who lived in the village. Some of his suggested treatments included "ice cold baths and walking barefoot in the snow" and other "harsh" methodologies. In 1893, M. E. Bottey described Kneipp's water cures as "dangerous in most cases".". Worishofen became known as a place with a reputation for spiritual healing. In addition to "peasants", Kneipp's clients also included Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his father, Archduke Karl Ludwig as well as Pope Leo XIII.

 
 
Others took Kneipp's processes back to their home countries to found alternative therapy spas and colleges. In America, Kneipp Societies were founded, which, under the influence of Benedict Lust, changed their name to Naturopatic Society of America.

Kneipp's book My Water Cure was published in 1886 with many subsequent editions, and translated into many languages. He also wrote "Thus Shalt Thou Live", "My Will", The care of children in sickness and in health.

In 1891, he founded Kneipp Bund, and organization that promotes water healing.

Kneipp died in 1897.

Legacy
Archduke Josef dedicated his medical atlas to Kneipp.[ Kneipp's likeness was featured on a stamp. His recipe for whole wheat bread, called Kneippbrød, is the most commonly eaten bread in Norway.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Lilienthal Otto
 

Otto Lilienthal, (born May 23, 1848, Anklam, Prussia—died Aug. 10, 1896, Berlin), German aviation pioneer. Lilienthal was the most significant aeronautical pioneer in the years between the advancements of the Englishman George Cayley and the American Wright brothers.

 

Otto Lilienthal
  Trained as a mechanical engineer, Lilienthal established his own machine shop and flight factory following service in the Franco-German War. Lilienthal began to conduct studies of the forces operating on wings in a stream of air in the late 1870s. The results of that research appeared in 1889 in a book entitled Der Vogelflug als Grundlage der Fliegekunst (“Bird Flight as the Basis of Aviation”) and in an important series of articles that provided a foundation for the final effort to achieve mechanical flight. As transmitted by Octave Chanute, Lilienthal’s friend and American correspondent, the tables of data served as the starting point for the earliest aircraft designs of the Wright brothers.

Having explored the physical principles governing winged flight, Lilienthal began to design and build gliders on the basis of the information he had gathered. Between 1891 and 1896, he completed some 2,000 flights in at least 16 distinct glider types. His career as a builder and pilot of gliders coincided with the development of high-speed and stroboscopic photography. Images of Lilienthal flying through the air aboard his standard glider appeared around the globe in newspapers and the great illustrated magazines of the period. Those pictures convinced millions of readers in Europe and the United States that the age of flight was at hand. Lilienthal broke his back in a glider crash on Aug. 9, 1896, and died in a Berlin hospital the next day.

Tom D. Crouch

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 

Lilienthal in mid-flight, c. 1895
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Starr Belle
 

Myra Maybelle Shirley Reed Starr (February 5, 1848 – February 3, 1889), better known as Belle Starr, was a notorious American outlaw.

Belle associated with the James-Younger gang and other outlaws. She was convicted of horse theft in 1883. Her story was popularized by novelist Richard Fox and later became a popular character in television and movies.

 
Early life
Belle Starr was born as Myra Maybelle Shirley on her father's farm near Carthage, Missouri. Her family called her May. Her father was John Shirley. Her mother, Eliza Hatfield, was related to the Hatfields of the famous family feud. In the 1860s, her father sold the farm and moved the family to Carthage, where he bought an inn and livery stable on the town square.

May Shirley received a classical education and learned piano, while graduating from Missouri's Carthage Female Academy, a private institution that her father had helped to found.

 
 

Studio portrait of Belle Starr, "Queen of the Oklahoma Outlaws"
  During the Civil War
After a Union attack on Carthage in 1864, the Shirleys moved to Scyene, Texas. According to legend, it was at Scyene that the Shirleys became associated with a number of Missouri-born criminals, including Jesse James and the Youngers. In fact, she knew the Younger brothers and the James boys because she had grown up with them in Missouri. Her brother, John A. M. "Bud" Shirley, was called Captain Shirley by local Confederate sympathizers. He does not appear on any list of Quantrill's Raiders, but rode with a group who were called partisans by some and bushwackers by Union sympathizers. Bud Shirley was killed in 1864 in Sarcoxie, Missouri, while he and another scout were being fed at the home of a Confederate sympathizer. Union troops surrounded the house and when Bud attempted to escape, he was shot and killed.

