Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

Loading
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
     
     
 
1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1845 Part III NEXT-1846 Part I    
 
 
 
1840 - 1849
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840-1849
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part I
Bebel August
Maximilian of Mexico
Carlota
Convention of London
British North America Act
Francia Jose Gaspar
Macdonald Jacques
William I of the Netherlands
William II of the Netherlands
Retour des cendres
Lambton John George
Vaillant Edouard-Marie
Sampson William
Smith William Sidney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part II
Ridpath John Clark
Sankey Ira David
James Fenimore Cooper: "The Pathfinder"
Blunt Wilfrid Scawen
Broughton Rhoda
Robert Browning: "Sordello"
Daudet Alphonse
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Dobson Austin
Hardy Thomas
Thomas Hardy 
"Tess of the d'Urbervilles"
Lemercier  Nepomucene
Lermontov: "A Hero of Our Times"
Modjeska Helena
Symonds John Addington
Verga Giovanni
Zola Emile
Emile Zola
"
J'accuse" (I accuse)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part III
Delacroix: "Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople"
Makart Hans
Hans Makart
Monet Claude
Claude Monet
Nasmyth Alexander
Alexander Nasmyth
Nast Thomas
Nelson's Column
Rodin Auguste
Auguste Rodin
Redon Odilon
Odilon Redon
Blechen Carl
Karl Blechen
Debain Alexandre-Francois
Donizetti: "La Fille du Regiment"
Haberl Franz Xaver
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich
Tchaikovsky - The Seasons
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky
Schneckenburger Max
Wilhelm Karl
"Die Wacht am Rhein"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part IV
Olbers Wilhelm
Blumenbach Johann Friedrich
Ball Robert
Kohlrausch Friedrich Wilhelm
Agassiz Louis
Basedow Carl Adolph
Graves disease
Maxim Hiram
Eyre Edward John
Brummell Beau
Father Damien
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Washington Temperance Society
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part I
Second Battle of Chuenpee
Barere Bertrand
Fisher John Arbuthnot
British Hong Kong
Luzzatti Luigi
Merriman John
Harrison William Henry
Tyler John
Espartero Baldomero
Hirobumi Ito
Clemenceau Georges
Edward VII
Creole case
Laurier Wilfrid
New Zealand
Lamb William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part II
Cheyne Thomas Kelly
Ludwig Feuerbach: "The Essence of Christianity"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Holst Hermann Eduard
Jebb Richard Claverhouse
Ward Lester Frank
Black William
Robert Browning: "Pippa Passes"
Buchanan Robert
Fenimore Cooper: "The Deerslayer"
Coquelin Benoit
Dickens: "The Old Curiosity Shop"
Ewing Juliana Horatia
Sill Edward Rowland
Frederick Marryat: "Masterman Ready"
Mendes Catulle
Mounet-Sully Jean
"Punch, or The London Charivari"
Sealsfield Charles
Scott Clement William
White Joseph Blanco
Ruskin: "The King of the Golden River"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part III
Chantrey Francis
Morisot Berthe
Berthe Morisot
Renoir Pierre-Auguste
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Wagner Otto
Wallot Paul
Olivier Ferdinand
Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier
Bazille Frederic
Frederic Bazille
Zandomeneghi Federico
Federico Zandomeneghi
Guillaumin Armand
Armand Guillaumin
Chabrier Emmanuel
Chabrier - Espana
Emmanuel Chabrier
Dibdin Thomas John
Dvorak Anton
Antonin Dvorak: Rusalka
Antonin Dvorak
Pedrell Felipe
Felip Pedrell: Els Pirineus
Felipe Pedrell
Rossini: "Stabat Mater"
Sax Antoine-Joseph
Schumann: Symphony No. 1
Sgambati Giovanni
Sgambati - Piano Concerto in G minor
Giovanni Sgambati
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part IV
Cooper Astley
Braid James
Hypnosis
Candolle Austin
Aniline
Kocher Emil Theodor
Kolliker Rudolf Albert
Petzval Joseph
Hudson William Henry
Warming Eugenius
Whitworth Joseph
Barnum's American Museum
Bradshaw George
Cook Thomas
Hyer Tom
"The New York Tribune"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part I
Pozzo di Borgo Charles-Andre
Las Cases Emmanuel
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Treaty of Nanking
General Strike of 1842
O’Higgins Bernardo
Giolitti Giovanni
Fiske John
Hartmann Eduard
Hyndman Henry Mayers
James William
Kropotkin Peter Alekseyevich
Anarchism
Anarchism
Lavisse Ernest
Robertson George Croom
Sorel Albert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part II
Banim John
Sue Eugene
Eugene Sue: "The Mysteries of Paris"
Bierce Ambrose
Brandes Georg
Bulwer-Lytton: "Zanoni"
Graham Maria
Coppee Francois
Cunningham Allan
Espronceda Jose
Gogol: "Dead Souls"
Howard Bronson
Lanier Sidney
Lover Samuel
MacKaye Steele
Maginn William
Mallarme Stephane
May Karl
Рое: "The Masque of the Red Death"
Quental Antero Tarquinio
Woodworth Samuel
Macaulay: "Lays of Ancient Rome"
Tupper Martin Farquhar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part III
Vereshchagin Vasily
Vasily Vereshchagin
Boldini Giovanni
Giovanni Boldini
Boito Arrigo
Arrigo Boito: Mefistofele Finale
Arrigo Boito
Glinka: "Russian and Ludmilla"
Hopkinson Joseph
"Hail, Columbia"
Lortzing: "Der Wildschiitz"
Massenet Jules
Massenet "Elegie"
Jules Massenet
Millocker Karl
Millocker: Gasparone
Karl Millocker
New York Philharmonic
Sullivan Arthur
Arthur Sullivan - The Mikado - Overture
Arthur Sullivan
Wagner: "Rienzi"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part IV
Dewar James
Doppler Christian Andreas
Flammarion Camille
Hansen Emile Christian
Long Crawford Williamson
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Charting the Ocean Depths
Mayer Julius Robert
Pelletier Pierre Joseph
Marshall Alfred
Strutt John William
Retzius Gustaf
Fremont John Charles
Darling Grace
Polka
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part I
McKinley William
Braga Teofilo
Wairau Affray
Dilke Charles
Avenarius Richard
Borrow George
Carlile Richard
Thomas Carlyle: "Past and Present"
Creighton Mandell
Liddell and Scott: "Greek-English Lexicon"
Liddell Henry
Scott Robert
Ward James
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part II
Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last of the Barons"
Elisabeth of Romania
Dickens: "Martin Chuzzlewit"
Doughty Charles Montagu
Dowden Edward
Emmett Daniel Decatur
Hood Thomas
Thomas Hood: "Song of the Shirt"
Horne Richard Hengist
James Henry
Rosegger Peter
Suttner Bertha
Harris George Washington
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part III
Allston Washington
Washington Allston
John Ruskin: "Modern Painters"
Trumbull John
John Trumbull
Werner Anton
Anton von Werner
Clairin Georges
Georges Clairin
Donizetti: "Don Pasquale"
Grieg Edward
Grieg - Solveig Song
Edward Grieg
Nilsson Christine
Patti Adelina
Richter Hans
Schumann: "Paradise and the Peri"
Wagner: "The Flying Dutchman"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part IV
British Archaeological Association
Chamberlin Thomas Chrowder
Ferrier David
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Joule James Prescott
Koch Robert
Erbium
Brunel Marc Isambard
Thames Tunnel
Dix Dorothea Lynde
Guy's, Kings and St. Thomas' Rugby Football Club
Sequoyah
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part I
Lowe Hudson
Drouet Jean-Baptiste
Oscar I of Sweden
Dole Sanford Ballard
Laffitte Jacques
Franco-Moroccan War
Polk James Knox
Herrera Jose Joaquin
Treaty of Wanghia
Breshkovsky Catherine
Comstock Anthony
Emerson: "Essays"
Grundtvig Nikolaj Frederik Severin
Hall Granville Stanley
Nietzsche Friedrich
Friedrich Nietzsche
Rice Edmund Ignatius
Riehl Alois
Stanley Arthur Penrhyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part II
Bernhardt Sarah
Sarah Bernhardt
Dumas, pere: "Le Comte de Monte Cristo"
Bridges Robert
Cable George Washington
Carte Richard
Cary Henry Francis
Disraeli: "Coningsby"
France Anatole
Hopkins Gerard Manley
Lang Andrew
Liliencron Detlev
O'Reilly John Boyle
O’Shaughnessy Arthur
Sterling John
William Thackeray: "Barry Lyndon"
Verlaine Paul
Paul Verlaine
"Poems"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part III
Eakins Thomas
Thomas Eakins
Ezekiel Moses Jacob
Moses Ezekiel
Luke Fildes Luke
Luke Fildes
Leibl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Leibl
Munkacsy Mihaly
Mihaly Munkacsy
Repin Ilya
Ilya Repin
Rousseau Henri
Henri Rousseau
Cassatt Mary
Mary Cassatt
Flotow: "Alessandro Stradella"
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E minor
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay
The Best of Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Sarasate Pablo
Pablo de Sarasate - Zigeunerweisen
Pablo de Sarasate
Verdi: "Ernani"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part IV
Grassmann Hermann Gunther
Baily Francis
Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard
DeLong George Washington
Golgi Camillo
Kielmeyer Carl Friedrich
Kinglake Alexander William
Strasburger Eduard Adolf
Huc Evariste Regis
Gabet Joseph
Sturt Charles Napier
Leichhardt Friedrich
Beckford William
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers
"Fliegende Blatter"
Hagenbeck Carl
Keller Friedrich Gottlob
Pasch Gustaf Erik
Young Men’s Christian Association
Williams George
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part I
Root Elihu
Texas
Florida
Flagstaff War
Ludwig II of Bavaria
First Anglo-Sikh War
Sonderbund
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part II
Friedrich Engels: "The Condition of the Working Class in England"
Stirner Max
Disraeli: "Sybil, or The Two Nations"
Hertz Henrik
Prosper Merimee: "Carmen"
Рое: "The Raven"
Spitteler Carl
Wergeland Henrik
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part III
Bode Wilhelm
Hill David Octavius
Ingres: The Comtesse d'Haussonville
Oberlander Adam Adolf
Crane Walter
Walter Crane
Faure Gabriel
Faure - Pavane
Gabriel Faure
Lortzing: "Undine"
Wagner: "Tannhauser"
Widor Charles-Marie
Widor - Piano Concerto No. 1
Charles Marie Widor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part IV
Armstrong William George
Bigelow Erastus Brigham
Cayley Arthur
Cornell Ezra
Submarine communications cable
Heilmann Joshua
Humboldt: "Cosmos"
Kolbe Hermann
Laveran Alphonse
McNaught William
Metchnikoff Elie
Charting the Northwest
Layard Austen Henry
Cartwright Alexander
United States Naval Academy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part I
Battle of Aliwal
Battle of Sobraon
Treaty of Lahore
Greater Poland Uprising
Krakow Uprising
Mexican-American War
Battle of Monterrey
First Battle of Tabasco
Iowa
Pasic Nikola
Evangelical Alliance
Eucken Rudolf Christoph
Pius IX
Whewell William
Young Brigham
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part II
Balzac: "La Cousine Bette"
De Amicis Edmondo
Dostoevsky: "Poor Folk"
Jokai Maurus
Lear Edward
Melville Herman
Herman Melville: "Typee"
Herman Melville
"Moby Dick or The Whale"
Sienkiewicz Henryk
George Watts: "Paolo and Francesca"
De Nittis Giuseppe
Giuseppe de Nittis
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part III
Berlioz: "Damnation de Faust"
Lortzing: "Der Waffenschmied"
Mendelssohn: "Elijah"
Deere John
Deere & Company
Henle Friedrich
Howe Elias
Waitz Theodor
Mohl Hugo
Green William Thomas
Sobrero Ascanio
Heaphy Charles
Brunner Thomas
Europeans in New Zealand
"The Daily News"
Horsley John Callcott
Smithsonian Institution
Zeiss Carl
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part I
Liberia
Second Battle of Tabasco
Battle of Churubusco
BATTLE OF MEXICO CITY
Hindenburg Paul
Sonderbund War
Beecher Henry Ward
Blanc Louis
Proudhon Pierre-Joseph
roudhon: "Philosophy of Poverty"P
Karl Marx: "The Poverty of Philosophy"
Salt Lake City
Charlotte Bronte: "Jane Eyre"
Bronte Emily
Marryat: "The Children of the New Forest"
Thackeray: "Vanity Fair"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part II
Hildebrand Adolf
Liebermann Max
Max Liebermann
Friedrich von Flotow: "Martha"
Verdi: "Macbeth"
Boole George
Edison Thomas Alva
Bell Alexander Graham
Semmelweis Ignaz Philipp
Colenso William
Factory Act of 1847
Fawcett Millicent
Siemens & Halske
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part I
Frederick VII
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Revolutions of 1848
French Revolution of 1848
June Days Uprising
Cavaignac Louis-Eugene
French Constitution of 1848
French Second Republic
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Slovak Uprising 1848-1849
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part I)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part II
First Italian War of Independence
Skirmish of Pastrengo
Battle of Goito
Battle of Custoza
Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
Revolution of 1848 in Luxembourg
Greater Poland Uprising
Moldavian Revolution of 1848
Pan-Slav Congress of 1848
Pan-Slavism
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part II)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part III
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Nasr-ed-Din
Ibrahim Pasha
Abbas I
Wisconsin
Balfour Arthur James
Seneca Falls Convention
Stanton Elizabeth Cady
Delbruck Hans
Macaulay: "History of England"
"The Communist Manifesto"
John Mill: "Principles of Political Economy"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part IV
Augier Emile
Chateaubriand: "Memoires d'Outre-Tombe"
Dumas fils: "La Dame aux Camelias"
Gaskell Elizabet
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
Murger Louis-Henri
Henri Murger: "Scenes de la vie de Boheme"
Terry Ellen
Surikov Vasily
Vasily Surikov
Uhde Fritz
Fritz von Uhde
Gauguin Paul
Paul Gauguin
Caillebotte Gustave
Gustave Caillebotte
Millais: "Ophelia"
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part V
Parry Hubert Hastings
Jerusalem by Hubert Parry
Hubert Parry
Duparc Henri
Duparc Henri: "L'invitation au voyage"
Henri Duparc
Bottger Rudolf Christian
Parsons William
Frege Gottlob
"New Prussian Newspaper"
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"
Grace William Gilbert
Kneipp Sebastian
Lilienthal Otto
Starr Belle
California Gold Rush
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part I
Battle of Chillianwala
Battle of Gujrat
Roman Republic on February 9, 1849
Battle of Novara
Victor Emmanuel II
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Peace of Milan
Taylor Zachary
Dresden Rebellion of 1849
Surrender at Vilagos
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part II
Kemble John Mitchell
Key Ellen
Arnold Matthew
Dickens: "David Copperfield"
Kingsley Charles
Scribe: "Adrienne Lecouvreur"
Strindberg August
Smith Horace
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part III
Waterhouse John William
John William Waterhouse
John Ruskin: "The Seven Lamps of Architecture"
Carriere Eugene
Eugene Carriere
Liszt: "Tasso"
Meyerbeer: "Le Prophete"
Otto Nicolai: "The Merry Wives of Windsor"
Schumann: "Manfred"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part IV
Fizeau Armand
Frankland Edward
Livingstone David
Explorations of David Livingstone
Baines Thomas
"Who's Who"
Bedford College
Bloomer Amelia
Bloomers (clothing)
Stead William Thomas
 
