Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1848 Part III NEXT-1848 Part V    
 
 
     
1840 - 1849
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840-1849
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part I
Bebel August
Maximilian of Mexico
Carlota
Convention of London
British North America Act
Francia Jose Gaspar
Macdonald Jacques
William I of the Netherlands
William II of the Netherlands
Retour des cendres
Lambton John George
Vaillant Edouard-Marie
Sampson William
Smith William Sidney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part II
Ridpath John Clark
Sankey Ira David
James Fenimore Cooper: "The Pathfinder"
Blunt Wilfrid Scawen
Broughton Rhoda
Robert Browning: "Sordello"
Daudet Alphonse
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Dobson Austin
Hardy Thomas
Thomas Hardy 
"Tess of the d'Urbervilles"
Lemercier  Nepomucene
Lermontov: "A Hero of Our Times"
Modjeska Helena
Symonds John Addington
Verga Giovanni
Zola Emile
Emile Zola
"
J'accuse" (I accuse)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part III
Delacroix: "Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople"
Makart Hans
Hans Makart
Monet Claude
Claude Monet
Nasmyth Alexander
Alexander Nasmyth
Nast Thomas
Nelson's Column
Rodin Auguste
Auguste Rodin
Redon Odilon
Odilon Redon
Blechen Carl
Karl Blechen
Debain Alexandre-Francois
Donizetti: "La Fille du Regiment"
Haberl Franz Xaver
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich
Tchaikovsky - The Seasons
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky
Schneckenburger Max
Wilhelm Karl
"Die Wacht am Rhein"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part IV
Olbers Wilhelm
Blumenbach Johann Friedrich
Ball Robert
Kohlrausch Friedrich Wilhelm
Agassiz Louis
Basedow Carl Adolph
Graves disease
Maxim Hiram
Eyre Edward John
Brummell Beau
Father Damien
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Washington Temperance Society
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part I
Second Battle of Chuenpee
Barere Bertrand
Fisher John Arbuthnot
British Hong Kong
Luzzatti Luigi
Merriman John
Harrison William Henry
Tyler John
Espartero Baldomero
Hirobumi Ito
Clemenceau Georges
Edward VII
Creole case
Laurier Wilfrid
New Zealand
Lamb William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part II
Cheyne Thomas Kelly
Ludwig Feuerbach: "The Essence of Christianity"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Holst Hermann Eduard
Jebb Richard Claverhouse
Ward Lester Frank
Black William
Robert Browning: "Pippa Passes"
Buchanan Robert
Fenimore Cooper: "The Deerslayer"
Coquelin Benoit
Dickens: "The Old Curiosity Shop"
Ewing Juliana Horatia
Sill Edward Rowland
Frederick Marryat: "Masterman Ready"
Mendes Catulle
Mounet-Sully Jean
"Punch, or The London Charivari"
Sealsfield Charles
Scott Clement William
White Joseph Blanco
Ruskin: "The King of the Golden River"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part III
Chantrey Francis
Morisot Berthe
Berthe Morisot
Renoir Pierre-Auguste
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Wagner Otto
Wallot Paul
Olivier Ferdinand
Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier
Bazille Frederic
Frederic Bazille
Zandomeneghi Federico
Federico Zandomeneghi
Guillaumin Armand
Armand Guillaumin
Chabrier Emmanuel
Chabrier - Espana
Emmanuel Chabrier
Dibdin Thomas John
Dvorak Anton
Antonin Dvorak: Rusalka
Antonin Dvorak
Pedrell Felipe
Felip Pedrell: Els Pirineus
Felipe Pedrell
Rossini: "Stabat Mater"
Sax Antoine-Joseph
Schumann: Symphony No. 1
Sgambati Giovanni
Sgambati - Piano Concerto in G minor
Giovanni Sgambati
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part IV
Cooper Astley
Braid James
Hypnosis
Candolle Austin
Aniline
Kocher Emil Theodor
Kolliker Rudolf Albert
Petzval Joseph
Hudson William Henry
Warming Eugenius
Whitworth Joseph
Barnum's American Museum
Bradshaw George
Cook Thomas
Hyer Tom
"The New York Tribune"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part I
Pozzo di Borgo Charles-Andre
Las Cases Emmanuel
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Treaty of Nanking
General Strike of 1842
O’Higgins Bernardo
Giolitti Giovanni
Fiske John
Hartmann Eduard
Hyndman Henry Mayers
James William
Kropotkin Peter Alekseyevich
Anarchism
Anarchism
Lavisse Ernest
Robertson George Croom
Sorel Albert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part II
Banim John
Sue Eugene
Eugene Sue: "The Mysteries of Paris"
Bierce Ambrose
Brandes Georg
Bulwer-Lytton: "Zanoni"
Graham Maria
Coppee Francois
Cunningham Allan
Espronceda Jose
Gogol: "Dead Souls"
Howard Bronson
Lanier Sidney
Lover Samuel
MacKaye Steele
Maginn William
Mallarme Stephane
May Karl
Рое: "The Masque of the Red Death"
Quental Antero Tarquinio
Woodworth Samuel
Macaulay: "Lays of Ancient Rome"
Tupper Martin Farquhar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part III
Vereshchagin Vasily
Vasily Vereshchagin
Boldini Giovanni
Giovanni Boldini
Boito Arrigo
Arrigo Boito: Mefistofele Finale
Arrigo Boito
Glinka: "Russian and Ludmilla"
Hopkinson Joseph
"Hail, Columbia"
Lortzing: "Der Wildschiitz"
Massenet Jules
Massenet "Elegie"
Jules Massenet
Millocker Karl
Millocker: Gasparone
Karl Millocker
New York Philharmonic
Sullivan Arthur
Arthur Sullivan - The Mikado - Overture
Arthur Sullivan
Wagner: "Rienzi"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part IV
Dewar James
Doppler Christian Andreas
Flammarion Camille
Hansen Emile Christian
Long Crawford Williamson
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Charting the Ocean Depths
Mayer Julius Robert
Pelletier Pierre Joseph
Marshall Alfred
Strutt John William
Retzius Gustaf
Fremont John Charles
Darling Grace
Polka
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part I
McKinley William
Braga Teofilo
Wairau Affray
Dilke Charles
Avenarius Richard
Borrow George
Carlile Richard
Thomas Carlyle: "Past and Present"
Creighton Mandell
Liddell and Scott: "Greek-English Lexicon"
Liddell Henry
Scott Robert
Ward James
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part II
Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last of the Barons"
Elisabeth of Romania
Dickens: "Martin Chuzzlewit"
Doughty Charles Montagu
Dowden Edward
Emmett Daniel Decatur
Hood Thomas
Thomas Hood: "Song of the Shirt"
Horne Richard Hengist
James Henry
Rosegger Peter
Suttner Bertha
Harris George Washington
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part III
Allston Washington
Washington Allston
John Ruskin: "Modern Painters"
Trumbull John
John Trumbull
Werner Anton
Anton von Werner
Clairin Georges
Georges Clairin
Donizetti: "Don Pasquale"
Grieg Edward
Grieg - Solveig Song
Edward Grieg
Nilsson Christine
Patti Adelina
Richter Hans
Schumann: "Paradise and the Peri"
Wagner: "The Flying Dutchman"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part IV
British Archaeological Association
Chamberlin Thomas Chrowder
Ferrier David
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Joule James Prescott
Koch Robert
Erbium
Brunel Marc Isambard
Thames Tunnel
Dix Dorothea Lynde
Guy's, Kings and St. Thomas' Rugby Football Club
Sequoyah
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part I
Lowe Hudson
Drouet Jean-Baptiste
Oscar I of Sweden
Dole Sanford Ballard
Laffitte Jacques
Franco-Moroccan War
Polk James Knox
Herrera Jose Joaquin
Treaty of Wanghia
Breshkovsky Catherine
Comstock Anthony
Emerson: "Essays"
Grundtvig Nikolaj Frederik Severin
Hall Granville Stanley
Nietzsche Friedrich
Friedrich Nietzsche
Rice Edmund Ignatius
Riehl Alois
Stanley Arthur Penrhyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part II
Bernhardt Sarah
Sarah Bernhardt
Dumas, pere: "Le Comte de Monte Cristo"
Bridges Robert
Cable George Washington
Carte Richard
Cary Henry Francis
Disraeli: "Coningsby"
France Anatole
Hopkins Gerard Manley
Lang Andrew
Liliencron Detlev
O'Reilly John Boyle
O’Shaughnessy Arthur
Sterling John
William Thackeray: "Barry Lyndon"
Verlaine Paul
Paul Verlaine
"Poems"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part III
Eakins Thomas
Thomas Eakins
Ezekiel Moses Jacob
Moses Ezekiel
Luke Fildes Luke
Luke Fildes
Leibl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Leibl
Munkacsy Mihaly
Mihaly Munkacsy
Repin Ilya
Ilya Repin
Rousseau Henri
Henri Rousseau
Cassatt Mary
Mary Cassatt
Flotow: "Alessandro Stradella"
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E minor
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay
The Best of Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Sarasate Pablo
Pablo de Sarasate - Zigeunerweisen
Pablo de Sarasate
Verdi: "Ernani"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part IV
Grassmann Hermann Gunther
Baily Francis
Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard
DeLong George Washington
Golgi Camillo
Kielmeyer Carl Friedrich
Kinglake Alexander William
Strasburger Eduard Adolf
Huc Evariste Regis
Gabet Joseph
Sturt Charles Napier
Leichhardt Friedrich
Beckford William
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers
"Fliegende Blatter"
Hagenbeck Carl
Keller Friedrich Gottlob
Pasch Gustaf Erik
Young Men’s Christian Association
Williams George
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part I
Root Elihu
Texas
Florida
Flagstaff War
Ludwig II of Bavaria
First Anglo-Sikh War
Sonderbund
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part II
Friedrich Engels: "The Condition of the Working Class in England"
Stirner Max
Disraeli: "Sybil, or The Two Nations"
Hertz Henrik
Prosper Merimee: "Carmen"
Рое: "The Raven"
Spitteler Carl
Wergeland Henrik
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part III
Bode Wilhelm
Hill David Octavius
Ingres: The Comtesse d'Haussonville
Oberlander Adam Adolf
Crane Walter
Walter Crane
Faure Gabriel
Faure - Pavane
Gabriel Faure
Lortzing: "Undine"
Wagner: "Tannhauser"
Widor Charles-Marie
Widor - Piano Concerto No. 1
Charles Marie Widor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part IV
Armstrong William George
Bigelow Erastus Brigham
Cayley Arthur
Cornell Ezra
Submarine communications cable
Heilmann Joshua
Humboldt: "Cosmos"
Kolbe Hermann
Laveran Alphonse
McNaught William
Metchnikoff Elie
Charting the Northwest
Layard Austen Henry
Cartwright Alexander
United States Naval Academy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part I
Battle of Aliwal
Battle of Sobraon
Treaty of Lahore
Greater Poland Uprising
Krakow Uprising
Mexican-American War
Battle of Monterrey
First Battle of Tabasco
Iowa
Pasic Nikola
Evangelical Alliance
Eucken Rudolf Christoph
Pius IX
Whewell William
Young Brigham
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part II
Balzac: "La Cousine Bette"
De Amicis Edmondo
Dostoevsky: "Poor Folk"
Jokai Maurus
Lear Edward
Melville Herman
Herman Melville: "Typee"
Herman Melville
"Moby Dick or The Whale"
Sienkiewicz Henryk
George Watts: "Paolo and Francesca"
De Nittis Giuseppe
Giuseppe de Nittis
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part III
Berlioz: "Damnation de Faust"
Lortzing: "Der Waffenschmied"
Mendelssohn: "Elijah"
Deere John
Deere & Company
Henle Friedrich
Howe Elias
Waitz Theodor
Mohl Hugo
Green William Thomas
Sobrero Ascanio
Heaphy Charles
Brunner Thomas
Europeans in New Zealand
"The Daily News"
Horsley John Callcott
Smithsonian Institution
Zeiss Carl
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part I
Liberia
Second Battle of Tabasco
Battle of Churubusco
BATTLE OF MEXICO CITY
Hindenburg Paul
Sonderbund War
Beecher Henry Ward
Blanc Louis
Proudhon Pierre-Joseph
roudhon: "Philosophy of Poverty"P
Karl Marx: "The Poverty of Philosophy"
Salt Lake City
Charlotte Bronte: "Jane Eyre"
Bronte Emily
Marryat: "The Children of the New Forest"
Thackeray: "Vanity Fair"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part II
Hildebrand Adolf
Liebermann Max
Max Liebermann
Friedrich von Flotow: "Martha"
Verdi: "Macbeth"
Boole George
Edison Thomas Alva
Bell Alexander Graham
Semmelweis Ignaz Philipp
Colenso William
Factory Act of 1847
Fawcett Millicent
Siemens & Halske
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part I
Frederick VII
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Revolutions of 1848
French Revolution of 1848
June Days Uprising
Cavaignac Louis-Eugene
French Constitution of 1848
French Second Republic
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Slovak Uprising 1848-1849
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part I)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part II
First Italian War of Independence
Skirmish of Pastrengo
Battle of Goito
Battle of Custoza
Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
Revolution of 1848 in Luxembourg
Greater Poland Uprising
Moldavian Revolution of 1848
Pan-Slav Congress of 1848
Pan-Slavism
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part II)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part III
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Nasr-ed-Din
Ibrahim Pasha
Abbas I
Wisconsin
Balfour Arthur James
Seneca Falls Convention
Stanton Elizabeth Cady
Delbruck Hans
Macaulay: "History of England"
"The Communist Manifesto"
John Mill: "Principles of Political Economy"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part IV
Augier Emile
Chateaubriand: "Memoires d'Outre-Tombe"
Dumas fils: "La Dame aux Camelias"
Gaskell Elizabet
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
Murger Louis-Henri
Henri Murger: "Scenes de la vie de Boheme"
Terry Ellen
Surikov Vasily
Vasily Surikov
Uhde Fritz
Fritz von Uhde
Gauguin Paul
Paul Gauguin
Caillebotte Gustave
Gustave Caillebotte
Millais: "Ophelia"
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part V
Parry Hubert Hastings
Jerusalem by Hubert Parry
Hubert Parry
Duparc Henri
Duparc Henri: "L'invitation au voyage"
Henri Duparc
Bottger Rudolf Christian
Parsons William
Frege Gottlob
"New Prussian Newspaper"
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"
Grace William Gilbert
Kneipp Sebastian
Lilienthal Otto
Starr Belle
California Gold Rush
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part I
Battle of Chillianwala
Battle of Gujrat
Roman Republic on February 9, 1849
Battle of Novara
Victor Emmanuel II
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Peace of Milan
Taylor Zachary
Dresden Rebellion of 1849
Surrender at Vilagos
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part II
Kemble John Mitchell
Key Ellen
Arnold Matthew
Dickens: "David Copperfield"
Kingsley Charles
Scribe: "Adrienne Lecouvreur"
Strindberg August
Smith Horace
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part III
Waterhouse John William
John William Waterhouse
John Ruskin: "The Seven Lamps of Architecture"
Carriere Eugene
Eugene Carriere
Liszt: "Tasso"
Meyerbeer: "Le Prophete"
Otto Nicolai: "The Merry Wives of Windsor"
Schumann: "Manfred"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part IV
Fizeau Armand
Frankland Edward
Livingstone David
Explorations of David Livingstone
Baines Thomas
"Who's Who"
Bedford College
Bloomer Amelia
Bloomers (clothing)
Stead William Thomas
 
