Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1843 Part IV NEXT-1844 Part II    
 
 
     
1840 - 1849
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840-1849
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part I
Bebel August
Maximilian of Mexico
Carlota
Convention of London
British North America Act
Francia Jose Gaspar
Macdonald Jacques
William I of the Netherlands
William II of the Netherlands
Retour des cendres
Lambton John George
Vaillant Edouard-Marie
Sampson William
Smith William Sidney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part II
Ridpath John Clark
Sankey Ira David
James Fenimore Cooper: "The Pathfinder"
Blunt Wilfrid Scawen
Broughton Rhoda
Robert Browning: "Sordello"
Daudet Alphonse
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Dobson Austin
Hardy Thomas
Thomas Hardy 
"Tess of the d'Urbervilles"
Lemercier  Nepomucene
Lermontov: "A Hero of Our Times"
Modjeska Helena
Symonds John Addington
Verga Giovanni
Zola Emile
Emile Zola
"
J'accuse" (I accuse)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part III
Delacroix: "Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople"
Makart Hans
Hans Makart
Monet Claude
Claude Monet
Nasmyth Alexander
Alexander Nasmyth
Nast Thomas
Nelson's Column
Rodin Auguste
Auguste Rodin
Redon Odilon
Odilon Redon
Blechen Carl
Karl Blechen
Debain Alexandre-Francois
Donizetti: "La Fille du Regiment"
Haberl Franz Xaver
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich
Tchaikovsky - The Seasons
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky
Schneckenburger Max
Wilhelm Karl
"Die Wacht am Rhein"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part IV
Olbers Wilhelm
Blumenbach Johann Friedrich
Ball Robert
Kohlrausch Friedrich Wilhelm
Agassiz Louis
Basedow Carl Adolph
Graves disease
Maxim Hiram
Eyre Edward John
Brummell Beau
Father Damien
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Washington Temperance Society
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part I
Second Battle of Chuenpee
Barere Bertrand
Fisher John Arbuthnot
British Hong Kong
Luzzatti Luigi
Merriman John
Harrison William Henry
Tyler John
Espartero Baldomero
Hirobumi Ito
Clemenceau Georges
Edward VII
Creole case
Laurier Wilfrid
New Zealand
Lamb William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part II
Cheyne Thomas Kelly
Ludwig Feuerbach: "The Essence of Christianity"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Holst Hermann Eduard
Jebb Richard Claverhouse
Ward Lester Frank
Black William
Robert Browning: "Pippa Passes"
Buchanan Robert
Fenimore Cooper: "The Deerslayer"
Coquelin Benoit
Dickens: "The Old Curiosity Shop"
Ewing Juliana Horatia
Sill Edward Rowland
Frederick Marryat: "Masterman Ready"
Mendes Catulle
Mounet-Sully Jean
"Punch, or The London Charivari"
Sealsfield Charles
Scott Clement William
White Joseph Blanco
Ruskin: "The King of the Golden River"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part III
Chantrey Francis
Morisot Berthe
Berthe Morisot
Renoir Pierre-Auguste
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Wagner Otto
Wallot Paul
Olivier Ferdinand
Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier
Bazille Frederic
Frederic Bazille
Zandomeneghi Federico
Federico Zandomeneghi
Guillaumin Armand
Armand Guillaumin
Chabrier Emmanuel
Chabrier - Espana
Emmanuel Chabrier
Dibdin Thomas John
Dvorak Anton
Antonin Dvorak: Rusalka
Antonin Dvorak
Pedrell Felipe
Felip Pedrell: Els Pirineus
Felipe Pedrell
Rossini: "Stabat Mater"
Sax Antoine-Joseph
Schumann: Symphony No. 1
Sgambati Giovanni
Sgambati - Piano Concerto in G minor
Giovanni Sgambati
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part IV
Cooper Astley
Braid James
Hypnosis
Candolle Austin
Aniline
Kocher Emil Theodor
Kolliker Rudolf Albert
Petzval Joseph
Hudson William Henry
Warming Eugenius
Whitworth Joseph
Barnum's American Museum
Bradshaw George
Cook Thomas
Hyer Tom
"The New York Tribune"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part I
Pozzo di Borgo Charles-Andre
Las Cases Emmanuel
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Treaty of Nanking
General Strike of 1842
O’Higgins Bernardo
Giolitti Giovanni
Fiske John
Hartmann Eduard
Hyndman Henry Mayers
James William
Kropotkin Peter Alekseyevich
Anarchism
Anarchism
Lavisse Ernest
Robertson George Croom
Sorel Albert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part II
Banim John
Sue Eugene
Eugene Sue: "The Mysteries of Paris"
Bierce Ambrose
Brandes Georg
Bulwer-Lytton: "Zanoni"
Graham Maria
Coppee Francois
Cunningham Allan
Espronceda Jose
Gogol: "Dead Souls"
Howard Bronson
Lanier Sidney
Lover Samuel
MacKaye Steele
Maginn William
Mallarme Stephane
May Karl
Рое: "The Masque of the Red Death"
Quental Antero Tarquinio
Woodworth Samuel
Macaulay: "Lays of Ancient Rome"
Tupper Martin Farquhar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part III
Vereshchagin Vasily
Vasily Vereshchagin
Boldini Giovanni
Giovanni Boldini
Boito Arrigo
Arrigo Boito: Mefistofele Finale
Arrigo Boito
Glinka: "Russian and Ludmilla"
Hopkinson Joseph
"Hail, Columbia"
Lortzing: "Der Wildschiitz"
Massenet Jules
Massenet "Elegie"
Jules Massenet
Millocker Karl
Millocker: Gasparone
Karl Millocker
New York Philharmonic
Sullivan Arthur
Arthur Sullivan - The Mikado - Overture
Arthur Sullivan
Wagner: "Rienzi"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part IV
Dewar James
Doppler Christian Andreas
Flammarion Camille
Hansen Emile Christian
Long Crawford Williamson
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Charting the Ocean Depths
Mayer Julius Robert
Pelletier Pierre Joseph
Marshall Alfred
Strutt John William
Retzius Gustaf
Fremont John Charles
Darling Grace
Polka
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part I
McKinley William
Braga Teofilo
Wairau Affray
Dilke Charles
Avenarius Richard
Borrow George
Carlile Richard
Thomas Carlyle: "Past and Present"
Creighton Mandell
Liddell and Scott: "Greek-English Lexicon"
Liddell Henry
Scott Robert
Ward James
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part II
Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last of the Barons"
Elisabeth of Romania
Dickens: "Martin Chuzzlewit"
Doughty Charles Montagu
Dowden Edward
Emmett Daniel Decatur
Hood Thomas
Thomas Hood: "Song of the Shirt"
Horne Richard Hengist
James Henry
Rosegger Peter
Suttner Bertha
Harris George Washington
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part III
Allston Washington
Washington Allston
John Ruskin: "Modern Painters"
Trumbull John
John Trumbull
Werner Anton
Anton von Werner
Clairin Georges
Georges Clairin
Donizetti: "Don Pasquale"
Grieg Edward
Grieg - Solveig Song
Edward Grieg
Nilsson Christine
Patti Adelina
Richter Hans
Schumann: "Paradise and the Peri"
Wagner: "The Flying Dutchman"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part IV
British Archaeological Association
Chamberlin Thomas Chrowder
Ferrier David
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Joule James Prescott
Koch Robert
Erbium
Brunel Marc Isambard
Thames Tunnel
Dix Dorothea Lynde
Guy's, Kings and St. Thomas' Rugby Football Club
Sequoyah
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part I
Lowe Hudson
Drouet Jean-Baptiste
Oscar I of Sweden
Dole Sanford Ballard
Laffitte Jacques
Franco-Moroccan War
Polk James Knox
Herrera Jose Joaquin
Treaty of Wanghia
Breshkovsky Catherine
Comstock Anthony
Emerson: "Essays"
Grundtvig Nikolaj Frederik Severin
Hall Granville Stanley
Nietzsche Friedrich
Friedrich Nietzsche
Rice Edmund Ignatius
Riehl Alois
Stanley Arthur Penrhyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part II
Bernhardt Sarah
Sarah Bernhardt
Dumas, pere: "Le Comte de Monte Cristo"
Bridges Robert
Cable George Washington
Carte Richard
Cary Henry Francis
Disraeli: "Coningsby"
France Anatole
Hopkins Gerard Manley
Lang Andrew
Liliencron Detlev
O'Reilly John Boyle
O’Shaughnessy Arthur
Sterling John
William Thackeray: "Barry Lyndon"
Verlaine Paul
Paul Verlaine
"Poems"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part III
Eakins Thomas
Thomas Eakins
Ezekiel Moses Jacob
Moses Ezekiel
Luke Fildes Luke
Luke Fildes
Leibl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Leibl
Munkacsy Mihaly
Mihaly Munkacsy
Repin Ilya
Ilya Repin
Rousseau Henri
Henri Rousseau
Cassatt Mary
Mary Cassatt
Flotow: "Alessandro Stradella"
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E minor
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay
The Best of Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Sarasate Pablo
Pablo de Sarasate - Zigeunerweisen
Pablo de Sarasate
Verdi: "Ernani"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part IV
Grassmann Hermann Gunther
Baily Francis
Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard
DeLong George Washington
Golgi Camillo
Kielmeyer Carl Friedrich
Kinglake Alexander William
Strasburger Eduard Adolf
Huc Evariste Regis
Gabet Joseph
Sturt Charles Napier
Leichhardt Friedrich
Beckford William
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers
"Fliegende Blatter"
Hagenbeck Carl
Keller Friedrich Gottlob
Pasch Gustaf Erik
Young Men’s Christian Association
Williams George
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part I
Root Elihu
Texas
Florida
Flagstaff War
Ludwig II of Bavaria
First Anglo-Sikh War
Sonderbund
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part II
Friedrich Engels: "The Condition of the Working Class in England"
Stirner Max
Disraeli: "Sybil, or The Two Nations"
Hertz Henrik
Prosper Merimee: "Carmen"
Рое: "The Raven"
Spitteler Carl
Wergeland Henrik
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part III
Bode Wilhelm
Hill David Octavius
Ingres: The Comtesse d'Haussonville
Oberlander Adam Adolf
Crane Walter
Walter Crane
Faure Gabriel
Faure - Pavane
Gabriel Faure
Lortzing: "Undine"
Wagner: "Tannhauser"
Widor Charles-Marie
Widor - Piano Concerto No. 1
Charles Marie Widor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part IV
Armstrong William George
Bigelow Erastus Brigham
Cayley Arthur
Cornell Ezra
Submarine communications cable
Heilmann Joshua
Humboldt: "Cosmos"
Kolbe Hermann
Laveran Alphonse
McNaught William
Metchnikoff Elie
Charting the Northwest
Layard Austen Henry
Cartwright Alexander
United States Naval Academy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part I
Battle of Aliwal
Battle of Sobraon
Treaty of Lahore
Greater Poland Uprising
Krakow Uprising
Mexican-American War
Battle of Monterrey
First Battle of Tabasco
Iowa
Pasic Nikola
Evangelical Alliance
Eucken Rudolf Christoph
Pius IX
Whewell William
Young Brigham
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part II
Balzac: "La Cousine Bette"
De Amicis Edmondo
Dostoevsky: "Poor Folk"
Jokai Maurus
Lear Edward
Melville Herman
Herman Melville: "Typee"
Herman Melville
"Moby Dick or The Whale"
Sienkiewicz Henryk
George Watts: "Paolo and Francesca"
De Nittis Giuseppe
Giuseppe de Nittis
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part III
Berlioz: "Damnation de Faust"
Lortzing: "Der Waffenschmied"
Mendelssohn: "Elijah"
Deere John
Deere & Company
Henle Friedrich
Howe Elias
Waitz Theodor
Mohl Hugo
Green William Thomas
Sobrero Ascanio
Heaphy Charles
Brunner Thomas
Europeans in New Zealand
"The Daily News"
Horsley John Callcott
Smithsonian Institution
Zeiss Carl
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part I
Liberia
Second Battle of Tabasco
Battle of Churubusco
BATTLE OF MEXICO CITY
Hindenburg Paul
Sonderbund War
Beecher Henry Ward
Blanc Louis
Proudhon Pierre-Joseph
roudhon: "Philosophy of Poverty"P
Karl Marx: "The Poverty of Philosophy"
Salt Lake City
Charlotte Bronte: "Jane Eyre"
Bronte Emily
Marryat: "The Children of the New Forest"
Thackeray: "Vanity Fair"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part II
Hildebrand Adolf
Liebermann Max
Max Liebermann
Friedrich von Flotow: "Martha"
Verdi: "Macbeth"
Boole George
Edison Thomas Alva
Bell Alexander Graham
Semmelweis Ignaz Philipp
Colenso William
Factory Act of 1847
Fawcett Millicent
Siemens & Halske
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part I
Frederick VII
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Revolutions of 1848
French Revolution of 1848
June Days Uprising
Cavaignac Louis-Eugene
French Constitution of 1848
French Second Republic
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Slovak Uprising 1848-1849
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part I)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part II
First Italian War of Independence
Skirmish of Pastrengo
Battle of Goito
Battle of Custoza
Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
Revolution of 1848 in Luxembourg
Greater Poland Uprising
Moldavian Revolution of 1848
Pan-Slav Congress of 1848
Pan-Slavism
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part II)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part III
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Nasr-ed-Din
Ibrahim Pasha
Abbas I
Wisconsin
Balfour Arthur James
Seneca Falls Convention
Stanton Elizabeth Cady
Delbruck Hans
Macaulay: "History of England"
"The Communist Manifesto"
John Mill: "Principles of Political Economy"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part IV
Augier Emile
Chateaubriand: "Memoires d'Outre-Tombe"
Dumas fils: "La Dame aux Camelias"
Gaskell Elizabet
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
Murger Louis-Henri
Henri Murger: "Scenes de la vie de Boheme"
Terry Ellen
Surikov Vasily
Vasily Surikov
Uhde Fritz
Fritz von Uhde
Gauguin Paul
Paul Gauguin
Caillebotte Gustave
Gustave Caillebotte
Millais: "Ophelia"
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part V
Parry Hubert Hastings
Jerusalem by Hubert Parry
Hubert Parry
Duparc Henri
Duparc Henri: "L'invitation au voyage"
Henri Duparc
Bottger Rudolf Christian
Parsons William
Frege Gottlob
"New Prussian Newspaper"
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"
Grace William Gilbert
Kneipp Sebastian
Lilienthal Otto
Starr Belle
California Gold Rush
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part I
Battle of Chillianwala
Battle of Gujrat
Roman Republic on February 9, 1849
Battle of Novara
Victor Emmanuel II
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Peace of Milan
Taylor Zachary
Dresden Rebellion of 1849
Surrender at Vilagos
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part II
Kemble John Mitchell
Key Ellen
Arnold Matthew
Dickens: "David Copperfield"
Kingsley Charles
Scribe: "Adrienne Lecouvreur"
Strindberg August
Smith Horace
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part III
Waterhouse John William
John William Waterhouse
John Ruskin: "The Seven Lamps of Architecture"
Carriere Eugene
Eugene Carriere
Liszt: "Tasso"
Meyerbeer: "Le Prophete"
Otto Nicolai: "The Merry Wives of Windsor"
Schumann: "Manfred"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part IV
Fizeau Armand
Frankland Edward
Livingstone David
Explorations of David Livingstone
Baines Thomas
"Who's Who"
Bedford College
Bloomer Amelia
Bloomers (clothing)
Stead William Thomas
 