 
 

A photo purported to be The New York Knickerbockers Base Ball Club, circa 1847: Alfred Cartwright, Alexander Cartwright and, William Wheaton.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1845 Part IV
 
 
 
1845
 
 
Sir William G. Armstrong patents hydraulic crane
 
 
Armstrong William George
 

William George Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong, CB, FRS (26 November 1810 – 27 December 1900) was an English industrialist who founded the Armstrong Whitworth manufacturing concern on Tyneside. He was also an eminent engineer, scientist, inventor and philanthropist. In collaboration with the architect Richard Norman Shaw, he built Cragside in Northumberland, the first house in the world to be lit by hydroelectricity. He is regarded as the inventor of modern artillery. Armstrong was knighted in 1859 after giving his gun patents to the government. In 1887, in Queen Victoria's golden jubilee year, he was raised to the peerage as Baron Armstrong of Cragside, becoming the first engineer – and, indeed, the first scientist – to join the House of Lords.

 

William George Armstrong
  William George Armstrong, Baron Armstrong, also called (1859–87) Sir William George Armstrong (born Nov. 26, 1810, Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland, Eng.—died Dec. 27, 1900, Cragside, Northumberland), British industrialist and engineer who invented high-pressure hydraulic machinery and revolutionized the design and manufacture of guns. Armstrong abandoned his Newcastle law practice in 1847 to devote full time to scientific experimentation. He founded an engineering works at Elswick-on-Tyne to build hydraulic cranes. Because his hydraulic machinery was dependent for power on water mains or reservoirs, he invented, in 1850, a hydraulic accumulator. It comprised a large water-filled cylinder with a piston that could raise water pressure within the cylinder and in supply pipes to 600 pounds per square inch (42 kg per square cm). Thus machinery such as hoists, capstans, turntables, and dock gates could be worked in almost any situation.

He next improved ordnance for the British army. He shrank metal rings onto an inner steel barrel, later coiling a strip of wrought iron into a long helix and welding it to the barrel. This process, used by others, was most successfully developed by Armstrong. He also emphasized breechloading, rifled bores, and elongated projectiles. Armstrong was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1843 and created a baron in 1887.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
Hydraulic crane
Armstrong was a very keen angler, and while fishing on the River Dee at Dentdale in the Pennines, he saw a waterwheel in action, supplying power to a marble quarry. It struck Armstrong that much of the available power was being wasted. When he returned to Newcastle, he designed a rotary engine powered by water, and this was built in the High Bridge works of his friend Henry Watson. Unfortunately, little interest was shown in the engine. Armstrong subsequently developed a piston engine instead of a rotary one and decided that it might be suitable for driving a hydraulic crane. In 1846 his work as an amateur scientist was recognized when he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.

In 1845 a scheme was set in motion to provide piped water from distant reservoirs to the households of Newcastle. Armstrong was involved in this scheme and he proposed to Newcastle Corporation that the excess water pressure in the lower part of town could be used to power a Quayside crane specially adapted by himself. He claimed that his hydraulic crane could unload ships faster and more cheaply than conventional cranes. The Corporation agreed to his suggestion, and the experiment proved so successful that three more hydraulic cranes were installed on the Quayside.

The success of his hydraulic crane led Armstrong to consider setting up a business to manufacture cranes and other hydraulic equipment. He therefore resigned from his legal practice. Donkin, his legal colleague, supported him in his career move, providing financial backing for the new venture. In 1847 the firm of W.G. Armstrong & Company bought 5.5 acres (22,000 m2) of land alongside the river at Elswick, near Newcastle, and began to build a factory there. The new company received orders for hydraulic cranes from Edinburgh and Northern Railways and from Liverpool Docks, as well as for hydraulic machinery for dock gates in Grimsby. The company soon began to expand. In 1850 the company produced 45 cranes and two years later, 75. It averaged 100 cranes per year for the rest of the century. In 1850 over 300 men were employed at the works, but by 1863 this had risen to 3,800. The company soon branched out into bridge building, one of the first orders being for the Inverness Bridge, completed in 1855.