After the Civil War
Following the war, the Reed family also moved to Scyene and May Shirley married Jim Reed in 1866, after having had an earlier crush on him as a teen. Two years later, she gave birth to her first child, Rosie Lee (nicknamed Pearl). Belle always harbored a strong sense of style, which would feed into her later legend. A crack shot, she used to ride sidesaddle while dressed in a black velvet riding habit and a plumed hat, carrying two pistols, with cartridge belts across her hips. Jim turned to crime and was wanted for murder in Arkansas, which caused the family to move to California, where their second child, James Edwin (Eddie), was born in 1871. Later returning to Texas, Jim Reed was involved with several criminal gangs. While Jim initially tried his hand at farming, he would grow restless and fell in with bad company—the Starr clan, a Cherokee Indian family notorious for whiskey, cattle, and horse thievery in the Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), as well as his wife's old friends the James and Younger gangs. 

 
 
In April 1874, despite a lack of any evidence, a warrant was issued for her arrest for a stagecoach robbery by her husband and others. Jim Reed was killed in August of that year in Paris, Texas, where he had settled down with his family.
 
Marriage to Sam Starr
Allegedly, Belle was briefly married for three weeks to Charles Younger, uncle of Cole Younger in 1878, but this is not substantiated by any evidence. In 1880 she did marry a Cherokee man named Sam Starr and settled with the Starr family in the Indian Territory. There, she learned ways of organizing, planning and fencing for the rustlers, horse thieves and bootleggers, as well as harboring them from the law. Belle's illegal enterprises proved lucrative enough for her to employ bribery to free her cohorts from the law whenever they were caught.

In 1883, Belle and Sam were charged with horse theft and tried before "The Hanging Judge" Isaac Parker's Federal District Court in Fort Smith, Arkansas; the prosecutor was United States Attorney W. H. H. Clayton. She was found guilty and served nine months at the Detroit House of Corrections in Detroit, Michigan. Belle proved to be a model prisoner and during her time in jail she won the respect of the prison matron, while Sam was more incorrigible and was assigned to hard labor.

In 1886, she escaped conviction on another theft charge, but on December 17, Sam Starr was involved in a gunfight with Officer Frank West. Both men were killed, while Belle's life as an outlaw queen—and what had been the happiest relationship of her life—abruptly ended with her husband's death.

 
 

Belle Starr, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1886
 
 
Unsolved murder
For the last two-plus years of her life, gossips and scandal sheets linked her to a series of men with colorful names, including Jack Spaniard, Jim French and Blue Duck, after which, in order to keep her residence on Indian land, she married a relative of Sam Starr, Jim July Starr, who was some 15 years her junior.

On February 3, 1889, two days before her 41st birthday, she was killed. She was riding home from a neighbor's house in Eufaula, Oklahoma, when she was ambushed. After she fell off her horse, she was shot again to make sure she was dead. Her death resulted from shotgun wounds to the back and neck and in the shoulder and face. Legend says she was shot with her own double barrel shotgun.

 
 
According to Frank "Pistol Pete" Eaton, her death was due to different circumstances. She had been attending a dance. Frank Eaton had been the last person to dance with Belle Starr when Edgar Watson, clearly intoxicated had asked to dance with her. When Belle Starr declined, he later followed her. When on the way home, she stopped to give her horse a drink at a creek, he shot and killed her. According to Frank Eaton, Watson was tried, convicted and executed by hanging for the murder.

However, another story says there were no witnesses and no one was ever convicted of the murder. Suspects with apparent motive included her new husband and both of her children, as well as Edgar J. Watson, one of her sharecroppers, because he was afraid she was going to turn him in to the authorities as an escaped murderer from Florida with a price on his head. Watson, who was killed in 1910, was tried for her murder, but was acquitted, and the ambush has entered Western lore as "unsolved".

One source suggests her son, whom she had allegedly beaten for mistreating her horse, may have been her killer.

Story becomes popularized
Although an obscure figure outside Texas throughout most of her life, Belle's story was picked up by the dime novel and National Police Gazette publisher, Richard K. Fox. Fox made her name famous with his novel Bella Starr, the Bandit Queen, or the Female Jesse James, published in 1889 (the year of her murder). This novel is still often cited as a historical reference. It was the first of many popular stories that used her name.

 
Belle Star, "A Wild Western Amazon", as depicted in the National Police Gazette
 
 
Children
Belle's son, Eddie Reed, was convicted of horse theft and receiving stolen property in July 1889. Judge Parker sent him to prison in Columbus, Ohio. Belle's daughter, Rosie Reed, also known as Pearl Starr, became a prostitute to raise funds for Eddie's release. She did eventually obtain a presidential pardon in 1893. Ironically, Eddie became a deputy in Fort Smith and killed two outlaw brothers named Crittenden in 1895, and was himself killed in a saloon in Claremore, Oklahoma on December 14, 1896.