 
 

Battle of Isly, oil painting by Horace Vernet.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1844 Part I
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Lowe Hudson
 

Sir Hudson Lowe, (born July 28, 1769, Galway, County Galway, Ire.—died Jan. 10, 1844, London, Eng.), British general, governor of St. Helena when Napoleon I was held captive there; he was widely criticized for his unbending treatment of the former emperor.

 

Sir Hudson Lowe
  Lowe held several important commands in the war with France from 1793. He was knighted in 1814. He arrived on the island of St. Helena, Napoleon’s last place of exile, in April 1816. Many persons, notably the duke of Wellington, considered the choice ill advised, for Lowe was a conscientious but unimaginative man who took his responsibility with excessive seriousness. Overwhelmed by the magnitude of the charge given him, Lowe adhered rigorously to orders and treated Napoleon with extreme punctiliousness. After October 1816, the news that rescue operations were being planned by Bonapartists in the United States caused Lowe to impose even stricter regulations. The next month he deported the comte de Las Cases, Napoleon’s confidant and former imperial chamberlain, for writing letters about Lowe’s severity.

When, late in 1817, Napoleon first showed symptoms of his fatal illness, Lowe did nothing to mitigate the emperor’s living conditions. Yet Lowe recommended that the British government increase its allowance to Napoleon’s household by one-half. After the emperor’s death (May 5, 1821), Lowe returned to England, where he received the thanks of King George IV but was met with generally unfavourable opinion. He later commanded the British forces on Ceylon (1825–30) but was not appointed governor of that island when the office fell vacant in 1830.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1844
 
 
Drouet Jean-Baptiste
 

Jean-Baptiste Drouet, count d’Erlon, (born July 29, 1765, Reims, Fr.—died Jan. 25, 1844, Paris), French soldier whose long career raised him from the ranks of both Louis XVI’s and Napoleon’s armies to be the first governor-general of Algeria and a marshal of France under Louis-Philippe.

A volunteer in the regiment of Beaujolais from 1782, Drouet had reached the rank of corporal in 1792, before the fall of the monarchy.

 

Jean-Baptiste Drouet
  Elected captain in 1793, he became aide-de-camp to General P. Lefebvre in 1794 and thenceforward enjoyed rapid promotion. General of division in 1803, he was created count d’Erlon by Napoleon in January 1809. He served in Bavaria and Spain and was promoted lieutenant general in 1813. Under the first Restoration he was made commander of the 16th military division but conspired against the regime. Joining Napoleon during the Hundred Days in 1815, he was made a peer of France and given command of an army corps, but in the Waterloo campaign he spent June 16 between Ney at Quatre-Bras and Napoleon at Ligny and failed to support either as required. On the second Restoration, Drouet fled to Bavaria, where, as Baron Schmidt, under King Maximilian I’s protection, he set up a brewery near Munich. The death sentence passed on him in France in 1816, was, however, canceled in 1825. Returning to France in 1830, he was reinstated on the active list by the regime of Louis-Philippe.

In July 1834 Drouet was appointed governor-general of Algeria. Ignorant of the country, he at first let himself be guided by his chief-of-staff, General C.A. Trézel, but on Trézel’s being posted to Oran he fell under the influence of a scheming emissary of Abdelkadar (ʿAbd al-Qādir). He disavowed Trézel after the latter’s defeat by Abdelkadar at La Macta. Drouet was recalled to France in July 1835. After some years at Nantes, he was made marshal of France in April 1843.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Charles XIV, King of Sweden and Norway (Charles XIV John) since 1818, d. (b. 1763 as Jean Bernadotte); his son succeeds to the throne as Oscar I (-1859)
 
 

Karl XIV Johan, king of Sweden and Norway,
painted by Fredric Westin
 
 
Oscar I of Sweden
 

Oscar I, in full Joseph-François-Oscar (born July 4, 1799, Paris—died July 8, 1859, Stockholm), king of Sweden and Norway from 1844 to 1859, son of Charles XIV John, formerly the French marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte.

 

Oscar I, King of Sweden and Norway
  Oscar’s early liberal outlook and progressive ideas on such issues as fiscal policy, freedom of the press, and penal reform fortuitously coincided with a period of social, political, and industrial change.

After his accession (March 8, 1844) he worked with the Riksdag (parliament) to further various reforms. Among these were the institution of equal rights of inheritance for men and women (1845), the abolition of the guild system (1846), and the enactment of the right of unmarried women to come of age at age 25 (1858).

Oscar broke with his father’s pro-Russian foreign policy, and in 1855 Sweden promised to join the French and British side in the Crimean War.

Sweden, however, never declared war on Russia and, as a result, managed to secure Russian promises not to fortify the Åland Islands.

Oscar was also a firm believer in Skandinavism, the idea that there existed a great cultural bond between the Scandinavian countries—Denmark, Norway, and Sweden—and, accordingly, also good possibilities for closer relations between the three countries.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Dole Sanford Ballard
 

Sanford Ballard Dole, (born April 23, 1844, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands [U.S.]—died June 9, 1926, Honolulu), first president of the Republic of Hawaii (1894–1900), and first governor of the Territory of Hawaii (1900–03) after it was annexed by the United States.

 

Sanford Ballard Dole
  The son of American Protestant missionaries, Dole spent two years in the United States (1866–68) studying at Williams College in Williamstown, Mass. He then returned to Hawaii, practiced law in Honolulu (1869–87), and was twice elected to the Hawaiian legislature (1884, 1886).

An opponent of the policies of King Kalakaua, Dole was a leader of the reform movement that brought about the adoption of a constitution in 1887. Also in 1887, he was appointed a justice of the Supreme Court of Hawaii.