 
 
 
1845
 
 
Amer. inventor E. B. Bigelow constructs power loom for manufacturing carpets
 
 
Bigelow Erastus Brigham
 
Erastus Brigham Bigelow (April 2, 1814 – December 6, 1879) was an American inventor of weaving machines.
 
Beginnings
Erastus Bigelow was born in West Boylston, Massachusetts. He was the son of a cotton weaver, and it was his parents' desire that he should become a physician, but, his father's business not being successful, he was unable to continue his studies, and so turned his attention to inventing. He showed an inventive genius at the early age of 14, when he invented a machine to manufacture piping cord, for which he received $100. Before he had reached the age of 18, he had devised a handloom for suspender webbing. His work on Stenography, a short manual on shorthand writing, was written and published about this time. In 1838, he invented a power loom for weaving knotted counterpanes, and later a power loom to weave coach lace and took his brother, Horatio, in with him.
 
 

Erastus Brigham Bigelow
  Carpets
In 1839 he contracted to produce a power-loom capable of weaving two-ply ingrain carpets, such as had been hitherto woven exclusively by the handloom, which only produced eight yards a day. With his first loom he succeeded in obtaining ten or twelve yards daily, which he increased by improvements until a product of twenty-five yards was regularly obtained. Afterward he invented a power loom for weaving "Brussels" (i.e. pictorial tapestry) and velvet tapestry carpets, his most important invention, which attracted much attention at the World's Fair in London in 1851. The town of Clinton, Massachusetts, owed its growth and manufacturing importance to him, as it contained the coach-lace works, the Lancaster Quilt Company, and the Bigelow Carpet Company, all of which were direct results of his inventive ability. The carpet loom made his name widely known.
Bigelow and his brother Horatio are credited with founding the town of Clinton, which was originally part of the town of Lancaster. Bigelow was elected a member of the Boston Historical Society in April 1864, and in 1869 presented to that society six large volumes entitled Inventions of Erastus Brigham Bigelow patented in England from 1837 to 1868 in which were gathered the printed specifications of eighteen patents granted to him in England. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1866.
In 1862 Bigelow formulated a scheme of uniform taxation for the United States by means of stamps, and he published The Tariff Question, considered in regard to the Policy of England and the Interests of the United States (Boston, 1863).
 
 
Legacy
Bigelow founded the Bigelow Mechanics Institute in 1846, which is today known as the Bigelow Free Public Library located in Clinton, Massachusetts. He was also an original incorporator of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, founded in 1861.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1845
 
 
Arthur Cayley: "Theory of Linear Transformations"
 
 
Cayley Arthur
 

Arthur Cayley, (born August 16, 1821, Richmond, Surrey, England—died January 26, 1895, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire), English mathematician and leader of the British school of pure mathematics that emerged in the 19th century.

 

Arthur Cayley
  Although Cayley was born in England, his first seven years were spent in St. Petersburg, Russia, where his parents lived in a trading community affiliated with the Muscovy Company. On the family’s permanent return to England in 1828 he was educated at a small private school in Blackheath, followed by the three-year course at King’s College, London. Cayley entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1838 and emerged as the champion student of 1842, the “Senior Wrangler” of his year. A fellowship enabled him to stay on at Cambridge, but in 1846 he left the university to study the law at Lincoln’s Inn in London. Cayley practised law in London from 1849 until 1863, while writing more than 300 mathematical papers in his spare time. In recognition of his mathematical work, he was elected to the Royal Society in 1852 and presented with its Royal Medal seven years later. In 1863 he accepted the Sadleirian professorship in mathematics at Cambridge—sacrificing his legal career in order to devote himself full-time to mathematical research. In that same year he married Susan Moline, the daughter of a country banker.
Cayley’s manner was diffident but decisive. He was a capable administrator who quietly and effectively discharged his academic duties. He was an early supporter of women’s higher education and steered Newnham College, Cambridge (founded in 1871), during the 1880s. Despite aiding the careers of a few students who naturally took to pure mathematics, Cayley never established a full-fledged research school of mathematics at Cambridge.

In mathematics Cayley was an individualist. He handled calculations and symbolic manipulations with formidable skill, guided by a deep intuitive understanding of mathematical theories and their interconnections.

 
 
His ability to keep abreast of current work while seeing the wider view enabled him to perceive important trends and to make valuable suggestions for further investigation.

Cayley made important contributions to the algebraic theory of curves and surfaces, group theory, linear algebra, graph theory, combinatorics, and elliptic functions. He formalized the theory of matrices. Among Cayley’s most important papers were his series of 10 “Memoirs on Quantics” (1854–78).
A quantic, known today as an algebraic form, is a polynomial with the same total degree for each term; for example, every term in the following polynomial has a total degree of 3:
x3 + 7x2y − 5xy2 + y3.

 
 
Alongside work produced by his friend James Joseph Sylvester, Cayley’s study of various properties of forms that are unchanged (invariant) under some transformation, such as rotating or translating the coordinate axes, established a branch of algebra known as invariant theory.

In geometry Cayley concentrated his attention on analytic geometry, for which he naturally employed invariant theory. For example, he showed that the order of points formed by intersecting lines is always invariant, regardless of any spatial transformation. In 1859 Cayley outlined a notion of distance in projective geometry (a projective metric), and he was one of the first to realize that Euclidean geometry is a special case of projective geometry—an insight that reversed current thinking. Ten years later, Cayley’s projective metric provided a key for understanding the relationship between the various types of non-Euclidean geometries.

While Cayley was essentially a pure mathematician, he also pursued mechanics and astronomy.

  He was active in lunar studies and produced two widely praised reports on dynamics (1857, 1862). Cayley had an extraordinarily prolific career, producing almost a thousand mathematical papers. His habit was to embark on long studies punctuated by rapidly written “bulletins from the front.” Cayley wrote French effortlessly and often published in Continental journals. As a young graduate at Cambridge, he was inspired by the work of the mathematician Karl Jacobi (1804–51), and in 1876 Cayley published his only book, An Elementary Treatise on Elliptic Functions, which drew out this widely studied subject from Jacobi’s point of view.

Cayley was awarded numerous honours, including the Copley Medal in 1882 by the Royal Society. At various times he was president of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, the London Mathematical Society, the British Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Royal Astronomical Society.

Tony Crilly

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1845
 
 
Ezra Cornell lays a 12-mile cable, consisting of two copper wires wrapped in cotton, insulated with india-rubber and enclosed in a lead pipe, between Fort Lee and New York.
 
 
Cornell Ezra
 

Ezra Cornell (January 11, 1807 – December 9, 1874) was an American businessman and education administrator. He was the founder of Western Union and a co-founder of Cornell University. He also served as President of the New York Agriculture Society and as a state Senator.

 

Ezra Cornell
  Birth and early life
He was born in Westchester Landing, in what would become the Bronx, New York, the son of Eunice (Barnard), and a potter, Elijah Cornell, and was raised near DeRuyter, New York. He was a cousin of Paul Cornell, the founder of Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood. Cornell was also a distant relative of William Cornell, who was an early settler of Scarborough, Ontario whose name was used for the planned community of Cornell, Ontario. Having traveled extensively as a carpenter in New York State, Ezra, upon first setting eyes on Cayuga Lake and Ithaca, decided Ithaca would be his future home. Ezra Cornell's earliest American patrilineal ancestor, Thomas Cornell (settler) (1595-1673), was probably Puritan at first then a follower of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson drifting into Quakerism which seems to have been the religion of his descendants. Portsmouth, RI is noteworthy in American history for the 1638 Portsmouth Compact declaring for a separation of church and state rivaling the Flushing Remonstrance of 1657 declaring for religious tolerance in New Amsterdam, Quakers in particular.

After settling in at Ithaca, Cornell quickly went to work proving himself as a carpenter. Colonel Beebe took notice of the industrious young man and made him the manager of his mill at Fall Creek. Ezra Cornell was a birthright Quaker, but was later disowned by the Society of Friends for marrying outside of the faith to a "world's woman," a Methodist by the name of Mary Ann Wood.
 
 
Ezra and Mary Ann were married March 19, 1831, in Dryden, New York.

On February 24, 1832, Ezra Cornell wrote the following response to his expulsion from The Society of Friends due to his marriage to Mary Ann Wood:

I have always considered that choosing a companion for life was a very important affair and that my happiness or misery in this life depended on the choice…

The young and growing family needed more income than could be earned as manager of Beebe's Mills. So, having purchased rights in a patent for a new type of plow, Ezra began what would be decades of traveling away from Ithaca. His territories for sales of the plow were the states of Maine and Georgia. His plan was to sell in Maine in the summer and the milder Georgia in the winter. With limited means, what transported Ezra between the two states were his own two feet.

 
 
Telegraph
Happening into the offices of the Maine Farmer in 1842, Cornell saw an acquaintance of his, one F.O.J. Smith, bent over some plans for a "scraper" as Smith called it. For services rendered, Smith had been granted a one-quarter share of the telegraph patent held by Samuel F.B. Morse, and was attempting to devise a way of burying the telegraph lines in the ground in lead pipe. Ezra's knowledge of plows was put to the test and Ezra devised a special kind of plow that would dig a 2½ foot ditch, lay the pipe and telegraph wire in the ditch and cover it back up as it went. Later it was found that condensation in the pipes and poor insulation of the wires impeded the electrical current on the wires and so hanging the wire from telegraph poles became the accepted method.