Pearl operated several bordellos in Van Buren and Fort Smith, Arkansas, from the 1890s to World War I.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1848
 
 
California Gold Rush
 

The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California. All told, the news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. Of the 300,000, approximately half arrived by sea, and half came overland from the east, on the California Trail and the Gila River trail.

 

Sailing to California at the beginning of the Gold Rush
 
 
The gold-seekers, called "forty-niners" (as a reference to 1849), traveled by sailing ship and covered wagon and often faced substantial hardships on the trip. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Europe, Australia, and Asia. At first, loose gold and gold nuggets could be picked up off the ground. Later, gold was recovered from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning. More sophisticated methods were developed and later adopted elsewhere. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, and mining companies became important. Gold worth tens of billions of today's dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many returned home with only a little more than what they had originally started with.

The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial. San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852[citation needed]. Roads and other towns were built throughout California. In 1849 a state constitution was written, and a governor and legislature were chosen. California became a state as part of the Compromise of 1850.

New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service. By 1869 railroads were built across the country from California to the eastern United States. Agriculture and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. At the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of "staking claims" was developed. The Gold Rush also resulted in attacks on Native Americans, who were often forcibly removed from their lands. Gold mining also caused environmental harm to rivers and lakes.

 
 
History
The California Gold Rush began at Sutter's Mill, near Coloma. On January 24, 1848, James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River. Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, and the two privately tested the metal. After the tests showed that it was gold, Sutter expressed dismay: he wanted to keep the news quiet because he feared what would happen to his plans for an agricultural empire if there were a mass search for gold.
However, rumors soon started to spread and were confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper publisher and merchant Samuel Brannan. The most famous quote of the California Gold Rush was by Brannan; after he had hurriedly set up a store to sell gold prospecting supplies, Brannan strode through the streets of San Francisco, holding aloft a vial of gold, shouting "Gold! Gold! Gold from the American River!"

At the time gold was discovered, California was part of the Mexican territory of Alta California, though it had been occupied by the U.S. in the Mexican-American War. The area was ceded to the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2, 1848, less than two weeks after the discovery.

On August 19, 1848, the New York Herald was the first major newspaper on the East Coast to report the discovery of gold. On December 5, 1848, President James Polk confirmed the discovery of gold in an address to Congress. Soon, waves of immigrants from around the world, later called the "forty-niners," invaded the Gold Country of California or "Mother Lode".

 
California goldfields (yellow) in the Sierra Nevada and northern California. Red dot: place of discovery.
 
 
As Sutter had feared, he was ruined; his workers left in search of gold, and squatters took over his land and stole his crops and cattle.

San Francisco had been a tiny settlement before the rush began. When residents learned about the discovery, it at first became a ghost town of abandoned ships and businesses, but then boomed as merchants and new people arrived. The population of San Francisco exploded from perhaps about 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 full-time residents by 1850. Miners lived in tents, wood shanties, or deck cabins removed from abandoned ships.

In what has been referred to as the "first world-class gold rush," there was no easy way to get to California; forty-niners faced hardship and often death on the way. At first, most Argonauts, as they were also known, traveled by sea. From the East Coast, a sailing voyage around the tip of South America would take five to eight months, and cover some 18,000 nautical miles (33,000 kilometres). An alternative was to sail to the Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama, take canoes and mules for a week through the jungle, and then on the Pacific side, wait for a ship sailing for San Francisco. There was also a route across Mexico starting at Veracruz. Many gold-seekers took the overland route across the continental United States, particularly along the California Trail. Each of these routes had its own deadly hazards, from shipwreck to typhoid fever and cholera.

To meet the demands of the arrivals, ships bearing goods from around the world came to San Francisco as well. Ships' captains found that their crews deserted to go to the goldfields. The wharves and docks of San Francisco became a forest of masts, as hundreds of ships were abandoned. Enterprising San Franciscans turned the abandoned ships into warehouses, stores, taverns, hotels, and one into a jail. Many of these ships were later destroyed and used for landfill to create more buildable land in the boomtown.

 
 

Merchant ships fill San Francisco harbor, 1850–51
 
 
Within a few years, there was an important but lesser-known surge of prospectors into far Northern California, specifically into present-day Siskiyou, Shasta and Trinity Counties. Discovery of gold nuggets at the site of present-day Yreka in 1851 brought thousands of gold-seekers up the Siskiyou Trail and throughout California's northern counties. Settlements of the Gold Rush era, such as Portuguese Flat on the Sacramento River, sprang into existence and then faded. The Gold Rush town of Weaverville on the Trinity River today retains the oldest continuously used Taoist temple in California, a legacy of Chinese miners who came. While there are not many Gold Rush era ghost towns still in existence, the remains of the once-bustling town of Shasta have been preserved in a California State Historic Park in Northern California.