In January 1893 Dole agreed to serve as the leader of the committee, acting for Hawaiian sugar interests and their American allies, that was formed to overthrow Queen Liliuokalani (who had succeeded her brother, Kalakaua, in 1891) and to seek annexation of Hawaii by the United States.

The committee deposed the queen and installed a provisional government with Dole as president (Jan. 17, 1893), but annexation was blocked when President Grover Cleveland withdrew an annexation treaty from the Senate and demanded the restoration of Liliuokalani to the throne. Refusing to recognize Cleveland’s authority in the matter, Dole and his colleagues established the Republic of Hawaii (1894), with Dole as president, and continued to seek annexation.

 
 
When, finally, in 1900 Congress created the Territory of Hawaii, Dole was appointed the first territorial governor by President William McKinley. In 1903 he resigned to become judge of the U.S. district court of Hawaii, a post he held until his retirement in 1915.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Provisional Government cabinet, (left to right) James A. King, Dole, W. O. Smith and P. C. Jones
 
 

President Dole and the Cabinet of the Republic
 
 

Dole, on left, continued as Governor of the new Territory of Hawaii after the Hawaiian Organic Act of 1900
 
 

Dole with family members.
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Laffitte Jacques
 

Jacques Laffitte, (born Oct. 24, 1767, Bayonne, Fr.—died May 26, 1844, Maisons-sur-Seine), French banker and politician prominent in public affairs from the end of the Napoleonic period to the first years of the July Monarchy (1830–31).

 

Jacques Laffitte
  The son of a carpenter, Laffitte became clerk in the banking house of Perregaux in Paris, was made a partner in the business in 1800, and in 1804 succeeded Perregaux as head of the firm. The House of Perregaux, Laffitte et Cie, became one of the greatest in Europe, and Laffitte became regent (1809), then governor (1814) of the Bank of France and president of the Chamber of Commerce (1814). He raised large sums of money for the provisional government in 1814 and for Louis XVIII during the Hundred Days. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1816, he took his seat on the Left and spoke chiefly on financial questions.

In 1818 he saved Paris from a financial crisis by buying a large amount of stock, but the next year, in consequence of his heated defense of the liberty of the press and the electoral law of 1819, the governorship of the bank was taken from him. One of the earliest and most determined of the partisans of a constitutional monarchy under Louis-Philippe, duc d’Orléans, he was deputy for Bayonne in July 1830, when his house in Paris became the headquarters of the revolutionary party. When Charles X, after retracting the hated ordinances, tried to negotiate a change of ministry, the banker replied, “It is too late. There is no longer a Charles X.”
 
 
Eager to avoid a republic, Laffitte, who was elected president of the Chamber of Deputies, did much to secure Louis-Philippe’s accession to the throne. The new king made him a minister of state and finally, in November 1830, premier. He tried to help revolutionary movements abroad (particularly in Italy) but would not let France intervene, except in Belgium, thus provoking criticism from right and left alike. Laffitte resigned on March 13, 1831.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1844
 
 
Bonaparte Joseph, brother of Napoleon, d. (b. 1768)
 
 

Josée Flaugier - Portrait of King Joseph I (ca. 1809)
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Franco-Moroccan War
 

The First Franco-Moroccan War (6–14 August 1844) was fought between France and Morocco in 1844. The principal cause of war was the retreat of Algerian resistance leader `Abd al-Qādir into Morocco following French victories over many of his tribal supporters during the French conquest of Algeria.

 
Prelude
Abd Al-Qādir had begun using northeastern Morocco as a refuge and a recruiting base as early as 1840, and French military movements against him heightened border tensions at that time. France made repeated diplomatic demands to Sultan Abd al-Rahman to stop Moroccan support for Abd al-Qādir, but political divisions within the sultanate made this virtually impossible.

Tensions were heightened in 1843, when French forces chased a column of Abd al-Qādir supporters deep into Morocco. These men included Alawī tribesmen from Morocco, and French authorities interpreted their actions as a de facto declaration of war. While they did not act immediately, French military authorities threatened to march into the sultanate if support for Abd al-Qādir was not withdrawn, and the border between Algeria and Morocco properly demarcated so that defenses against future incursions could be set up.

 
Theater of the First Franco-Moroccan War (1844).
 
 
By early 1844 French troops had constructed a fortification at Lalla-Maghnia, the site of a Muslim shrine near Oujda, and clearly not within territory traditionally claimed by the Ottoman Regency of Algiers. An attempt to dislodge these troops peacefully in late May 1844 failed when Alawī tribal fighters fired on the French and were eventually driven back to Oujda. Rumors surrounding this incident (including reports that the shrine had been defiled and that French troops had entered Oujda and hanged to governor) fanned the flames of jihad in Morocco. Amid escalating troop buildups and skirmishes in the frontier area, French Marshal Thomas Robert Bugeaud insisted that the border be demarcated along the Muluwiya River, a position further west than the Tafna River which Morocco considered to be the border.
 
 

Bombardment of Tangiers, engraving by N.E. Sotain.
 
 
Military campaign
The war began on August 6, 1844, when a French fleet under the command of the Prince de Joinville conducted a naval bombardment of the city of Tangiers. The conflict peaked on August 14, 1844 at the Battle of Isly, which took place near Oujda. A large Moroccan force led by the sultan's son Sīdī Mohammed was defeated by a smaller French royal force under Marshal Bugeaud.

Essaouira, Morocco's main Atlantic trade port, was attacked in the Bombardment of Mogador and briefly occupied by Joinville on August 16, 1844.
 
 

Battle of Isly, oil painting by Horace Vernet.
 
 
Treaty of Tangiers
The war was formally ended on September 10 1844 with the signing of the Treaty of Tangiers, in which Morocco agreed to arrest and outlaw Abd al-Qādir, reduce the size of its garrison at Oujda, and establish a commission to demarcate the border. (The border, which is essentially the modern border between Morocco and Algeria, was agreed in the Treaty of Lalla Maghnia.)
 
 

Bombardment of Mogador: French troops disembarking on the island of Mogador, in Essaouira bay in 1844.
 
 
Sultan Abd al-Rahman's agreement to these terms, which amounted to a capitulation to French demands, threw Morocco into chaos, with Alawī and other tribal areas threatening secession in support of Abd al-Qādir, and calls in some circles for al-Rahman to be deposed in favor of Abd al-Qādir. The sultan and his sons eventually regained control over the sultanate, and were able to marginalize Abd al-Qādir's calls for jihad by pointing out that without their support, Abd al-Qādir was not a mujahid, or holy warrior, but merely a mufsid, or rebel. By 1847 the sultan's forces were in jihad against Abd al-Qādir, who surrendered to French forces in December 1847.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1844
 
 
Polk James Knox
 

James K. Polk, in full James Knox Polk (born November 2, 1795, Mecklenburg county, North Carolina, U.S.—died June 15, 1849, Nashville, Tennessee), 11th president of the United States (1845–49). Under his leadership the United States fought the Mexican War (1846–48) and acquired vast territories along the Pacific coast and in the Southwest.

 

James K. Polk
  Early life and career
Polk was the eldest child of Samuel and Jane Knox Polk. At age 11 he moved with his family to Tennessee, where his father operated a prosperous farm in Maury county. Although ill health during his childhood made formal schooling impossible, Polk successfully passed, at age 20, the entrance requirements for the second-year class at the University of North Carolina. He was “correct, punctual, and industrious,” and as a graduating senior in 1818 he was the Latin salutatorian of his class—a preeminent scholar in both the classics and mathematics.

After graduation he returned to Tennessee and began to practice law in Nashville. His interest in politics, which had fascinated him even as a young boy, was encouraged by his association with leading public figures in the state. In 1820 he was admitted to the bar. Because he was a confirmed Democrat and an unfailing supporter of Andrew Jackson and because his style of political oratory became so popular that he was characterized as the “Napoleon of the stump,” his political career was assured.

His rapid rise to political power was furthered by his wife, Sarah Childress Polk (1803–91), whom he married January 1, 1824, while serving in the state House of Representatives (1823–25).

 
 
She proved to be the most politically dominant president’s wife since Abigail Adams. The social prominence of Sarah Polk’s family (her father, Joel Childress, was a planter) and her personal charm and bearing, which was sometimes described as queenly, were distinct assets for a politically ambitious lawyer. A high-spirited woman, she and her sister had traveled 500 miles on horseback in their determination to attend one of the best schools in the South, the Moravian Female Academy in Salem, North Carolina. Because she disdained housekeeping and the marriage was childless, she was freed of most domestic chores to participate in the public life of her husband. She monitored his health assiduously, and, as his hostess, she won the admiration and esteem of the leading figures of the day. Among those who became her friends, and therefore helpful to her husband, were President Jackson, future president Franklin Pierce, Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story, and Floride Calhoun, the wife of John C. Calhoun, the powerful senator of South Carolina. Year after year she was her husband’s closest companion and his eyes and ears in state and national politics. When her husband became president, she was often referred to as “the Presidentress.” Her stern Presbyterianism persuaded her to eschew dancing, the theatre, and horse racing, and in the President’s House she forbade music on Sundays. Although a stickler for tradition, she oversaw the installation of the first gaslights in the White House.
 
 
James K. Polk was by nature a student of government, by experience a legislator, and by force of circumstance an administrator. He was not an easy man to know or to like. Even close companions did not relish his austerity, and associates tolerated but did not approve of his inflexible living standards. Among his few close friends was Andrew Jackson, who encouraged and advanced Polk and whose influence carried him from the Tennessee House of Representatives to the United States House of Representatives, where he served from 1825 to 1839.

As speaker of the House (1835–39), Polk acquired a reputation as an undeviating supporter of Jacksonian principles. In 1839 he left the House to become governor of Tennessee. Two defeats for a second term (1841, 1843) by small majorities convinced him that to strengthen his party he should return to Washington.

At the Democratic convention in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1844, Polk hoped only for the vice presidential nomination, for the party had more-prominent sons as presidential contenders in Martin Van Buren, Lewis Cass, and James Buchanan. But the Democrats could not reconcile their differences, and a compromise candidate had to be found. Because the campaign was to be run on issues and not on personalities, it was decided that Polk would do.

 
James K. Polk and Sarah Childress Polk
 
 
People in Washington could hardly believe their eyes when Polk’s name came over the nation’s first telegraph line, then only five days old, which ran between Baltimore and Washington. Although well known in political circles, to the public Polk was the first “dark horse” nominee in the history of the presidency. During the campaign the Whigs, who were running Henry Clay, taunted the Democrats with the cry: “Who is James K. Polk?” The answer came on election day: he was president of the United States. The new vice president was George Mifflin Dallas of Pennsylvania.