 
 

Millais: "Ophelia"
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1848 Part IV
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Emile Augier: "L'Aventuriere"
 
 
Augier Emile
 
Guillaume Victor Emile Augier (17 September 1820 – 25 October 1889) was a French dramatist. He was the thirteenth member to occupy seat 1 of the Académie française on 31 March 1857.
 

Guillaume Victor Emile Augier
  Emile Augier, in full Guillaume-victor-émile Augier (born Sept. 17, 1820, Valence, France—died Oct. 25, 1889, Croissy-sur-Seine), popular dramatist who wrote comedies extolling the virtues of middle-class life and who, with Alexandre Dumas fils and Victorien Sardou, dominated the French stage during the Second Empire (1852–70).

Augier was an unbending moralist, and all of his plays are to some extent didactic in purpose. His verse play Gabrielle (1849) attacks the Romantic belief in the divine right of passion, while his Le Mariage d’Olympe (1855; “The Marriage of Olympia”) opposes the idea of the rehabilitation of a prostitute by love, as expressed in Dumas’s La Dame aux Camélias (“The Lady of the Camellias”).

A champion of the institution of marriage, Augier satirized adultery in Les Lionnes pauvres (1858; “The Poor Lionesses”) and saw in greed, and money itself, the root of evil.

His best-known play, Le Gendre de Monsieur Poirier (1854; “Monsieur Poirier’s Son-in-Law”), written in collaboration with Jules Sandeau, advocated the fusion of the new prosperous middle class with the dispossessed nobility.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Chateaubriand: "Memoires d'Outre-Tombe"
 
Mémoires d'Outre-Tombe (French: ''Memoirs from Beyond the Grave'') is the 42-volume memoir of François-René de Chateaubriand (Chateaubriand Francois), collected and published posthumously in two volumes in 1849 and 1850, respectively. Chateaubriand was a writer, politician, diplomat, and historian who is regarded as the founder of French Romanticism.
 
Although the work shares characteristics with earlier French "memoirs" (like the Memoirs of Saint-Simon), the Mémoires d'Outre-Tombe are also inspired by the Confessions of Jean-Jacques Rousseau: in addition to providing a record of political and historical events, Chateaubriand includes details of his private life and his personal aspirations.

The work abounds in instances of the poetic prose at which Chateaubriand excelled. On the other hand, the melancholy of the autobiography helped establish Chateaubriand as the idol of the young French Romantics; a young Victor Hugo wrote: "I will be Chateaubriand or nothing."

 
 
Genesis of the work
It was while in Rome at the close of 1803 that Chateaubriand decided to write his memoirs; however, he did not begin writing them until 1809, and even then demands from other projects slowed his progress. In 1817 he returned to the memoirs.

The first manuscript, probably written while he was serving as ambassador to London, did not reach completion until 1826. At this point, he intended to entitle the book Memories of My Life.

In 1830, however, Chateaubriand decided to change the scope of the work, revising the title to Mémoires d'Outre-Tombe, making a thorough revision of the original text, and writing several new volumes.

He divided his life before 1830 into three periods: soldier and traveler, novelist, and statesman. The project had by now become more ambitious; indeed, he tried to reproduce not only his personal exploits, but the epic historical and political events of the era.

Publication
After fragmented public readings of his work in salons, in 1836 Chateaubriand yielded the rights to his work to a society that published it until his death, paying him accordingly.
Having obtained this economic stability, he completed the work with a fourth set of volumes. In 1841 he wrote an ample conclusion.

 
Chateaubriand: "Memoires d'outre-tombe"
 
 
Chateaubriand originally intended for the work to be published at least fifty years after his death, but his financial troubles forced him, in his words, "to mortgage [his] tomb".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
see also: Chateaubriand
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Droste-Hulshoff Annette, German poet, d. (b. 1797)
 
 

Annette von Droste-Hülshoff, Daguerreotypie.
Eine von zwei 1845 entstandenen Fotografien der Dichterin.
 
 
see also: Annette von Droste-Hulshoff
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Dumas fils: "La Dame aux Camelias"
 

The Lady of the Camellias (French: La Dame aux camélias) is a novel by Dumas Alexandre, fils, first published in 1848, and subsequently adapted for the stage. The Lady of the Camellias premiered at the Théâtre du Vaudeville in Paris, France on February 2, 1852. The play was an instant success, and Giuseppe Verdi immediately set about putting the story to music. His work became the 1853 opera La Traviata, with the female protagonist, Marguerite Gautier, renamed Violetta Valéry.