Gold was also discovered in Southern California but on a much smaller scale. The first discovery of gold, at Rancho San Francisco in the mountains north of present-day Los Angeles, had been in 1842, six years before Marshall's discovery, while California was still part of Mexico. However, these first deposits, and later discoveries in Southern California mountains, attracted little notice and were of limited consequence economically.

By 1850, most of the easily accessible gold had been collected, and attention turned to extracting gold from more difficult locations. Faced with gold increasingly difficult to retrieve, Americans began to drive out foreigners to get at the most accessible gold that remained. The new California State Legislature passed a foreign miners tax of twenty dollars per month ($570 per month as of 2015), and American prospectors began organized attacks on foreign miners, particularly Latin Americans and Chinese.

In addition, the huge numbers of newcomers were driving Native Americans out of their traditional hunting, fishing and food-gathering areas. To protect their homes and livelihood, some Native Americans responded by attacking the miners. This provoked counter-attacks on native villages. The Native Americans, out-gunned, were often slaughtered. Those who escaped massacres were many times unable to survive without access to their food-gathering areas, and they starved to death. Novelist and poet Joaquin Miller vividly captured one such attack in his semi-autobiographical work, Life Amongst the Modocs.

 
 
Forty-niners
The first people to rush to the goldfields, beginning in the spring of 1848, were the residents of California themselves—primarily agriculturally oriented Americans and Europeans living in Northern California, along with Native Americans and some Californios (Spanish-speaking Californians). These first miners tended to be families in which everyone helped in the effort. Women and children of all ethnicities were often found panning next to the men. Some enterprising families set up boarding houses to accommodate the influx of men; in such cases, the women often brought in steady income while their husbands searched for gold.

Word of the Gold Rush spread slowly at first. The earliest gold-seekers were people who lived near California or people who heard the news from ships on the fastest sailing routes from California. The first large group of Americans to arrive were several thousand Oregonians who came down the Siskiyou Trail. Next came people from the Sandwich Islands, and several thousand Latin Americans, including people from Mexico, from Peru and from as far away as Chile, both by ship and overland. By the end of 1848, some 6,000 Argonauts had come to California.

Only a small number (probably fewer than 500) traveled overland from the United States that year.

 
Panning for gold on the Mokelumne River
 
 
Some of these "forty-eighters", as the earliest gold-seekers were sometimes called, were able to collect large amounts of easily accessible gold—in some cases, thousands of dollars worth each day. Even ordinary prospectors averaged daily gold finds worth 10 to 15 times the daily wage of a laborer on the East Coast. A person could work for six months in the goldfields and find the equivalent of six years' wages back home. Some hoped to get rich quick and return home, and others wished to start businesses in California.

By the beginning of 1849, word of the Gold Rush had spread around the world, and an overwhelming number of gold-seekers and merchants began to arrive from virtually every continent. The largest group of forty-niners in 1849 were Americans, arriving by the tens of thousands overland across the continent and along various sailing routes (the name "forty-niner" was derived from the year 1849). Many from the East Coast negotiated a crossing of the Appalachian Mountains, taking to riverboats in Pennsylvania, poling the keelboats to Missouri River wagon train assembly ports, and then travelling in a wagon train along the California Trail. Many others came by way of the Isthmus of Panama and the steamships of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. Australians and New Zealanders picked up the news from ships carrying Hawaiian newspapers, and thousands, infected with "gold fever", boarded ships for California.

 
 
Forty-niners came from Latin America, particularly from the Mexican mining districts near Sonora and Chile. Gold-seekers and merchants from Asia, primarily from China, began arriving in 1849, at first in modest numbers to Gum San ("Gold Mountain"), the name given to California in Chinese.

The first immigrants from Europe, reeling from the effects of the Revolutions of 1848 and with a longer distance to travel, began arriving in late 1849, mostly from France, with some Germans, Italians, and Britons. Most of these national groups arrived from seafaring, coastal regions.

It is estimated that approximately 90,000 people arrived in California in 1849—about half by land and half by sea. Of these, perhaps 50,000 to 60,000 were Americans, and the rest were from other countries. By 1855, it is estimated at least 300,000 gold-seekers, merchants, and other immigrants had arrived in California from around the world.