It was thought that Polk, as a party man from what was then the West and a former member of the House of Representatives, would bring about legislative and executive cooperation and understanding in the functioning of the national government. While speaker of the House, he had decided many procedural questions and had usually been sustained by majorities including the leaders of both parties. His party feeling was intense, but his integrity was unquestioned; he knew the rights and privileges of the House, and he also knew its responsibilities.

During his campaign Polk surprised the country by taking a positive stand on two burning issues of the day. Whereas other candidates hedged on the question of whether to annex Texas, which had been independent of Mexico since 1836, he demanded annexation. Whereas other candidates evaded the problem of joint occupancy of Oregon with England, he openly laid claim to the whole territory that extended as far north as latitude 54°40′ with the campaign slogan “Fifty-four forty or fight.” His election was close, but it was decisive—a popular plurality of about 38,000 votes and 170 electoral votes against 105 for Clay.
 
 

President Polk, 1858 portrait by George Healy
  Presidency
Not yet 50 years of age, Polk was the youngest successful presidential candidate up to that time. He entered the presidency full of eagerness and with an expressed zeal to put his aims into effect. He left it four years later exhausted and enfeebled by his efforts. In office he demonstrated remarkable skill in the selection and control of his official advisers, and, in his formal relations with Congress, his legislative experience served him well. When his party was firmly united behind a policy he himself opposed, he yielded to the wishes of Congress. When he disagreed strongly with congressional policy and decided to make an issue of it, he fortified his position with recognized executive precedent and practice. His formal disapprovals (in the form of two veto messages and one pocket veto, by which legislation is killed by the failure of the president to sign a bill before the adjournment of Congress) were questioned, but the two returned measures failed to command the two-thirds majority necessary to override his vetoes. The Polk administration was marked by large territorial gains. The annexation of Texas as a state was concluded and resulted in a two-year war with Mexico—a war that Ulysses S. Grant, who served in it as an army captain, would later call the most unjust war in history. As a consequence of that struggle, the Southwest and far West (California), partly by conquest and partly by purchase, became part of the United States’ domain. During this period the northwestern boundary became fixed by treaty, and the continental United States emerged a recognized reality.
 
 
Polk’s accomplishments brought him immense satisfaction. He had in his way compensated for the fact that he once was, as he wrote, “the meager boy, with pallid cheeks, oppressed and worn with disease.”

Additional achievements included a treaty with New Granada (Colombia) resolving the problem of right-of-way for U.S. citizens across the Isthmus of Panama; establishment of a warehouse system that provided for the temporary retention of undistributed imports; and the passage of the Walker Tariff Act of 1846, which lowered import duties and did much to pacify British public opinion that had been inflamed over the Oregon compromise of 1846. As these measures helped foreign trade, so the reenactment of the independent treasury system in 1846 helped in the solution of domestic financial problems.

The expansion of the country westward led to the creation of a new agency, the Department of the Interior. The Polk administration should also be credited with the establishment of the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, and the authorization of the Smithsonian Institution, a national foundation for all areas of science.

 
 

Polk and his cabinet in the White House dining room.
Front row, left to right: John Y. Mason, William L. Marcy, James K. Polk, Robert J. Walker
Back row, left to right: Cave Johnson, George Bancroft
Secretary of State James Buchanan is absent.
 
 
Assessment
Polk’s influence over Congress may be gauged from the results of the recommendations of his 4 annual messages and 10 significant special messages to one or both houses. His control of legislative policy in bitterly partisan Congresses must be judged in terms of results, not oratory or parliamentary delay. He recommended with a high degree of success settlement of a trade dispute with Great Britain, an increase in U.S. armed forces, war with Mexico, peace with Great Britain over Oregon, provision of finances to expedite peace conclusions, organization of the Oregon Territory, peace with Mexico, and revision of the treasury system. He occasionally refused to provide information requested by Congress (on the ground that the requests were incompatible with the public interest), recognized a new French revolutionary government, and proclaimed the validity of the Monroe Doctrine. Succeeding presidents recognized these pronouncements.

A diary kept by Polk during his term of office stressed the presidential burden. Day after day, week after week, he recounted in his diary his experiences with the hosts of office seekers who infested Washington and who occupied so much of his public time.

  Again and again, there is evident in his writings a note of despair. He knew from experience what an evil an unlimited executive patronage can become, but he felt powerless to change its obligations and too conscientious to avoid its duties. At the close of his term, March 4, 1849, Polk retired to his Nashville home, where he died three months later.

The office of chief executive under Polk was well filled—maintained with dignity, integrity, and an extraordinary sense of duty. His great influence over Congress was due to the widespread popularity of his policies and his persistence in having the members see questions not as interests of district or section but as matters of national welfare.
History may not rate him as one of the greatest U.S. presidents, but his successes in office made his influence considerable, and, as a relative unknown who reached the highest office in the land and by integrity and will won the plaudits of the people, he has been compared to Harry Truman.

George Clarence Robinson

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Military revolts in Mexico; Jose Joaquin de Herrera head of the military administration
 
 
Herrera Jose Joaquin
 

Jose Joaquín Antonio de Herrera (23 February 1792 – 10 February 1854) was a moderate Mexican politician who served as president of Mexico three times (1844, 1844–45 and 1848–51), as well as a general in the Mexican Army during the Mexican-American War.

 

Jose Joaquín Antonio de Herrera
  Military career
Herrera was born in Xalapa, Veracruz, but grew up in Perote, where his father was a postal administrator. He entered the royalist army in 1809, as a cadet in the Regiment of La Corona. By 1811 he was a captain. He fought the insurgents in Aculco, Guanajuato, Calderón, Acatlán, Veledero and other places. Later he was part of the Spanish expedition to retake Acapulco from the rebels, and he was given the military and civil command of the region.
He retired from the army in 1820 as a lieutenant colonel and moved back to Perote. There he opened a shop. In retirement, he established contacts with some of the insurgent leaders, among them Guadalupe Victoria. Shortly after the Plan de Iguala was proclaimed, a contingent of infantry moving from Veracruz to Puebla declared in favor of Agustín de Iturbide. The officers offered command to Lieutenant Colonel Herrera. He accepted and added the garrison of the Fort of San Carlos. This force marched to Orizaba, then in command of the royalists under Lieutenant Colonel Antonio López de Santa Anna. These forces also joined the Plan de Iguala.

At the time of the entrance of the Ejército Trigarante into Mexico City in 1821, Herrera was a brigadier general. However, he distanced himself from Iturbide when the latter declared himself emperor, and was arrested for conspiracy.

 
 
He was freed and took part in the revolution that led to Iturbide's fall in 1823. In the new government he received the portfolio of war (1823–24). He improved the arms of the infantry and ordered a new model saddle for the cavalry. He again held the post of minister of war in 1833 (under Santa Anna).

He held many other military positions. He was consistently loyal to the legally constituted authorities and opposed to the absolutism and arbitrariness of Santa Anna's administrations. He was never an ally of Santa Anna.

 
 
First and second terms as president
In 1844 he was president of the Council of State when General Valentín Canalizo was named interim president to replace Santa Anna. Canalizo, however, was not in the capital (he was in San Luis Potosí), and Herrera was named as a substitute for the substitute, pending Canalizo's arrival in Mexico City. He served from 12 September 1844 to 21 September 1844, but he was president in name only. He officiated at the Independence Day celebrations.

He turned over the office to Canalizo and retired, but on the fall of Santa Anna, he was elected by the Senate to be interim president. He held the presidency from 7 December 1844 to 30 December 1845. He named both federalists and centralists to important positions.

During this term, the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States. The Mexican Senate broke relations with the United States on 28 March 1845 and gave Herrera authority to raise troops and prepare for war. Herrera preferred peaceful negotiations. When he did not go to war, followers of Santa Anna rioted on 7 July 1845. Herrera and three members of his cabinet were seized by rebellious soldiers. Nevertheless, Herrera was able to impose his authority, and was freed. He won the subsequent elections, becoming constitutional president on 15 September 1845.

The United States, on the basis of the Republic of Texas's prior claims, now claimed parts of Mexico that were not in the Mexican entity of Texas, i.e. parts of Tamaulipas, Coahuila, Chihuahua and Nuevo México across the Rio Grande. When the United States sent troops to this disputed territory, a detachment was captured by the Mexican army (29 March 1846). On 13 May 1846, the U.S. Congress declared that a state of war existed with Mexico.

Herrera, with much difficulty, was able to assemble a force of 6,000 men. This was put under the command of General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and sent to the north to fight the Americans. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potosí, but instead of marching north against the invaders, he turned back to the capital in December and overthrew President Herrera.

  Mexican-American War
In the Mexican-American War Herrera replaced Antonio López de Santa Anna as commander of the army, following the Battle of Huamantla (9 October 1847). Three days after Huamantla, U.S. General Joseph Lane fought his way through Herrera's troops into Puebla and raised the Mexican siege of the city.

Third term as president
On 30 May 1848, after the end of the Mexican-American War, Herrera was again elected to the presidency, but he declined the office. A commission from Congress visited him, begging him to accept the presidency, arguing that civil war would result if he declined. He did accept, and since Mexico City was still in the hands of the United States, he established his government in Mixcoac on 3 June 1848. He served until 15 January 1851.

He faced many problems during this term. The country was in a miserable condition, with bandits controlling the highways. There was a cholera epidemic and there were Indigenous uprisings in Misantla and Yucatán (the Caste War). Mariano Paredes led an armed uprising against the peace treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. In 1849 Leonardo Márquez revolted in favor of Santa Anna, claiming that the latter's resignation was invalid because Congress had not been in session.

The popular politician Juan de Dios Cañedo was murdered, and the followers of Santa Anna blamed Herrera, claiming that Dios Cañedo had been in possession of secret documents showing that he had been sent to the United States in 1844 to negotiate a cash settlement for the loss of Texas. The Texas charge was not denied, and may have been true.

President Herrera gave a concession for construction of the Mexico City-Veracruz railway, the first in Mexico, and another for a telegraph line between Mexico City and Puebla.
Herrera turned over the office to General Mariano Arista on 15 January 1851 and retired to private life. Evidence of his honorable character is provided by the following account: the day he resigned the presidency, he was forced to pawn a jewel to alleviate his economic situation.

