Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1846 Part II NEXT-1847 Part I    
 
 
     
1840 - 1849
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840-1849
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part I
Bebel August
Maximilian of Mexico
Carlota
Convention of London
British North America Act
Francia Jose Gaspar
Macdonald Jacques
William I of the Netherlands
William II of the Netherlands
Retour des cendres
Lambton John George
Vaillant Edouard-Marie
Sampson William
Smith William Sidney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part II
Ridpath John Clark
Sankey Ira David
James Fenimore Cooper: "The Pathfinder"
Blunt Wilfrid Scawen
Broughton Rhoda
Robert Browning: "Sordello"
Daudet Alphonse
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Dobson Austin
Hardy Thomas
Thomas Hardy 
"Tess of the d'Urbervilles"
Lemercier  Nepomucene
Lermontov: "A Hero of Our Times"
Modjeska Helena
Symonds John Addington
Verga Giovanni
Zola Emile
Emile Zola
"
J'accuse" (I accuse)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part III
Delacroix: "Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople"
Makart Hans
Hans Makart
Monet Claude
Claude Monet
Nasmyth Alexander
Alexander Nasmyth
Nast Thomas
Nelson's Column
Rodin Auguste
Auguste Rodin
Redon Odilon
Odilon Redon
Blechen Carl
Karl Blechen
Debain Alexandre-Francois
Donizetti: "La Fille du Regiment"
Haberl Franz Xaver
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich
Tchaikovsky - The Seasons
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky
Schneckenburger Max
Wilhelm Karl
"Die Wacht am Rhein"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part IV
Olbers Wilhelm
Blumenbach Johann Friedrich
Ball Robert
Kohlrausch Friedrich Wilhelm
Agassiz Louis
Basedow Carl Adolph
Graves disease
Maxim Hiram
Eyre Edward John
Brummell Beau
Father Damien
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Washington Temperance Society
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part I
Second Battle of Chuenpee
Barere Bertrand
Fisher John Arbuthnot
British Hong Kong
Luzzatti Luigi
Merriman John
Harrison William Henry
Tyler John
Espartero Baldomero
Hirobumi Ito
Clemenceau Georges
Edward VII
Creole case
Laurier Wilfrid
New Zealand
Lamb William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part II
Cheyne Thomas Kelly
Ludwig Feuerbach: "The Essence of Christianity"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Holst Hermann Eduard
Jebb Richard Claverhouse
Ward Lester Frank
Black William
Robert Browning: "Pippa Passes"
Buchanan Robert
Fenimore Cooper: "The Deerslayer"
Coquelin Benoit
Dickens: "The Old Curiosity Shop"
Ewing Juliana Horatia
Sill Edward Rowland
Frederick Marryat: "Masterman Ready"
Mendes Catulle
Mounet-Sully Jean
"Punch, or The London Charivari"
Sealsfield Charles
Scott Clement William
White Joseph Blanco
Ruskin: "The King of the Golden River"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part III
Chantrey Francis
Morisot Berthe
Berthe Morisot
Renoir Pierre-Auguste
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Wagner Otto
Wallot Paul
Olivier Ferdinand
Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier
Bazille Frederic
Frederic Bazille
Zandomeneghi Federico
Federico Zandomeneghi
Guillaumin Armand
Armand Guillaumin
Chabrier Emmanuel
Chabrier - Espana
Emmanuel Chabrier
Dibdin Thomas John
Dvorak Anton
Antonin Dvorak: Rusalka
Antonin Dvorak
Pedrell Felipe
Felip Pedrell: Els Pirineus
Felipe Pedrell
Rossini: "Stabat Mater"
Sax Antoine-Joseph
Schumann: Symphony No. 1
Sgambati Giovanni
Sgambati - Piano Concerto in G minor
Giovanni Sgambati
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part IV
Cooper Astley
Braid James
Hypnosis
Candolle Austin
Aniline
Kocher Emil Theodor
Kolliker Rudolf Albert
Petzval Joseph
Hudson William Henry
Warming Eugenius
Whitworth Joseph
Barnum's American Museum
Bradshaw George
Cook Thomas
Hyer Tom
"The New York Tribune"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part I
Pozzo di Borgo Charles-Andre
Las Cases Emmanuel
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Treaty of Nanking
General Strike of 1842
O’Higgins Bernardo
Giolitti Giovanni
Fiske John
Hartmann Eduard
Hyndman Henry Mayers
James William
Kropotkin Peter Alekseyevich
Anarchism
Anarchism
Lavisse Ernest
Robertson George Croom
Sorel Albert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part II
Banim John
Sue Eugene
Eugene Sue: "The Mysteries of Paris"
Bierce Ambrose
Brandes Georg
Bulwer-Lytton: "Zanoni"
Graham Maria
Coppee Francois
Cunningham Allan
Espronceda Jose
Gogol: "Dead Souls"
Howard Bronson
Lanier Sidney
Lover Samuel
MacKaye Steele
Maginn William
Mallarme Stephane
May Karl
Рое: "The Masque of the Red Death"
Quental Antero Tarquinio
Woodworth Samuel
Macaulay: "Lays of Ancient Rome"
Tupper Martin Farquhar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part III
Vereshchagin Vasily
Vasily Vereshchagin
Boldini Giovanni
Giovanni Boldini
Boito Arrigo
Arrigo Boito: Mefistofele Finale
Arrigo Boito
Glinka: "Russian and Ludmilla"
Hopkinson Joseph
"Hail, Columbia"
Lortzing: "Der Wildschiitz"
Massenet Jules
Massenet "Elegie"
Jules Massenet
Millocker Karl
Millocker: Gasparone
Karl Millocker
New York Philharmonic
Sullivan Arthur
Arthur Sullivan - The Mikado - Overture
Arthur Sullivan
Wagner: "Rienzi"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part IV
Dewar James
Doppler Christian Andreas
Flammarion Camille
Hansen Emile Christian
Long Crawford Williamson
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Charting the Ocean Depths
Mayer Julius Robert
Pelletier Pierre Joseph
Marshall Alfred
Strutt John William
Retzius Gustaf
Fremont John Charles
Darling Grace
Polka
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part I
McKinley William
Braga Teofilo
Wairau Affray
Dilke Charles
Avenarius Richard
Borrow George
Carlile Richard
Thomas Carlyle: "Past and Present"
Creighton Mandell
Liddell and Scott: "Greek-English Lexicon"
Liddell Henry
Scott Robert
Ward James
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part II
Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last of the Barons"
Elisabeth of Romania
Dickens: "Martin Chuzzlewit"
Doughty Charles Montagu
Dowden Edward
Emmett Daniel Decatur
Hood Thomas
Thomas Hood: "Song of the Shirt"
Horne Richard Hengist
James Henry
Rosegger Peter
Suttner Bertha
Harris George Washington
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part III
Allston Washington
Washington Allston
John Ruskin: "Modern Painters"
Trumbull John
John Trumbull
Werner Anton
Anton von Werner
Clairin Georges
Georges Clairin
Donizetti: "Don Pasquale"
Grieg Edward
Grieg - Solveig Song
Edward Grieg
Nilsson Christine
Patti Adelina
Richter Hans
Schumann: "Paradise and the Peri"
Wagner: "The Flying Dutchman"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part IV
British Archaeological Association
Chamberlin Thomas Chrowder
Ferrier David
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Joule James Prescott
Koch Robert
Erbium
Brunel Marc Isambard
Thames Tunnel
Dix Dorothea Lynde
Guy's, Kings and St. Thomas' Rugby Football Club
Sequoyah
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part I
Lowe Hudson
Drouet Jean-Baptiste
Oscar I of Sweden
Dole Sanford Ballard
Laffitte Jacques
Franco-Moroccan War
Polk James Knox
Herrera Jose Joaquin
Treaty of Wanghia
Breshkovsky Catherine
Comstock Anthony
Emerson: "Essays"
Grundtvig Nikolaj Frederik Severin
Hall Granville Stanley
Nietzsche Friedrich
Friedrich Nietzsche
Rice Edmund Ignatius
Riehl Alois
Stanley Arthur Penrhyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part II
Bernhardt Sarah
Sarah Bernhardt
Dumas, pere: "Le Comte de Monte Cristo"
Bridges Robert
Cable George Washington
Carte Richard
Cary Henry Francis
Disraeli: "Coningsby"
France Anatole
Hopkins Gerard Manley
Lang Andrew
Liliencron Detlev
O'Reilly John Boyle
O’Shaughnessy Arthur
Sterling John
William Thackeray: "Barry Lyndon"
Verlaine Paul
Paul Verlaine
"Poems"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part III
Eakins Thomas
Thomas Eakins
Ezekiel Moses Jacob
Moses Ezekiel
Luke Fildes Luke
Luke Fildes
Leibl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Leibl
Munkacsy Mihaly
Mihaly Munkacsy
Repin Ilya
Ilya Repin
Rousseau Henri
Henri Rousseau
Cassatt Mary
Mary Cassatt
Flotow: "Alessandro Stradella"
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E minor
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay
The Best of Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Sarasate Pablo
Pablo de Sarasate - Zigeunerweisen
Pablo de Sarasate
Verdi: "Ernani"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part IV
Grassmann Hermann Gunther
Baily Francis
Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard
DeLong George Washington
Golgi Camillo
Kielmeyer Carl Friedrich
Kinglake Alexander William
Strasburger Eduard Adolf
Huc Evariste Regis
Gabet Joseph
Sturt Charles Napier
Leichhardt Friedrich
Beckford William
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers
"Fliegende Blatter"
Hagenbeck Carl
Keller Friedrich Gottlob
Pasch Gustaf Erik
Young Men’s Christian Association
Williams George
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part I
Root Elihu
Texas
Florida
Flagstaff War
Ludwig II of Bavaria
First Anglo-Sikh War
Sonderbund
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part II
Friedrich Engels: "The Condition of the Working Class in England"
Stirner Max
Disraeli: "Sybil, or The Two Nations"
Hertz Henrik
Prosper Merimee: "Carmen"
Рое: "The Raven"
Spitteler Carl
Wergeland Henrik
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part III
Bode Wilhelm
Hill David Octavius
Ingres: The Comtesse d'Haussonville
Oberlander Adam Adolf
Crane Walter
Walter Crane
Faure Gabriel
Faure - Pavane
Gabriel Faure
Lortzing: "Undine"
Wagner: "Tannhauser"
Widor Charles-Marie
Widor - Piano Concerto No. 1
Charles Marie Widor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part IV
Armstrong William George
Bigelow Erastus Brigham
Cayley Arthur
Cornell Ezra
Submarine communications cable
Heilmann Joshua
Humboldt: "Cosmos"
Kolbe Hermann
Laveran Alphonse
McNaught William
Metchnikoff Elie
Charting the Northwest
Layard Austen Henry
Cartwright Alexander
United States Naval Academy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part I
Battle of Aliwal
Battle of Sobraon
Treaty of Lahore
Greater Poland Uprising
Krakow Uprising
Mexican-American War
Battle of Monterrey
First Battle of Tabasco
Iowa
Pasic Nikola
Evangelical Alliance
Eucken Rudolf Christoph
Pius IX
Whewell William
Young Brigham
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part II
Balzac: "La Cousine Bette"
De Amicis Edmondo
Dostoevsky: "Poor Folk"
Jokai Maurus
Lear Edward
Melville Herman
Herman Melville: "Typee"
Herman Melville
"Moby Dick or The Whale"
Sienkiewicz Henryk
George Watts: "Paolo and Francesca"
De Nittis Giuseppe
Giuseppe de Nittis
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part III
Berlioz: "Damnation de Faust"
Lortzing: "Der Waffenschmied"
Mendelssohn: "Elijah"
Deere John
Deere & Company
Henle Friedrich
Howe Elias
Waitz Theodor
Mohl Hugo
Green William Thomas
Sobrero Ascanio
Heaphy Charles
Brunner Thomas
Europeans in New Zealand
"The Daily News"
Horsley John Callcott
Smithsonian Institution
Zeiss Carl
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part I
Liberia
Second Battle of Tabasco
Battle of Churubusco
BATTLE OF MEXICO CITY
Hindenburg Paul
Sonderbund War
Beecher Henry Ward
Blanc Louis
Proudhon Pierre-Joseph
roudhon: "Philosophy of Poverty"P
Karl Marx: "The Poverty of Philosophy"
Salt Lake City
Charlotte Bronte: "Jane Eyre"
Bronte Emily
Marryat: "The Children of the New Forest"
Thackeray: "Vanity Fair"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part II
Hildebrand Adolf
Liebermann Max
Max Liebermann
Friedrich von Flotow: "Martha"
Verdi: "Macbeth"
Boole George
Edison Thomas Alva
Bell Alexander Graham
Semmelweis Ignaz Philipp
Colenso William
Factory Act of 1847
Fawcett Millicent
Siemens & Halske
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part I
Frederick VII
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Revolutions of 1848
French Revolution of 1848
June Days Uprising
Cavaignac Louis-Eugene
French Constitution of 1848
French Second Republic
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Slovak Uprising 1848-1849
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part I)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part II
First Italian War of Independence
Skirmish of Pastrengo
Battle of Goito
Battle of Custoza
Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
Revolution of 1848 in Luxembourg
Greater Poland Uprising
Moldavian Revolution of 1848
Pan-Slav Congress of 1848
Pan-Slavism
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part II)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part III
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Nasr-ed-Din
Ibrahim Pasha
Abbas I
Wisconsin
Balfour Arthur James
Seneca Falls Convention
Stanton Elizabeth Cady
Delbruck Hans
Macaulay: "History of England"
"The Communist Manifesto"
John Mill: "Principles of Political Economy"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part IV
Augier Emile
Chateaubriand: "Memoires d'Outre-Tombe"
Dumas fils: "La Dame aux Camelias"
Gaskell Elizabet
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
Murger Louis-Henri
Henri Murger: "Scenes de la vie de Boheme"
Terry Ellen
Surikov Vasily
Vasily Surikov
Uhde Fritz
Fritz von Uhde
Gauguin Paul
Paul Gauguin
Caillebotte Gustave
Gustave Caillebotte
Millais: "Ophelia"
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part V
Parry Hubert Hastings
Jerusalem by Hubert Parry
Hubert Parry
Duparc Henri
Duparc Henri: "L'invitation au voyage"
Henri Duparc
Bottger Rudolf Christian
Parsons William
Frege Gottlob
"New Prussian Newspaper"
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"
Grace William Gilbert
Kneipp Sebastian
Lilienthal Otto
Starr Belle
California Gold Rush
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part I
Battle of Chillianwala
Battle of Gujrat
Roman Republic on February 9, 1849
Battle of Novara
Victor Emmanuel II
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Peace of Milan
Taylor Zachary
Dresden Rebellion of 1849
Surrender at Vilagos
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part II
Kemble John Mitchell
Key Ellen
Arnold Matthew
Dickens: "David Copperfield"
Kingsley Charles
Scribe: "Adrienne Lecouvreur"
Strindberg August
Smith Horace
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part III
Waterhouse John William
John William Waterhouse
John Ruskin: "The Seven Lamps of Architecture"
Carriere Eugene
Eugene Carriere
Liszt: "Tasso"
Meyerbeer: "Le Prophete"
Otto Nicolai: "The Merry Wives of Windsor"
Schumann: "Manfred"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part IV
Fizeau Armand
Frankland Edward
Livingstone David
Explorations of David Livingstone
Baines Thomas
"Who's Who"
Bedford College
Bloomer Amelia
Bloomers (clothing)
Stead William Thomas
 