Cornell made his fortune in the telegraph business as an associate of Samuel Morse, having gained his trust by constructing and stringing the telegraph poles between Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, Maryland, as the first ever telegraph line of substance in the U.S. To address the problem of telegraph lines shorting out to the ground, Cornell invented the idea of using glass insulators at the point where telegraph lines are connected to supporting poles. After joining with Morse, Cornell supervised the erection of many telegraph lines, including a portion of the New York, Albany & Buffalo line in 1846 and the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company connecting Buffalo to Milwaukee with partners John James Speed and Francis Ormand Jonathan Smith. Cornell, Speed and Smith also built the New York and Erie line competing with and paralleling to the south the New York, Albany and Buffalo line in which Morse had a major share. The line was completed in 1849 and Cornell was made president of the company.
Cornell's sister Phoebe married Martin B. Wood and moved to Albion, Michigan, in 1848. Cornell gave Wood a job constructing new lines and made Phoebe his telegraph operator, the first woman operator in the United States.
Cornell earned a substantial fortune when the Erie and Michigan was consolidated with Hiram Sibley and his New York and Mississippi Company to form the Western Union company. Cornell received two million in Western Union stock.

Cornell was a Republican member of the New York State Assembly (Tompkins Co.) in 1862 and 1863; and of the New York State Senate from 1864 to 1867, sitting in the 87th, 88th, 89th and 90th New York State Legislatures.

  Cornell University
Cornell retired from Western Union and turned his attention to philanthropy. He endowed the Cornell Library, a public library for the citizens of Ithaca. A lifelong enthusiast of science and agriculture, he saw great opportunity in the 1862 Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to found a university that would teach practical subjects on an equal basis with the classics favored by more traditional institutions. Andrew Dickson White helped secure the new institution's status as New York's land grant university, and Cornell University was granted a charter through their efforts in 1865.


Later life

Ezra Cornell entered the railroad business, but fared poorly due to the Panic of 1873. He began construction of a palatial Ithaca mansion, Llenroc (Cornell spelled in reverse) to replace his farmhouse, Forest Home, but died before it was completed. Llenroc was maintained by Cornell's heirs for several decades until being sold to the local chapter of the Delta Phi fraternity, which occupies it to this day; Forest Home was sold to the Delta Tau Delta chapter and later demolished. Cornell is interred in Sage Chapel on Cornell's campus, along with Daniel Willard Fiske and Jennie McGraw. Cornell was originally laid to rest in Lake View Cemetery, Ithaca N.Y., then moved to Sage Chapel.

A prolific letter writer, Ezra corresponded with a great many people and would write dozens of letters each week. This was due partly to his wide traveling, and also to the many business associates he maintained during his years as an entrepreneur and later as a politician and university founder. Cornell University has made the approximately 30,000 letters in the Cornell Correspondence available online.

His eldest son, Alonzo B. Cornell, was later governor of New York. Since its founding, the University's charter specified that the eldest lineal descendent of Cornell is granted a life seat on Cornell University's Board of Trustees, currently Ezra Cornell IV. (Since Ezra Cornell IV took the post on November 17, 1969, the law was amended, not now specifying the "eldest male lineal descendent.")

In 1990, G. David Low, graduate of Cornell University and Space Shuttle astronaut, took with him into outer space a pair of tan silk socks worn by Ezra Cornell on his wedding day in 1831.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Submarine communications cable
 

A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean. The first submarine communications cables, laid in the 1850s, carried telegraphy traffic. Subsequent generations of cables carried telephone traffic, then data communications traffic. Modern cables use optical fiber technology to carry digital data, which includes telephone, Internet and private data traffic.

Modern cables are typically 69 millimetres (2.7 in) in diameter and weigh around 10 kilograms per metre (7 lb/ft), although thinner and lighter cables are used for deep-water sections. As of 2010, submarine cables link all the world's continents except Antarctica.

 
Early history: telegraph and coaxial cables
Trials

After William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone had introduced their working telegraph in 1839, the idea of a submarine line across the Atlantic Ocean began to be thought of as a possible triumph of the future. Samuel Morse proclaimed his faith in it as early as 1840, and in 1842, he submerged a wire, insulated with tarred hemp and India rubber, in the water of New York Harbor, and telegraphed through it. The following autumn, Wheatstone performed a similar experiment in Swansea Bay.

A good insulator to cover the wire and prevent the electric current from leaking into the water was necessary for the success of a long submarine line. India rubber had been tried by Moritz von Jacobi, the Prussian electrical engineer, as far back as the early 19th century.

Another insulating gum which could be melted by heat and readily applied to wire made its appearance in 1842. Gutta-percha, the adhesive juice of the Palaquium gutta tree, was introduced to Europe by William Montgomerie, a Scottish surgeon in the service of the British East India Company. Twenty years earlier, he had seen whips made of it in Singapore, and he believed that it would be useful in the fabrication of surgical apparatuses. Michael Faraday and Wheatstone soon discovered the merits of gutta-percha as an insulator, and in 1845, the latter suggested that it should be employed to cover the wire which was proposed to be laid from Dover to Calais. It was tried on a wire laid across the Rhine between Deutz and Cologne.

  In 1849, C.V. Walker, electrician to the South Eastern Railway, submerged a two-mile wire coated with gutta-percha off the coast from Folkestone, which was tested successfully.

First commercial cables

Having earlier obtained a concession from the French Government, in August 1850 John Watkins Brett's Anglo-French Telegraph Company laid the first line across the English Channel, using the converted tug Goliath. It was simply a copper wire coated with gutta-percha, without any other protection, and was not successful. The experiment served to secure renewal of the concession, and in September 1851, a protected core, or true, cable was laid by the reconstituted Submarine Telegraph Company from a government hulk, the Blazer, which was towed across the Channel.

In 1853 further successful cables were laid, linking Great Britain with Ireland, Belgium and the Netherlands, and crossing The Belts in Denmark. The British & Irish Magnetic Telegraph Company completed the first successful Irish link on May 23 between Portpatrick and Donaghadee using the collier William Hutt.

The same ship was used for the link from Dover to Ostend in Belgium, by the Submarine Telegraph Company. Meanwhile, the Electric & International Telegraph Company completed two cables across the North Sea, from Orford Ness to Scheveningen, The Netherlands. They were laid by the Monarch, a paddle steamer which later became the first vessel with permanent cable-laying equipment.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 

Eastern Telegraph Company network in 1901. Dotted lines across the Pacific indicate then-planned cables laid in 1902-03.
 
 

Undersea cable, also called Marine Cable, assembly of conductors enclosed by an insulating sheath and laid on the ocean floor for the transmission of messages. Undersea cables for transmitting telegraph signals antedated the invention of the telephone; the first undersea telegraph cable was laid in 1850 between England and France. The Atlantic was spanned in 1858 between Ireland and Newfoundland, but the cable’s insulation failed and it had to be abandoned. The first permanently successful transatlantic cable was laid in 1866, and in the same year another cable, partially laid in 1865, was also completed. The American financier Cyrus W. Field and the British scientist Lord Kelvin were closely associated with the two enterprises. Use of long undersea cables suitable for telephony followed the development in the 1950s of telephone repeaters with sufficiently long life to make the operation economically practical. The development of vacuum-tube repeaters that could operate continuously and flawlessly with no attention for at least 20 years, at depths up to 2,000 fathoms (12,000 feet [3,660 m]), made possible the first transatlantic telephone cable, from Scotland to Newfoundland (1956). The system provided 36 telephone circuits. Similar undersea systems between Port Angeles, Wash., and Ketchikan, Alaska, and between California and Hawaii were later put into service. A 5,300-nautical-mile (9,816-kilometre) cable between Hawaii and Japan (1964) provided 128 voice circuits; the same number of circuits were provided in 1965 by a cable linking the United States and France. Newer cables use transistorized repeaters and provide even more voice circuits; some are capable of transmitting television programs.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1845
 
 
French inventor Joshua Heilman patents machine for combing cotton and wool
 
 
Heilmann Joshua
 

Alsace-born inventor, Joshua Heilmann (1796-1848), who invented the first machine for combing cotton.

 

Joshua Heilmann
  Heilmann invented and revised the design of many other machines including looms, a machine for measuring and folding material, and the first embroidery machine.
 

Combing is a method for preparing carded fiber for spinning. The combing is divided into linear and circular combing. Noble comb is an example of circular combing. French comb is an example of linear combing. The process of combing is accompanied by gilling, a process of evening out carded or combed top making it suitable for spinning. Combing separates out the short fibers by means of a rotating ring or rectilinear row of steel pins. The fibers in the 'top' it produces, have been straightened and lie parallel to each other. When combing wool, the discarded short fibres are called noils, and are ground up into shoddy.

In general there are two main systems of preparing fibre for yarn. System are known as worsted and woollen system. Worsted system is defined by removal of short fibre by combing and top preparation by gilling. The other system referred to as woollen system short fibre retained, that system may or may not involve combing.

 
 
 
1845
 
 
Humboldt: "Cosmos"
 

Kosmos (usually referred to in English as "Cosmos") is an influential treatise on science and nature written by the German scientist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt (Humboldt Alexander). Kosmos began as a lecture series delivered by Humboldt at the University of Berlin, and was published in five volumes between 1845 and 1862 (the fifth was posthumous and completed based on Humboldt's notes). In the first volume of Kosmos, Humboldt paints a general “portrait of nature”, describing the physical nature of outer space and the earth. In the second volume he describe the history of science.

 
Widely read by academics and laymen alike, it applied the ancient Greek view of the orderliness of the cosmos (the universe) to the Earth, suggesting that universal laws applied as well to the apparent chaos of the terrestrial world. Humboldt goes on to suggest that when one contemplates the beauty of the cosmos, one can obtain personal inspiration and a beneficial, if subjective, awareness about life.

Kosmos was influenced by Humboldt’s various travels and studies, but mainly by his journey throughout the Americas. As he wrote, “it was the discovery of America that planted the seed of the Cosmos.” Due to all of his experience in the field, Humboldt was preeminently qualified for the task to represent the universe in a single work. He had extensive knowledge of many fields of learning, varied experiences as a traveler, and the resources of the scientific and literary world at his disposal.