 
 
President Arista named him director of the Monte de Piedad (national pawnshop), a position which he held until 1853. He died on 10 February 1854 in his modest house in Tacubaya. He was buried without pomp in the cemetery of San Fernando.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1844
 
 
Marx Karl  meets Engels Friedrich in Paris
 
 

Marx and Engels
 
 
     
  Karl Marx
"Manifesto of the Communist Party"
- Marxism

Friedrich Engels
First International
     
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Treaty of Wanghia
 

The Treaty of Wanghia (also Treaty of Wangxia, Treaty of Peace, Amity, and Commerce, with tariff of duties, traditional Chinese: 望廈條約; simplified Chinese: 望厦条约; pinyin: Wàngxià tiáoyuē; Cantonese Yale: Mohng Hah) was a diplomatic agreement between Qing-dynasty China and the United States, signed on July 3, 1844 in the Kun Iam Temple. Its official title name is the Treaty of peace, amity, and commerce, between the United States of America and the Chinese Empire. Following passage by the U.S. Congress, it was ratified by President John Tyler on January 17, 1845. It is considered an unequal treaty by many sources.

 
Name of the Treaty
The treaty was named after a village in northern Macau where the temple is located, called Mong Ha or Wang Hiya (traditional Chinese: 望廈; simplified Chinese: 望厦; pinyin: Wàngxià; Cantonese Yale: Mohng Hah). It is now a part of the territory's Our Lady of Fátima Parish.
 
 

Facade of the Kun Iam Temple, where the treaty was signed.
 
 
Contents of the Treaty
The United States was represented by Caleb Cushing, a Massachusetts lawyer dispatched by President John Tyler under pressure from American merchants concerned about the British dominance in Chinese trade.

A physician and missionary, Peter Parker, served as Cushing's Chinese interpreter.

The Qing Empire was represented by Qiying, the Viceroy of Liangguang, who held responsibility for the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi.

The treaty was modeled after the Treaties of Nanking and the Bogue between the UK and China, but differed in being more detailed.
Among other things, it contained:

  -Extraterritoriality, which meant that U.S. citizens could only be tried by U.S. consular officers
-Fixed tariffs on trade in the treaty ports
-The right to buy land in the five treaty ports and erect churches and hospitals there
-The right to learn Chinese by abolishing a law which hitherto forbade foreigners to do so
-The U.S. received most favoured nation status, resulting in the U.S. receiving the same beneficial treatment China gave to other powers such as Britain, and received the right to modify the treaty after 12 years

As a gesture of goodwill towards the Qing Empire, the opium trade was declared illegal, and the U.S. agreed to hand over any offenders to China.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1844
 
 
Daniel O'Connell (O’Connell Daniel ) found guilty of political conspiracy against Brit. rule in Ireland
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Attempt on the life of Frederick William IV, King of Prussia
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Breshkovsky Catherine
 
Catherine Breshkovsky (real name Yekaterina Konstantinovna Breshko-Breshkovskaya (Russian: Екатерина Константиновна Брешко-Брешковская); 13 January 1844 – 12 September 1934) was a Russian socialist, better known as Babushka the Grandmother of the Russian Revolution.
 

Catherine Breshkovsky
  Catherine Breshkovsky, (born 1844—died Sept. 12, 1934, near Prague, Czech.), Russian revolutionary.

After becoming involved with the Narodnik (or Populist) revolutionary group in the 1870s, she was arrested and exiled to Siberia for the years 1874–96.

In 1901 she helped organize the Socialist Revolutionary Party, and her involvement again led to her arrest and exile to Siberia (1910–17).

Though she became known as the “little grandmother of the Revolution,” she opposed the Bolsheviks after their 1917 victory and emigrated to Prague.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Comstock Anthony
 
Anthony Comstock, (born March 7, 1844, New Canaan, Conn., U.S.—died Sept. 21, 1915, New York, N.Y.), one of the most powerful American reformers, who for more than 40 years led a crusade against what he considered obscenity in literature and in other forms of expression. The epithet “comstockery” came to be synonymous with moralistic censorship.
 

Anthony Comstock
  A Union Army veteran of the American Civil War, Comstock began about 1872 to work with the Young Men’s Christian Association in New York City.

In 1873 he lobbied successfully for the enactment of a severe federal statute known as the Comstock Law, which outlawed the transportation of obscene matter in the mails.

From that year until his death he served (without pay until 1906) as a special agent of the U.S. Post Office Department. Also in 1873 he founded the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice.

Ordinarily, Comstock attacked commercial pornography rather than serious writing, but he sometimes took action against established modern works and the classics on the principle of “morals, not art or literature.”

Personally vindictive toward “libertines,” he is said to have boasted of the number of persons he had driven to suicide.

More creditable were his efforts to suppress fraudulent banking schemes, mail swindles, and medical quackery.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Emerson: "Essays"
 
 

Emerson: "Essays, First Series"
 
Emerson: "Essays, Sekond Series"
     
Essays: First Series, is a series of essays written by Emerson Ralph Waldo, published in 1841, concerning transcendentalism. This book contains:

"History"
"Self-Reliance"
"Compensation"
"Spiritual Laws"
"Love"
"Friendship"
"Prudence"
"Heroism"
"The Over-Soul"
"Circles"
"Intellect"
"Art"

  Essays: Second Series is a series of essays written by Emerson Ralph Waldo in 1844, concerning transcendentalism.
It is the second volume of Emerson's Essays, the first being Essays: First Series. This book contains:

"The Poet"
"Experience"
"Character"
"Manners"
"Gifts"
"Nature"
"Politics"
"Nominalist and Realist"
"New England Reformers"

 
 
see also: Ralph Emerson
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Bishop Nikolai F. S. Grundtvig, Danish poet and educator, founds the first institute for adult education
 
 
Grundtvig Nikolaj Frederik Severin
 
N.F.S. Grundtvig, in full Nikolai Frederik Severin Grundtvig (born September 8, 1783, Udby, Denmark—died September 2, 1872, Copenhagen), Danish bishop and poet, founder of Grundtvigianism, a theological movement that revitalized the Danish Lutheran church. He was also an outstanding hymn writer, historian, and educator and a pioneer of studies on early Scandinavian literature.
 

Nikolai Frederik Severin Grundtvig
  After taking a degree in theology (1803) from the University of Copenhagen, Grundtvig studied the Eddas and Icelandic sagas. His Nordens mythologi (1808; “Northern Mythology”) marked a turning point in this research; like his early poems, it was inspired by Romanticism.

In 1811, after a spiritual and emotional conflict that ended in a “Christian awakening,” Grundtvig became his father’s curate. His first attempt to write history from a Christian standpoint, Verdens krønike (1812; “World Chronicle”), attracted much attention. From 1813 until 1821, his criticism of the rationalist tendencies that were then predominant in Denmark’s Lutheran church made it impossible for him to find a pastorate. In poems such as those in Roskilde-riim (1814; “The Roskilde Rhymes”) and other collections and in Bibelske prædikener (1816; “Biblical Sermons”), he called for a renewal of the spirit of Martin Luther, and in his opposition to the Romantic philosophers he foreshadowed Søren Kierkegaard. During these years he also opened the way for research into Anglo-Saxon literature with his version of Beowulf (1820).
In 1825 he was the central figure in a church controversy when in his Kirkens gienmæle (“The Church’s Reply”) he accused the theologian H.N. Clausen of treating Christianity as merely a philosophical idea. Grundtvig maintained that Christianity was a historical revelation, handed down by the unbroken chain of a living sacramental tradition at baptism and communion.

 
 
His writings were placed under censorship, and in 1826 he resigned his pastorate but continued to develop his view of the Christian church in theological writings and in Christelige prædikener (1827–30; “Christian Sermons”). He expounded his philosophy in a new and inspired Nordens mythologi (1832; “Northern Mythology”) and in his Haandbog i verdenshistorien (1833–43; “Handbook of World History”). As an educator—e.g., in Skolen for livet (1838; “Schools for Life”)—he stressed the need for the thorough knowledge of the Danish language and of Danish and biblical history, in opposition to those who favoured the study of the classics in Latin. His criticism of classical schools as elitist inspired the founding, after 1844, of voluntary residential folk high schools, in which young people of every class were encouraged to be educated. These schools spread throughout Scandinavia and inspired adult education in several other countries.
 
 

N. F. S. Grundtvig by Constantin Hansen
 
 
In 1839 Grundtvig was given the position of preacher at Vartov Hospital in Copenhagen, and in 1861 he was given the rank of bishop. His liberal outlook found political expression in his active part in the movement leading to the introduction of parliamentary government in Denmark in 1849.

Particularly lasting is Grundtvig’s position as the greatest Scandinavian hymn writer. His Sang-værk til den danske kirke (1837–81; “Song Collection for the Danish Church”) contains new versions of traditional Christian hymns, as well as numerous original hymns, many of them well known in Norwegian, Swedish, German, and English translations.

N.F. Grundtvig: Selected Writings, in English translation, was published in 1976.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Hall Granville Stanley
 

G. Stanley Hall, in full Granville Stanley Hall (born February 1, 1844, Ashfield, Massachusetts, U.S.—died April 24, 1924, Worcester, Massachusetts), psychologist who gave early impetus and direction to the development of psychology in the United States. Frequently regarded as the founder of child psychology and educational psychology, he also did much to direct into the psychological currents of his time the ideas of Charles Darwin, Sigmund Freud, and others.

 

Granville Stanley Hall
  Hall graduated from Williams College in 1867. Although he originally intended to enter the ministry, he left Union Theological Seminary in New York City after one year (1867–68) to study philosophy in Germany (1868–71). He became a lecturer at Antioch College in Ohio in 1872. His decision to adopt psychology as his life’s work was inspired by a partial reading of Physiological Psychology (1873–74), by Wilhelm Wundt, generally considered the founder of experimental psychology. Hall resigned his post at Antioch in 1876 and returned to Germany for further study, becoming acquainted with Wundt and the German physicist and physiologist Hermann von Helmholtz. There Hall discovered the value of the questionnaire for psychological research. Later he and his students devised more than 190 questionnaires, which were instrumental in stimulating the upsurge of interest in the study of child development.

After returning to the United States, Hall in 1878 earned from Harvard University the first Ph.D. degree in psychology granted in America. He then gave special lectures on education at Harvard, and he used questionnaires from a study of Boston schools to write two significant papers: one dealing with children’s lies (1882) and the other with the contents of children’s minds (1883).

A lectureship in philosophy (1883) and a professorship in psychology and pedagogics (1884) at Johns Hopkins University followed. There Hall was given space for one of the first psychological laboratories in the United States.

 
 
The philosopher-psychologist-educator John Dewey was one of the first to use it. In 1887 Hall founded the American Journal of Psychology, the first such American journal and the second of any significance outside Germany.