 
 

The missionary and explorer Samuel Marsden conducted his first service at his mission at the Bay of Islands, North Island, on Christmas Day, 1814.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1846 Part III
 
 
 
1846
 
 
Berlioz: "Damnation de Faust"
 
La damnation de Faust (English: The Damnation of Faust), Op. 24 is a work for four solo voices, full seven-part chorus, large children's chorus and orchestra by the French composer Berlioz Hector . He called it a "légende dramatique" (dramatic legend). It was first performed at the Opéra-Comique in Paris on 6 December 1846.
 
Background and composition history
The French composer was inspired by a translation of Goethe's dramatic poem Faust and produced a musical work that, like the masterpiece on which it is based, defies easy categorization. Conceived at various times as a free-form oratorio and as an opera (Berlioz ultimately called it a "légende dramatique") its travelogue form and cosmic perspective have made it an extreme challenge to stage as an opera. Berlioz himself was eager to see the work staged, but once he did, he conceded that the production techniques of his time were not up to the task of bringing the work to dramatic life. Most of the work's fame has come through concert performances.

Berlioz read Goethe's Faust Part One in 1828, in Gérard de Nerval's translation; "this marvelous book fascinated me from the first", he recalled in his Memoirs. "I could not put it down. I read it incessantly, at meals, in the theatre, in the street." He was so impressed that a suite entitled "Eight Scenes from Faust" became his Opus 1 (1829), though he later recalled all the copies of it he could find. He returned to the material in 1845, to make a larger work, with some additional text by Almire Gandonnière to Berlioz's specifications, that he first called a "concert opera", and as it expanded, finally a "dramatic legend".

 
 
 
He worked on the score during his concert tour of 1845, adding his own text for "Nature immense, impénétrable et fière"—Faust's climactic invocation of all nature—and incorporating the Rákóczi March, which had been a thunderous success at a concert in Pest, Hungary, 15 February 1846.
 
 
Performance history
Its first performance at the Opéra-Comique, Paris, 6 December 1846, did not meet with critical acclaim, perhaps due to its halfway status between opera and cantata; the public was apathetic, and two performances (and a cancelled third) rendered a financial setback for Berlioz: "Nothing in my career as an artist wounded me more deeply than this unexpected indifference", he remembered.

La Damnation de Faust is performed regularly in concert halls, since its first successful complete performance in concert in Paris, in 1877; it is occasionally staged as an opera, for the first time in Opéra de Monte-Carlo on 18 February 1893, where it was produced by its director Raoul Gunsbourg, Jean de Reszke singing the role of Faust.

 
 
 
The Metropolitan Opera premiered it first in concert (2 February 1896) and then on stage (the United States stage premiere on 7 December 1906).

The Met revived it first in concert at Carnegie Hall on 10 November 1996, (repeated on tour in Tokyo the next year), then on the stage production on 7 November 2008, produced and directed by Robert Lepage, with innovative techniques of computer-generated stage imagery that responds to the performers' voices. Filmmaker Terry Gilliam made his opera debut at London's English National Opera in May 2011, directing The Damnation of Faust. The production received positive reviews in the British press.

Three instrumental passages, the Marche Hongroise (Hungarian March), Ballet des sylphes, and Menuet des follets are sometimes extracted and performed as "Three Orchestral Pieces from La Damnation de Faust."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
 
Berlioz - La Damnation de Faust
 
Marche Hongroise, Hector Berlioz, La Damnation de Faust, Versailles, 9/07/2009

Orchestre de Paris / Michel Plasson

 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Hector Berlioz
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1846
 
 
Lortzing: "Der Waffenschmied"
 

Der Waffenschmied (The Armourer) is an opera (Singspiel) in three acts by Lortzing Albert . The German-language libretto was by the composer after Friedrich Wilheim von Ziegler's Liebhaber und Nebenbuhler in einer Person (Lover and Rival in One Person).

 
This is often considered his third most popular work. His works are considered to be part of the Biedermeier period. It premiered in Vienna at the Theater an der Wien on 31 May 1846 conducted by Lortzing. The role of Marie was written with Jenny Lind in mind who he hoped would sing the part.

The opera was eventually successful enough that Lortzing was offered the post of Kapellmeister at the theater which he held until the revolution of 1848, when he had to return to Leipzig. Arnold Schönberg, arranged Lortzing’s "Waffenschmied“ for piano for 4 hands. The story is set in in the city of Worms in the 16th century.
 
 
 
 
Lortzing - Der Waffenschmied - Overture
 
Radio-Symphonie-Orchester Berlin
Christoph Stepp, conductor
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Albert Lortzing
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1846
 
 
Mendelssohn: "Elijah"
 

Elijah (German: Elias), Op. 70 MWV A 25, is an oratorio written by Mendelssohn Felix. It premiered in 1846 at the Birmingham Festival. It depicts events in the life of the Biblical prophet Elijah, taken from the books 1 Kings and 2 Kings of the Old Testament.

 
Music and its style
This piece was composed in the spirit of Mendelssohn's Baroque predecessors Bach and Handel, whose music he loved. In 1829 Mendelssohn had organized the first performance of Bach's St Matthew Passion since the composer's death and was instrumental in bringing this and other Bach works to widespread popularity. By contrast, Handel's oratorios never went out of fashion in England. Mendelssohn prepared a scholarly edition of some of Handel's oratorios for publication in London.

Elijah is modelled on the oratorios of these two Baroque masters; however, in its lyricism and use of orchestral and choral colour the style clearly reflects Mendelssohn's own genius as an early Romantic composer.