Kosmos was highly popular when it was released, with the first volume selling out in two months, and the work translated into most European languages. Although the natural sciences have diverged from the romantic perspective Humboldt presented in Kosmos, the work is still considered to be a substantial scientific and literary achievement, having influenced subsequent scientific progress an imparted a unifying perspective to the studies of science, nature, and mankind.

 
 
Background and Influences
Since the early years of the nineteenth century, Humboldt had been a world-famous figure, second in renown only to Napoleon.

As the son of an aristocratic family in Prussia, he received the best education available at the time in Europe, studying under famous thinkers at the universities of Frankfurt and Göttingen.

By the time he wrote Kosmos, Humboldt was an esteemed explorer, cosmographer, biologist, diplomat, engineer, and citizen of the world. While considered a geographer, he is accredited with contributing to most of the sciences of the natural world environment found today.

Humboldt in the Americas

Probably more than any other factor, Humboldt's career was shaped by his travels in South and Central America in the five years from 1799 to 1804.

Humboldt said that his Cosmos was born on the slopes of the Andes. Beginning in Venezuela, he explored the Orinoco and upper Amazing valleys, climbed Mount Chimborazo — then believed to be the world's highest mountain — investigated changing vegetation from the tropical jungles to the top of the Andes, collected thousands of plant specimens, and accumulated a vast collection of animals, insects, and geological fragments.

From the notes he gathered on this journey, Humboldt was able to produce at least thirty volumes based on his observations. His studies related to many scientific fields, including botany, zoology, geology, and geography, as well as narratives of popular travel and discussions of political, economic, and social conditions.
  Humboldt in Asia
Twenty-five years after his exploration of the Americas, at the age of sixty, Humboldt undertook an extended tour, subsidized by the Tsar of Russia, into the interior of Asia. Between May and November 1829, Humboldt and his two subordinates, C.G. Ehrenberg and Gustav Rose, traveled across the vast expanse of the Russian empire. Upon his return, Humboldt left the publication of the scientific results to Ehrenberg and Rose, while his own work — a three-volume descriptive geography entitles Asie Centrale — did not appear until many years later. This work was very modest in comparison to Humboldt's South American publications. Asie Centrale focused on the facts and figured of Central Asian geography, along with data to complete his isothermal world map. It was during his South American and Asian explorations that Humboldt made the observations crucial to forming his physical description of the universe in Kosmos.

Berlin Lectures
In 1827, having spent himself into poverty publishing his scientific works, his king, Friedrich Wilhelm III, reminded Humboldt of his debt and recalled him to Berlin. When he arrived in Berlin, Humboldt announced that he would give a course of lectures on physical geography. From November 1827 to April 1828, he delivered a series of sixty-one lectures at the University of Berlin. The lectures were so well-attended, that Humboldt soon announced a second series, which was held in a music hall before an audience of thousands, free to all comers. Beginning in 1828, Humboldt finally gave expression to his concept in his Berlin lectures, and from then on he labored to produce his physical description of the universe in book form. Collaborators pledged to his assistance included the greatest scientists of his generation, including leaders in chemistry, astronomy, anatomy, mathematics, mineralogy, botany, and other areas of study.

 
 

Alexander von Humboldt's Latin American expedition
 
 
Publication
In 1828 after the Berlin lectures, Humboldt began formulating his vision in writing. His factual text, heavily loaded with footnotes and references, was sent in proof sheets to all the various specialists for comments and corrections before publication. In this way, he aimed to ensure that what he wrote was both accurate and up-to-date. He continually looked to his friend and literary advisor Varnhagen von Ense for advice in the matter of his style of writing. In total, Kosmos took twenty-five years to write.

Humboldt felt as if publishing Kosmos was a race against death. The first volume was published in 1845 when he was seventy-six, the second when he was seventy-eight, the third when he was eighty-one, and the fourth when he was eighty-nine. The fifth volume, however, was only half-written when Humboldt passed away in 1859 and had to be completed from his notes and provided with an index over a thousand pages long.
 
 
Content
Humboldt viewed the world as what the ancient Greeks called a kosmos – “a beautifully ordered and harmonious system” – and coined the modern word “cosmos” to use as the title of his final work. This title allowed him to encompass heaven and earth together. He reintroduced Cosmos as “the assemblage of all things in heaven and earth, the universality of created things constituting the perceptible world.” His basic purpose is outlined in the introduction to the first volume:

"The most important aim of all physical science is this: to recognize unity in diversity, to comprehend all the single aspects as revealed by the discoveries of the last epochs, to judge single phenomena separately without surrendering their bulk, and to grasp Nature's essence under the cover of outer appearances."

Humboldt soon adds, Kosmos signifies both the “order of the world, and adornment of this universal order.” Thus, there are two aspects of the Cosmos, the “order” and the “adornment.” The first refers to the observed fact that the physical universe, independently of humans, demonstrates regularities and patterns that we can define as laws.
Adornment, however, is up to human interpretation. To Humboldt, Cosmos is both ordered and beautiful, through the human mind. He created a dynamic picture of the universe that would continually grow and change as human conceptions of nature and the depth of human feeling about nature enlarge and deepen.
To represent this double-sided aspect of Cosmos, Humboldt divided his book into two parts, with the first painting a general “portrait of nature.”

 
A portrait of Humboldt greeting death,
by Wilhelm von Kaulbach, 1869
 
 
Humboldt first examines outer space – the Milky Way, cosmic nebulae, and planets – and then proceeds to the earth and its physical geography; climate; volcanoes; relationships among plants, animals, and mankind; evolution; and the beauty of nature. In the second part, on the history of science, Humboldt aims to take the reader on an inner or “subjective” journey through the mind. Humboldt is concerned with “the difference of feeling excited by the contemplation of nature at different epochs,” that is, the attitudes toward natural phenomena among poets, painters, and students of nature through the ages.

The final three volumes are devoted to a more detailed account of scientific studies in astronomy, the earth’s physical properties, and geological formations. On the whole, the final work followed the scheme of the Berlin lectures reasonably faithfully.
 
 
Response to Kosmos
Reception
Kosmos was considered to be both a scientific and literary achievement, immensely popular among nineteenth-century readers.
Although the book bore the daunting subtitle of A Sketch of a Physical Description of the Universe, and had an index that ran to more than 1,000 pages, the first volume sold out in two months, the work was translated into all major languages and sold hundreds of thousands of copies.

Humboldt's publisher claimed: "The demand is epoch-making. Book parcels destined for London and St. Petersburg were torn out of our hands by agents who wanted their orders filled for the bookstores in Vienna and Hamburg."

Kosmos largely enhanced Humboldt's reputation in his own lifetime, not only in his own country but throughout Europe and America as well.

Its enthusiastic reception in England, where it came out in the Bohn Scientific Library in a translation by Elizabeth Leeves, particularly surprised him. The reviews were gushing in praise of both the author and his work.

However, some felt he had not done justice to the contribution of modern British scientists and many were quick to point out that Humboldt, who had written so exhaustively about the creation of the universe, failed to ever mention God the Creator.

 
 
 
Legacy
Humboldt's Kosmos had a significant impact on scientific progress, as well as various scientists and authors throughout Europe and America. Humboldt's work gave a strong impetus to scientific exploration throughout the nineteenth century, inspiring many, including Charles Darwin and his voyage as the naturalist aboard the Beagle. Darwin called Humboldt "the greatest scientific traveler who ever lived." Kosmos influenced several American authors, including Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman, and Ralph Waldo Emerson. Emerson read Humboldt's work throughout his life, and for him, Kosmos capped Humboldt's role as a scientific revolutionary. Edgar Allan Poe was also an admirer of Humboldt, even dedicating his last major work, Eureka: A Prose Poem, to Humboldt. Humboldt's attempt to unify the sciences was a major inspiration for Poe's work. Walt Whitman was said to have kept a copy of Kosmos on his desk for inspiration as he wrote Leaves of Grass, and Henry David Thoreau's Walden, like Eureka, was a response to Humboldt's ideas. Although Kosmos and Humboldt's work in general had such a lasting impact on scientific thought, interest in Humboldt's life, work, and ideas over the past two centuries has dwindled in comparison to what it once was.
  However, starting in the 1990s and continuing to date, an upswing in scholarly interest in Humboldt has occurred.

A new edition of Kosmos released in Germany in 2004 received avid reviews, renewing Humboldt's prominence in German society.

German media outlets hailed the largely forgotten Humboldt as a new avatar figure for German national renewal and a model cosmopolitan ambassador of German culture and civilization for the twenty-first century.

Humboldt is also credited with laying the foundations of physical geography and meteorology. His account in Kosmos of the propagation of seismic waves also became the basis of modern seismology.

His most enduring contribution to scientific progress, however, in his conception of the unity of science, nature, and mankind. Kosmos showed nature as a whole, not as unconnected parts.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
see also: Baron von Humboldt
 
 
1845
 
 
German chemist Adolf Kolbe synthesizes acetic acid
 
 
Kolbe Hermann
 

Hermann Kolbe, in full Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe (born Sept. 27, 1818, Elliehausen, near Göttingen, Hanover [Ger.]—died Nov. 25, 1884, Leipzig, Ger.), German chemist who accomplished the first generally accepted synthesis of an organic compound from inorganic materials.

 

Hermann Kolbe
  Kolbe studied chemistry with Friedrich Wöhler at the University of Göttingen and earned his doctorate in 1843 with Robert Bunsen at the University of Marburg (Hesse). After serving as Bunsen’s assistant, Kolbe accepted in 1845 a postdoctoral position in London as assistant to Lyon Playfair, a chemist and a member of the British Parliament. Two years later, Kolbe began working as a scientific editor and writer with the Vieweg publishing house in Braunschweig. In 1851 he finally won a professorship, becoming Bunsen’s successor at Marburg. The circumstances were very unusual, in that he was appointed a full professor without ever having formally qualified for university teaching. But he was highly successful there, both in teaching and research. After 14 years in Marburg, Kolbe accepted a post at the University of Leipzig, where a palatial new laboratory institute was built for him. He remained at Leipzig for the rest of his life.