The largest group continued to be Americans, but there were tens of thousands each of Mexicans, Chinese, Britons, Australians French, and Latin Americans, together with many smaller groups of miners, such as Filipinos, Basques and Turks.

People from small villages in the hills near Genova, Italy were among the first to settle permanently in the Sierra Nevada foothills; they brought with them traditional agricultural skills, developed to survive cold winters. A modest number of miners of African ancestry (probably less than 4,000) had come from the Southern States, the Caribbean and Brazil.

A notable number of immigrants were from China. Several hundred Chinese arrived in California in 1849 and 1850, and in 1852 more than 20,000 landed in San Francisco. Their distinctive dress and appearance was highly recognizable in the goldfields, and created a degree of animosity towards the Chinese.

 
"Independent Gold Hunter on His Way to California", circa 1850. The gold hunter is loaded down with every conceivable appliance, much of which would be useless in California. The prospector says: "I am sorry I did not follow the advice of Granny and go around the Horn, through the Straights, or by Chagres [Panama]."
 
 
There were also women in the Gold Rush. They held various roles including prostitutes, single entrepreneurs, married women, poor and wealthy women. They were of various ethnicities including Anglo-American, Hispanic, Native, European, Chinese, and Jewish. The reasons they came varied: some came with their husbands, refusing to be left behind to fend for themselves, some came because their husbands sent for them, and others came (singles and widows) for the adventure and economic opportunities. On the trail many people died from accidents, cholera, fever, and myriad other causes, and many women became widows before even setting eyes on California. While in California, women became widows quite frequently due to mining accidents, disease, or mining disputes of their husbands. Life in the goldfields offered opportunities for women to break from their traditional work.
 
 

Chinese gold miners in California.
 
 
Legal rights
When the Gold Rush began, the California goldfields were peculiarly lawless places. When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill, California was still technically part of Mexico, under American military occupation as the result of the Mexican–American War. With the signing of the treaty ending the war on February 2, 1848, California became a possession of the United States, but it was not a formal "territory" and did not become a state until September 9, 1850.

California existed in the unusual condition of a region under military control. There was no civil legislature, executive or judicial body for the entire region. Local residents operated under a confusing and changing mixture of Mexican rules, American principles, and personal dictates.

While the treaty ending the Mexican–American War obliged the United States to honor Mexican land grants, almost all the goldfields were outside those grants. Instead, the goldfields were primarily on "public land", meaning land formally owned by the United States government. However, there were no legal rules yet in place, and no practical enforcement mechanisms.

The benefit to the forty-niners was that the gold was simply "free for the taking" at first. In the goldfields at the beginning, there was no private property, no licensing fees, and no taxes.

The miners informally adapted Mexican mining law that had existed in California. For example, the rules attempted to balance the rights of early arrivers at a site with later arrivers; a "claim" could be "staked" by a prospector, but that claim was valid only as long as it was being actively worked.

Miners worked at a claim only long enough to determine its potential. If a claim was deemed as low-value—as most were—miners would abandon the site in search for a better one. In the case where a claim was abandoned or not worked upon, other miners would "claim-jump" the land. "Claim-jumping" meant that a miner began work on a previously claimed site.

Disputes were sometimes handled personally and violently, and were sometimes addressed by groups of prospectors acting as arbitrators. This often led to heightened ethnic tensions. In some areas the influx of many prospectors could lead to a reduction of the existing claim size by simple pressure.

  Development of gold-recovery techniques
Four hundred million years ago, California lay at the bottom of a large sea; underwater volcanoes deposited lava and minerals (including gold) onto the sea floor. By tectonic forces these minerals and rocks came to the surface of the Sierra Nevada, and eroded. Water carried the exposed gold downstream and deposited it in quiet gravel beds along the sides of old rivers and streams. The forty-niners first focused their efforts on these deposits of gold.

Because the gold in the California gravel beds was so richly concentrated, early forty-niners were able to retrieve loose gold flakes and nuggets with their hands, or simply "pan" for gold in California's rivers and streams, a form of placer mining. However, panning cannot take place on a large scale, and industrious miners and groups of miners graduated to placer mining "cradles" and "rockers" or "long-toms" to process larger volumes of gravel. Miners would also engage in "coyoteing". This method involved digging a shaft 6 to 13 meters (20 to 43 ft) deep into placer deposits along a stream. Tunnels were then dug in all directions to reach the richest veins of pay dirt.

In the most complex placer mining, groups of prospectors would divert the water from an entire river into a sluice alongside the river, and then dig for gold in the newly exposed river bottom. Modern estimates by the U.S. Geological Survey are that some 12 million ounces (370 t) of gold were removed in the first five years of the Gold Rush (worth over US$16 billion at December 2010 prices).