The work is scored for four vocal soloists (bass-baritone, tenor, alto, soprano), full symphony orchestra including trombones, ophicleide, organ, and a large chorus singing usually in four, but occasionally eight or three (women only) parts. The title role is for bass-baritone and was sung at the premiere by the Austrian bass Joseph Staudigl.

Mendelssohn had discussed an oratorio based on Elijah in the late 1830s with his friend Karl Klingemann, who had provided him with the libretto for his comic operetta Die Heimkehr aus der Fremde, which resulted in a partial text that Klingemann was unable to finish.

 
 
 
Mendelssohn then turned to Julius Schubring, the librettist for his earlier oratorio St. Paul, who quickly abandoned Klingemann's work and produced his own text that combined the story of Elijah as told in the Book of Kings with Psalms. In 1845, the Birmingham Festival commissioned an oratorio from Mendelssohn, who worked with Schubring to put the text in final form and in 1845 and 1846 composed his oratorio to the German text. He had it promptly translated into English by William Bartholomew, who was not only a poet but a composer who could work with the score as he translated. The oratorio premiered in its English version. The German version premiered on the composer's birthday, February 3, 1848, in Leipzig a few months after Mendelssohn's death, conducted by Niels Wilhelm Gade.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
 
Mendelssohn: Elijah (Elias, Part I) by Thomas Hampson, Barbara Bonney, Florence Quivar
 
Elijah (sung in English) -Elias, an Oratorio after words from the Old Testamnt, Op. 70.

1. Thomas Hampson, baritone (Elijah)
2. Barbara Bonney , soprano (The Widow)
3. Henriette Schellenberg, soprano (Angel)
4. Florence Quivar, mezzo-soprano (Angel)
5. Marietta Simpson, mezzo-soprano (The Queen)
6. Jerry Hadley, tenor (Obadiah)
7. Richard Clement, tenor (Ahab)
8. Thomas Paul, baritone
9. Reid Bartelme, boy soprano (The Youth)

Atlanta Symphony Orchestra & Chorus
Ann Howard Jones, assistant conductor for choruses
Conducted by Robert Shaw
1994
_
Part I
0:00 Introduction (Elijah) - As God of Israel liveth
0:57 Ouverture
4:28 Chorus - Help Lord
7:50 Quartet Recit. - The deep affords no water (3,5,7,8)
8:48 Duet with chorus - Zion spreadeth her hands for aid (3,5)
10:56 Recit (Obadiah) - If with all your hearts
Chorus - Yet doth the Lord see it not
19:00 Recit (Angel) - Elijah! get thee hence (Florence Quivar)
19:55 Double quartet -For He shall give His angels (2,3,4,5,6,7,8,)
23:04 Recit (Angel): Now Cherith's book is dried up (Florence Quivar)
24:22 Air (Bonney): What have I to do with thee - Recit (Elijah, Widow) Give me thy son!
13. 9. Chorus - 'Blessed Are All They That Fear Him'
14. 10 Recitative (Elijah, Ahab) With Chorus - 'As God The Lord Of Sabaoth Liveth'
15. 11. Chorus - 'Baal, Answer Us'
16. 12. Recitative (Elijah) And Chorus - 'Call Him Louder, For He Is A God!'
17. 13. Recitative (Elijah) And Chorus - 'Call Him Louder! He Heareth Not'
18. 14. Air (Elijah) - 'Lord God Of Abraham, Isaac And Israel'
19. 15. Quartet (Angels) - 'Cast Thy Burden Upon The Lord'
20. 16. Recitative (Elijah) And Chorus - 'O Thou, Who Makest Thine Angels Spirits'
21. 17. Air (Elijah) - 'Is Not His Word Like A Fire?'
22. 18. Air - 'Woe Unto Them Who Forsake Him!'
23. 19. Recitative (Obadiah, Elijah, Youth) And Chorus - 'O Man Of God, Help Thy People!'
24. 20. Chorus - 'Thanks Be To God!'

 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Felix Mendelssohn
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1846
 
 
Bessel Friedrich Wilhelm, German astronomer, d. (b. 1784)
 
 

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel
 
 
 
1846
 
 
American inventor John Deere constructs plow with steel moldboard
 
 
Deere John
 

John Deere, (born Feb. 7, 1804, Rutland, Vt., U.S.—died May 17, 1886, Moline, Ill.), pioneer American inventor and manufacturer of agricultural implements.

 
Apprenticed to a blacksmith at age 17, Deere set up his own smithy trade four years later and, for 12 years, did work in various towns of his native Vermont. In 1837, when 33 years old, he headed west and eventually settled in Grand Detour, Ill., where he set up a blacksmith’s shop, and sent for his wife and children the following year. He joined in a partnership with Major Leonard Andrus.

In his work, Deere found, through the frequent repairs that he had to make, that the wood and cast-iron plow, used in the eastern United States from the 1820s, was not suited to the heavy, sticky soils of the prairies. He began experimenting, and by 1838 he and his partner had sold three newly fashioned plows. He kept experimenting, producing 10 improved plows in 1839 and 40 new plows in 1840. By 1846 the annual output was about a thousand plows. Deciding that Grand Detour was not well situated in regard to transportation and resources, Deere sold his interest in the shop to Andrus in 1847 and moved to Moline, Ill. There he began using imported English steel with great success and soon negotiated with Pittsburgh manufacturers for the development of comparable steel plate. By 1857 Deere’s annual output of plows had risen to 10,000.

In 1858 Deere took his son Charles into partnership and in 1863 his son-in-law, Stephen H. Velie; in 1868 the firm was incorporated as Deere & Company. Deere remained president of the company for the rest of his life. Gradually Deere & Company began manufacturing cultivators and other agricultural implements.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Deere & Company
 

Deere & Company, major American manufacturer of farm machinery and industrial equipment. It is headquartered in Moline, Ill.

 
The company’s origin dates to 1836, when John Deere invented the first steel plow that could till American Midwest prairie soil without clogging. The following year, Deere established a business to manufacture and market the plow, and his own company was incorporated as Deere & Company in 1868. The present firm was incorporated in 1958 as John Deere–Delaware Company; it assumed the current company name later that year after merging with the older Deere & Company and its subsidiaries. Since its inception, Deere & Company has witnessed five generations of Deere family leadership.

Generally, in agriculture, the 1960s and ’70s were a period of accelerating technological change that encouraged farmers to employ significantly larger economies of scale to ensure profitability. This trend had great impact on Deere & Company and was reflected by a corresponding growth in the company’s business as it focused increasingly on the manufacture of farm equipment intended for expanding enterprises—giant tractors, balers, and seeding and harvesting machinery.

  In order, however, to maintain production of a wide range of agricultural products for small- and medium-sized operations while responding to shifting demand toward larger machinery, Deere & Company became a major proponent of the “flexible-manufacturing” system of production. Under this system, Deere in 1981 built a factory in Iowa costing over $1.5 billion that made extensive use of computers and robots and thus enabled the company to run numerous small assembly lines simultaneously for different products and turn a profit even at low levels of output. Largely as a result of this strategy, Deere & Company became the biggest American manufacturer of farm equipment in the late 20th century.

In addition to manufacturing farm machinery, Deere plants in the United States, Canada, western Europe, Argentina, and South Africa produce industrial equipment such as forklifts, bulldozers, and industrial tractors, as well as such consumer goods as chain saws and lawn-care equipment.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1846
 
 
F. G. J. Henle: "Manual of Rational Pathology"
 
 
Henle Friedrich
 

Friedrich Gustav Jacob Henle, (born July 19, 1809, Fürth, Bavaria [Germany]—died May 13, 1885, Göttingen, Germany), German pathologist, one of history’s outstanding anatomists, whose influence on the development of histology is comparable to the effect on gross anatomy of the work of the Renaissance master Andreas Vesalius.

 

Friedrich Gustav Jacob Henle
  While a student of the German physiologist Johannes Müller at the universities of Bonn (M.D., 1832) and Berlin (1832–34), Henle published the first descriptions of the structure and distribution of human epithelial tissue and of the fine structures of the eye and brain.

In his paper “Von den Miasmen und Contagien und von den miasmatisch-contagiösen Krankheiten” (1840; “On Miasmas and Contagions and on the Miasmatic-Contagious Diseases”), he embraced the unpopular microorganism theory of contagion put forth by the Renaissance forerunner of modern epidemiology, Girolamo Fracastoro, stating, “The material of contagions is not only an organic but a living one and is indeed endowed with a life of its own, which is, in relation to the diseased body, a parasitic organism.”

While professor of anatomy (1840–44) at the University of Zürich, he published his Allgemeine Anatomie (1841; “General Anatomy”), the first systematic treatise of histology, followed by the Handbuch der rationellen Pathologie, 2 vol. (1846–53; “Handbook of Rational Pathology”), written while he was professor of anatomy and pathology at the University of Heidelberg (1844–52).

The Handbuch, describing diseased organs in relation to their normal physiological functions, represents the beginning of modern pathology. Among his students at the University of Göttingen (1852–85) was Robert Koch, who brought Henle’s belief in a germ theory to fruition.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1846
 
 
Sewing machine patented by Elias Howe
 
 
Howe Elias
 

Elias Howe, (born July 9, 1819, Spencer, Mass., U.S.—died Oct. 3, 1867, Brooklyn, N.Y.), American inventor whose sewing machine helped revolutionize garment manufacture in the factory and in the home.

 

Elias Howe
  Interested in machinery since childhood, Howe learned the machinist trade and worked in a cotton machinery factory in Lowell, Mass., and later in Cambridge. During this time it was suggested to him that the man who invented a machine that could sew would earn a fortune. For five years Howe spent all his spare time in the development of a practical sewing machine, and in 1846 he was granted a patent for it. The machine attracted little attention in the United States at first, and, when a fortune was not forthcoming, Howe sold the patent rights in England for £250 ($1,250). He moved to England and worked for £5 a week to perfect his machine for use in sewing leather and similar materials. As his financial condition worsened, he managed to send his family back to the United States, but when he finally returned destitute, he found his wife dying. Years of disappointment and discouragement followed. He found that, while he had been abroad, sewing machines were being widely manufactured and sold in the United States in violation of his patent. After much litigation, his rights were finally established in 1854, and from then until 1867, when his patent expired, he received royalties on all sewing machines produced in the United States.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 

Elias Howe Sewing Machine September 10, 1846
 
 
 
1846
 
 
List Friedrich, German economist, d. (b. 1789)
 
 

Friedrich List
 
 
 
1846
 
 
Theodor Waitz: "Foundation of Psychology"
 
 
Waitz Theodor
 
Theodor Waitz (March 17, 1821 – May 21, 1864) was a German psychologist and anthropologist. His research in psychology brought him into touch with anthropology, and he will be best remembered by his monumental work in six volumes, Die Anthropologie der Naturvölker ("The anthropology of peoples that live close to nature").
 