In the English-speaking world, The Lady of the Camellias became known as Camille and 16 versions have been performed at Broadway theatres alone. The title character is Marguerite Gautier, who is based on Marie Duplessis, the real-life lover of author Dumas, fils.

 
Summary and analysis
The theme of The Lady of the Camellias is a love story between Marguerite Gautier, a "demi-mondaine" ("courtisane" in the original French, i.e., a woman "kept" by various lovers, frequently more than one at a time) suffering from tuberculosis, and a young provincial bourgeois, Armand Duval. The narration of the love story is told by Duval himself to the (unnamed) narrator of the book. She is named as the Lady of the Camellias because she wears a white camellia when she is available to her lover(s) and a red one when her delicate condition precludes making love.

Armand falls in love with Marguerite and ultimately becomes her lover, convincing her to turn her back on her life as a "courtisane" and live with him in the countryside. This idyllic existence is broken by Armand's father, who, concerned by the scandal created by the illicit relationship and fearful that it will destroy his daughter's (Armand's sister's) chances of marriage, convinces Marguerite to leave Armand, who believes, up until Marguerite's death, that she has left him for another man. Marguerite's death is described as an unending agony, during which Marguerite, abandoned by everyone, can only regret what might have been.

Unlike the love of the Chevalier des Grieux for Manon Lescaut (to which story Dumas himself makes reference at the beginning of The Lady of the Camellias), Armand's love is for a woman who is ready to sacrifice her riches and her lifestyle for him, but who is thwarted by the arrival of Armand's father.

Dumas is careful to paint a favourable portrait of Marguerite, who despite her past is rendered virtuous by her love for Armand, and the suffering of the two lovers, whose love is shattered by the need to conform to the morals of the times, is rendered touchingly.

The novel is also marked by the description of Parisian life during the 19th century and the fragile world of the "courtisanes".

 
Poster for a performance of the theatrical
version, with Sarah Bernhardt (1896)
 
 
Stage performances
Since its debut as a play, numerous editions have been performed at theatres around the world. The role of the tragic Marguerite Gautier became one of the most coveted amongst actresses and included performances by Lillian Gish, Vivien Leigh, Eleonora Duse, Margaret Anglin, Gabrielle Réjane, Tallulah Bankhead, Eva Le Gallienne, Isabelle Adjani, Cacilda Becker, and especially Sarah Bernhardt, who starred in Paris, London, and several Broadway revivals, plus a 1911 film. Dancer/Impresario Ida Rubinstein successfully recreated Bernhardt's interpretation of the role onstage in the mid-1920s, coached by the great actress herself before she died.
 
 

Illustration by Albert Lynch.
Marie Duplessis.
Eleonora Duse as Marguerite Gautier in 1896.
 
 
Of all Dumas, fils's theatrical works, La Dame aux Camélias is the most popular around the world: According to 19th century book The Century, "not one other play by Dumas, fils has been received with favor out of France".

It is also the inspiration for the 2008 musical Marguerite, which places the story in 1944 German-occupied France.

Amongst many adaptations, spin-offs and parodies, was "Camille," "a travesty on La Dame aux Camellias" by Charles Ludlam, staged first by his own Ridiculous Theatrical Company in 1973, with Ludlam playing the lead in drag

In 1999 Alexia Vassiliou collaborated with composer Aristides Mytaras for the contemporary dance performance, The Lady of the Camellias at the Amore Theatre in Athens.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
     
 
Dumas Alexandre, fils

"The Lady of the Camellias"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
 
 
Gaskell Elizabet
 

Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell, née Stevenson (29 September 1810 – 12 November 1865), often referred to simply as Mrs Gaskell, was a British novelist and short story writer during the Victorian era. Her novels offer a detailed portrait of the lives of many strata of society, including the very poor, and are of interest to social historians as well as lovers of literature. Gaskell was also the first to write a biography of Charlotte Bronte, The Life of Charlotte Bronte, which was published in 1857.

 

Elizabeth Gaskell: 1832 miniature by
William John Thomson
  Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell, née Stevenson (born Sept. 29, 1810, Chelsea, London, Eng.—died Nov. 12, 1865, near Alton, Hampshire), English novelist, short-story writer, and first biographer of Charlotte Brontë.

She was a daughter of a Unitarian minister. When her mother died, she was brought up by a maternal aunt in the Cheshire village of Knutsford in a kindly atmosphere of rural gentility that was already old-fashioned at the time. In 1832 she married William Gaskell, a Unitarian minister, and settled in the overcrowded, problem-ridden industrial city of Manchester, which remained her home for the rest of her life.

Domestic life—the Gaskells had six children, of whom four daughters lived to adulthood—and the social and charitable obligations of a minister’s wife claimed her time but not all her thoughts. She did not begin her literary career until middle life, when the death of her only son had intensified her sense of community with the poor and her desire to “give utterance” to their “agony.” Her first novel, Mary Barton, reflects the temper of Manchester in the late 1830s. It is the story of a working-class family in which the father, John Barton, lapses into bitter class hatred during a cyclic depression and carries out a retaliatory murder at the behest of his trade union.

 
 
Its timely appearance in the revolutionary year of 1848 brought the novel immediate success, and it won the praise of Charles Dickens and Thomas Carlyle. Dickens invited her to contribute to his magazine, Household Words, where her next major work, Cranford (1853), appeared.
 
 

Elizabeth Gaskell: 1851 portrait by
George Richmond
  This social history of a gentler era, which describes, without sentimentalizing or satirizing, her girlhood village of Knutsford and the efforts of its shabby-genteel inhabitants to keep up appearances, has remained her most popular work.

The conflict between Mrs. Gaskell’s sympathetic understanding and the strictures of Victorian morality resulted in a mixed reception for her next social novel, Ruth (1853). It offered an alternative to the seduced girl’s traditional progress to prostitution and an early grave.

Among the many friends attracted by Mrs. Gaskell was Charlotte Brontë, who died in 1855 and whose biography Charlotte’s father, Patrick Brontë, urged her to write.

The Life of Charlotte Brontë (1857), written with warmhearted admiration, disposed of a mass of firsthand material with unforced narrative skill. It is at once a work of art and a well-documented interpretation of its subject.

Among her later works, Sylvia’s Lovers (1863), dealing with the impact of the Napoleonic Wars upon simple people, is notable.
Her last and longest work, Wives and Daughters (1864–66), concerning the interlocking fortunes of two or three country families, is considered by many her finest. It was left unfinished at her death.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
 

Mary Barton is the first novel by English author Elizabeth Gaskell, published in 1848. The story is set in the English city of Manchester between 1839 and 1842, and deals with the difficulties faced by the Victorian lower class. It is subtitled 'A Tale of Manchester Life'.

 
Plot summary
The novel begins in Manchester, where we are introduced to the Bartons and the Wilsons, two working-class families. John Barton is a questioner of the distribution of wealth and the relations between rich and poor. Soon his wife dies—he blames it on her grief over the disappearance of her sister Esther. Having already lost his son Tom at a young age, Barton is left to raise his daughter, Mary, alone and now falls into depression and begins to involve himself in the Chartist, trade-union movement.

Mary takes up work at a dressmaker's (her father having objected to her working in a factory) and becomes subject to the affections of hard-working Jem Wilson and Harry Carson, son of a wealthy mill owner. She fondly hopes, by marrying Carson, to secure a comfortable life for herself and her father, but immediately after refusing Jem's offer of marriage she realises that she truly loves him. She therefore decides to evade Carson, planning to show her feelings to Jem in the course of time. Jem believes her decision to be final, though this does not change his feelings for her.

Meanwhile, Esther, a "street-walker," returns to warn John Barton that he must save Mary from becoming like her. He simply pushes her away, however, and she's sent to jail for a month on the charge of vagrancy. Upon her release she talks to Jem with the same purpose.

He promises that he will protect Mary and confronts Carson, eventually entering into a fight with him, which is witnessed by a policeman passing by.

 
First edition title page
 
 
Not long afterwards, Carson is shot dead, and Jem is arrested for the crime, his gun having been found at the scene. Esther decides to investigate the matter further and discovers that the wadding for the gun was a piece of paper on which is written Mary's name.

She visits her niece to warn her to save the one she loves, and after she leaves Mary realises that the murderer is not Jem but her father. She is now faced with having to save her lover without giving away her father. With the help of Job Legh (the intelligent grandfather of her blind friend Margaret), Mary travels to Liverpool to find the only person who could provide an alibi for Jem – Will Wilson, Jem's cousin and a sailor, who was with him on the night of the murder. Unfortunately, Will's ship is already departing, so that, after Mary chases after the ship in a small boat, the only thing Will can do is promise to return in the pilot ship and testify the next day.

During the trial, Jem learns of Mary's great love for him. Will arrives in court to testify, and Jem is found 'not guilty'. Mary has fallen ill during the trial and is nursed by Mr Sturgis, an old sailor, and his wife. When she finally returns to Manchester she has to face her father, who is crushed by his remorse. He summons John Carson, Harry's father, to confess to him that he is the murderer. Carson is still set on justice, but after turning to the Bible he forgives Barton, who dies soon afterwards in Carson's arms. Not long after this Esther comes back to Mary's home, where she, too, soon dies.

Jem decides to leave England, where, his reputation damaged, it would be difficult for him to find a new job. The novel ends with the wedded Mary and Jem, their little child, and Mrs Wilson living happily in Canada. News comes that Margaret has regained her sight and that she and Will, soon to be married, will visit.