In the next stage, by 1853, hydraulic mining was used on ancient gold-bearing gravel beds on hillsides and bluffs in the goldfields. In a modern style of hydraulic mining first developed in California, a high-pressure hose directed a powerful stream or jet of water at gold-bearing gravel beds. The loosened gravel and gold would then pass over sluices, with the gold settling to the bottom where it was collected. By the mid-1880s, it is estimated that 11 million ounces (340 t) of gold (worth approximately US$15 billion at December 2010 prices) had been recovered by "hydraulicking". This style of hydraulic mining later spread around the world.

A byproduct of these extraction methods was that large amounts of gravel, silt, heavy metals, and other pollutants went into streams and rivers. As of 1999 many areas still bear the scars of hydraulic mining, since the resulting exposed earth and downstream gravel deposits do not support plant life.

 
 
After the Gold Rush had concluded, gold recovery operations continued. The final stage to recover loose gold was to prospect for gold that had slowly washed down into the flat river bottoms and sandbars of California's Central Valley and other gold-bearing areas of California (such as Scott Valley in Siskiyou County). By the late 1890s, dredging technology (also invented in California) had become economical, and it is estimated that more than 20 million ounces (620 t) were recovered by dredging (worth approximately US$28 billion at December 2010 prices).
 
 

Excavating a river bed after the water has been diverted.
 
 
Both during the Gold Rush and in the decades that followed, gold-seekers also engaged in "hard-rock" mining, that is, extracting the gold directly from the rock that contained it (typically quartz), usually by digging and blasting to follow and remove veins of the gold-bearing quartz. By 1851, quartz mining had become the major industry of Coloma. Once the gold-bearing rocks were brought to surface, the rocks were crushed and the gold separated, either using separation in water, using its density difference from quartz sand, or by washing the sand over copper plates coated with mercury (with which gold forms an amalgam). Loss of mercury in the amalgamation process was a source of environmental contamination. Eventually, hard-rock mining wound up becoming the single largest source of gold produced in the Gold Country. The total production of gold in California from then till now is estimated at 118 million ounces (3700 t).
 
 
Profits
Recent scholarship confirms that merchants made far more money than miners during the Gold Rush. The wealthiest man in California during the early years of the rush was Samuel Brannan, the tireless self-promoter, shopkeeper and newspaper publisher. Brannan opened the first supply stores in Sacramento, Coloma, and other spots in the goldfields. Just as the rush began he purchased all the prospecting supplies available in San Francisco and re-sold them at a substantial profit. However, some gold-seekers too made substantial money. For example, within a few months in 1848, one small group of prospectors working on the Feather River retrieved a sum of gold worth more than $3 million by 2010 prices.

On average, half the gold-seekers made a modest profit, after taking all expenses into account. Most, however, especially those arriving later, made little or wound up losing money. Similarly, many unlucky merchants set up in settlements which disappeared, or which succumbed to one of the calamitous fires that swept the towns that sprang up. By contrast, a businessman who went on to great success was Levi Strauss, who first began selling denim overalls in San Francisco in 1853.

Other businessmen, through good fortune and hard work, reaped great rewards in retail, shipping, entertainment, lodging, or transportation.

 
Forty-niner panning for gold
 
 
Boardinghouses, food preparation, sewing, and laundry were highly profitable businesses often run by women (married, single, or widowed) who realized men would pay well for a service done by a woman. Brothels also brought in large profits, especially when combined with saloons and gaming houses.

By 1855, the economic climate had changed dramatically. Gold could be retrieved profitably from the goldfields only by medium to large groups of workers, either in partnerships or as employees. By the mid-1850s, it was the owners of these gold-mining companies who made the money. Also, the population and economy of California had become large and diverse enough that money could be made in a wide variety of conventional businesses.

 
 

Sluice for separation of gold from dirt with water
 
 
Path of the gold
Once extracted, the gold itself took many paths. First, much of the gold was used locally to purchase food, supplies and lodging for the miners. It also went towards entertainment, which consisted of anything from a traveling theater to alcohol, gambling, and prostitutes.

These transactions often took place using the recently recovered gold, carefully weighed out. These merchants and vendors, in turn, used the gold to purchase supplies from ship captains or packers bringing goods to California.

The gold then left California aboard ships or mules to go to the makers of the goods from around the world. A second path was the Argonauts themselves who, having personally acquired a sufficient amount, sent the gold home, or returned home taking with them their hard-earned "diggings". For example, one estimate is that some US$80 million worth of California gold was sent to France by French prospectors and merchants.