Hall was entering the most influential period of his life. The following year (1888), he helped to establish Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, and, as the university’s president and a professor of psychology, he became a major force in shaping experimental psychology into a science. A great teacher, he inspired research that reached into all areas of psychology. By 1893 he had awarded 11 of the 14 doctorates in psychology granted in the United States. The first journal in the fields of child and educational psychology, the Pedagogical Seminary (later the Journal of Genetic Psychology), was founded by Hall in 1893.

Hall’s theory that mental growth proceeds by evolutionary stages is best expressed in one of his largest and most important works, Adolescence (1904). Despite opposition, Hall, as an early proponent of psychoanalysis, invited Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung to the conferences celebrating Clark University’s 20th anniversary (1909). Hall was a leading spirit in the founding of the American Psychological Association and served as its first president (1892). He published 489 works covering most of the major areas of psychology, including Senescence, the Last Half of Life (1922) and Jesus, the Christ, in the Light of Psychology (1917). Life and Confessions of a Psychologist (1923) was his autobiography.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1844
 
 
Mill John Stuart : "Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy"
 
 

J. S. Mill: "Essays on Some Unsettled
Questions of Political Economy"
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Nietzsche Friedrich
 

Friedrich Nietzsche, (born October 15, 1844, Röcken, Saxony, Prussia [Germany]—died August 25, 1900, Weimar, Thuringian States), German classical scholar, philosopher, and critic of culture, who became one of the most influential of all modern thinkers. His attempts to unmask the motives that underlie traditional Western religion, morality, and philosophy deeply affected generations of theologians, philosophers, psychologists, poets, novelists, and playwrights. He thought through the consequences of the triumph of the Enlightenment’s secularism, expressed in his observation that “God is dead,” in a way that determined the agenda for many of Europe’s most celebrated intellectuals after his death. Although he was an ardent foe of nationalism, anti-Semitism, and power politics, his name was later invoked by Fascists to advance the very things he loathed.

 

Friedrich Nietzsche
  The early years
Nietzsche’s home was a stronghold of Lutheran piety. His paternal grandfather had published books defending Protestantism and had achieved the ecclesiastical position of superintendent; his maternal grandfather was a country parson; his father, Carl Ludwig Nietzsche, was appointed pastor at Röcken by order of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, after whom Friedrich Nietzsche was named. His father died in 1849, before Nietzsche’s fifth birthday, and he spent most of his early life in a household consisting of five women: his mother Franziska, his younger sister Elisabeth, his maternal grandmother, and two maiden aunts.

In 1850 the family moved to Naumburg on the Saale River, where Nietzsche attended a private preparatory school, the Domgymnasium. In 1858 he earned a scholarship to Schulpforta, Germany’s leading Protestant boarding school. He excelled academically at Pforta, received an outstanding classical education there, and, having graduated in 1864, went to the University of Bonn to study theology and classical philology. Despite efforts to take part in the university’s social life, the two semesters at Bonn were a failure, owing chiefly to acrimonious quarrels between his two leading classics professors, Otto Jahn and Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl. Nietzsche sought refuge in music, writing a number of compositions strongly influenced by Robert Schumann, the German Romantic composer. In 1865 he transferred to the University of Leipzig, joining Ritschl, who had accepted an appointment there.

 
 
Nietzsche prospered under Ritschl’s tutelage in Leipzig. He became the only student ever to publish in Ritschl’s journal, Rheinisches Museum (“Rhenish Museum”). He began military service in October 1867 in the cavalry company of an artillery regiment, sustained a serious chest injury while mounting a horse in March 1868, and resumed his studies in Leipzig in October 1868 while on extended sick leave from the military. During the years in Leipzig, Nietzsche discovered Arthur Schopenhauer’s philosophy, met the great operatic composer Richard Wagner, and began his lifelong friendship with fellow classicist Erwin Rohde (author of Psyche).
 
 

Friedrich Nietzsche in 1869.
  The Basel years (1869–79)
When a professorship in classical philology fell vacant in 1869 in Basel, Switzerland, Ritschl recommended Nietzsche with unparalleled praise. He had completed neither his doctoral thesis nor the additional dissertation required for a German degree; yet Ritschl assured the University of Basel that he had never seen anyone like Nietzsche in 40 years of teaching and that his talents were limitless.

In 1869 the University of Leipzig conferred the doctorate without examination or dissertation on the strength of his published writings, and the University of Basel appointed him extraordinary professor of classical philology. The following year Nietzsche became a Swiss citizen and was promoted to ordinary professor.

Nietzsche obtained a leave to serve as a volunteer medical orderly in August 1870, after the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. Within a month, while accompanying a transport of wounded, he contracted dysentery and diphtheria, which ruined his health permanently.

He returned to Basel in October to resume a heavy teaching load, but as early as 1871 ill health prompted him to seek relief from the stultifying chores of a professor of classical philology; he applied for the vacant chair of philosophy and proposed Rohde as his successor, all to no avail.

During these early Basel years Nietzsche’s ambivalent friendship with Wagner ripened, and he seized every opportunity to visit Richard and his wife, Cosima.

 
 
Wagner appreciated Nietzsche as a brilliant professorial apostle, but Wagner’s increasing exploitation of Christian motifs, as in Parsifal, coupled with his chauvinism and anti-Semitism proved to be more than Nietzsche could bear. By 1878 the breach between the two men had become final.

Nietzsche’s first book, Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik (1872; The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music), marked his emancipation from the trappings of classical scholarship. A speculative rather than exegetical work, it argued that Greek tragedy arose out of the fusion of what he termed Apollonian and Dionysian elements—the former representing measure, restraint, harmony, and the latter representing unbridled passion—and that Socratic rationalism and optimism spelled the death of Greek tragedy. The final 10 sections of the book are a rhapsody about the rebirth of tragedy from the spirit of Wagner’s music. Greeted by stony silence at first, it became the object of heated controversy on the part of those who mistook it for a conventional work of classical scholarship. It was undoubtedly “a work of profound imaginative insight, which left the scholarship of a generation toiling in the rear,” as the British classicist F.M. Cornford wrote in 1912. It remains a classic in the history of aesthetics to this day.

By October 1876 Nietzsche requested and received a year’s sick leave. In 1877 he set up house with his sister and Peter Gast, and in 1878 his aphoristic Menschliches, Allzumenschliches (Human, All-Too-Human) appeared. Because his health deteriorated steadily he resigned his professorial chair on June 14, 1879, and was granted a pension of 3,000 Swiss francs per year for six years.

 
 
Decade of isolation and creativity (1879–89)
Apart from the books Nietzsche wrote between 1879 and 1889, it is doubtful that his life held any intrinsic interest. Seriously ill, half-blind, in virtually unrelenting pain, he lived in boarding houses in Switzerland, the French Riviera, and Italy, with only limited human contact.

His friendship with Paul Rée was undermined by 1882 by their mutual if unacknowledged affection for Lou Salomé (author, later the wife of the Orientalist F.C. Andreas, mistress of the poet Rainer Maria Rilke, and confidant of Sigmund Freud) as well as by Elisabeth Nietzsche’s jealous meddling.

Nietzsche’s acknowledged literary and philosophical masterpiece in biblical narrative form, Also sprach Zarathustra (Thus Spoke Zarathustra), was published between 1883 and 1885 in four parts, the last part a private printing at his own expense.

  As with most of his works it received little attention. His attempts to set forth his philosophy in more direct prose, in the publications in 1886 of Jenseits von Gut und Böse (Beyond Good and Evil) and in 1887 of Zur Genealogie der Moral (On the Genealogy of Morals), also failed to win a proper audience.

Nietzsche’s final lucid year, 1888, was a period of supreme productivity. He wrote and published Der Fall Wagner (The Case of Wagner) and wrote a synopsis of his philosophy, Die Götzen-Dämmerung (Twilight of the Idols), Der Antichrist (The Antichrist), Nietzsche contra Wagner (Eng. trans., Nietzsche contra Wagner), and Ecce Homo (Eng. trans., Ecce Homo), a reflection on his own works and significance. Twilight of the Idols appeared in 1889, Der Antichrist and Nietzsche contra Wagner were not published until 1895, the former mistakenly as book one of The Will to Power, and Ecce Homo was withheld from publication until 1908, 20 years after its composition.

 
 
Collapse and misuse
Nietzsche collapsed in the streets of Turin, Italy, in January 1889, having lost control of his mental faculties completely. Bizarre but meaningful notes he sent immediately after his collapse brought Franz Overbeck to Italy to return Nietzsche to Basel. Nietzsche spent the last 11 years of his life in total mental darkness, first in a Basel asylum, then in Naumburg under his mother’s care and, after her death in 1897, in Weimar in his sister’s care. He died in 1900. Informed opinion favours a diagnosis of atypical general paralysis caused by dormant tertiary syphilis.

The association of Nietzsche’s name with Adolf Hitler and Fascism owes much to the use made of his works by his sister Elisabeth. She had married a leading chauvinist and anti-Semite, Bernhard Förster, and after his suicide in 1889 she worked diligently to refashion Nietzsche in Förster’s image. Elisabeth maintained ruthless control over Nietzsche’s literary estate and, dominated by greed, produced collections of his “works” consisting of discarded notes, such as Der Wille zur Macht (1901; The Will to Power). She also committed petty forgeries. Generations of commentators were misled. Equally important, her enthusiasm for Hitler linked Nietzsche’s name with that of the dictator in the public mind.

 
 

Nietzsche in c. 1872.
  Nietzsche’s mature philosophy
Nietzsche’s writings fall into three well-defined periods. The early works, The Birth of Tragedy and the four Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen (1873; Untimely Meditations), are dominated by a Romantic perspective influenced by Schopenhauer and Wagner. The middle period, from Human, All-Too-Human up to The Gay Science, reflects the tradition of French aphorists. It extols reason and science, experiments with literary genres, and expresses Nietzsche’s emancipation from his earlier Romanticism and from Schopenhauer and Wagner. Nietzsche’s mature philosophy emerged after The Gay Science.
In his mature writings Nietzsche was preoccupied by the origin and function of values in human life. If, as he believed, life neither possesses nor lacks intrinsic value and yet is always being evaluated, then such evaluations can usefully be read as symptoms of the condition of the evaluator. He was especially interested, therefore, in a probing analysis and evaluation of the fundamental cultural values of Western philosophy, religion, and morality, which he characterized as expressions of the ascetic ideal.

The ascetic ideal is born when suffering becomes endowed with ultimate significance. According to Nietzsche the Judeo-Christian tradition, for example, made suffering tolerable by interpreting it as God’s intention and as an occasion for atonement. Christianity, accordingly, owed its triumph to the flattering doctrine of personal immortality, that is, to the conceit that each individual’s life and death have cosmic significance. Similarly, traditional philosophy expressed the ascetic ideal when it privileged soul over body, mind over senses, duty over desire, reality over appearance, the timeless over the temporal.