Kolbe was a leader in the field of organic chemistry just when that field was entering a period of explosive growth. As early as 1844–45, he published a method for the synthesis of acetic acid, the first example of a total synthesis of an important organic compound; in the final paper of this series he used the word synthesis for the first time in a chemical context. Over the next decade or two, numerous organic substances were synthesized, and Kolbe played a major role in this history.

Even more significant for the long term, Kolbe attempted to understand the inner nature of the substances he was manipulating.

 
 
Powerfully influenced by such chemists as Wöhler, Bunsen, Justus Liebig, and Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Kolbe further developed the theories of molecular composition that had been devised by these chemists. Most chemists of the 1840s adhered to theories of organic radicals, according to which organic molecules were thought to be constructed of—and therefore resolvable into—subcomponent parts (“radicals”) that could also exist independently. Kolbe’s investigations of these radicals gradually provided the means to discern the detailed constitution of organic substances. For example, he explored electrolysis of organic acids that produced new hydrocarbons, and together with his English friend Edward Frankland he devised a reaction that extended the size of the same acids (by means of nitrile formation followed by hydrolysis).
 
 
Efforts like these culminated in the development of the theory of chemical structure, by German chemist August Kekulé and others, which emerged just before 1860. Unfortunately, Kolbe categorically rejected the molecular structural diagrams drawn by Kekulé, with his valence bonds between atoms and his carbon chains. Kolbe regarded the classical theory of radicals, which conceived of groups of atoms held together by presumed electrostatic forces, as perfectly sufficient to depict even the most complex organic molecules, and he thought the new structural formulas were excessively speculative. However, virtually all chemists of Kolbe’s age or younger disagreed with him, and the structure theory became well established by about 1870.

When Kekulé’s former student Jacobus Henricus van’t Hoff extended structural formulas into three dimensions in order to create the new specialty field of stereochemistry (1874), Kolbe exploded with anger. As chief editor of a leading journal—the Journal für praktische Chemie—he often published scathing editorials, and in 1877 he viciously excoriated the young and still unknown van’t Hoff. He had also been waging an increasingly unpopular battle against the development of Kekulé’s theory of aromatic compounds (that is, compounds based on the benzene molecule). Unfortunately for Kolbe, stereochemistry, aromatic chemistry, and structural chemistry in general became ever more scientifically useful and more fully accepted; accordingly, by the end of his life Kolbe had generally come to be viewed as an unpleasant crank.

  Kolbe gave battle with younger structural chemists not because of ambition, vanity, or spite, but rather because he was committed to high standards of evidence and argument in science, which he thought were being systematically violated by his opponents.

Chemistry is a subtle science, requiring sophisticated chains of inference in order to make reliable conclusions about the invisibly small details of molecular architecture. Kolbe was a master at such distant inference; he regarded the methodological style of his opponents as both naive and foolhardy. He never hesitated to defend his science from what he viewed as error. Unfortunately for him, his targets of scorn were among the finest younger chemists of his day.

During the course of his career, Kolbe had close to 2,000 students in his laboratory classes and dozens of postdoctoral or guest workers. Although he dealt harshly in print with those with whom he disagreed, his students were devoted to him.

He was one of the finest experimentalists of the 19th century, a true master of the chemical laboratory. He was also, despite his extreme and old-fashioned views, one of the most important theorists during the classical period in the history of organic chemistry.

Alan J. Rocke

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1845
 
 
Laveran Alphonse
 
Alphonse Laveran, in full Charles-Louis-Alphonse Laveran (born June 18, 1845, Paris, France—died May 18, 1922, Paris), French physician, pathologist, and parasitologist who discovered the parasite that causes human malaria. For this and later work on protozoal diseases he received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1907.
 

Alphonse Laveran
  Educated at the Strasbourg faculty of medicine, he served as an army surgeon in the Franco-German War (1870–71) and practiced and taught military medicine until 1897, when he joined the Pasteur Institute, Paris.

While serving as a military surgeon in Algeria in 1880, Laveran discovered the cause of malaria in the course of the autopsies he conducted on malaria victims. He found the causative organism to be a protozoan which he named Oscillaria malariae, though it was later renamed Plasmodium.

Laveran was a powerful influence in developing research in tropical medicine, carrying on fruitful work in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and other protozoal diseases, as well as his epochal work in malaria.

He established the Laboratory of Tropical Diseases at the Pasteur Institute (1907) and founded the Société de Pathologie Exotique (1908).

Laveran’s extensive writings include Trypanosomes et trypanosomiasis (with Félix Mesnil; 1904); Traité des fièvres palustres avec la description des microbes du paludisme (1884); and Traité des maladies et épidémies des armées (1875).

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1845
 
 
Scottish engineer William M'Naught develops compound steam engine
 
 
McNaught William
 

William McNaught (1813–1881) was a Scottish engineer, from Glasgow, who patented a compound steam engine in 1845. This was a technique of improving the efficiency of a standard simple Boulton & Watt beam engine. The engine was compounded by adding a high-pressure cylinder between the support column and the flywheel, on the side opposite the low-pressure cylinder. This improvement could be retrospectively fitted to existing engines.

 
Family
William McNaught was born on 27 May 1813 at Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland. William was the son of John McNaught, the inventor of the McNaught indicator, a device that measured the cylinder pressure cycle in steam engines. John started producing the indicators in 1830, and for the period 1832–40 he lived at 24, then 26 Robinson Street, Glasgow. William is recorded at that address in 1840. William patented his compound steam engine in 1845 (Patent no. 11001). He relocated to Manchester in 1849.

The Robertson Street workshop was operated by 'William McNaught & Son' as "Makers of Steam-Engine Indicators, Steam Gauges, etc" at 12 Hampden Terrace. Glasgow at least until 1895.

MacNaught died in 34 Clarendon Rd, Chorlton upon Medlock, Manchester, on 8 January 1881, leaving two sons who carried on the business. He was buried in Glasgow.

  McNaught'ed beam engines
A beam engine might run at 5psi, using one low-pressure cylinder steamed by an 1840 wagon boiler, but when McNaught'ed the new high-pressure cylinder could run at over 60psi, a pressure that the then new Lancashire boiler was capable of producing.

In addition the stress on the centre of the beam was massively reduced, and those on the crank pin slightly reduced. This was important in preventing beam failure.

The thermodynamic benefits of high-pressure steam were beginning to be understood, as scientific opinion turned away from the ideas of caloric to the laws of thermodynamics proposed by Joule in 1849.

Many engine makers McNaughted existing beam engines including that of William McNaught (of Rochdale).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1845
 
 
Metchnikoff Elie
 
Elie Metchnikoff, Russian in full Ilya Ilich Mechnikov (born May 16, 1845, near Kharkov, Ukraine, Russian Empire [now Kharkiv, Ukraine]—died July 16, 1916, Paris, France), Russian-born zoologist and microbiologist who received (with Paul Ehrlich) the 1908 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery in animals of amoeba-like cells that engulf foreign bodies such as bacteria—a phenomenon known as phagocytosis and a fundamental part of the immune response.
 

Ilya Ilich Mechnikov
  Metchnikoff received his bachelor’s degree from the University of Kharkov (1864; or University of Kharkiv) and completed his doctoral degree at the University of St. Petersburg (1868). He served as professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at the University of Odessa (1870–82; now Odessa National Mechnikov University). In Messina, Italy (1882–86), while studying the origin of digestive organs in bipinnaria starfish larvae, he observed that certain cells unconnected with digestion surrounded and engulfed carmine dye particles and splinters that he had introduced into the bodies of the larvae. He called these cells phagocytes (from Greek words meaning “devouring cells”) and named the process phagocytosis.

Working at the Bacteriological Institute, Odessa (1886–87), and at the Pasteur Institute, Paris (1888–1916), Metchnikoff contributed to many important discoveries about the immune response. Perhaps his most notable achievement was his recognition that the phagocyte is the first line of defense against acute infection in most animals, including humans, whose phagocytes are one type of leukocyte, or white blood cell. This work formed the basis of Metchnikoff’s cellular (phagocytic) theory of immunity (1892), a hypothesis that engendered much opposition, particularly from scientists who claimed that only body fluids and soluble substances in the blood (antibodies)—and not cells—destroyed invading microorganisms (the humoral theory of immunity). Although the humoral theory held sway for the next 50 years, in the 1940s scientists began to reexamine the role cells play in fighting off infections.

 
 
Eventually Metchnikoff’s theory of cellular immunity was vindicated when aspects of both schools of thought became integrated in the modern understanding of immunity.

Metchnikoff devoted the last decade of his life to investigating means of increasing human longevity and advocating the consumption of lactic acid-producing bacteria. He wrote Leçons sur la pathologie comparée de l’inflammation (1892; Lectures on the Comparative Pathology of Inflammation), L’Immunité dans les maladies infectieuses (1901; Immunity in Infectious Diseases), and Études sur la nature humaine (1903; The Nature of Man).

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1845
 
 
Fremont John Charles Expedition 1845-1847
 
 
Charting the Northwest
 
 

Following the success of the Antarctic Expedition of 1839-43, the British Admiralty decided to send another expedition to resolve the question of the Northwest Passage. In 1845 John Franklin, then aged 59, sailed with the HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, newly equipped with steam engines and screw propellers. His ships were last seen by a whaler in Baffin Bay ш July of that year. In 1848, when no more news had reached England, official anxiety and public concern mounted. The first of a series of relief expeditions was despatched, but no one even knew which route Franklin had followed, or where to begin to look for him.