As the Gold Rush progressed, local banks and gold dealers issued "banknotes" or "drafts"—locally accepted paper currency—in exchange for gold, and private mints created private gold coins.

With the building of the San Francisco Mint in 1854, gold bullion was turned into official United States gold coins for circulation. The gold was also later sent by California banks to U.S. national banks in exchange for national paper currency to be used in the booming California economy.

Near-term effects
The arrival of hundreds of thousands of new people in California within a few years, compared to a population of some 15,000 Europeans and Californios beforehand, had many dramatic effects.

  Development of government and commerce
The Gold Rush propelled California from a sleepy, little-known backwater to a center of the global imagination and the destination of hundreds of thousands of people. The new immigrants often showed remarkable inventiveness and civic-mindedness. For example, in the midst of the Gold Rush, towns and cities were chartered, a state constitutional convention was convened, a state constitution written, elections held, and representatives sent to Washington, D.C. to negotiate the admission of California as a state.

Large-scale agriculture (California's second "Gold Rush") began during this time. Roads, schools, churches, and civic organizations quickly came into existence. The vast majority of the immigrants were Americans. Pressure grew for better communications and political connections to the rest of the United States, leading to statehood for California on September 9, 1850, in the Compromise of 1850 as the 31st state of the United States.

Between 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco increased from 500 to 150,000. The Gold Rush wealth and population increase led to significantly improved transportation between California and the East Coast. The Panama Railway, spanning the Isthmus of Panama, was finished in 1855. Steamships, including those owned by the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, began regular service from San Francisco to Panama, where passengers, goods and mail would take the train across the Isthmus and board steamships headed to the East Coast. One ill-fated journey, that of the S.S. Central America, ended in disaster as the ship sank in a hurricane off the coast of the Carolinas in 1857, with approximately three tons of California gold aboard.

Within California, the first steamship, the SS California (1848), showed up on February 28, 1849. Soon steamships were carrying miners the 125 miles (201 km) up the Sacramento River to Sacramento, California.

 
 

Excavating a gravel bed with jets, circa 1863.
 
 
Impact on Native Americans
According to Washington, D.C.'s National Museum of the American Indian, the California Gold Rush was a cause of a major, but little known, genocide on the Native Americans. The Native Americans resided in The Great Basin, east of the Sierra Nevada and west of the Rocky Mountains, which supported Native American people for more than 14,000 years. They were resourceful with the barren environment; having to travel long distances by foot to find food, Great Basin Indians developed technologies to sustain their lifestyle throughout the 19th and into the 20th centuries.

"During the Gold Rush, miners, loggers, and settlers formed vigilante groups and local militias to hunt Indians living outside the mission communities—a genocide largely ignored by American history. The Native population, estimated at 150,000 in 1845, was by 1870 less than 30,000." This means that less than 20% of the population remained.

 
 
The human and environmental costs of the Gold Rush were substantial. Native Americans, dependent on traditional hunting, gathering and agriculture, became the victims of starvation, as gravel, silt and toxic chemicals from prospecting operations killed fish and destroyed habitats. The surge in the mining population also resulted in the disappearance of game and food gathering locales as gold camps and other settlements were built amidst them. Later farming spread to supply the settlers' camps, taking more land away from the Native Americans.

Native Americans also succumbed in large numbers to newly introduced diseases such as smallpox, influenza and measles. Some estimates indicate the death rates to be between 80 and 90 percent in Native American populations during smallpox epidemics.

 
Depiction of an attack by Native Americans on miners' settlement
 
 
By far the most destructive element of the Gold Rush on California Indians was the violence against them and their environment by miners and settlers. Miners often saw Native Americans as impediments to their mining activities.Ed Allen, interpretive lead for Marshall Gold Discovery State Historic Park, reported that there were times when miners would kill up to 50 or more Natives in one day. During the 1852 Bridge Gulch Massacre, a group of settlers attacked a tribe of Wintu Indians in response to the killing of a citizen named J. R. Anderson. After his killing, the sheriff led a group of men to track down the Indians, who the men then attacked at Natural Bridge. Only three children survived the massacre that was against a different tribe of Wintu than the one that killed Anderson.

Native Americans were also deceived by settlers. Near Sacramento, California land baron John Sutter built, "a private empire on 50,000 acres of Indian land near Sacramento, kidnapped Natives and forced them to work for him in conditions that were akin to slavery." In addition to this, Sutter apparently would pay the Natives who worked for him with insignificant pieces of tin that could only be redeemed at his store.