 
 
While Christianity promised salvation for the sinner who repents, philosophy held out hope for salvation, albeit secular, for its sages. Common to traditional religion and philosophy was the unstated but powerful motivating assumption that existence requires explanation, justification, or expiation. Both denigrated experience in favour of some other, “true” world. Both may be read as symptoms of a declining life, or life in distress.

Nietzsche’s critique of traditional morality centred on the typology of “master” and “slave” morality. By examining the etymology of the German words gut (“good”), schlecht (“bad”), and böse (“evil”), Nietzsche maintained that the distinction between good and bad was originally descriptive, that is, a nonmoral reference to those who were privileged, the masters, as opposed to those who were base, the slaves. The good/evil contrast arose when slaves avenged themselves by converting attributes of mastery into vices. If the favoured, the “good,” were powerful, it was said that the meek would inherit the earth. Pride became sin. Charity, humility, and obedience replaced competition, pride, and autonomy. Crucial to the triumph of slave morality was its claim to being the only true morality. This insistence on absoluteness is as essential to philosophical as to religious ethics. Although Nietzsche gave a historical genealogy of master and slave morality, he maintained that it was an ahistorical typology of traits present in everyone.

 
 

Drawing by Hans Olde from the photographic series, The Ill Nietzsche, mid-1899.
  “Nihilism” was the term Nietzsche used to describe the devaluation of the highest values posited by the ascetic ideal. He thought of the age in which he lived as one of passive nihilism, that is, as an age that was not yet aware that religious and philosophical absolutes had dissolved in the emergence of 19th-century Positivism. With the collapse of metaphysical and theological foundations and sanctions for traditional morality only a pervasive sense of purposelessness and meaninglessness would remain. And the triumph of meaninglessness is the triumph of nihilism: “God is dead.” Nietzsche thought, however, that most men could not accept the eclipse of the ascetic ideal and the intrinsic meaninglessness of existence but would seek supplanting absolutes to invest life with meaning.

He thought the emerging nationalism of his day represented one such ominous surrogate god, in which the nation-state would be invested with transcendent value and purpose. And just as absoluteness of doctrine had found expression in philosophy and religion, absoluteness would become attached to the nation-state with missionary fervour. The slaughter of rivals and the conquest of the earth would proceed under banners of universal brotherhood, democracy, and socialism. Nietzsche’s prescience here was particularly poignant, and the use later made of him especially repellent. For example, two books were standard issue for the rucksacks of German soldiers during World War I, Thus Spoke Zarathustra and The Gospel According to St. John. It is difficult to say which author was more compromised by this gesture.
 
 
Nietzsche often thought of his writings as struggles with nihilism, and apart from his critiques of religion, philosophy, and morality he developed original theses that have commanded attention, especially perspectivism, will to power, eternal recurrence, and the superman.

Perspectivism is a concept which holds that knowledge is always perspectival, that there are no immaculate perceptions, and that knowledge from no point of view is as incoherent a notion as seeing from no particular vantage point. Perspectivism also denies the possibility of an all-inclusive perspective, which could contain all others and, hence, make reality available as it is in itself. The concept of such an all-inclusive perspective is as incoherent as the concept of seeing an object from every possible vantage point simultaneously.

Nietzsche’s perspectivism has sometimes been mistakenly identified with relativism and skepticism. Nonetheless, it raises the question of how one is to understand Nietzsche’s own theses, for example, that the dominant values of the common heritage have been underwritten by an ascetic ideal. Is this thesis true absolutely or only from a certain perspective? It may also be asked whether perspectivism can be asserted consistently without self-contradiction, since perspectivism must presumably be true in an absolute, that is a nonperspectival sense. Concerns such as these have generated much fruitful Nietzsche commentary as well as useful work in the theory of knowledge.

Nietzsche often identified life itself with “will to power,” that is, with an instinct for growth and durability. This concept provides yet another way of interpreting the ascetic ideal, since it is Nietzsche’s contention “that all the supreme values of mankind lack this will—that values which are symptomatic of decline, nihilistic values, are lording it under the holiest names.”

 
 

Portrait of Friedrich Nietzsche
by Edvard Munch, 1906.
  Thus, traditional philosophy, religion, and morality have been so many masks a deficient will to power wears. The sustaining values of Western civilization have been sublimated products of decadence in that the ascetic ideal endorses existence as pain and suffering. Some commentators have attempted to extend Nietzsche’s concept of the will to power from human life to the organic and inorganic realms, ascribing a metaphysics of will to power to him. Such interpretations, however, cannot be sustained by reference to his published works.

The doctrine of eternal recurrence, the basic conception of Thus Spoke Zarathustra, asks the question “How well disposed would a person have to become to himself and to life to crave nothing more fervently than the infinite repetition, without alteration, of each and every moment?” Presumably most men would, or should, find such a thought shattering because they should always find it possible to prefer the eternal repetition of their lives in an edited version rather than to crave nothing more fervently than the eternal recurrence of each of its horrors. The person who could accept recurrence without self-deception or evasion would be a superhuman being (Übermensch), a superman whose distance from the ordinary man is greater than the distance between man and ape, Nietzsche says. Commentators still disagree whether there are specific character traits that define the person who embraces eternal recurrence.

 
 
Nietzsche’s influence
Nietzsche once wrote that some men are born posthumously, and this is certainly true in his case. The history of 20th-century philosophy, theology, and psychology are unintelligible without him. The German philosophers Max Scheler, Karl Jaspers, and Martin Heidegger laboured in his debt, for example, as did the French philosophers Albert Camus, Jacques Derrida, and Michel Foucault. Existentialism and deconstructionism, a movement in philosophy and literary criticism, owe much to him. The theologians Paul Tillich and Lev Shestov acknowledged their debt as did the “God is dead” theologian Thomas J.J. Altizer; Martin Buber, Judaism’s greatest 20th-century thinker, counted Nietzsche among the three most important influences in his life and translated the first part of Zarathustra into Polish. The psychologists Alfred Adler and Carl Jung were deeply influenced, as was Sigmund Freud, who said of Nietzsche that he had a more penetrating understanding of himself than any man who ever lived or was ever likely to live. Novelists like Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, André Malraux, André Gide, and John Gardner were inspired by him and wrote about him, as did the poets and playwrights George Bernard Shaw, Rainer Maria Rilke, Stefan George, and William Butler Yeats, among others. Nietzsche’s great influence is due not only to his originality but also to the fact that he was one of the German language’s most brilliant prose writers.

Bernd Magnus

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
see also: Friedrich Nietzsche
 
 
see also: Friedrich Nietzsche. "Thus Spoke Zarathustra"
 
 
     
 
Friedrich Nietzsche
     
 
 
     
  IDEAS that Changed the World

Myths and Legends
History of Religion
History of Philosophy
     
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Rice Edmund Ignatius
 

Blessed Edmund Ignatius Rice (Irish: [Éamann] Iognáid Rís; 1 June 1762 – 29 August 1844), was a Roman Catholic missionary and educationalist. Edmund was the founder of two religious institutes of religious brothers: the Congregation of Christian Brothers and the Presentation Brothers.

Rice was born in Ireland at a time when Catholics faced oppression under Penal Laws enforced by the British authorities, though reforms started in 1778 when he was a teenager. He forged a successful career in business and, after a tragic accident which killed his wife and left his daughter disabled, devoted his life to the education, servicing the poor and national well being.

Christian Brothers and Presentation Brothers schools around the world continue to follow the system of education and traditions established by Edmund Rice (see List of Christian Brothers schools).

 

Edmund Ignatius Rice
  Edmund Ignatius Rice, (born June 1, 1762, Callan, County Kilkenny, Ire.—died Aug. 29, 1844, Waterford, County Waterford), founder and first superior general of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools of Ireland (Christian Brothers), a congregation of nonclerics devoted exclusively to educating youth.

Rice inherited a business in Waterford from his uncle and became a prosperous merchant. He married in 1785, but after his wife’s sudden death four years later, he resolved to devote himself to the education of poor boys. Rice opened his first school in Waterford in 1802, followed by others in Cork, Dublin, and Limerick. Then, in 1808, he and seven companions took vows. His institute received papal approval in 1820, and in the following year Rice became Brother Ignatius as the institute’s first superior general. When ill health forced him to retire in 1838, other Christian Brothers communities had been founded in England and Australia. J.D. Fitzpatrick’s Edmund Rice appeared in 1945.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1844
 
 
Riehl Alois
 

Alois Adolf Riehl (27 April 1844 – 21 November 1924) was an Austrian philosopher.

 

Alois Adolf Riehl
  He was born in Bozen (Bolzano) in the Austrian Empire (now in Italy).

The brother of Josef Riehl, he was a Neo-Kantian and worked as a professor at Graz, then Freiburg and finally in Berlin, where he commissioned Mies van der Rohe to design his house in Neubabelsberg.

For Riehl, philosophy was not the teaching of Weltanschauung, but principally a criticism of perception.

Riehl died in Berlin and was buried in the Alter Friedhof in Klein-Glienicke.

His wife Sofie, was the aunt of Frieda Gross, the wife of the Austrian medical doctor, scientist and revolutionary, Otto Gross.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1844
 
 
A. P. Stanley: "Life and Correspondence of Thomas Arnold"
 
 
Stanley Arthur Penrhyn
 

Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (13 December 1815 – 18 July 1881) was an English churchman, Dean of Westminster, known as Dean Stanley. His position was that of a Broad Churchman and he was the author of works on Church History.

 
Life and times
Stanley was born in Alderley Edge in Cheshire, where his father Edward Stanley, later Bishop of Norwich, was then rector. A brother was Owen Stanley and his sister Mary Stanley. The middle-name 'Penrhyn' suggests Welsh lineage.
 
 

Portrait of Arthur Penrhyn Stanley by Lowes Cato Dickinson
  Early life
He was educated at Rugby School under Thomas Arnold, and in 1834 went up to Balliol College, Oxford. He is generally considered to be the source for the character of George Arthur in Thomas Hughes's well-known book Tom Brown's Schooldays which is based on Rugby. After winning the Ireland scholarship and Newdigate prize for an English poem (The Gypsies), he was in 1839 elected a Fellow of University College, and in the same year took holy orders. In 1840 he travelled in Greece and Italy, and on his return settled at Oxford, where for ten years he was tutor of his college and an influential element in university life. His relationship with his pupils was close and affectionate, and the charm of his character won him friends on all sides.