Theodor Waitz
  Biography
Waitz was born at Gotha and educated at Leipzig and Jena. He made philosophy, philology and mathematics his chief studies, and in 1848 he was appointed professor of philosophy in the University of Marburg. He was a severe critic of the philosophy of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel, and considered psychology to be the basis of all philosophy. He died at Marburg.

Works
The first four volumes of his Anthropologie appeared at Leipzig, 1859-1864, the last two were issued posthumously, edited by Gerland. Waitz also published Grundlegung der Psychologie (1846); Lehrbuch der Psychologie als Naturwissenschaft (1849); Allgemeine Pedagogik (1852); Die Indianer Nordamerikas (1864); and a critical edition of the Organon of Aristotle (1844).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1846
 
 
Ger. botanist Hugo von Mohl identifies protoplasm
 
 
Mohl Hugo
 
Hugo von Mohl, (born April 8, 1805, Stuttgart, Württemberg [Germany]—died April 1, 1872, Tübingen, Ger.), German botanist noted for his research on the anatomy and physiology of plant cells.
 

Hugo von Mohl
  Von Mohl received his degree in medicine from the University of Tübingen in 1828. After studying for several years at Munich, he became professor of botany at Tübingen in 1835 and remained there until his death.

As a result of his studies on the plant cell, von Mohl developed the idea that the nucleus of the cell was within the granular, colloidal material that made up the main substance of the cell.

In 1846 he named this substance protoplasm, a word that had been invented by the Czech physiologist Jan Evangelista Purkinje with reference to the embryonic material found in eggs. Von Mohl was also first to propose that new cells are formed by cell division, a process he observed in the alga Conferva glomerata. In 1851 he proposed the now-confirmed view that the secondary walls of plant cells have a fibrous structure.

Theorizing on the nature and function of plastids (small bodies within specialized cells), von Mohl provided the first clear explanation of the role of osmosis (passage of a substance through a membrane from a region of higher to one of lower concentration) in the physiology of a plant and was one of the first to investigate the phenomenon of the movement of stomatal openings in leaves.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1846
 
 
American dentist W. T. Morton uses ether as anesthetic
 
 
Green William Thomas
 

William Thomas Green Morton (August 9, 1819 – July 15, 1868) was an American dentist who first publicly demonstrated the use of inhaled ether as a surgical anesthetic in 1846. The promotion of his questionable claim to have been the discoverer of anesthesia became an obsession for the rest of his life.

 

William Thomas Green Morton
  William Thomas Green Morton, (born August 9, 1819, Charlton, Massachusetts, U.S.—died July 15, 1868, New York, New York), American dental surgeon who in 1846 gave the first successful public demonstration of ether anesthesia during surgery. He is credited with gaining the medical world’s acceptance of surgical anesthesia.

Morton began dental practice in Boston in 1844. In January 1845 he was present at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, when Horace Wells, his former dental partner, attempted unsuccessfully to demonstrate the anodyne properties of nitrous oxide gas.

Determined to find a more reliable pain-killing chemical, Morton consulted his former teacher, Boston chemist Charles Jackson, with whom he had previously done work on pain relief. The two discussed the use of ether, and Morton first used it in extraction of a tooth on September 30, 1846.

On October 16 he successfully demonstrated its use, administering ether to a patient undergoing a tumour operation in the same theatre where Wells had failed nearly two years earlier.

Unfortunately, Morton attempted to obtain exclusive rights to the use of ether anesthesia.

 
 
He spent the remainder of his life engaged in a costly contention with Jackson, who claimed priority in the discovery, despite official recognition accorded to Wells and the rural Georgia physician Crawford Long.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

The first use of ether as an anaesthetic in 1846 by Morton
 
 
 
1846
 
 
Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero prepares nitroglycerine
 
 
Sobrero Ascanio
 

Ascanio Sobrero (October 12, 1812 – May 26, 1888) was an Italian chemist, born in Casale Monferrato. He was studying under Théophile-Jules Pelouze at the University of Turin, who had worked with the explosive material guncotton.

 

Ascanio Sobrero
  He studied medicine in Turin and Paris and then chemistry at the University of Gießen with Justus Liebig, and earned his doctorate in 1832. In 1845 he became professor at the University of Turin. During his research he discovered nitroglycerine. He initially called it "pyroglycerine", and warned vigorously against its use in his private letters and in a journal article, stating that it was extremely dangerous and impossible to handle. In fact, he was so frightened by what he created that he kept it a secret for over a year.

Another of Pelouze's students was the young Alfred Nobel, who returned to the Nobel family's defunct armaments factory and began experimenting with the material around 1860; it did, indeed prove to be very difficult to discover how to handle it safely. In the 1860s Nobel received several patents around the world for mixtures, devices and manufacturing methods based on the explosive power of nitroglycerine, eventually leading to the invention of dynamite, ballistite and gelignite from which he made a fortune.

Although Nobel always acknowledged and honored Sobrero as the man who had discovered nitroglycerine, Sobrero was not only dismayed by the uses to which the explosive had been put, but also on occasion claimed that he was not given sufficient recognition.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1846
 
 
Heaphy, Brunner and Ekehu exploration
 
 
Heaphy Charles
 

Charles Heaphy VC (1820 – 3 August 1881) was an English-born New Zealand explorer and recipient of the Victoria Cross (VC), the highest military award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was the first soldier of New Zealand's military to be awarded the VC. He was also a noted artist and executed several works of early colonial life in New Zealand.

 
Born in England, Heaphy joined the New Zealand Company in 1839. He arrived in New Zealand later that year, and was tasked with creating art for advertising the country to potential English migrants. Much of the next two and half years was spent travelling and executing paintings of landscapes and life around the centre of the country. When his contract with the company ended in 1842, he lived in Nelson for several years and explored large parts of the West Coast. He later moved north to Auckland to take up employment as a surveyor.

During the Invasion of the Waikato, his militia unit was mobilised and it was his conduct at Paterangi, where he rescued British soldiers under fire, that saw him awarded the VC. After his military service ended, Heaphy served a term as Member of Parliament for Parnell. From 1870 to 1881, he held a variety of civil service positions but his health declined and he moved to Queensland, seeking a better climate in which to recover. He died a few months after his arrival.

 
 

Charles Heaphy
  Early life
Charles Heaphy was born sometime in 1820 in London, England. He was the youngest child of Thomas Heaphy, who was a professional painter, and three of his siblings also became noted painters. The family lived in St John's Wood in northwest London and enjoyed a comfortable, middle-class existence although his mother died sometime during his early childhood.

Thomas earned painting commissions from high society and in 1812 accompanied Arthur Wellesley, who was later to become the Duke of Wellington, as staff artist during the Peninsular War. Thomas died in 1835 and left the entire estate to his second wife, who he had married in 1833. Charles, who had obtained work as a draughtsman at the London & Birmingham Railway Company, moved out of the family home soon after.

As a child, Charles was taught to paint by his father and in December 1837, sponsored by a family friend, he entered the Royal Academy's school of painting. He was the only child of the Heaphy family to receive this quality of tuition.

In May 1839, after 18 months at the Royal Academy, Heaphy joined the first New Zealand Company as a draughtsman. The company was established by Edward Wakefield as a private venture to organise colonies in New Zealand and sought well-educated men as staff for planning and surveying new settlements in the country.

Heaphy sailed with William Wakefield, the brother of Edward, on the Tory on an expedition to purchase land suitable for settlement. The Tory arrived in what later became known as Wellington late in 1839.

 
 
Service with the New Zealand Company
Heaphy's contract with the company was for three years and his duties were primarily to create art which could be used as advertising for the New Zealand Company. In doing so he travelled extensively around the country. In some instances, he participated in overland treks, living out of a tent or staying with local Māori. He also sailed around parts of the country aboard the Tory, and learned surveying from its captain. Another employee of the company travelling on the Tory was Ernst Dieffenbach, who taught Heaphy basic geology.

Heaphy painted a variety of subjects including landscapes, flora and fauna, and notable Māori, including the chieftain Te Rauparaha. The success of the company depended on attracting potential emigrants to New Zealand so his work almost always were intended to present the country and its inhabitants in its best light. Heaphy was at times exposed to some danger; on an expedition to the Chatham Islands, his party intervened in a small skirmish between two warring tribes and he was wounded in the leg. It was unlikely to have been a serious wound for a few weeks later, he went on a trek back in New Zealand to the Taranaki Region, where he produced some of his more notable landscapes.

 
 

A view of Wellington Harbour, executed by Heaphy in 1841
 
 
From October 1840, Heaphy was based in Wellington, where with a friend he built a small cottage from where he executed several views of Wellington Harbour, which was heavily used in advertising for the New Zealand Company. A few months later, in early 1841, he joined Arthur Wakefield on the expedition that led to the founding of Nelson. Heaphy was among several employees of the New Zealand Company that scouted the area around Tasman Bay before the location for Nelson was decided. He executed several paintings highlighting the quality of the land intended for settlement. By late 1841, Heaphy's services as an artist were no longer required given the number of works that he had produced and Wakefield decided to send him to London to make a report to the company directors. He took nearly six months to reach London by which time his three-year contract was effectively concluded. The directors were impressed with his report and it was subsequently published as a book entitled Narrative of a Residence in Various Parts of New Zealand.
 
 
Life in Nelson
Although no longer employed by the New Zealand Company, Heaphy, emboldened by the success of his report and the public reception to his paintings, sought further opportunities for similar work. From London, he wrote to the company's secretary seeking support for exploration of the area inland of Nelson. The response was lacklustre; the company was now focussing its resources on developing its settlements rather than undertake further exploration. Despite the lack of enthusiasm, Heaphy returned to New Zealand and arrived in Nelson on 22 December 1842.

There was little in way of work opportunities for Heaphy in Nelson, and he based himself in Motueka. Here he farmed land with a friend, Frederick Moore, and this took much of what little funds he had. His farming venture was hard work and not particularly successful. By late 1843, the New Zealand Company was in need of good pastoral land around Nelson. It had clashed with Māori in the Wairau Valley, to the southeast of Nelson, and several company employees, including Arthur Wakefield, were killed. It needed to scout the area to the southwest and Heaphy finally got his chance to undertake some exploration.