In some areas, systematic attacks against tribespeople in or near mining districts occurred. Various conflicts were fought between natives and settlers. According to population historian Russell Thornton, estimates of the pre-Columbian population of California was at least 310,000, and perhaps as much as 705,000. By 1849, due to Spanish and Mexican colonization and epidemics this number had decreased to 100,000. The factors of disease, however do not minimize the tone of racial violence directed towards California Indians. Peter Burnett, California's first governor declared that California was a battleground between the races and that there were only two options towards California Indians, extinction or removal. California, apart from legalizing slavery for Native Americans also directly paid out $25,000 in bounties for Indian scalps with varying prices for adult male, adult female and child sizes. From 1849 until 1890 the Indigenous population of California had fallen below 20,000, primarily because of these killings.[139] According to the government of California, some 4,500 Native Americans suffered violent deaths between 1849 and 1870.[140] Furthermore, California with a consortium of other new Western states stood in opposition of ratifying the eighteen treaties signed between tribal leaders and federal agents in 1851.

After the initial boom had ended, explicitly anti-foreign and racist attacks, laws and confiscatory taxes sought to drive out foreigners—not just Native Americans—from the mines, especially the Chinese and Latin American immigrants mostly from Sonora, Mexico and Chile. The toll on the American immigrants was severe as well: one in twelve forty-niners perished, as the death and crime rates during the Gold Rush were extraordinarily high, and the resulting vigilantism also took its toll.

 
 

Gold fields and sailing routes to California, 1849
 
 
World-wide economic stimulation
The Gold Rush stimulated economies around the world as well. Farmers in Chile, Australia, and Hawaii found a huge new market for their food; British manufactured goods were in high demand; clothing and even prefabricated houses arrived from China.

The return of large amounts of California gold to pay for these goods raised prices and stimulated investment and the creation of jobs around the world. Australian prospector Edward Hargraves, noting similarities between the geography of California and his home country, returned to Australia to discover gold and spark the Australian gold rushes.

Within a few years after the end of the Gold Rush, in 1863, the groundbreaking ceremony for the western leg of the First Transcontinental Railroad was held in Sacramento.
The line's completion, some six years later, financed in part with Gold Rush money, united California with the central and eastern United States. Travel that had taken weeks or even months could now be accomplished in days.

  Longer-term effects
California's name became indelibly connected with the Gold Rush, and fast success in a new world became known as the "California Dream."[150] California was perceived as a place of new beginnings, where great wealth could reward hard work and good luck. Historian H. W. Brands noted that in the years after the Gold Rush, the California Dream spread across the nation:

“ The old American Dream ... was the dream of the Puritans, of Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard"... of men and women content to accumulate their modest fortunes a little at a time, year by year by year. The new dream was the dream of instant wealth, won in a twinkling by audacity and good luck. [This] golden dream ... became a prominent part of the American psyche only after Sutter's Mill. ”

Overnight California gained the international reputation as the "golden state". Generations of immigrants have been attracted by the California Dream. California farmers, oil drillers, movie makers, airplane builders, and "dot-com" entrepreneurs have each had their boom times in the decades after the Gold Rush.

 
 

Whites, Native Americans and blacks engaged in gold prospecting, c. 1850.
 
 
The literary history of the Gold Rush is reflected in the works of Mark Twain (The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County), Bret Harte (A Millionaire of Rough-and-Ready), Joaquin Miller (Life Amongst the Modocs), and many others.

Included among the modern legacies of the California Gold Rush are the California state motto, "Eureka" ("I have found it"), Gold Rush images on the California State Seal, and the state nickname, "The Golden State", as well as place names, such as Placer County, Rough and Ready, Placerville (formerly named "Dry Diggings" and then "Hangtown" during rush time), Whiskeytown, Drytown, Angels Camp, Happy Camp, and Sawyers Bar. The San Francisco 49ers National Football League team, and the similarly named athletic teams of California State University, Long Beach, are named for the prospectors of the California Gold Rush.

In addition. the standard route shield of state highways in California is in the shape of a miner's spade to honor the California Gold Rush. Today, aptly named State Route 49 travels through the Sierra Nevada foothills, connecting many Gold Rush-era towns such as Placerville, Auburn, Grass Valley, Nevada City, Coloma, Jackson, and Sonora. This state highway also passes very near Columbia State Historic Park, a protected area encompassing the historic business district of the town of Columbia; the park has preserved many Gold Rush-era buildings, which are presently occupied by tourist-oriented businesses.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1848 Part IV NEXT-1849 Part I