His literary reputation was early established by his Life of Arnold, published in 1844. In 1845 he was appointed select preacher, and published in 1847 a volume of Sermons and Essays on the Apostolic Age, which not only laid the foundation of his fame as a preacher, but also marked his future position as a theologian. In university politics, which at that time wore mainly the form of theological controversy, he was a strong advocate of comprehension and toleration.

Controversies
As an undergraduate he had sympathised with Arnold in resenting the agitation led by the High Church Party in 1836 against the appointment of RD Hampden to the Regius professorship of divinity.

 
 
During the long controversy which followed the publication in 1841 of Tract 90 and which ended in the withdrawal of John Henry Newman from the Church of England, he used all his influence to protect from formal condemnation the leaders and tenets of the "Tractarian" party.

In 1847 he resisted the movement set on foot at Oxford against Hampden's appointment to the bishopric of Hereford. Finally, in 1850, in an article published in the Edinburgh Review in defence of the Gorham judgment he asserted two principles which he maintained to the end of his life—first, "that the so-called supremacy of the Crown in religious matters was in reality nothing else than the supremacy of law, and, secondly, that the Church of England, by the very condition of its being, was not High or Low, but Broad, and had always included and been meant to include, opposite and contradictory opinions on points even more important than those at present under discussion."

 
 

A caricature of Stanley in Vanity Fair, 1872.
The caption was "Philosophic Belief"
  University reform
It was not only in theoretical but in academic matters that his sympathies were on the liberal side. He was greatly interested in university reform and acted as secretary to the royal commission appointed in 1850. Of the important changes in administration and education which were ultimately carried out, Stanley, who took the principal share in drafting the report printed in 1852, was a strenuous advocate.

These changes included the transference of the initiative in university legislation from the sole authority of the heads of houses to an elected and representative body, the opening of college fellowships and scholarships to competition by the removal of local and other restrictions, the non-enforcement at matriculation of subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles, and various steps for increasing the usefulness and influence of the professorship. Before the report was issued, Stanley was appointed to a canonry in Canterbury Cathedral. During his residence there he published his Memoir of his father (1851), and completed his Commentary on the Epistles to the Corinthians (1855).

In the winter and spring of 1852–1853 he made a tour in Egypt and the Holy Land, the result of which was his well-known volume on Sinai and Palestine (1856). In 1857 he travelled in Russia, and collected much of the materials for his Lectures on the Eastern Orthodox Church (1861). The book of these lectures, "History of the Eastern Church", contained an argument for the Apostolic claims of the Church of Abyssinia. His Memorials of Canterbury (1855), displayed the full maturity of his power of dealing with historical events and characters. He was also examining chaplain to Bishop A. C. Tait, his former tutor.
 
 
Chair of ecclesiastical history
At the close of 1856 Stanley was appointed Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History at Oxford, a post which, with the attached canonry at Christ Church, he held till 1863. He began his treatment of the subject with "the first dawn of the history of the church," the call of Abraham; and published the first two volumes of his History of the Jewish Church in 1863 and 1865. From 1860 to 1864 academic and clerical circles were agitated by the storm which followed the publication of Essays and Reviews, a volume to which two of his most valued friends, Benjamin Jowett and Frederick Temple, had been contributors. Stanley's part in this controversy may be studied in the second and third of his Essays on Church and State (1870). The result of his action was to alienate the leaders of the High Church party, who had endeavoured to procure the formal condemnation of the views advanced in Essays and Reviews. In 1836 he published a Letter to the Bishop of London, advocating a relaxation of the terms of clerical subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles and the Book of Common Prayer. An act amending the Act of Uniformity, and carrying out in some degree Stanley's proposals, was passed in the year 1865. In 1862, Stanley, at Queen Victoria's wish, accompanied the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII) on a tour in Egypt and Palestine.

In June 1863 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society as The Author of – Life of Doctor Arnold – Historical Memorials of Canterbury – Syria and Palestine in connexion with their History – Lectures on the Eastern Churches – and Lectures on the Jewish Churches The collected Works of Dean Stanley take up 32 bound volumes !

 
 

Arthur Penrhyn Stanley
  Dean of Westminster
Stanley was a candidate to succeed as Archbishop of Dublin following the death of Richard Whately in October 1863, but was rejected by the Church of Ireland. Richard Chenevix Trench, the Dean of Westminster, was appointed instead, and towards the close of 1863 Stanley was appointed by the Crown to the newly vacated deanery. In December he married Lady Augusta Bruce, sister of Lord Elgin, then governor-general of India. His tenure of the deanery of Westminster was memorable in many ways. He recognised from the first two important disqualifications—his indifference to music and his slight knowledge of architecture. On both these subjects he availed himself largely of the aid of others, and threw himself with characteristic energy and entire success into the task of rescuing from neglect and preserving from decay the treasure of historic monuments in which Westminster Abbey is so rich. In 1865 he published his Memorials of Westminster Abbey, a work which, despite occasional inaccuracies, is a mine of information. He was a constant preacher, and gave a great impulse to Trench's practice of inviting distinguished preachers to the abbey pulpit, especially to the evening services in the nave. His personal influence, already unique, was much increased by his removal to London. His circle of friends included men of every denomination, every class and almost of every nation.
 
 
Literary work
He was untiring in literary work, and, though this consisted very largely of occasional papers, lectures, articles in reviews, addresses, and sermons, it included a third volume of his History of the Jewish Church, a volume on the Church of Scotland, another of Addresses and Sermons preached in America, "Essays Chiefly On Questions of Church and State from 1850 to 1870 (1870) and Christian Institutions : Essays on Ecclesiastical Subjects (1881), the last two collections some would consider still very relevant today. He was continually engaged in theological controversy, although courteously, and, by his advocacy of all efforts to promote the social, moral, and religious amelioration of the poorer classes and his chivalrous courage in defending those whom he held to be unjustly denounced, undoubtedly incurred opposition from some in influential circles. Among the causes of offence might be enumerated not only his vigorous defence of one from whom he differed to some extent, Bishop Colenso, but his invitation to the Holy Communion of all the revisers of the translation of the Bible, including a Unitarian among other Nonconformists. Still stronger was the feeling caused by his efforts to make the recital of the Athanasian Creed optional instead of imperative in the Church of England. In 1874 he spent part of the winter in Russia, where he went to take part in the marriage of Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and the Grand Duchess Marie.
 
 
Final years
He lost his wife in the spring of 1876, a blow from which he never entirely recovered. In 1878 he became interested by a tour in America, and in the following autumn visited for the last time northern Italy and Venice.

In the spring of 1881 he preached funeral sermons in the abbey on Thomas Carlyle and Benjamin Disraeli, concluding with the latter a series of sermons preached on public occasions. In the summer he was preparing a paper on the Westminster Confession, and preaching in the abbey a course of Saturday Lectures on the Beatitudes. He died in the Deanery on 18 July 1881.

He was buried in Henry VII's chapel, in the same grave as his wife. His pallbearers comprised representatives of literature, of science, of both Houses of Parliament, of theology, Anglican and Nonconformist, and of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. The recumbent monument, by Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm placed upon the spot, and the windows (destroyed 1939–45) in the chapter-house of the abbey, one of them a gift from Queen Victoria, were a tribute to his memory from friends of every class in England and America.

 
Stanley: "Life and Correspondence of Thomas Arnold"
 
 
A description of his funeral service, on the 25 July, is given in a footnote to Historical memorials of Westminster Abbey: "Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (author of this volume) ... was followed by the Prince of Wales, as representative of the Sovereign, by other members of the Royal Family, by representatives of the three Estates of the Realm, of the Cabinet Ministers, the literature, arts, science, and religion of the country, and by a large concourse of the working-men of Westminster—the majority mourning for one who had been their personal friend. The coffin was covered with memorials and expressions of regret from high and low in England, Scotland, France, Germany, and America, and from the members of the Armenian Church. He rests in the same grave with his beloved wife, in the Abbey which he loved so dearly, which he cherished as 'the likeness of the whole English Constitution,' for the care and illustration of which he laboured unceasingly, and with which his name will always be associated."   Legacy
Stanley was the leading liberal theologian of his time in England. His writings reveal his special views, aims and aspirations. He regarded the age in which he lived as a period of transition, to be followed either by an "eclipse of faith" or by a "revival of Christianity in a wider aspect," a "catholic, comprehensive, all-embracing Christianity" that "might yet overcome the world". He believed that the Christian Church had not yet presented "its final or its most perfect aspect to the world"; that "the belief of each successive age of Christendom had as a matter of fact varied enormously from the belief of its predecessor"; that "all confessions and similar documents are, if taken as final expressions of absolute truth, misleading"; and that "there still remained, behind all the controversies of the past, a higher Christianity which neither assailants nor defenders had fully exhausted." "The first duty of a modern theologian" he held to be "to study the Bible, not for the sake of making or defending systems out of it, but for the sake of discovering what it actually contains."
 
 
To this study he looked for the best hope of such a progressive development of Christian theology as should avert the danger arising from "the apparently increasing divergence between the intelligence and the faith of our time." He enforced the duty "of placing in the background whatever was accidental, temporary or secondary, and of bringing into due prominence what was primary and essential." In the former group Stanley would have placed all questions connected with Episcopal or Presbyterian orders, or that deal only with the outward forms or ceremonies of religion, or with the authorship or age of the books of the Old Testament.

The foremost and highest place, that of the "essential and supernatural" elements of religion, he reserved for its moral and spiritual truths, "its chief evidence and chief essence," the truths to be drawn from the teaching and from the life of Christ, "in whose character he did not hesitate to recognise ?the greatest of all miracles."

He insisted on the essential points of union between various denominations of Christians. He was an advocate of the connection between Church and State. By this he understood: (1) "the recognition and support on the part of the state of the religious expression of the faith of the community," and (2) "that this religious expression of the faith of the community on the most sacred and most vital of all its interests should be controlled and guided by the whole community through the supremacy of law." At the same time he was in favour of making the creed of the Church as wide as possible—"not narrower than that which is even now the test of its membership, the Apostles' Creed"—and of throwing down all barriers which could be wisely dispensed with to admission to its ministry. As an immediate step he even advocated the admission under due restrictions of English Nonconformists and Scottish Presbyterians, to preach in Anglican pulpits.

The subjects to which he looked as, the most essential of all—the universality of the divine love, the supreme importance of the moral and spiritual elements of religion, the supremacy of conscience, the sense of the central citadel of Christianity as being contained in the character, the history, the spirit of its divine Founder—have impressed themselves more and more on the teaching and the preaching in the Church.

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