Wakefield's replacement as resident agent in Nelson for the New Zealand Company, William Fox, was a keen advocate for expanding the area around Nelson for settlement. He authorised Heaphy and a surveyor to scout southwest to the Buller River in November 1843. Then, in December 1843, Heaphy and two Māori trekked to what is now known as Golden Bay, and returned to Motueka via the coast, a journey which he regarded as the most difficult he had undertaken up to that point. Both expeditions failed to locate suitable land for settlement, as did a further expedition he undertook back to the Buller River in March 1845. Heaphy was reasonably well compensated for his exploration efforts and for additional funds, he undertook art commissions for Nelson's more wealthy residents.

In February 1846, Heaphy, accompanied by Fox and Thomas Brunner, another employee of the New Zealand Company, as well as a Māori named Kehu, undertook another expedition to the southwest. Difficult terrain faced them; high mountain ranges topped with snow and ice, steep bush, numerous rivers and gorges. Food sources included roots and berries; birds could be snared and eels caught from streams.

  Along the coast, shellfish and gull eggs added to the diet. The party, each carrying a load of 75 pounds (34 kg), trekked to the Buller River and walked its banks as far as the Maruia River. Here, believing themselves to be only 20 miles from the coast, dwindling provisions prevented them proceeding to the mouth of the Buller River. Guided by Kehu, the party traversed the Hope Saddle on their way back to Nelson, which they reached on 1 March.

Heaphy and Brunner was keen for further exploration and with Kehu, left Nelson on 17 March to scout along the West Coast to the mouth of the Buller. The expedition traced the western coast of South Island as far south as the Arahura River. Their journey began from Golden Bay, and they made their way to West Wanganui where a local Māori, Etau, was hired as a porter for the party. The expedition hit a snag when the local chief barred their journey south but Heaphy and Brunner mollified him with some tobacco.

They continued along the coast, climbing sometimes steep cliffs and fording rivers as they went. Their movements would be held up at times due to rain and high tides. At night, they would shelter in small caves augmented with a screen of Nikau palm leaves. They crossed the Karamea River on 20 April and reached the Buller River ten days later. This had to be crossed using an old canoe that was repaired by Kehu and Etau.

After safely getting across, they stayed at the local pā (village). In early May, they sighted the Southern Alps. At the Arahura River (a tributary of the Grey River), the southernmost point of the expedition, they were hosted by the local Ngāi Tahu tribe at Taramakau Pā. Poor weather plagued their return trip back along the coast but they reached Nelson on 18 August. The harsh conditions that Heaphy had experienced during his travels left him disillusioned with the potential prospects for settlements along the West Coast region.

Life in Nelson remained difficult for Heaphy, who had by now lost his appetite for exploration. He eked out a living taking occasional jobs for the next six months. For much of 1847, he undertook survey work around Tasman Bay and later in that year was the representative of the New Zealand Company when the government investigated the amount of land set aside by the company for the local Māori. Work had dried up by early 1848 and when he was offered employment with the Auckland Survey Office in April 1848, he promptly accepted.

 
 
Life in Auckland
Moving north to Auckland, Heaphy's new role as the chief draughtsman for the Auckland Survey Office kept him occupied with the preparation of maps and plans. After a few years, he began to spend a greater amount of time in the field, where he carried out survey work. As he had done when living in Nelson, he supplemented his income with commissioned artworks. He began to build on his geology knowledge, taking a particular interest in vulcanology. He wrote an article on Auckland's volcanoes for a geological journal in England. He completed several paintings of volcanoes as well as thermal attractions in the Bay of Plenty including the famous Pink and White Terraces. Hoping to raise his profile, he sent many of his works to London and some remain on display at the offices of the Geological Society.

When he was 30, Heaphy met and began courting Kate Churton, the 21-year-old daughter of a reverend. The couple were married on 30 October 1851 at St Paul's Church, Auckland. A year later, he was appointed 'Commissioner of Gold Fields' at Coromandel, following the recent discovery of gold in the area. His role required him to supervise claims made by miners and negotiate land sales with local Māori. The gold rush in Coromandel soon petered out and he returned to his work at the Auckland Survey Office by mid-1853.

In November 1853, Sir George Grey ended his first term as Governor of New Zealand and sailed to the islands around New Caledonia to indulge his interest in languages. He also wanted to investigate French claims on the islands.

  Heaphy accompanied him as his private secretary and took the opportunity to execute artworks of the islands he visited and their inhabitants. He gave some of his work to Grey, who took them back to England in December 1853 and donated them to the British Museum.

Heaphy and his wife moved north of Auckland to what is now known as Warkworth in early 1854, following his appointment as district surveyor for the Mahurangi Peninsula which was being opened up for settlement. For two years, Heaphy surveyed the plots of land that were to be sold to people moving to the area.[33] In 1856 he became Auckland's provincial surveyor following the retirement of his predecessor. He moved back to Auckland and took up residence in Parnell. His surveying work kept him busy for the next few years but in early 1859 he accompanied Ferdinand von Hochstetter, who had been invited by the government to make a report on a coalfield discovered south of Auckland. The two became friendly and Hochstetter was impressed with Heaphy's bush skills although privately did not accord him much respect for his scientific knowledge. When Hochstetter left for Europe later in the year, he took with him many examples of Heaphy's artwork. However, the two friends later fell out when Heaphy had an article published in a geological journal. Hochstetter felt usurped by someone he considered an inferior scholar and publicly questioned Heaphy's credentials. He also made allegations that Heaphy had plagiarised portions of his work on the coalfields. Heaphy mounted a spirited defence and generally had the sympathy of the public. The dispute did not stop Hochstetter from using Heaphy's artwork in a book he published on New Zealand's geology.

 
 

Naval attack at Rangiriri, 1863, a pen sketch by Heaphy
 
 
Military career
Soon after Heaphy's return to Auckland in 1856, he joined a militia unit, the Auckland Rifle Volunteers, with the rank of private. By 1863, his unit had been mobilised and was commissioned as an officer. Later that year he was appointed captain of the Parnell Company. During the Invasion of the Waikato (one of the campaigns of the New Zealand Wars), he was tasked with surveying the military road being constructed into the Waikato as well as charting the river ways as pilot of the gunboat Pioneer. He was present at the Battle of Rangiriri and later made a sketch of the action. Unusually for him, his sketch include representations of British casualties. He was later attached to the staff of Lieutenant Colonel Henry Havelock as the British advanced deeper into the Waikato.

The Waikato Māori combatants had withdrawn to fortified positions at Pikopiko and Paterangi by early 1864. While their positions were under siege, war parties would mount raids on small groups of British soldiers. On 11 February, soldiers of the 40th Regiment were bathing in the Mangapiko Stream near Paterangi and were ambushed by a raiding party. Heaphy, commanding some men of the 50th Regiment, came to the aid of the defenders and moved to cut off the Māoris' line of retreat. He then dealt with the Māori reserve before leading his men to the ambush site to assist the British soldiers there. Despite being outnumbered, the British beat off the Māoris and began to pursue them into the bush. A soldier was wounded and Heaphy and three others went to his aid. Heaphy and one of the others were wounded and a third killed. Unable to extricate themselves, Heaphy and the remaining fit soldier provided cover to prevent the wounded men from being axed by the Māori. They were eventually relieved by reinforcements but the two wounded men that Heaphy and his comrade were trying to protect died of their wounds. Despite his own injuries, to the arm, hip, and ribs, Heaphy remained in the field for much of the remainder of the day until the party that were originally ambushed were relieved.

Following the action at Paterangi, Heaphy was promoted to major and a month later he ceased active duty after the war in the Waikato ended and returned to civilian life.

  Victoria Cross
For the action at Paterangi, Major General Thomas Galloway, the commander of New Zealand's colonial forces, recommended Heaphy for the Victoria Cross (VC) in late 1864. The recommendation was supported by Sir George Grey (serving a second term as the Governor of New Zealand) despite being aware that Heaphy, and another man recommended for the VC for an action earlier in the campaign, was not in the British Army or Royal Navy. At the time, only personnel from the regular British military could be awarded the VC and thus Heaphy, as a militiaman, was not eligible.

Grey argued that as Heaphy was under the effective command of British officers he should be made an exception. In London, the authorities disagreed and the recommendation was turned down.

Heaphy refused to accept this and began to agitate, with support from Grey, Havelock, and General Duncan Cameron, commander of British forces in New Zealand, with the British government. He was eventually successful and on 8 February 1867, Queen Victoria made a declaration that the local forces of New Zealand would be eligible for the VC. The same day, Heaphy's award of the VC, the first to a New Zealander, was gazetted. The citation read:

For his gallant conduct at the skirmish on the banks of the Mangapiko River, in New Zealand, on the 11th of February, 1864, in assisting a wounded soldier of the 40th Regiment, who had fallen into a hollow among the thickest of the concealed Maories. Whilst doing so, he became the target for a volley at a few feet distant.

Five balls pierced his clothes and cap, and he was wounded in three places. Although hurt, he continued to aid the wounded until the end of the day. Major Heaphy was at the time in charge of a party of soldiers of the 40th and 50th Regiments, under the orders of Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Henry Marshman Havelock, Bart., V.C., G.C.B, D.L. the Senior Officer on the spot, who had moved rapidly down to the place where the troops were hotly engaged and pressed.

Heaphy presented with his VC at a parade at Albert Barracks in Auckland on 11 May 1867 and it is now on display at the Auckland War Memorial Museum.

 
 
Later life
After the cessation of hostilities, Heaphy was contracted as the 'Chief Surveyor to the General Government of New Zealand' and surveyed much of the land seized from the Waikato Māori by the British, which included that on which the towns of Hamilton and Cambridge were established. In Hamilton, Heaphy Terrace, a major thoroughfare in the suburb of Claudelands is named for him. His contract ended in early 1866 and he was reinstated to his pre-war position as Auckland's provincial surveyor.

In April 1867, Frederick Whitaker resigned his posts as Superintendent of the Auckland Province and Member of Parliament for the Parnell constituency in Auckland. Whitaker's resignation became known soon after Heaphy's award of the VC was announced and Heaphy declared his candidacy for the vacant Parnell seat. The publicity around his award of the VC helped raise his profile and when the nomination meeting for the resulting 1867 by-election was held at the Parnell Hall on 6 June, he was returned unopposed as the member for Parnell. Although he was a hardworking representative for the people of his electorate, Heaphy's time in the New Zealand Parliament was undistinguished.

 
 
A parliamentary colleague was William Fox, who was an old acquaintance from Heaphy's days in Nelson. When Fox became Premier of New Zealand in June 1869, Heaphy was a supporter. When he was offered the position of 'Commissioner of Native Reserves' by the Fox administration, he resigned from parliament on 13 April 1870.