 
The search for Franklin
 
The search parties were organized by both the British Government and private individuals, including Franklin's wife. Six parties traveled overland and 34 expeditions used ships and sledges. They searched from the Bering Strait and from the eastern Arctic. Sledging techniques were developed and some thousands of miles of coastline were seen and mapped for the first time. Robert McClure was only prevented from navigating the Northwest Passage in HMS Investigator by a narrow sector of obstructing ice, and his crew eventually received a £10,000 award for their achievement.

In 1850 graves of the first three men to die were found, pointing to where Franklin had spent his first winter. In 1854 Dr John Rae of the Hudson's Bay Company arrived home with personal belongings from the expedition. He had obtained these from some Boothia Inuit, who told him how some years previously they had passed a party of 40 starving white men dragging a sledge.
 
 

After the disappearance of John Franklin, his wife Jane gained the respect of the
British public with her continuing efforts on his behalf.
 
 
With this information, Lady Franklin sponsored the expedition of 1857-59, under Leopold McClintock, which found, in a cairn on King William Island, messages telling of Franklin's death on June 11, 1847, and of his companions' intention to march south. A sad trail of skeletons and relics along their route showed that the last man had perished by the mouth of the Back River.
 
 

Keeping healthy in the Arctic
Adequate nutrition was essential for survival in the Arctic. Extreme cold and the tremendous exertions of sledging journeys demanded a high-calorie diet, while the balance of that diet, especially its fat and vitamin content, had a direct effect on the men's health, strength, and ultimately their sanity.

Franklin's Canadian guides introduced him to pemmican, a mixture of dried pounded meat and melted fat - the ideal food for such journeys. Canned meat, soup, and vegetables were also available from the early 19th century, and were welcome additions to salted and dried provisions.

Fortunate crews might hunt large or small game, fish, and marine mammals. On the margins of the high Arctic, where the snow melts in summer, wild rice, scurvy grass, and other edible plants grow. It is also possible to make "spruce beer" from a species of juniper tree, as an alternative to lemon juice for the prevention of scurvy. But the large numbers of men needed to sail ships through the Arctic seaways could not find all the fresh food that they needed and suffered accordingly from their restricted diet.

 
 
Through the Northwest Passage
 
In the opinion of Dr John Rae, expeditions as large as Franklin's were handicapped by the number of people involved, and by the correspondingly large amount of provisions that had to be carried. Consequently, many of the expeditions that followed involved a far smaller number of people, who found ways of living off the land. One such expedition was led by Roald Amundsen. After studying medicine in his native Norway, he bought GJ0a, a small motorized sailing ship, and in 1903 set sail with six companions and six dogs, determined to take her through the Northwest Passage. They passed serenely through Lancaster Sound, but then in the James Ross Strait a storm drove Gjea aground at high tide. After several nerve-wracking days, jettisoning some of their precious stores to lighten ship, another high tide lifted her from the rocks.

Winter found them close to the Magnetic North Pole, in their snug base in Gjoa Haven, where they built huts for themselves and the recording instruments, mapped the surrounding area, took game for the pot, and enjoyed the company of Inuit. The summer of 1904 proved too cold to melt the ice, but in August 1905 Gjea was once more under way, heading westward. It was not until August 1906. however, after yet another winter spent in the ice during which Amundsen trekked overland to send news of his feat, that the Gjoa finally made it into the Pacific.
 
 

Robert McClure and the crew of the Investigator made their ship fast to an iceberg in Mercy Bay, Banks Island, in the fall of 1851. They had eventually to abandon ship in the spring of 1853, but were rescued and returned to England -the first men to complete the Northwest Passage, albeit in more than one ship.
 
 
Living off the land
 
Another explorer who demonstrated how it was possible to "live off the land" was Vilhjalmur Stefansson. He was an anthropologist who lived for many years among the Inuit, and was one of Canada's most remarkable explorers.

Stefansson commanded the ill-starred Canadian Arctic Expedition of 1913—18, whose main objective was to explore the Beaufort Sea, the last blank space on the map.

Misfortune struck, however, after the expedition's principal ship, the Kariuk, disembarked one party at Point Barrow, and Stefansson and a few men went off to hunt.

The ship became hemmed in by ice, and when a storm blew up the Kariuk, locked in the floes which grew daily thicker and more dangerous, began to drift along the coast of Alaska and then toward Wrangell Island.

The dogs lived on the ice alongside, leaving 20 Europeans and a small number of Inuit on board. It was only a matter of time before the Katiuk would be fatally crushed; supplies were got ready and when the inevitable happened, men, women, and children set out in the dark and bitterly cold winter night across treacherous, shifting, and incredibly rough pack-ice. Only nine survived the 60-mile (100-kilometer) trek to Wrangell Island.

Stefansson, meanwhile, unaware of the fate of the Kariuk, spent the summer on Norway Island, hunting caribou and preparing meat and skins. When the Kariuk tailed to arrive, Stefansson took his men south, finding the crew of one of his support ships, which had also been damaged.

Over the succeeding years, this party of 17 men traveled thousands of miles surveying and mapping the territory, including the previously unknown Borden and Brock Islands. They also found many cairns and stores left by previous explorers, and sometimes grim testimony of their fates.

The land and sea provided their food, clothing, fuel, and shelter. On the final leg of their journey, they hitched a 400-mile (650-kilometer) lift by camping on a drifting floe, and came at last over the pack-ice to reach solid ground in Alaska.
 
 
 
see also: John Franklin Canadian and Arctic expedition
 
 
see also: British Admiralty Expeditions (Franklin:1818)
 
 
 
 
 
see also: Search for a Northern Seaway (Franklin:1819-1822, 1825-1827)
 
 
 
 
 
see also: Surveying the West
 
 
 
 
 
1845
 
 
Sir Austen Henry Layard begins excavations in Niniveh
 
 
Layard Austen Henry
 
The Rt Hon Sir Austen Henry Layard GCB (5 March 1817 – 5 July 1894) was an English traveller, archaeologist, cuneiformist, art historian, draughtsman, collector, author, politician and diplomat, best known as the excavator of Nimrud and of Niniveh, where he uncovered in 1851 the library of Ashurbanipal.
 
Family
Layard was born in Paris, France, to a family of Huguenot descent. His father, Henry Peter John Layard, of the Ceylon Civil Service, was the son of Charles Peter Layard, Dean of Bristol, and grandson of Daniel Peter Layard the physician. Through his mother, Marianne, daughter of Nathaniel Austen, banker, of Ramsgate, his English descent was consolidated. His uncle was Benjamin Austen, a London solicitor and close friend of Benjamin Disraeli in the 1820s and 1830s. Edgar Leopold Layard the ornithologist was his brother.
 
 

Sir Austen Henry Layard
  Early life
Much of Layard's boyhood was spent in Italy, where he received part of his schooling, and acquired a taste for the fine arts and a love of travel; but he was at school also in England, France and Switzerland. After spending nearly six years in the office of his uncle, Benjamin Austen, he was tempted to leave England for Sri Lanka (Ceylon) by the prospect of obtaining an appointment in the Civil Service, and he started in 1839 with the intention of making an overland journey across Asia. After wandering for many months, chiefly in Persia, and having abandoned his intention of proceeding to Ceylon, he returned in 1842 to Constantinople, where he made the acquaintance of Sir Stratford Canning, the British Ambassador, who employed him in various unofficial diplomatic missions in European Turkey. In 1845, encouraged and assisted by Canning, Layard left Constantinople to make those explorations among the ruins of Assyria with which his name is chiefly associated. This expedition was in fulfilment of a design which he had formed, when, during his former travels in the East, his curiosity had been greatly excited by the ruins of Nimrud on the Tigris, and by the great mound of Kuyunjik, near Mosul, already partly excavated by Paul-Émile Botta.

Excavations and the arts
Layard remained in the neighbourhood of Mosul, carrying on excavations at Kuyunjik and Nimrud, and investigating the condition of various peoples, until 1847; and, returning to England in 1848, published Nineveh and its Remains: with an Account of a Visit to the Assyrians, and the Yezidis, and an Inquiry into the Manners and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians (2 vols., 1848–1849).

 
 

To illustrate the antiquities described in this work he published a large folio volume of Illustrations of the Monuments of Nineveh (1849). After spending a few months in England, and receiving the degree of D.C.L. from the University of Oxford, Layard returned to Constantinople as attaché to the British embassy, and, in August 1849, started on a second expedition, in the course of which he extended his investigations to the ruins of Babylon and the mounds of southern Mesopotamia. He is credited with discovering the Library of Ashurbanipal during this period. His record of this expedition, Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, which was illustrated by another folio volume, called A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh, was published in 1853. During these expeditions, often in circumstances of great difficulty, Layard despatched to England the splendid specimens which now form the greater part of the collection of Assyrian antiquities in the British Museum.

Apart from the archaeological value of his work in identifying Kuyunjik as the site of Nineveh, and in providing a great mass of materials for scholars to work upon, these two books of Layard were among the best written books of travel in the English language.

Layard was an important member of the Arundel Society. During 1866 Layard founded "Compagnia Venezia Murano" and opened a venetian glass showroom in London at 431 Oxford Street. Today Pauly & C. - Compagnia Venezia Murano is one of most important brands of venetian art glass production. In 1866 he was appointed a trustee of the British Museum.

 
 
Political career
Layard now turned to politics. Elected as a Liberal member for Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire in 1852, he was for a few weeks Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, but afterwards freely criticised the government, especially in connection with army administration. He was present in the Crimea during the war, and was a member of the committee appointed to inquire into the conduct of the expedition. In 1855 he refused from Lord Palmerston an office not connected with foreign affairs, was elected lord rector of Aberdeen university, and on 15 June moved a resolution in the House of Commons (defeated by a large majority) declaring that in public appointments merit had been sacrificed to private influence and an adherence to routine.
 