 
 

Characters
Mary Barton – The eponymous character, a very beautiful girl.
Mrs Mary Barton – Mary's mother, who dies early on.
John Barton – Mary's father, a millworker, active member in trade unions.
George Wilson – John Barton's best friend, a worker at John Carson's mill.
Jane Wilson – George Wilson's wife, short-tempered.
Jem Wilson – Son of George and Jane, an engineer and inventor who has loved Mary from his childhood.
John Carson – Wealthy owner of a mill in Manchester.
Harry Carson – Son of John Carson, attracted to Mary.
Alice Wilson – George Wilson's sister, a pious old washerwoman, herbalist, sick-nurse.
Margaret Jennings – Neighbour of Alice, blind, a sometime singer, a friend to Mary.
Job Legh – Margaret's grandfather, a self-taught naturalist.
Ben Sturgis – An old sailor, who looks after Mary during her stay in Liverpool.
Will Wilson – Alice's nephew (Jem's cousin), whom she raised after the death of his parents. A sailor, he falls in love with Margaret.
Esther (last name unknown) — Sister of Mrs Mary Barton, she is a fallen woman and on the periphery for most of the story.

 
 
Background and composition
In beginning to write novels, it was Gaskell's hope that they would provide some solace from the pain of the loss of her son Willie. The idea, according to her early biographer Ellis Chadwick, was first suggested by her husband William Gaskell to 'sooth her sorrow'. In an 1849 letter to her friend Mrs Greg, Gaskell said that she, 'took refuge in the invention to exclude the memory of painful scenes which would force themselves upon my remembrance.'

However, it is clear from her preface that the suffering she saw around her was the motivational factor for the content of the novel: 'I had always felt a deep sympathy with the care-worn men, who looked as if doomed to struggle through their lives in strange alternations between work and want[...] The more I reflected on this unhappy state of things between those so bound to each other by common interests, as the employers and the employed must ever be, the more anxious I became to give some utterance to the agony which from time to time convulsed this dumb people.'

 
 
Gaskell's desire to accurately represent the poverty of industrial Manchester is evident in a record of a visit she made to the home of a local labourer. On comforting the family, Hompes records, the 'head of the family took hold of her arm and grasping it tightly, said, with tears in his eyes: "Aye, ma'am, but have ye ever seen a child clemmed to death?"' This question is almost precisely repeated in the mouth of John Barton: 'Han they ever seen a child o' their'n die for want o' food?' in chapter 4.

As well as relying on her own experience, Gaskell is thought to have used secondary sources on which to base the setting of the story, including Kay's The moral and physical condition of the working classes involved in the cotton manufacture in Manchester (1832) and Peter Gaskell's The manufacturing population of England (1833). Other details to which Gaskell paid particular attention to ensure the realism of the novel include the topography of both Manchester and Liverpool (including the rural environment detailed in the first chapter, and references to road names and prominent buildings), the superstitions and customs of the local people and the dialect. In the earliest editions, William Gaskell added the footnotes explaining some of the words specific to the Lancashire dialect, and after the fifth edition (1854), two lectures of his on the subject were added as appendices. It is widely thought that the murder of Harry Carson in the novel was inspired by the assassination of Thomas Ashton, a Manchester mill-owner, in 1831.

Mary Barton was first published as two volumes in October 1848. Gaskell was paid £100 for the novel. The publisher Edward Chapman had had the manuscript since the middle of 1847. He had several recorded influences on the novel, the most prominent of which is probably the change in title: the novel was originally entitled John Barton. Gaskell said that he was, 'the central figure to my mind...he was my "hero".' He also encouraged Gaskell to include chapters 36 and 37, the dialectical glosses added by William Gaskell, a preface and the chapter epigraphs.

The second edition, with Gaskell's corrections, particularly on typographical mistakes when writing the Lancashire dialect, appeared on 3 January 1849. The third edition soon followed, in February.

A fourth, without Gaskell's involvement, appeared in October 1850. The fifth edition, from 1854, was the first single volume edition and included WIlliam Gaskell's lectures on dialect.

  Analysis
Genre

One element of the novel that has been a subject of heavy criticism is the apparent shift in genres between the political focus of the early chapters to the domestic in the later ones.

Raymond Williams particularly saw this as a failure by the author: the early chapters, he said, are the 'most moving response in literature to the industrial suffering of the 1840s', but in the later the novel becomes a 'familiar and orthodox...Victorian novel of sentiment'. Williams suggested that this shift may have been at the influence of her publishers, an idea supported by the title change, which changes the main focus of the reader from the political upheaval John is trying to promote to Mary's emotional journey.

However, Kamilla Elliot disagrees with Williams about the weakness of the domestic genre, saying, 'It is the romance plot, not the political plot, that contains the more radical political critique in the novel.'

Style
It is a subject of some debate whether the first person narrator in Mary Barton is synonymous with Gaskell. On the one hand, the consistent use of tone through the original preface and the novel, and authorial insets like the first paragraph of chapter 5 suggest the Gaskell is directly narrating the story. Contrarily, critics like Lansbury suggest the narrator is too unsympathetic in all Gaskell's Manchester novels to be her own voice:

Nothing could be more unwise than to regard the authorial 'I' of the novels as the voice of Elizabeth Gaskell, particularly in the Manchester novels. The narrator has a tendency to engage in false pleading and specious argument, while the workers demonstrate honesty and commonsense.

Hopkins goes so far as to claim that the detail to verisimilitude in the novel made it the first 'respectable' social novel, in contrast with the lack of believability in, for example, Disraeli's Sybil or Tonna's Helen Fleetwood.

Prominent in the novel is Gaskell's attempt to reinforce the realism of her representation through the inclusion of 'working-class discourses', not only through the use of closely imitated colloquialisms and dialect, but also through 'passages from Chartist poems, working class ballads, proverbs, maxims and nursery rhymes, as John Barton's radical discourse, Ben Davenport's deathbed curses, and Job Legh's language of Christian submission.'

 
 
Themes
The first half of the novel focuses mainly on the comparison between the rich and poor. In a series of set pieces across the opening chapters we are shown the lifestyles of the Bartons, Wilsons (most prominently in the chapter "A Manchester Tea-Party") and Davenports respective households compared to the contrasting affluence of the Carson establishment (in the chapter "Poverty and Death"). A key symbol shown in this chapter is the use of five shillings; this amount being the price John Barton receives for pawning most of his possessions, but also the loose change in Harry Carson's pocket.

Gaskell details the importance of the mother in a family; as is seen from the visible decline in John Barton's physical and moral well-being after his wife's death. This view is also symbolised by Job Leigh's inability to care for Margaret as a baby in the chapter "Barton's London Experience". The theme of motherhood is connected to declining masculinity: Surridge points out that the roles of nurturing fall towards the men as bread-winning falls away. Both Wilson and Barton are pictured holding the infants in the place of the nanny that can't be afforded as the novel begins, but eventually both end up relying on the income of their children, Jem and Mary respectively.

The second half of the book deals mainly with the murder plot. Here it can be seen that redemption is also a key aspect of the novel; not least because of the eventual outcome of the relationship between Messrs Carson and Barton, but also in Gaskell's presentation of Esther, the typical "fallen woman". The selfless nature she gives the character, on several occasions having her confess her faults with a brutal honesty, is an attempt to make the reader sympathise with the character of a prostitute, unusual for the time.

Indeed, throughout the novel Gaskell appears to refer to her characters as being out of her control, acting as not so much a narrator but a guide for the observing reader. Another aspect of the passivity of the characters is, as some suggest, that they a represent the impotence of the class to defend, or even represent, themselves politically.

 
 
Cooney draws attention to this in the scene in which the factory is on fire – a scene the reader anticipates to be domestic fails in its domestic role (one might imagine Jem's heroism to prompt Mary to discover her true feelings) actually sees the crowd passively at the mercy of ill-equipped firemen and unconcerned masters.
Several times Gaskell attempts to mask her strong beliefs in the novel by disclaiming her knowledge of such matters as economics and politics, but the powerful language she gives to her characters, especially John Barton in the opening chapter, is a clear indication of the author's interest in the class divide. She openly pleads for reducing this divide through increased communication and, as a consequence, understanding between employers and workmen and generally through a more human behaviour based on Christian principles, at the same time presenting her own fears of how the poor will eventually act in retaliation to their oppression.

Gaskell also describes an Italian torture chamber where the victim is afforded many luxuries at first but in the end the walls of the cell start closing in and finally they crush him. It is believed that the story has been influenced by William Mudford's short story "The Iron Shroud". Stephen Derry mentions that Gaskell uses the concept of the shrinking cell to describe John Barton's state of mind but also added the element of luxury to further enhance it.

Death plays a significant and unavoidable role in the plot: it has been interpreted both as mere realism (Lucas points out the average mortality rate at the time was 17) and autobiographically as the cathartic relief of grief over her son's premature death. The image of a dying child was also a trope of Chartist discourse.

 
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
 
 
Reception
The novel was first published anonymously, but its authorship was widely known within a year.

Early reception of the novel was divided, with some praising its honesty and fidelity to facts and others criticising it for presenting a distorted picture of the employer-employee relationships. The British Quarterly Review said it was a 'one-sided picture', and the Edinburgh Review that the division between employers and employed was exaggerated. They were echoed by the Manchester Guardian and the Prospective Review. On the other hand were the Athenaeum, the Eclectic Review, the Christian Examiner and Fraser's Magazine. The Athenaeum's otherwise positive review raised the question of whether 'it may be kind or wise or right to make fiction the vehicle for a plain, matter of fact exposition of social evils'.