As Commissioner, Heaphy's role was to administer native reserves set aside by the government and also determine areas of land that could be opened up to migrants to New Zealand. His work took him up and down the country, inspecting land and negotiating with Māori landowners, a process he did not always enjoy. Nonetheless he still advocated for aggrieved Māori whose land had been forcibly taken from them by colonials. An added stress in Heaphy's first year as Commissioner was a formal enquiry into his conduct during the period he was 'Chief Surveyor to the General Government of New Zealand' and working in the Waikato. Allegations had been raised that he took bribes for illegally adjusting land boundaries. The enquiry cleared Heaphy of corruption although he was criticised for taking payments from young trainee surveyors in return for work. In 1872, he and his wife moved to Wellington, which was more centrally located and thus convenient for his work, which now included an appointment as 'Trust Commissioner for the Wellington District', dealing with land fraud.

By 1875, Heaphy, beginning to suffer from rheumatism, had reduced the amount of time he spent in the field for his work on native reserves and it ended altogether in 1880. In the interim, he picked up more civil service work; he became a justice of the peace and presided over cases of petty crime brought to the Resident Magistrates Court in Wellington.
In April 1878 he was appointed 'Government Insurance Commissioner', and later that year became a judge of the Native Land Court.

  Death and legacy
By May 1881, Heaphy's health was in severe decline. Still affected by his rheumatism, he was now afflicted with tuberculosis. He resigned from all his civil service positions the following month and, with his wife, moved to Brisbane, in Queensland, Australia. They hoped the warmer climate would help with Heaphy's health. However, the move did not improve matters and Heaphy died on 3 August 1881. Survived by his wife (the couple had no children), he was buried at Toowong Cemetery.

His grave was initially simply marked with a numbered plaque and over time became unattended. A descendant of his wife discovered the burial site in 1960 and a headstone was erected by the New Zealand government. The inscription reads: He served New Zealand in peace and war as artist, explorer and member of parliament. He was the first non-regular soldier to be awarded the Victoria Cross.
The grave is located in Portion 1 Church of England of the Toowong (old Brisbane General) Cemetery). His grave is approximately 20 metres north east up the hill from the "8th Avenue" roadway, (an internal cemetery roadway), which forms the western boundary of Portion 1.

In addition to being the first New Zealander to be awarded the Victoria Cross, Heaphy was an accomplished artist. His watercolours, mostly produced between 1841 and 1855, are an important record of many scenes in the early days of European settlement in New Zealand. Many of his works have been published in histories of New Zealand but his name is best known now through the Heaphy Track in the north west corner of the South Island. He and Brunner were probably the first Europeans to walk through this area of the South Island and, although he never followed the route of the Heaphy Track, it is named in his honour.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Brunner Thomas
 

Thomas Brunner (April 1821 – 22 April 1874) was an English-born surveyor and explorer remembered for his exploration of the West Coast of New Zealand's South Island.

 
Brunner was born in April 1821 in Oxford. When he was fifteen, he began to learn architecture and surveying. In 1841, he joined the New Zealand Company in its venture to establish a settlement in the north of the South Island of New Zealand, to be called Nelson. As well as working as an apprentice surveyor and laying sections and roads for the new settlement, he explored the interior, seeking pastoral land for a growing colony. In 1846 he undertook extensive journeys with Charles Heaphy and a Māori named Kehu towards and along the West Coast.

In December 1846, Brunner commenced an expedition, accompanied by four Māori including Kehu, which began from Nelson. The party travelled down the Buller River and along the West Coast reaching as far south as Tititira Head, near Paringa before returning to Nelson via the Arahura River. This arduous journey, which at one stage saw one of his legs paralysed, took him 550 days. He received honours from the Royal Geographical Society and the Société de géographie (French Geographic Society). He continued to work as a surveyor and in 1851 was appointed Government Surveyor. He surveyed the sites, which he and Heaphy had scouted on previous explorations, for what would become the towns of Westport and Greymouth. He retired in 1869 and died of a stroke on 22 April 1874.

 
 

Thomas Brunner in 1871
  Early life
Thomas Brunner was born in Oxford, England, in April 1821, and baptised four months later on 22 August. He was the oldest son of William Brunner, an Oxford attorney who was also the county coroner. He was of Swiss descent, his father's parents having emigrated to England at the time of the French Revolution. The Brunner family were active in the Oxford community, Thomas' parents raising him and his siblings to appreciate cultural and charitable activities. In 1836, at the age of fifteen, Brunner was apprenticed to an architect, Thomas Greenshields, to learn architecture and surveying. Over the next five years, he became proficient in both skills.

Service with the New Zealand Company
In 1841, Brunner's father put his son's name forward to the New Zealand Company, which was seeking prospective emigrants for its proposed settlement in the South Island of New Zealand. The company wanted to populate its new settlement with well educated young men of excellent character and with leadership potential. Furthermore, apprentice surveyors, at the time known as "improvers", were in particular demand and Brunner, aided by character references from his employer and other notable residents of Oxford, was duly selected to join the company. In addition to his work as an improver, he was to assist the settlement's principal surveyor, Frederick Tuckett. Brunner joined a party of six other young improvers which left England on 27 April 1841 aboard the Whitby. During the voyage to New Zealand, the improvers received further instruction and were tested by having to prepare draft layouts for the new settlement, Brunner's plan being the best of these. On 18 September, the Whitby arrived at Port Nicholson, the New Zealand Company's first settlement. The approximate site for the new settlement had yet to be finalised; initially intended for Banks Peninsula, this location was vetoed by the Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson.

 
 
Instead, it was to be located at the top of the South Island, at Tasman Bay. Early the following month a convoy of the company's ships, with Brunner aboard one them, crossed the Cook Strait to Tasman Bay. After scouting the area for three weeks, a site adjacent a deep and sheltered natural harbour was identified as being suitable for the settlement.

For the next two years Brunner assisted in the laying out of the settlement, which was to be called Nelson. A drawback with the Nelson settlement was its lack of pasture and the colony began to appropriate more and more of the nearby Wairau Plain, much to the displeasure of local Māori. Several personnel of the company, including Arthur Wakefield, the senior official of the company in Nelson, were killed in the Wairau Affray in June 1843. The New Zealand Company was forced to look south for more farming land. Brunner was sent to scout the Motueka Valley but failed to penetrate far due to poor weather. From local Māori he heard of a large plain to the south and passed on his findings to Tuckett. In August 1843, Tuckett dispatched Brunner to confirm the reports. Brunner, accompanied by Kehu, a Māori he had befriended, was again defeated by poor weather.

Life in Nelson was hard for the colonists. The company had limited finances and tightened its expenditure which affected the salaries of its employees. In 1844, it had to halt its operations for a time. Although Nelson had 300 landowners, nearly two thirds were absentee owners and only 80 actually lived in the town. Brunner lived at Riwaka, a nearby village, and, in addition to carrying out survey work along the Motueka River, helped in the design and building of houses in the area. He ended his service with the company in August 1844.

 
 
Exploring the West Coast
In February 1846, Brunner and Kehu, accompanied by Charles Heaphy and William Fox, undertook an expedition southwest of Nelson. Fox was the resident agent for the New Zealand Company in Nelson and provided the equipment and provisions for the party in addition to paying a salary to Brunner and Heaphy. Land in Nelson for farming was still scarce but it was hoped that beyond the steep hills to the southwest, good pastoral land would be found. Difficult terrain faced them; high mountain ranges topped with snow and ice, steep bush, numerous rivers and gorges. Food sources included roots and berries; birds could be snared and eels caught from streams. Along the coast, shellfish and gull eggs added to the diet.

The party, each carrying a load of 75 pounds (34 kg), trekked to Lake Rotoiti and then climbed the high ranges that backed onto the lake. On 11 February, they saw Lake Rotoroa and made their way to its shores and spent two days exploring the area. They gained the Buller River on 18 February and walked its banks as far as the Maruia River. Here, believing themselves to be only 20 miles from the coast, dwindling provisions prevented them proceeding to the mouth of the Buller River. Guided by Kehu, the party traversed the Hope Saddle on their way back to Nelson, which they reached on 1 March.

Brunner was keen for further exploration and Fox persuaded him to scout along the West Coast to the mouth of the Buller River in the hope of finding suitable land for farming. Brunner, Kehu and Heaphy left Nelson on 17 March on what became a five-month expedition tracing the western coast of South Island as far south as what is now known as Hokitika. Their journey began from Golden Bay, and they made their way to West Wanganui where Brunner hired a local Māori, Etau, as a porter for the party. The expedition hit a snag when the local chief barred their journey south but Brunner and Heaphy mollified him with some tobacco. They continued along the coast, climbing sometimes steep cliffs and fording rivers as they went. Their movements would be held up at times due to rain and high tides. At night, they would shelter in small caves augmented with a screen of Nikau palm leaves. They crossed the Karamea River on 20 April and reached the Buller River ten days later. This had to be crossed using an old canoe that was repaired by Kehu and Etau. After safely getting across, they stayed at the local pā (village). In early May, they sighted the Southern Alps. At the Arahura River (a tributary of the Grey River), the southernmost point of the expedition, they were hosted by the local Ngāi Tahu tribe at Taramakau Pā. Poor weather plagued their return trip back along the coast but they reached Nelson on 18 August.

  The Great Journey
On 3 December 1846, Brunner began what became his longest and most arduous expedition. He planned to follow the Buller River to the sea and then trek down the West Coast as far south as Milford Sound. During his previous expedition, he had been told of the existence of a route through the Southern Alps by the Māori at the Arahura River. He hoped to discover this route and use it to cross the Southern Alps and reach Canterbury. He was accompanied once again by Kehu, who brought along his wife. Another Māori, Pitewate, a friend of Kehu's, also joined the venture, accompanied by his wife. Brunner provided clothing and shoes for his companions. The wives proved problematic during the journey as they quarrelled, sometimes supported by their husbands, and Brunner would have to mediate.

Stocked with provisions that included two guns, 16 pounds (7 kg) of tobacco, 112 pounds (51 kg) of flour, salt and pepper, biscuits and tea, the party travelled by mules and canoe for the first two weeks until they reached Buller River. They then followed the path of the river down to the coast. The journey was difficult; the party was constantly bothered by sandflies and rain and they had to ford the river several times. They settled into a routine of trekking for a week then camping for the same period to restock their provisions, living off freshwater fish and cabbage- and fern-tree roots. By May 1847, they were at the final reaches of the Buller but food was becoming so scarce to find, they had to kill Brunner's dog. He noted its flesh was "... something between mutton and pork. It is too richly flavoured to eat by itself." This incident led to him being nicknamed Kai Kuri (dog eater).