From a German edition of Austen Layard's A Popular Account of Discoveries at Nineveh.
 
 
After being defeated at Aylesbury in 1857, he visited India to investigate the causes of the Indian Mutiny. The report he gave on his return proved to be controversial, generating negative responses in the Australian press. He unsuccessfully contested York in 1859, but was elected for Southwark in 1860, and from 1861 to 1866 was Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs in the successive administrations of Lord Palmerston and Lord John Russell. After the Liberals returned to office in 1868 under William Ewart Gladstone, Layard was made First Commissioner of Works and sworn of the Privy Council.
 
 

Sir Austen Henry Layard
  Diplomatic career
Layard resigned from office in 1869, on being sent as envoy extraordinary to Madrid. In 1877 he was appointed by Lord Beaconsfield Ambassador at Constantinople, where he remained until Gladstone's return to power in 1880, when he finally retired from public life. In 1878, on the occasion of the Berlin Congress, he was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath.

Retirement in Venice
Layard retired to Venice. There he took up residence in the sixteenth-century palazzo on the grand canal named Ca Cappello, just behind Campo San Polo, and which he had commissioned historian Rawdon Brown, another long-time British resident of Venice, to purchase for him in 1874. In Venice he devoted much of his time to collecting pictures of the Venetian school, and to writing on Italian art. On this subject he was a disciple of his friend Giovanni Morelli, whose views he embodied in his revision of Franz Kugler's Handbook of Painting, Italian Schools (1887). He wrote also an introduction to Constance Jocelyn Ffoulkes's translation of Morelli's Italian Painters (1892–1893), and edited that part of Murray's Handbook of Rome (1894) which deals with pictures. In 1887 he published, from notes taken at the time, a record of his first journey to the East, entitled Early Adventures in Persia, Susiana and Babylonia. An abbreviation of this work, which as a book of travel is even more delightful than its predecessors, was published in 1894, shortly after the author's death, with a brief introductory notice by Lord Aberdare. Layard also from time to time contributed papers to various learned societies, including the Huguenot Society, of which he was first president. He died in London and is buried in Dorset.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1845
 
 
The Knickerbocker Rules are a set of baseball rules formalized by Alexander Cartwright in 1845.
 
 
Cartwright Alexander
 
Alexander Joy Cartwright, Jr. (April 17, 1820 – July 12, 1892) is one of several people sometimes referred to as a "father of baseball". Cartwright is thought to be the first person to draw a diagram of a diamond-shaped baseball field, and the rules of the modern game are based on the Knickerbocker Rules developed by Cartwright and a committee from his club, the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club. With the myth of Abner Doubleday inventing baseball debunked, Cartwright was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame as an executive 46 years after his death. Cartwright was officially declared the inventor of the modern game of baseball by the 83rd United States Congress on June 3, 1953.
 
Early life and work
Cartwright was born in 1820 to Alexander Carwright, Sr., a merchant sea captain, and Esther Burlock Cartwright. Alexander Jr. had six siblings. He first worked at the age of 16 in 1836 as a clerk for a Wall Street broker, later doing clerical work at Union Bank of New York. After hours, he played bat-and-ball games in the streets of Manhattan with volunteer firefighters. Cartwright himself was a volunteer, first with Oceana Hose Company No. 36, and then Knickerbocker Engine Company No. 12.

Cartwright married Eliza Van Wie, from Albany, on June 2, 1842.

A fire destroyed Union Bank in 1845, forcing Cartwright to find other work. He became a bookseller with his brother, Alfred.

 
 

Alexander Joy Cartwright
  Knickerbocker Base Ball Club
Cartwright led the establishment of the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club (after the Knickerbocker Fire Engine Company) in 1842. The Knickerbockers played a brand of bat-and-ball game called town ball on a field at 4th Avenue and 27th Streets.

In 1845 Cartwright and a committee from his club drew up rules converting this playground game into a more elaborate and interesting sport to be played by adults. The original 14 rules were somewhat similar to but not identical to the English sport of rounders.

Three exceptions devised by Cartwright included the stipulations that the playing field had to be laid out in a diamond-shape rather than a square used in rounders, foul territories were to be introduced for the first time, and the practice of retiring a runner by hitting him with a thrown ball was forbidden. Cartwright is also credited for introducing flat bases at uniform distances, three strikes per batter, and nine players in the outfield.

The first clearly documented match between two baseball clubs under these rules took place on June 19, 1846, at Elysian Fields in Hoboken, New Jersey. In this match, the Knickerbockers lost to the "New York Nine" by a score of 23 to 1. Some authors have also questioned the supposed "first game" under the new rules. The Knickerbockers' score-book shows games during 1845 also.

Those who have studied the score-book have concluded that the differences in the games of 1845 and 1846, compared with the specifications of the Knickerbocker rules, are minimal, such as fielding teams of seven players instead of nine.

 
 
Hawaii
In 1849, Cartwright headed to California for the gold rush, but ended up in the Hawaiian Islands instead. His family came to join him in 1851: wife Eliza Van Wie, son DeWitt (1843–1870), daughter Mary (1845–1869), and daughter Catherine (Kate) Lee (1849–1851). In Hawaii sons Bruce Cartwright (1853–1919) and Alexander Joy Cartwright III (1855–1921) were born. He set up a baseball field on the island of Oahu at Makiki Field.

Cartwright served as fire chief of Honolulu from 1850 through June 30, 1863. As advisor to King David Kalākaua and Queen Emma he encouraged the growth of baseball on the islands until his death on July 12, 1892, a year before the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893. One of the leaders of the overthrow movement was Lorrin A. Thurston who played baseball with classmate Alexander Cartwright III at Punahou School. He was buried in Oahu Cemetery.

 
 

A photo purported to be The New York Knickerbockers Base Ball Club, circa 1847: Top, left to right: Alfred Cartwright, Alexander Cartwright and, William Wheaton. Bottom, left to right: Duncan Curry, Daniel "Doc" Adams, Henry Tiebout Anthony.
 
 
Legacy
After about two decades of controversy, invention of America's "national game" of baseball was attributed to Abner Doubleday by the Mills Commission (1905–1907). Some baseball historians promptly cried foul and others joined throughout the 20th century. Cartwright was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1938.

New York City librarian Robert W. Henderson documented Cartwright's contributions to baseball in his 1947 book Bat, Ball, and Bishop, which Congress cited in recognizing Cartwright as the inventor of the modern game. Although there is no question that Cartwright was a prominent figure in the early development of baseball, some students of baseball history have suggested that Henderson and others embellished Cartwright's role.
 
 
The primary complaint is that touting Cartwright as the "true" inventor of the modern game was an effort to find an alternative single individual to counter the "invention" of baseball by Abner Doubleday.

Cartwright was the subject of a 1973 biography, The Man Who Invented Baseball, by Harold Peterson. He was the subject of two biographies written in 2009. Jay Martin's Live All You Can: Alexander Joy Cartwright & the Invention of Modern Baseball supports Cartwright as the inventor of baseball, while Alexander Cartwright: The Life Behind the Baseball Legend by Monica Nucciarone credits Cartwright as one of the game's pioneers but not its sole founder.

The Cartwright Cup is awarded to the Hawaii state high school baseball champions each year. Makiki Field has been renamed Cartwright Field.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
Early baseball game played at Elysian Fields in Hoboken, New Jersey (lithograph by Currier and Ives)
 
 
 
1845
 
 
United States Naval Academy
 
United States Naval Academy, byname Annapolis Academy, institution of higher education conducted by the U.S. Department of the Navy and located at Annapolis, Md., for the purpose of preparing young men and women to enter the lowest commissioned ranks of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps.

The academy was founded as a Naval School on Oct. 10, 1845, by George Bancroft, historian, educator, and secretary of the Navy, to improve the then-unsatisfactory methods of instructing midshipmen.
 
At first the course was five years, of which only the first and last were spent at the school, the intervening three years being spent on board ships on active service. The school was reorganized in 1850–51 as the U.S. Naval Academy, with a course of study of four consecutive years. A summer practice cruise replaced the omitted sea service and permitted intensive training.

During the American Civil War the academy was moved to Newport, R.I., but was brought back to Annapolis in 1865. In the following years great improvements were effected in the organization and curriculum. During the American Civil War, Spanish-American War, and World Wars I and II, the course was shortened to provide more officers for the fleets.

Under the superintendent, the academy is organized into an executive department, headed by the commandant of midshipmen, who is charged with interior discipline, drills, and all military and professional training; and an academic department, headed by the dean in charge of the faculty and academic programs.

 
 

U.S. Naval Academy in 1853
 
 
Candidates must be U.S. citizens who are between the ages of 17 and 22 and are unmarried. Candidates are appointed upon nomination by the president, the vice president, and the senators, representatives, and territorial delegates in Congress. Also, 170 enlisted personnel each year may be appointed from the Navy and Marine Corps and 170 more from the Naval and Marine Corps Reserve by the president, as well as 65 candidates from among the children of military personnel who died in wartime. Women were admitted to the academy beginning in 1976.

Entrance examinations are designed to admit competent graduates of first-class secondary schools. The physical requirements are rigid. The core academic curriculum consists of courses in engineering, the physical sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Professional training is given in such subjects as small arms, drill, seamanship and navigation, tactics, naval engineering, naval weapons, military law, naval electricity and electronics, and leadership. Graduates are awarded the degree of bachelor of science and a commission as ensign in the Navy or as second lieutenant in the Marine Corps. The U.S. Naval postgraduate school was moved from Annapolis to Monterey, Calif., in 1951.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1845
 
 
Oxford-Cambridge boat race transferred from Henley-on- Thames to Putney
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1845 Part III NEXT-1846 Part I