Part of the sensation the novel created was due to the anonymity with which it was published. Gaskell claimed that on occasion she had even joined in with discussions making guesses at the authorship.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
see also: Elizabeth Gaskell
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Lowell James Russell : "The Biglow Papers"
 
 

The Biglow Papers: by James Russell Lowell
 
 

The Biglow Papers: by James Russell Lowell
 
 

The Biglow Papers: by James Russell Lowell
 
 
see also: James Russell Lowell
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Marryat Frederick, Eng. novelist, d. (b. 1792)
 
 

Frederick Marryat
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Henri Murger: "Scenes de la vie de Boheme"
 
 
Murger Louis-Henri
 

Louis-Henri Murger, also known as Henri Murger and Henry Murger (27 March 1822 – 28 January 1861) was a French novelist and poet.

 
He is chiefly distinguished as the author of Scènes de la vie de bohème, from his own experiences as a desperately poor writer living in a Parisian attic, and member of a loose club of friends who called themselves "the water drinkers" (because they were too poor to afford wine). In his writing he combines instinct with pathos and humour, sadness his predominant tone. The book is the basis for the operas La bohème (Puccini) and La bohème (Leoncavallo), and, at greater removes, the zarzuela Bohemios (Amadeu Vives), the operetta Das Veilchen vom Montmartre (Kálmán) and the Broadway musical Rent. He wrote lyrics as well as novels and stories, the chief being La Chanson de Musette, "a tear," says Gautier, "which has become a pearl of poetry".
 
 

Louis-Henri Murger
  Biography
Murger was born and died in Paris. He was the son of a Savoyard immigrant who worked as a tailor and janitor for an apartment building in the Rue Saint Georges. He had a scanty and fragmented education. After leaving school at 15 he worked in a variety of menial jobs before securing one in a lawyer's office. While there he also wrote poetry which came to the attention of the French writer Étienne de Jouy. De Jouy's connections enabled him to secure the position of secretary to Count Tolstoi, a Russian nobleman living in Paris. Murger's literary career began about 1841.
His first essays were mainly literary and poetic, but under the pressure of earning a living he wrote whatever he could find a market for, turning out prose as he put it, "at the rate of eighty francs an acre". At one point he edited a fashion newspaper, Le Moniteur de la Mode, and a paper for the millinery trade, Le Castor. His position gradually improved when the French writer Champfleury, with whom he lived for a time, urged Murger to devote himself to fiction. His first big success was Scènes de la vie de bohème. In 1851 Murger published a sequel, Scènes de la vie de jeunesse. Several more works followed, but none of them brought him the same popular acclaim.

He lived much of the next ten years in a country house outside Paris, dogged by financial problems and recurrent ill health. In 1859 he received the Légion d'honneur but within two years he was almost penniless and dying in a Paris hospital. Napoleon III's minister Count Walewski sent 500 francs to help pay his medical expenses, but it was too late.
 
 
Henri Murger died on 28 January 1861 at the age of 38. The French government paid for his funeral, which from contemporary accounts in Le Figaro was a great public occasion attended by 250 luminaries from journalism, literature, theatre, and the arts. Le Figaro also started a fund to raise money for his monument. Hundreds of people contributed and within two months it had raised over 6500 francs.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
Henri Murger: "Scenes de la vie de Boheme"
 
 

La Vie de Bohème (full title in French, Scènes de la vie de bohème) is a work by Henri Murger, published in 1851.

 
Although it is commonly called a novel, it does not follow standard novel form. Rather, it is a collection of loosely related stories, all set in the Latin Quarter of Paris in the 1840s, romanticizing bohemian life in a playful way. Most of the stories were originally published individually in a local literary magazine, Le Corsaire. Many of them were semi-autobiographical, featuring characters based on actual individuals who would have been familiar to some of the magazine's readers.
 
 

Illustration by Joseph Hémard from Scènes de la Vie de Bohème, Paris, 1921.
 
 
The first of these stories was published in March 1845, carrying the byline "Henri Mu..ez". A second story followed more than a year later, in May 1846. This time Murger signed his name "Henry Murger", spelling his first name with a "y" in imitation of the English name, an affectation he continued for the rest of his career. A third story followed in July, with the subtitle "Scènes de la bohème". The same subtitle was used with 18 more stories, which continued to appear on a semi-regular basis until early 1849 (with a long break in 1848 for the revolution in Paris).

Although the stories were popular within the small literary community, they initially failed to reach a larger audience or generate much income for Murger. This changed in 1849, after Murger was approached by Théodore Barrière, an up-and-coming young playwright, who proposed writing a play based on the stories. Murger agreed to the collaboration, and the result — titled La Vie de la bohème, credited to Barrière and Murger as co-authors — was staged to great success at the Théâtre des Variétés.

  The popularity of the play created a demand for publication of the stories. Murger therefore compiled most of the stories into a single collection. To help establish continuity, he added some new material.

A preface discussed the meaning of "bohemian", and a new first chapter served to introduce the setting and the main characters. To the end were added two more chapters which wrap up some loose ends and offer final thoughts on the bohemian life. This became the novel, published in January 1851. A second edition was published later in the year, in which Murger added one more story.

Two operas were later based on the novel and play, La bohème by Giacomo Puccini in 1896 and La bohème by Ruggero Leoncavallo in 1897.

Puccini's became one of most popular operas of all time, spawning several later works based on the same story.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Terry Ellen
 

Ellen Terry, in full Alice Ellen Terry (born February 27, 1847, Coventry, Warwickshire, England—died July 21, 1928, Small Hythe, Kent), English actress who became one of the most popular stage performers in both Great Britain and North America. For 24 years (1878–1902) she worked as the leading lady of Sir Henry Irving in one of the most famous partnerships in the theatre. In the 1890s she began her famous “paper courtship” with George Bernard Shaw, one of the most brilliant correspondences in the history of English letter writing.

 

Ellen Terry at age 16
 
 
Terry was the second surviving daughter in a large family of which several members were to become well known on the stage. She had no formal schooling, but, trained by her parents, she rapidly developed into a celebrated child actress. At the age of nine she made her debut in the child’s part of Mamillius in The Winter’s Tale, which Charles Kean, son of the actor Edmund Kean, produced in London in April 1856. She remained in Kean’s company until 1859 and later joined the stock company performing at the Theatre Royal, Bristol, where she played leading parts in Shakespeare and in repertory theatre.
 
 
In 1864, at the age of 16, she left the stage to marry the painter G.F. Watts, whose model she had been. Watts, a neurotic man almost three times her age, made many fine portraits and sketches of her, but the marriage survived a bare 10 months.

In her despair Terry could scarcely be induced to return to the stage, but she eventually did so, though playing with little of her former distinction. It was in 1867 that she first appeared, by chance, with Sir Henry Irving, playing Katherina in The Taming of the Shrew.

The following year she left the stage abruptly to live for six years in Hertfordshire with the architect and theatrical designer Edward Godwin (1833–86), whom she had met in Bristol and who became the father of her children, Edith and Edward Gordon Craig (1872–1966). Edward was to become a renowned actor, stage designer, and producer. When her association with Godwin began to fail, it was the author, dramatist, and producer Charles Reade who found her and brought her back to the stage. In the role of Portia she showed new maturity in a striking production of The Merchant of Venice (1875), designed by Godwin. On parting from Godwin (who married in 1876), she became responsible for rearing their children. Before joining Irving at the Lyceum Theatre in 1878, she completed a successful season at the Court Theatre.

In 1877 she received a divorce from Watts and married an actor, Charles Kelly, mainly to give her children a “name.” They soon separated, and Kelly died in 1885.
 
Choosing: painting by first husband, George Frederic Watts,
c. 1864
 
 
When Terry joined Irving, she was 31 and he 40. It was the beginning of a close association with a man whose life and resources were to be dedicated to the theatre and who was to make the Lyceum a centre for new, striking interpretations—of Shakespeare in particular. His approach to sponsorship of new plays was that of a great stage visualizer and star actor who required a scenarist to assemble a script that would give him a framework for compelling performance and spectacular stage effects. As part of his mise-en-scène, he needed a beautiful woman to lend her own glamour to his productions.
 
 
Terry responded to his needs with selfless dedication, playing many great Shakespearean parts—Portia (1879), Juliet and Beatrice (1882), Lady Macbeth (1888), Queen Katharine (1892), Imogen (1896), Volumnia (1901), Ophelia (1878), Desdemona (1881), and Cordelia (1892). She also willingly undertook such humble roles as Rosamund in Tennyson’s Becket (1893).

Whether in London or on arduous provincial tours, in New York City or on exhausting excursions across North America, Terry acted as Irving’s leading lady until she had grown too old for most of the parts in his repertory. They severed their partnership in 1902, three years before his death.

Their relationship was as close in private as in public life, but when his affection began to wane in the 1890s Terry entered into her famous correspondence with Bernard Shaw.

In 1907 she married the American actor James Carew, some 30 years her junior; although they soon parted, he remained her friend.

It was in comedy and in plays of tender sentiment, as well as in Shakespeare, that Terry’s talent shone. When she left Irving it was to appear with Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree in The Merry Wives of Windsor (1902), and Shaw eventually persuaded her to appear as Lady Cecily Waynflete in Captain Brassbound’s Conversion (1906), one of several parts he wrote with her in mind.

When she celebrated her golden jubilee in 1906 at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, all the theatrical personalities of the day shared the stage with her.

Shaw saw Terry as a shining example of a modern, intelligent actress, capable of both naturalistic and intellectual performance. During the 1890s he constantly urged her to leave Irving, whom he regarded as reactionary, and to dedicate herself to promoting modern drama, represented in the works of Ibsen and himself.

 
Ellen Terry as Lady Macbeth, by John Singer Sargent, 1889
 
 
But unlike Sarah Siddons, her 18th-century predecessor as undisputed queen of the English theatre for a whole generation, Terry was ill suited by temperament to become a theatrical leader in her own right. Her particular, instinctual genius flowered only through her long service with Irving. 
 
 

Ellen Terry as Katherine in Henry VIII.
Drawing by Sargent for Terry's golden jubilee programme, 1906.
 