Brunner was disappointed at the condition of the land along the banks of the Buller River as it neared the coast. He had briefly scouted the area on his previous journey and believed it had potential for pastoral farming. He now found it too damp and mossy to be cultivated. The party reached the mouth of the Buller on 1 June and made their way to the pā that Brunner and Heaphy had stayed at on their last journey but on arrival, found that it had been abandoned. They continued on down to the Arahura River and reached the Taramakau Pā where they stayed for three months over the worst of the winter months. On 12 October, Brunner continued south with some local Māori. He went as far south as Tititira Head, near Paringa where in December he severely sprained his ankle. After recovering, he decided to make his way back to Taramakau Pā. From here he along with his companions, journeyed up the Arahura River and in late January 1848, discovered the coalfield and lake which now bears his name. He wanted to continue on this route to Canterbury but Kehu and Pitewate would have none of it. The party began to make their way back to Nelson.

 
 
They travelled north via a tributary of the Arahura River which eventually met the Buller River, which they reached in March. In April, while making his way up the Buller Gorge, Brunner suffered paralysis of his leg. The party had to lay up for a week for Brunner to recover some use of his body. With the aid of Kehu (Pitewate and his wife abandoned the party when Brunner became ill), he was able to reach Nelson in June 1848, thus ending after 550 days  what he described as his 'Great Journey'.

In Nelson, many people had thought Brunner dead and he readily recognised that he would not have survived his endeavours without the aid of Kehu, writing: "... I found my native Ekehu of much use - invaluable indeed, but the other three rather an encumbrance - I could have made better progress without them; but to Ekehu I owe my life - he is a faithful and attached servant." As well as further information about the West Coast, Brunner informed the colony that coal was to be found in the Grey River valley. However, he also considered, mistakenly, that "there is nothing on the West Coast worth incurring the expense of exploring."

Reports of Brunner's endeavours on the West Coast soon spread to Wellington and England. He wrote an account of his journey which was first published by Charles Elliott, the editor of the local newspaper the Nelson Examiner, and later, in 1850, in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society. The Royal Geographical Society also awarded him their Patron's Medal and appointed him a Fellow of the Society. His exploits were also recognised in France, the Société de géographie (French Geographic Society) awarding him a diploma in 1852.

 
 

William Fox's painting of a scene from his February 1846 expedition with Brunner and Charles Heaphy. Brunner and Heaphy rest in the front of a crude hut while the expedition's Māori guide, Kehu, snares a weka with a lure of food on a stick and a long pole with a noose
 
 
Later life
Brunner's constitution was considerably impaired by his exertions and his health never fully returned. Despite this, after a period of recovery he set out in November 1848 with three companions, including Kehu, to discover a quicker route between Nelson and Wairau. This involved travelling the paths of the Maitai and Wairoa Rivers to their headwaters. The weather was poor throughout the six-week trip and Brunner was in discomfort for much of the ultimately unsuccessful venture, which determined that the existing route to Wairau was the fastest.

Apart from a short period doing contract surveying for the New Zealand Company in March 1849, Brunner remained unemployed and wrote numerous letters to his contacts. His former travelling companion, William Fox, and Dillon Bell, chief agent of the New Zealand Company, also sought to find him a job and through them, he was able to find work as a clerk with the Canterbury Association between September 1849 and February 1850. He returned to Nelson in May 1850 and secured full-time employment as a surveyor with the New Zealand Company, but with the proviso that he would be able to take on private work which did not interfere with his duties. To supplement his income Brunner began to take on architectural commissions.

In 1851, the New Zealand Company was still struggling financially and eventually transferred its land to the New Zealand Government. Brunner's employment with the company ceased and he, after writing a letter soliciting for surveying work, was appointed the Government Surveyor with an annual salary of ₤100 (2014 approximation ₤8,000). This was still a low salary for a professional and Brunner was allowed to continue with his architectural commissions, working from an office he had purchased in Nelson.

  He was kept busy for the next several years; in additional to carrying out and supervising survey work in the area, he took on responsibility for some public works. He drew up plans for roading, bridges and botanical gardens.

On 11 October 1855, Brunner married Jane Robson, the 26 year-old daughter of a labourer who had brought his family to New Zealand the previous year. It was a respectable match for Jane as Brunner was considered a particularly eligible bachelor in Nelson, one of around 45 professionals working in the town of about 1600 people.

His salary had increased to ₤300 (₤24,000) and he was now Chief Surveyor for the Nelson Province, the local returning officer and the Commissioner of Native Reserves for Nelson. He also owned three properties, including his Nelson office.

Brunner returned to the mouth of the Buller River in March 1861 but this time aboard a ship. Working in much greater comfort than on his last visit to the area in 1848, with other members of his staff he surveyed and laid out sections for what would become the town of Westport. Later that month he did the same for Greymouth. The work was soon completed and the party returned to Nelson in April 1861.

Brunner designed St Michael's Church in Waimea West in 1866, which was probably New Zealand's first memorial church. It commemorates Captain Francis H. Blundell, an early settler who died in 1865 and is buried here.

The previous church on the site from 1843 was the first church in the Nelson Province. On 5 April 1984, St Michael's was registered with the New Zealand Historic Places Trust as a Category I structure with registration number 248.

 
 
Retirement and death
Brunner retired in 1869 at the relatively young age of 46. He remained employed by the Nelson Provincial Council as a consultant surveyor and was also head of the Nelson Survey Department. His administration skills were not up to the latter role and many of the surveys produced under his supervision were of poor quality. He also continued to seek private work and contributed to a report on the suitability of the Buller region for settlement and this was published in early 1873. On his retirement in 1869 he had retained his offices of sheriff, returning officer and registration officer but was relieved of these in 1872 in cost-cutting measures by the Nelson Provincial Council. This did not meet with the approval of locals.

In late 1873, Brunner suffered a paralysis of his left side which prevented him from working. By mid-April 1874, he had sufficiently recovered to begin soliciting the provincial government for suitable employment. However, on the morning of 22 April he suffered a stroke and died few hours later. His funeral service was held at Nelson Cathedral and was attended by several hundred people. A large Māori contingent, including his long-time friend Kehu, was also present. Brunner was buried at Wakapuaka Cemetery. He was survived by his wife, who moved to England soon after his death. She lived with her brother until her death in 1895. The couple had no children.

Several geographic features are named for him. Brunner, originally called Brunnerton, is a small settlement on the Grey River inland from Greymouth where he first found coal. It is the site of the former Brunner Mine, best known for New Zealand's worst mine disaster in 1896. Lake Brunner is located some 25 kilometres (16 mi) by road from here, upstream along the Arnold River; Brunner went there after his coal discovery. Another feature named for him is the Brunner Range, which is located east of the valley through which the Inangahua River flows. A plaque to his memory lies in the Nelson Cathedral.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Europeans in New Zealand
 
 
European interest in New Zealand alter Cook's visit of 1769 was desultory. Potential settlers were deterred by the Maoris, a more formidable population than the Australian Aborigines. However, sealers and whalers found welcome bases on New Zealand's coasts, where they could refit their vessels and replenish their stores, while pioneer traders sold goods, particularly guns, to the Maoris, and set up timber and flax production in North Island for processing in New South Wales.
 
 
Charting the coasts
 
The efficiency of Cook meant that New Zealand's coasts were remarkably well charted from the very beginning, although there was much detail to fill in. Rough weather had prevented Cook from surveying the east coast oi South Island as thoroughly as he would have wished, and what Cook had named Banks Island, for example, turned out to be a peninsula when investigated by Captain Chase in 1809. In the same year Captain Stewart carried out a close survey of the island now named after him; Cook had not spotted the strait dividing it from the mainland, though he seems to have suspected its existence.
 
 

Mount Cook, known to the Maoris as Aorangi, is the highest peak on South Island, and towers above Lake Pukaki. It was first climbed in 1894.
 
 
Early exploration of North Island
 
In 1814 a mission was established bv Samuel Marsden at the Bay of Islands. From there he and other missionaries made several journeys into the interior of North Island, and within ЗО-odd years had penetrated to the center. The most resolute traveler was William Colenso, missionary and botanist, who, among other journeys, reached Lake Taupo from Napier in 1847.

European explorers did not, however, travel alone. As in other parts of the world they were accompanied by natives of the country concerned. Since the Maoris were, naturally, far more knowledgeable about the land of the long white cloud than were the Europeans, and a great deal more adept at living off the land, the achievements of the European explorers appear somewhat less remarkable than they would if the islands had been uninhabited.
 
 

The missionary and explorer Samuel Marsden conducted his first service at his mission at the Bay of Islands, North Island, on Christmas Day, 1814.
 
 
European settlers
 
With the arrival of the first European settlers at Port Nicholson in 1840, the search for land began. Some of the settlers had other interests, however. Ernst Dieffenbach, a naturalist, set out to climb Mount Egmont in the summer of 1839—40 but had great difficulty in persuading Maori guides to accompany him, as the mountain was taboo; when he did get them to do so they refused to go further than the snowline. Dieffenbach reached the top with a whaler named Heberly, but the summit was enveloped in fog and the spectacular view was hidden from them.

On North Island, sheep farming expanded rapidly after 1842, when Charles Kettle and Alfred Wills crossed from Wellington, via the Manawatu Pass, to Lake Wairarapa, and discovered excellent, and apparently uninhabited, grazing lands. On South Island, the founding of Nelson on Tasman Bay was soon followed by the discovery of the Wairau Valley, beyond the Richmond Range. The land was already occupied and European settlement there provoked the first serious clash with the Maoris over land.
 
 
Heaphy, Brunner, and Ekehu
 
The rigors of travel in the first half of the 19th century, especially on the larger, more rugged South Island, were considerable. Scarcity of water, the bane of Australian explorers, was seldom a problem; the rivers being numerous and often exceedingly fast, death by drowning was a notoriously common end tor travelers in New Zealand.
 
 

Ekehu was the Maori guide and companion of Heaphy and Brunner on their exploration of South Island. His skill at living off the land helped to ensure their survival in the very difficult terrain.
  The most demanding journeys in the early years were those of Charles Heaphy and Thomas Brunner (surveyors employed by the New Zealand Company), and their Maori guide Ekehu.

In 1846 the three of them, in search of uncontested land, traveled south from Nelson to a point beyond Lake Rotoroa, and later that year they ventured down the coast, through very rough country, as far as the Arahura River. It was winter, and there rams and snow forced them to turn back, but in December Brunner set out on his most famous journey, accompanied by Ekehu and another Maori, and their wives.