 
Although Irving had paid her £200 a working week for most of 20 years, she still had to earn a living in her later years. She worked in the theatre, last appearing on stage in 1925; in films; and as a Shakespearean lecturer-recitalist, reinterpreting her successes on tours in the United States, Great Britain, and Australia.

Her warm, generous personality made her a favourite wherever she went, but eyesight and memory began to fail. Belatedly, in 1925, she was made a Dame Grand Cross of the British Empire. She died three years later at her cottage, Small Hythe, in Kent, which became the Ellen Terry Memorial Museum and in 1939 was given to the National Trust by her daughter, Edith Craig.

Roger Manvell

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
Ellen Terry. Photo c. 1880
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Surikov Vasily
 

Vasily Ivanovich Surikov, (born Jan. 12 [Jan. 24, New Style], 1848, Krasnoyarsk, central Siberia, Russia—died March 3 [March 19], 1916, Moscow, Russia), Russian historical painter, one of the few members of the Peredvizhniki (“Wanderers”) whose work has withstood the test of time.

 

Vasily Ivanovich Surikov. Self-Portrait
  Surikov, who was of Cossack descent, was born in Siberia in a community that had retained much of its traditional way of life (dating from the pre-Petrine times of Yermak’s conquest of Siberia in the 16th century), including public executions in town squares. So isolated was his community from the rest of Russia that there was no nearby rail link. Having made up his mind to study art, Surikov had to travel to the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg with a caravan transporting frozen fish to the capital. As a result of his birth and upbringing, his contemporaries described him as “a 17th-century man who happened to turn up in the 19th century.” The historical authenticity of the subject matter in Surikov’s main trilogy (The Morning of the Execution of the Streltsy, 1881; Menshikov at Beryozovo, 1883; and The Boyarynya Morozova, 1887) stems from actual childhood impressions.

And yet in his painting, Surikov was less than precise with the historical facts. For example, he was well aware that the streltsy were not executed in Moscow’s Red Square (as depicted in his painting) but rather in the village of Preobrazhenskoye. He also knew the actual configuration of the boyarynya (noblewoman) Feodosiya Morozova’s fetters—and yet he portrayed them as having an unusually long chain, to suggest a free spirit transcending her captivity. Metaphor permeates his paintings: in Menshikov at Beryozovo, the figure of the disgraced and exiled Aleksandr Menshikov is out of proportion in relation to the space he inhabits. He would not be able to stand up straight in his peasant hut.

 
 
Further, the candle and candlestick in the centre of the painting obliquely suggest a cross. Surikov, who viewed history as deeply tragic, knew well the difference between the actual event and its emotional or empirical reality. Distortions of perspective in his paintings are meant to make the space of history separate from the space of the viewer’s present. In this way the sledge with the boyarynya rides—in the visual sense—into a dead end, and the actual movement becomes an emblem elevating the heroine above worldly passions and transporting her into history and eternity. The figure of the boyarynya is a black spot against the background of light patterns of the onlookers’ clothing (the painting shows the influence of both French Impressionism and the 16th-century Venetian school), and the observers in the painting view her with compassion as a martyr. Similarly, in The Morning of the Execution of the Streltsy, Surikov does not depict the actual events (the execution itself, for instance) but shows a frozen moment in the objective flow of historical time in which no one is innocent or guilty and in which the death of some is inescapable.
 
 

Vasily Surikov. Menshikov in Berezovo
 
 
The trilogy of paintings described above, portraying Russia at the end of the pre-Petrine era, was Surikov’s best work. Particularly in The Boyarynya Morozova he reached the pinnacle of his art, almost completely absorbing his subject into pure colour. It is not by chance that the impulses for these historical panels were purely painterly: the image of a black raven on the snow served as the initial motivation behind The Boyarynya Morozova, and the reflection of a candle in the twilight of early morning moved him to produce The Morning of the Execution of the Streltsy. In his later work the balance between the idea and the pictorial impulse lessened. In his “apologist” compositions of the second half of the 1890s—such as Yermak’s Conquest of Siberia (1895) and Suvorov Crossing the Alps (1899)—the triumphant patriotism of the subjects no longer corresponds to the dynamism of colour.

Russian historical painting reached its culmination with Surikov’s trilogy. Artists of the following generation—for instance, the painters of the modernist Jack of Diamonds group—saw Surikov as their forerunner.

Andrei D. Sarabianov

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
     
 
Vasily Surikov


 
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Uhde Fritz
 
Fritz von Uhde (born Friedrich Hermann Carl Uhde; May 22, 1848 – February 25, 1911) was a German painter of genre and religious subjects. His style laying between Realism and Impressionism, he was once known as "Germany's outstanding impressionist" and he became one of the first painters who introduced en plein air art in his country.
 
 

Fritz von Uhde
  Biography
Uhde was born in Wolkenburg, Saxony. His family, moderately wealthy civil servants, had artistic interests. His father was actually a part-time painter and his maternal grandfather was director of the general director of the Royal Museums in Dresden. Uhde found art appealing while studying at the Gymnasium at this city, and in 1866 he was admitted to the Academy of Fine Arts in Dresden. Totally at variance with the spirit prevailing there, later that year he left his studies to join the army. He became a professor of horsemanship to the regiment of the assembled guard, and was promoted to Lieutenant in 1868.

After meeting the painter Makart in Vienna in 1876, Uhde left the army in 1877 with the intention to become an artist.[2] He moved to Munich in that year to attend the Academy of Fine Arts. There, he particularly came to admire the Dutch old masters, specially Rembrandt. He also taught Lilla Cabot Perry, influencing her use of color.

Unsuccessful in his attempts to gain admittance to the studios of Piloty, Lindenschmit, or Diez, in 1879 he traveled to Paris where his studies of the Dutch painters continued under Mihály Munkácsy's supervision. He worked for a short time in that master's studio, but principally studied from nature and his old Netherland models. As a late starter in his art studies, he was determined to succeed quickly. The final work he painted at Munkácsy's school, The Singer, was exhibited in the Paris Salon of 1880, where it was awarded an honorable mention.

 
 
In 1882 a journey to the Netherlands brought about a change in his style, as he abandoned the dark chiaroscuro he had learned in Munich in favor of a colorism informed by the works of the French Impressionists.[8] Encouraged by his contemporary Max Liebermann, whose portrait he painted, Uhde painted Fishermen's Children in Zandvoort (1882) as an experiment in plein-air painting, but chose to exhibit a more conventional version of the composition, the Arrival of the Organ-Grinder (1883; Kunsthalle Hamburg). This conflict between innovation and caution characterized the greater part of his career.

In about 1890, Uhde became a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich. He was, with Max Slevogt, Ludwig Dill and Lovis Corinth, one of the founding members of the Verein Bildender Kiinstler (Society of Fine Artists), better known as the Munich Secession. He later joined the Berlin Secession as well.

Uhde became an honorary member of the academies of Munich, Dresden and Berlin. He became the first President of the Secession, and progressing in his naturalistic conception, he came to develop his own "unacademic" syle. He gave rise to a complete change in German art, and counted among his followers most of the younger generation. Adolf Hölzel was influenced by him in his early work.

He became less active in the art world after 1900, but continued to paint until his last days. This was the time when, in the opinion of Charles & Carl, he created "the most vivid and artistic paintings of his career", so that he can be considered "one of the most important artists of the 20th century". He died in Munich in 1911.

 
 

Fritz von Uhde, self-portrait, 1898
  Work
His early work consisted of landscapes and battle pieces, but Uhde's inclination was later almost solely directed towards genre art and religious subjects. His father had been the President of the Lutheran Church Council in Wolkenburg, Saxony, and Uhde shared his father's Christian commitment.

Although the social realism of Uhde's work was often criticized as vulgar or ugly, his paintings also attracted the admiration of others. His work was well known by the French public. Vincent van Gogh mentioned Uhde in personal correspondence. The critic Otto Julius Bierbaum, who prepared a biographical writing of him, said "as a painter of children ... Uhde is extraordinarily distinguished. He does not depict them ... as amusing or charming dolls, but with extreme, very strict naturalness."[8] Revivalist of the practice of treating Biblical episodes realistically by transferring them to modern days, Uhde's work was also appreciated by others who praised his symbolic message and sense of evangelical morality.

In his work, Uhde often depicted the ordinary lives of families of peasants, fishermen, and sewers; children and youngsters, as well as young and old women. He chose both indoor and outdoor settings, with detailed and ordinary surroundings, and often natural colorful landscapes.

 
 
In addition, he frequently depicted Jesus Christ as visiting common people, poor people and working class or proletarian families in settings of his country. Like Adolf Hölzel and Ludwig Dill, he painted rural life and his work has been described as "rustic naturalism".

One of his well-known paintings was Come, Lord Jesus, be our Guest (Komm, Herr Jesus, sei unser Gast), of the Berlin National Gallery, where Christ appears among the peasant family assembled for their meal in a modern German farmhouse "parlor". This work was especially criticized by some Catholics who saw it as a "desecration" of Christ, whereas R. A. Cram wrote that by painting "Christ among the common people here and now" Uhde had "built up a most significant art." The religious content has been seen as "a vehicle for his quest to endow his work with deeper meaning". According to the art historian Bettina Brand, Uhde's work was controversial partly because "setting episodes from the Gospels in the context of contemporary poverty ... suggested that the Christian demand of equality for all men had not been met politically or socially." Besides this, his religious paintings "seemed to document the cultural and ethical progressivenes of Protestantism against the clericalism of the Catholic Church."

 
 
Style
In general, Uhde was an unconventional naturalist, as he said: "many of the French artists wished to find the light in Nature. I wished to find the light within the figure that I was presenting. In Christ I grasped the embodiment of the outward and the inward light." Like Dostoyevsky, Uhde's concept of beauty and standard of perfection was the figure of Christ, a reason why he considered himself the "first Idealist of Naturalism."
In The Sermon on the Mount (Berlin, private collection), Christ addresses a crowd of 19th-century harvesters, whereas in Christus Predigt am see (Sermon at the Sea), Christ preaches to a group of modern youngsters. Similar in conception are Suffer Little Children to come unto Me (Leipzig Museum), The Last Supper, The Journey to Bethlehem (Munich Pinakothek), and The Miraculous Draught of Fishes. Other works of his in public collections are: Saving Grace, at the Musée d'Orsay in Paris; Christ at Emmaus & Road to Emmaus (Gang nach Emmaus) at the Staedel Institute, Frankfort; The Farewell of Tobias, at the Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna, Noli me tangere (1894; New Pinakothek, Munich), The Wise Men from the East (1896; Magdeburg Museum), and Woman, Why Weepest Thou? (1900; Vienna Museum).

After his wife's death in 1886, Uhde was very involved in the lives of his three daughters, whom he painted in numerous works such as Nursery (1889; Kunsthalle, Hamburg) and In the Bower (1896; Kunstmuseum, Düsseldorf).

 
Fritz von Uhde. Girls on the Veranda (1901)
 
 

Works he painted during summers spent at Dachau and Starnberg in the 1890s show an increasingly Impressionistic rendering of sunlight, which is also evident in paintings Uhde made after the late 1890s of his daughters in the garden.

In his later years, he made paintings of a woman with wings of angels, and he reproduced some biblical scenes like Abraham's trial (1897), The Last Supper (1897, Stuttgart Museum),The Ascension of Christ (1898, New Pinakothek, Munich), Nicodemus and Christ, Die Bergpredigt, The Sermon (Die Predigt Christi, 1903), Tobias and the Angel, The Holy Night (1911, Dresden Gallery), and Christ Healing a Sick Child (1911).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 


Fritz von Uhde. Winter Landscape (1890)

 
 
 
     
 
Fritz von Uhde

 
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Gauguin Paul
 

Paul Gauguin, in full Eugène-Henri-Paul Gauguin (born June 7, 1848, Paris, France—died May 8, 1903, Atuona, Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia), French painter, printmaker, and sculptor who sought to achieve a “primitive” expression of spiritual and emotional states in his work. The artist, whose work has been categorized as Post-Impressionist, Synthetist, and Symbolist, is particularly well known for his creative relationship with Vincent van Gogh as well as for his self-imposed exile in Tahiti, French Polynesia. His artistic experiments influenced many avant-garde developments in the early 20th century.

 

Paul Gauguin. Self Portrait
  Beginnings
Gauguin was the son of a journalist from Orléans and a mother of French and Peruvian descent. After Napoleon III’s coup d’état in 1848, Gauguin’s father took the family to Peru, where he planned to establish a newspaper, but he died en route, and Gauguin’s mother stayed with her children on the Lima estate of her uncle for four years before taking the family back to France. At age 17 Gauguin enlisted in the merchant marine, and for six years he sailed around the world. His mother died in 1867, leaving legal guardianship of the family with the businessman Gustave Arosa, who, upon Gauguin’s release from the merchant marine, secured a position for him as a stockbroker and introduced him to the Danish woman Mette Sophie Gad, whom Gauguin married in 1873. Gauguin’s artistic leanings were first aroused by Arosa, who had a collection that included the work of Camille Corot, Eugène Delacroix, and Jean-François Millet, and by a fellow stockbroker, Émile Schuffenecker, with whom he started painting. Gauguin soon began to receive artistic instruction and to frequent a studio where he could draw from a model.

In 1876 his Landscape at Viroflay was accepted for the official annual exhibition in France, the Salon. He developed a taste for the contemporary avant-garde movement of Impressionism, and between 1876 and 1881 he assembled a personal collection of paintings by such figures as Édouard Manet, Paul Cézanne, Camille Pissarro, Claude Monet, and Johan Barthold Jongkind.

Gauguin met Pissarro about 1874 and began to study under the supportive older artist, at first struggling to master the techniques of painting and drawing. In 1880 he was included in the fifth Impressionist exhibition, an invitation that was repeated in 1881 and 1882. He spent holidays painting with Pissarro and Cézanne and began to make visible progress. During this period he also entered a social circle of avant-garde artists that included Manet, Edgar Degas, and Pierre-Auguste Renoir.

 
 

Gauguin lost his job when the French stock market crashed in 1882, an occurrence he saw as a positive development, because it would allow him to “paint every day.” In an attempt to support his family, he unsuccessfully sought employment with art dealers, while continuing to travel to the countryside to paint with Pissarro. In 1884 he moved his family to Rouen, France, and took odd jobs, but by the end of the year, the family moved to Denmark, seeking the support of Mette’s family. Without employment, Gauguin was free to pursue his art, but he faced the disapproval of his wife’s family; in mid-1885 he returned with his eldest son to Paris.

Gauguin participated in the eighth and final Impressionist exhibition in 1886, showing 19 paintings and a carved wood relief. His own works won little attention, however, being overshadowed by Georges Seurat’s enormous A Sunday on La Grand Jatte—1884 (1884–86). Frustrated and destitute, Gauguin began to make ceramic vessels for sale, and that summer he made a trip to Pont-Aven in the Brittany region of France, seeking a simpler and more frugal life. After a harsh winter there, Gauguin sailed to the French Caribbean island of Martinique with the painter Charles Laval in April 1887, intending to “live like a savage.” His works painted on Martinique, such as Tropical Vegetation (1887) and By the Sea (1887), reveal his increasing departure from Impressionist technique during this period, as he was now working with blocks of colour in large, unmodulated planes. Upon his return to France late in 1887, Gauguin affected an exotic identity, pointing to his Peruvian ancestry as an element of “primitivism” in his own nature and artistic vision.

 
 

Paul Gauguin. Self Portrait
  Early maturity
In the summer of 1888 Gauguin returned to Pont-Aven, searching for what he called “a reasoned and frank return to the beginning, that is to say, to primitive art.” He was joined there by young painters, including Émile Bernard and Paul Sérusier, who also were seeking a more direct expression in their painting.

Gauguin achieved a step towards this ideal in the seminal Vision After the Sermon (1888), a painting in which he used broad planes of colour, clear outlines, and simplified forms. Gauguin coined the term “Synthetism” to describe his style during this period, referring to the synthesis of his paintings’ formal elements with the idea or emotion they conveyed.

Gauguin acted as a mentor to many of the artists who assembled in Pont-Aven, urging them to rely more upon feeling than upon the direct observation associated with Impressionism. Indeed, he advised: “Don’t copy too much after nature.

Art is an abstraction: extract from nature while dreaming before it and concentrate more on creating than on the final result.” Gauguin and the artists around him, who became known as the Pont-Aven school, began to be decorative in the overall compositions and harmonies of their paintings.

 
 
Gauguin no longer used line and colour to replicate an actual scene, as he had as an Impressionist, but rather explored the capacity of those pictorial means to induce a particular feeling in the viewer.
Late in October 1888 Gauguin traveled to Arles, in the south of France, to stay with Vincent van Gogh (partly as a favour to van Gogh’s brother, Theo, an art dealer who had agreed to represent him).
 
 
 Early that year, van Gogh had moved to Arles, hoping to found the “Studio of the South,” where like-minded painters would gather to create a new, personally expressive art. However, as soon as Gauguin arrived, the two volatile artists often engaged in heated exchanges about art’s purpose. The style of the two men’s work from this period has been classified as Post-Impressionist because it shows an individual, personal development of Impressionism’s use of colour, brushstroke, and non-traditional subject matter. For example, Gauguin’s Old Women of Arles (Mistral) (1888) portrays a group of women moving through a flattened, arbitrarily conceived landscape in a solemn procession. As in much of his work from this period, Gauguin applied thick paint in a heavy manner to raw canvas; in his rough technique and in the subject matter of religious peasants, the artist found something approaching his burgeoning “primitive” ideal.

Gauguin had planned to remain in Arles through the spring, but his relationship with van Gogh grew even more tumultuous. After what Gauguin claimed was an attempt to attack him with a razor, van Gogh reportedly mutilated his own left ear. Gauguin then left for Paris after a stay of only two months. Although this version of the story has been accepted for more than 100 years, art historians Hans Kaufmann and Rita Wildegans examined contemporary police records and the artists’ correspondence and concluded, in Van Gogh’s Ohr: Paul Gauguin und der Pakt des Schweigens (2008; “Van Gogh’s Ear: Paul Gauguin and the Pact of Silence”), that it was actually Gauguin who mutilated van Gogh’s ear and that he used a sword, not a razor. They concluded that the artists had agreed to give the self-mutilation version of the story to protect Gauguin.

  For the next several years, Gauguin alternated between living in Paris and Brittany. In Paris he became acquainted with the avant-garde literary circles of Symbolist poets such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Arthur Rimbaud, and Paul Verlaine. These poets, who advocated abandoning traditional forms in order to embody inner emotional and spiritual life, saw their equivalent in the visual arts in the work of Gauguin. In a famous essay in the Mercure de France in 1891, the critic Albert Aurier declared Gauguin to be the leader of a group of Symbolist artists, and he defined his work as “ideational, symbolic, synthetic, subjective, and decorative.”

After finding Pont-Aven spoiled by tourists, Gauguin relocated to the remote village of Le Pouldu. There, in a heightened pursuit of raw expression, he began to focus upon the ancient monuments of medieval religion, crosses, and calvaries, incorporating their simple, rigid forms into his compositions, as seen in The Yellow Christ (1889). While such works built upon the lessons of colour and brushstroke he learned from French Impressionism, they rejected the lessons of perspectival space that had been developed in Western art since the Renaissance. He expressed his distaste for the corruption he saw in contemporary Western civilization in the carved and painted wood relief Be in Love and You Will Be Happy (1889), in which a figure in the upper left, crouching to hide her body, was meant to represent Paris as, in his words, a “rotten Babylon.”