Brunner's objective was the great tableland in the south which the Maoris spoke of, and the plan was to descend the Buller River and thence go south more or less parallel with the coast. Neither topography nor vegetation aided rapid progress, and in spite of Ekehu's hunting skills food soon became scarce. It took them about eight months to reach the mouth of the Grey River, where they overwintered. On reaching Tititira Head in November, Brunner was knocked over by a wave and damaged his right leg, which dissuaded him from continuing south.

In January 1848 they started on their return journey, but Brunner's condition began to deteriorate rapidly. As the southern winter approached, he became partly paralysed and his vision was badly affected. They found a cave, where they sheltered until Brunner's condition improved and he was fit to travel again. They made good progress and, 18 months after they had begun, reached Nelson injune 1848.
 
 
Across the mountains
 
Attempts to cross the mountainous spine of South Island were first made as early as 1850, and in 1852 an enterprising sheep farmer drove his flock from the vicinity of Nelson to Hanmer Plain on the east coast. The Harper Pass is named after Leonard Harper, who crossed from east to west by that route in 1857, descending the Taramakau River to the coast below Greymouth.
 
 
 
 
In the far south, the Southern Alps presented an insuperable obstacle. In 1863 a group of gold miners, led by A. J. Barrington, attempted to find an east—west route. In the high mountains, one man was lost and another slid two miles down a glacier on his back without serious injury. Food was practically non-existent at this altitude, and a rat was consumed with relish, yet, perhaps surprisingly, they eventually survived to recount their exploits. They had proved, beyond much doubt, that no real pass existed.

In the years that followed, individual bushmen contributed odd bits of topographical information, though often without official recognition. One famous character in the 1880s and 1890s was Charles "Mr Explorer" Douglas, who spent much of his adult life traveling through some of the toughest country in Westland Province, mapping hundreds of unknown valleys, sometimes employed by the government, sometimes following his own inclination.
 
 
 
1846
 
 

"The Daily News"

 

The Daily News was a national daily newspaper in the United Kingdom.

The News was founded in 1846 by Charles Dickens, who also served as the newspaper's first editor. It was conceived as a radical rival to the right-wing Morning Chronicle. The paper was not at first a commercial success. Dickens edited 17 issues before handing over the editorship to his friend John Forster, who had more experience in journalism than Dickens.

 
Forster ran the paper until 1870. Charles Mackay, Harriet Martineau, George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells, G. K. Chesterton and Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina were among the leading reformist writers who wrote for the paper during its heyday. In 1870, the News absorbed the Morning Star.

In 1901, Quaker chocolate manufacturer George Cadbury bought the Daily News and used the paper to campaign for old age pensions and against sweatshop labour. As a pacifist, Cadbury opposed the Boer War – and the Daily News followed his line.

In 1906, the News sponsored an exhibition on sweated labour at the Queen's Hall. This exhibition was credited with strengthening the women's suffrage movement. In 1909, H. N. Brailsford and H. W. Nevinson resigned from the paper when it refused to condemn the force feeding of suffragettes.

In 1912, the News merged with the Morning Leader, and was for a time known as the Daily News and Leader. In 1928, it merged with the Westminster Gazette, and in 1930, with the Daily Chronicle to form the centre-left News Chronicle.

The chairman from 1911 to 1930 was Edward Cadbury, eldest son of George Cadbury.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Front cover of 1858 edition
 
 
 
1846
 
 
First painted Christmas card designed by John C. Horseley
 
 
Horsley John Callcott
 

John Callcott Horsley RA (29 January 1817 – 18 October 1903), was an English Academic painter of genre and historical scenes, illustrator, and designer of the first Christmas card. He was a member of the artist's colony in Cranbrook.

 
Childhood and education
Horsley was born in London, the son of William Horsley, the musician, and grand-nephew of Sir Augustus Callcott. His sister Mary Elizabeth Horsley wed the famous British engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1836. Horsley was mentored by William Mulready and Augustus Wall Callcot who sent him at age thirteen to study at Dr Henry Sass's academy where he met D.G Rossetti, J. Millais and W.P. Frith; in his biography Horsley recalls Dr Sass as being vain and untalented. Following preparatory school Horsley studied painting at the Royal Academy schools where he met Thomas Webster. In 1836 he exhibited The Pride of the Village (Vernon Gallery) at the Royal Academy.
 
 

John Callcott Horsley
  Family life
Horsley married Elvira Walter in 1846 with whom he had three sons: Edward (1848), Frank (1849), and Harry (1850). Elvira died of consumption in 1852 followed by the deaths of Edward and Harry in 1854 and Frank in 1857 due to scarlet fever.

Horsley remarried to Rosamund Haden who came from a family of distinguished surgeons—her father Charles Haden had a practice in Sloan Street and her brother Francis Seymour Haden was a surgeon and etcher who founded the Royal Society of Painters, Etchers and Engravers in 1880. Rosamund gave birth to Walter (1855), Hugh (1856), and Victor (1857). Gerald grew up to be an architect, Walter an artist also studying at the RA Schools, and Victor a surgeon. Sir Victor Horsley (born 1857), became famous as a surgeon and neuropathologist, and a prominent supporter of the cause of experimental research. Horsley and Rosamund had four more children: Emma (1858), Fanny (1862), Gerald (1862) and Rosamund (1864), losing Hugh and Emma to scarlet fever.
 
 
After his wedding to Rosamund in 1854 Horsley and his new wife toured the Midlands for five months to establish contacts with wealthy industrialists for portrait commissions. Horsley moved into 'Willesley', his house in Cranbrook in 1861, joining the Cranbrook Colony; whilst maintaining a home in London. The architect Richard Shaw adds "...tall chimneys and cosy 'inglenooks.'" in the Jacobean style to 'Willesley'.
 
 

St. Valentine’s Day by Horsley
 
 
Career
Horsley's paintings were largely of historical subjects set in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, influenced by the Dutch masters Pieter de Hooch and Vermeer. Examples are "Malvolio", "L'Allegro and il Penseroso" (painted for the Prince Consort), "Le Jour des Morts" and "A Scene from Don Quixote".

As a young artist Horsley was patronised by the collector John Sheepshanks, who buys two of Horsley's paintings: ''The Rival Performers (1839), and ''Youth and Age (1839); both of which are now part of the V&A collection.

In 1843 his cartoon (preliminary drawing) of "St Augustine Preaching" won a prize in the competition to provide interior decorations for Palace of Westminster. This led to his being selected in 1844 he was as one of the six painters commissioned to execute frescoes there.

  He painted "Religion" (1845) in the House of Lords, "Henry V assuming the Crown" and "Satan touched by Ithuriel's Spear while whispering evil dreams to Eve". In 1864 he became a Royal Academician (RA). Horsley had much to do with organizing the winter exhibitions of "Old Masters" at Burlington House after 1870.

Horsley was rector and treasurer of the Royal Academy from 1875 to 1890 and 1882 to 1897 respectively. He earned the nickname 'Clothes-Horsley' for his opposition to the use of nude life models.
When, during the 1880s, the example of the French Salon began to affect the Academy exhibitors, and paintings of the nude became the fashion, he protested against the innovation, and his attitude caused Punch to give him the sobriquet of "Mr J. C(lothes) Horsley" (a pun on clothes horse).

He resigned from the academy in 1897, and became a "retired Academician".

 
 

The world's first Christmas card
 
 
Horsley designed the first ever Christmas card, commissioned by Henry Cole. It caused some controversy because it depicted a small child drinking wine. He also designed the Horsley envelope, a pre-paid envelope that was the precursor to the postage stamp.

In 1856 Horsley was photographed at "The Photographed Institute" by Robert Howlett, as part of a series of portraits of "fine artists". The picture was among a group exhibited at the Art Treasures Exhibition in Manchester in 1857.

Horsley was a member of the London-based Etching Club contributing illustrations to editions of "The Deserted Village" (Oliver Goldsmith and "Songs of Shakespeare". He also illustrated a number of other books including "Little Princes" by Eliza Slater (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1890).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1846
 
 
Electric arc lighting at the Opera, Paris
 
 
 
1846
 
 
Famine in Ireland caused by failure of potato crop
 
 
 
1846
 
 
Smithsonian Institution
 
The Smithsonian Institution, established in 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the United States government. Originally organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.
 
Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 138 million items, the Institution's Washington, D.C., nucleus of nineteen museums, nine research centers, and zoo—many of them historical or architectural landmarks—is the largest such complex in the world. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York City, Virginia, Panama and elsewhere, and 168 other museums are Smithsonian Affiliates. The Institution's thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge; funding comes from the Institution's own endowment, private and corporate contributions, membership dues, government support, and retail, concession and licensing revenues. Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air & Space magazines.
 
 

The "Castle" (1847), the Institution's first building and still its headquarters
 
 
Founding
British scientist
Smithson James  (d. 1829) left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford; however, when Hungerford died childless in 1835, the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will. Congress officially accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836.

The American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest; Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns (about $500,000 at the time, which is equivalent to $11,073,000 in 2015).
  Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." Unfortunately the money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas which soon defaulted. After heated debate, Massachusetts Representative (and ex-President) John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning.
Finally, on August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1846
 
 
Optical factory of Carl Zeiss founded in Jena
 
 
Zeiss Carl
 

Carl Zeiss (11 September 1816 – 3 December 1888) was a German maker of optical instruments best known for the company he founded, Carl Zeiss Jena (now: Carl Zeiss AG). Zeiss made contributions to lens manufacturing that have aided the modern production of lenses. Raised in Weimar, Germany, he opened a lens-making workshop in the 1840s in the city of Jena. At first his lenses were only used in the production of microscopes, but when cameras were invented, his company began manufacturing high-quality lenses for cameras.

 

Carl Zeiss
  Carl Zeiss, (born September 11, 1816, Weimar, Thuringian States [Germany]—died December 3, 1888, Jena), German industrialist who gained a worldwide reputation as a manufacturer of fine optical instruments.

In 1846 Zeiss opened a workshop in Jena for producing microscopes and other optical instruments. Realizing that improvements in optical instruments depended on advances in optical theory, in 1866 he engaged as a research worker Ernst Abbe, a physics and mathematics lecturer (later professor) at the University of Jena, who soon became Zeiss’s partner.

They engaged Otto Schott, a chemist, who developed about 100 new kinds of optical glass and numerous types of heat-resistant glass.

After the death of Zeiss, Abbe donated the Zeiss firm and his share in the glassworks to the Carl Zeiss Foundation.

In 1923 Schott added his share in the glassworks to the foundation. In 1945 the Zeiss facilities in Jena were bombed in Allied raids, and the firm’s employees and assets were subsequently dispersed, with rival enterprises in East and West Germany doing business under the Carl Zeiss name until they combined in 1991.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 


Large microscope by Carl Zeiss (1879)

 
 
 

 
 
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