As such works suggest, Gauguin began to long for a more removed environment in which to work. After considering and rejecting northern Vietnam and Madagascar, he applied for a grant from the French government to travel to Tahiti.

 
 

Paul Gauguin. Self Portrait
  Tahiti
Gauguin arrived in Papeete in June 1891. His romantic image of Tahiti as an untouched paradise derived in part from Pierre Loti’s novel Le Mariage de Loti (1880). Disappointed by the extent to which French colonization had actually corrupted Tahiti, he attempted to immerse himself in what he believed were the authentic aspects of the culture. He employed Tahitian titles, such as Fatata te miti (1892; “Near the Sea”) and Manao tupapau (1892; “The Spirit of the Dead Watching”), used Oceanic iconography, and portrayed idyllic landscapes and suggestive spiritual settings.

In an attempt to further remove himself from inherited Western conventions, Gauguin emulated Oceanic traditions in his sculptures and woodcuts from this period, which he gave a deliberately rough-hewn look.

Gauguin returned to France in July 1893, believing that his new work would bring him the success that had so long eluded him. More so than ever, the outspoken artist affected the persona of an exotic outsider, carrying on a famous affair with a woman known as “Anna the Javanese.”

In 1894 he conceived a plan to publish a book of his impressions of Tahiti, illustrated with his own woodcuts, titled Noa Noa. This project and a one-man exhibit at the gallery of Paul Durand-Ruel met with little acceptance, however, and in July 1895 he left France for Tahiti for the final time.

 
 
Before the 1890s Gauguin flattened his imagery with sometimes unsuccessful results, but throughout that decade his “primitivism” became less forced. The influences of J.-A.-D. Ingres and Pierre Puvis de Chavannes led him to create increasingly rounded and modeled forms and a more sinuous line; as a result, Gauguin’s images became more luxuriant and more naturally poetic as he developed marvelously orchestrated tonal harmonies. He achieved the consummate expression of his developing vision in 1897 in his chief Tahitian work, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (1897). An enormous contemplation of life and death told through a series of figures, beginning with a baby and ending with a shriveled old woman, the work is surrounded by a dreamlike, poetic aura that is extraordinarily powerful.
 
 


Paul Gauguin. Where do We Come From? What are We Doing? Where are We Going?

 
 

Increasingly disgusted with the rising Western influence in the French colony, Gauguin again sought a more remote environment, this time on the island of Hiva Oa in the Marquesas, where he moved in September 1901. He purchased land there and, with the help of his neighbours, he built a home that he called “the house of pleasure.” Conceived as a total work of art decorated with elaborately carved friezes, the house was possibly inspired by Maori works he had seen in Auckland, New Zealand. By 1902 an advanced case of syphilis restricted his mobility, and he concentrated his remaining energy on drawing and writing, especially his memoir, Avant et après (published posthumously in 1923). After a quarrel with French authorities, he considered moving again, this time to Spain, but his declining health and a pending lawsuit prohibited any change. He died alone in his “house of pleasure.”

 
 

Paul Gauguin. Self Portrait
  Assessment
Gauguin’s influence was immense and varied. His legacy rests partly in his dramatic decision to reject the materialism of contemporary culture in favour of a more spiritual, unfettered lifestyle.

It also rests in his tireless experimentation. Scholars have long identified him with a range of stylistic movements, and the challenge of defining his oeuvre, particularly the late work, attests to the uniqueness of his vision. Along with the work of his great contemporaries Cézanne and van Gogh, Gauguin’s innovations inspired a whole generation of artists.

In 1889–90 many of the young followers who had gathered around him at Pont-Aven utilized Gauguin’s ideas to form the Nabis group. The Norwegian painter Edvard Munch owed much to Gauguin’s use of line, and the painters of the Fauve group—Henri Matisse in particular—profited from his use of colour in their own daring compositions. In Germany, too, Gauguin’s influence was strong in the work of German Expressionists such as Ernst Ludwig Kirchner.

Gauguin’s use of Oceanic iconography and his stylistic simplifications greatly affected the young Pablo Picasso, inspiring his own appreciation of African art and hence the evolution of Cubism.
 
 

In this way, through both his stylistic advances and his rejection of empirical representation in favour of conceptual representation, Gauguin helped open the door to the development of 20th-century art.

Douglas Cooper

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 


Paul Gauguin. Breton Landscape (1894)

 
 
 
     
 
Paul Gauguin

 
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Caillebotte Gustave
 
Gustave Caillebotte, (born August 19, 1848, Paris, France—died February 21, 1894, Gennevilliers), French painter, art collector, and impresario who combined aspects of the academic and Impressionist styles in a unique synthesis.
 

Gustave Caillebotte. Self Portrait. 1892
  Born into a wealthy family, Caillebotte trained to be an engineer but became interested in painting and studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He met Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Claude Monet in 1874 and showed his works at the Impressionist exhibition of 1876 and its successors. Caillebotte became the chief organizer, promoter, and financial backer of the Impressionist exhibitions for the next six years, and he used his wealth to purchase works by other Impressionists, notably Monet, Renoir, Camille Pissarro, Paul Cézanne, Edgar Degas, Alfred Sisley, and Berthe Morisot.

Caillebotte was an artist of remarkable abilities, but his posthumous reputation languished because most of his paintings remained in the hands of his family and were neither exhibited nor reproduced until the second half of the 20th century. His early paintings feature the broad new boulevards and modern apartment blocks created by Baron Haussmann for Paris in the 1850s and ’60s. The iron bridge depicted in The Pont de l’Europe (1876) typifies this interest in the modern urban environment, while The Parquet Floor Polishers (1875) is a realistic scene of urban craftsmen busily at work. Caillebotte’s masterpiece, Paris Street; Rainy Day (1877), uses bold perspective to create a monumental portrait of a Paris intersection on a rainy day. Caillebotte also painted portraits and figure studies, boating scenes and rural landscapes, and decorative studies of flowers. He tended to use brighter colours and heavier brushwork in his later works.

 
 
Caillebotte’s originality lay in his attempt to combine the careful drawing and modeling and exact tonal values advocated by the Académie with the vivid colours, bold perspectives, keen sense of natural light, and modern subject matter of the Impressionists. Caillebotte’s posthumous bequest of his art collection to the French government was accepted only reluctantly by the state. When the Caillebotte Room opened at the Luxembourg Palace in 1897, it was the first exhibition of Impressionist paintings ever to be displayed in a French museum.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Gustave Caillebotte. Portraits in the Countryside
 
 
 
     
 

Gustave Caillebotte
 
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1848
 
 
Millais: "Ophelia"
 
 

Millais John Everett: "Ophelia"
 
 
 
     
 
John Everett Millais
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1848
 
 
William Holman Hunt , Millais John Everett, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti found the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
 
 
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
 
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, group of young British painters who banded together in 1848 in reaction against what they conceived to be the unimaginative and artificial historical painting of the Royal Academy and who purportedly sought to express a new moral seriousness and sincerity in their works. They were inspired by Italian art of the 14th and 15th centuries, and their adoption of the name Pre-Raphaelite expressed their admiration for what they saw as the direct and uncomplicated depiction of nature typical of Italian painting before the High Renaissance and, particularly, before the time of Raphael. Although the Brotherhood’s active life lasted not quite five years, its influence on painting in Britain, and ultimately on the decorative arts and interior design, was profound.
 
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was formed in 1848 by three Royal Academy students: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, who was a gifted poet as well as a painter, William Holman Hunt, and John Everett Millais, all under 25 years of age. The painter James Collinson, the painter and critic F.G. Stephens, the sculptor Thomas Woolner, and the critic William Michael Rossetti (Dante Gabriel’s brother) joined them by invitation. The painters William Dyce and Ford Madox Brown, who acted in part as mentors to the younger men, came to adapt their own work to the Pre-Raphaelite style.

The Brotherhood immediately began to produce highly convincing and significant works. Their pictures of religious and medieval subjects strove to revive the deep religious feeling and naive, unadorned directness of 15th-century Florentine and Sienese painting. The style that Hunt and Millais evolved featured sharp and brilliant lighting, a clear atmosphere, and a near-photographic reproduction of minute details. They also frequently introduced a private poetic symbolism into their representations of biblical subjects and medieval literary themes. Rossetti’s work differed from that of the others in its more arcane aesthetic and in the artist’s general lack of interest in copying the precise appearance of objects in nature. Vitality and freshness of vision are the most admirable qualities of these early Pre-Raphaelite paintings.

Some of the founding members exhibited their first works anonymously, signing their paintings with the monogram PRB. When their identity and youth were discovered in 1850, their work was harshly criticized by the novelist Charles Dickens, among others, not only for its disregard of academic ideals of beauty but also for its apparent irreverence in treating religious themes with an uncompromising realism. Nevertheless, the leading art critic of the day, John Ruskin, stoutly defended Pre-Raphaelite art, and the members of the group were never without patrons.

By 1854 the members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood had gone their individual ways, but their style had a wide influence and gained many followers during the 1850s and early ’60s. In the late 1850s Dante Gabriel Rossetti became associated with the younger painters Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris and moved closer to a sensual and almost mystical romanticism. Millais, the most technically gifted painter of the group, went on to become an academic success.

 
Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Proserpine
 

Hunt alone pursued the same style throughout most of his career and remained true to Pre-Raphaelite principles. Pre-Raphaelitism in its later stage is epitomized by the paintings of Burne-Jones, characterized by a jewel-toned palette, elegantly attenuated figures, and highly imaginative subjects and settings.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
see also:
 
Ford Madox Brown
Edward Burne-Jones
James Collinson
Walter Crane
Thomas Cooper Gotch

Arthur Hughes
William Holman Hunt
John Everett Millais
William Morris
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
John William Waterhouse
 
 

William Holman Hunt. The Hireling Shepherd
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 

 
 
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