Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1844 Part III NEXT-1845 Part I    
 
 
     
1840 - 1849
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840-1849
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part I
Bebel August
Maximilian of Mexico
Carlota
Convention of London
British North America Act
Francia Jose Gaspar
Macdonald Jacques
William I of the Netherlands
William II of the Netherlands
Retour des cendres
Lambton John George
Vaillant Edouard-Marie
Sampson William
Smith William Sidney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part II
Ridpath John Clark
Sankey Ira David
James Fenimore Cooper: "The Pathfinder"
Blunt Wilfrid Scawen
Broughton Rhoda
Robert Browning: "Sordello"
Daudet Alphonse
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Dobson Austin
Hardy Thomas
Thomas Hardy 
"Tess of the d'Urbervilles"
Lemercier  Nepomucene
Lermontov: "A Hero of Our Times"
Modjeska Helena
Symonds John Addington
Verga Giovanni
Zola Emile
Emile Zola
"
J'accuse" (I accuse)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part III
Delacroix: "Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople"
Makart Hans
Hans Makart
Monet Claude
Claude Monet
Nasmyth Alexander
Alexander Nasmyth
Nast Thomas
Nelson's Column
Rodin Auguste
Auguste Rodin
Redon Odilon
Odilon Redon
Blechen Carl
Karl Blechen
Debain Alexandre-Francois
Donizetti: "La Fille du Regiment"
Haberl Franz Xaver
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich
Tchaikovsky - The Seasons
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky
Schneckenburger Max
Wilhelm Karl
"Die Wacht am Rhein"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part IV
Olbers Wilhelm
Blumenbach Johann Friedrich
Ball Robert
Kohlrausch Friedrich Wilhelm
Agassiz Louis
Basedow Carl Adolph
Graves disease
Maxim Hiram
Eyre Edward John
Brummell Beau
Father Damien
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Washington Temperance Society
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part I
Second Battle of Chuenpee
Barere Bertrand
Fisher John Arbuthnot
British Hong Kong
Luzzatti Luigi
Merriman John
Harrison William Henry
Tyler John
Espartero Baldomero
Hirobumi Ito
Clemenceau Georges
Edward VII
Creole case
Laurier Wilfrid
New Zealand
Lamb William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part II
Cheyne Thomas Kelly
Ludwig Feuerbach: "The Essence of Christianity"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Holst Hermann Eduard
Jebb Richard Claverhouse
Ward Lester Frank
Black William
Robert Browning: "Pippa Passes"
Buchanan Robert
Fenimore Cooper: "The Deerslayer"
Coquelin Benoit
Dickens: "The Old Curiosity Shop"
Ewing Juliana Horatia
Sill Edward Rowland
Frederick Marryat: "Masterman Ready"
Mendes Catulle
Mounet-Sully Jean
"Punch, or The London Charivari"
Sealsfield Charles
Scott Clement William
White Joseph Blanco
Ruskin: "The King of the Golden River"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part III
Chantrey Francis
Morisot Berthe
Berthe Morisot
Renoir Pierre-Auguste
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Wagner Otto
Wallot Paul
Olivier Ferdinand
Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier
Bazille Frederic
Frederic Bazille
Zandomeneghi Federico
Federico Zandomeneghi
Guillaumin Armand
Armand Guillaumin
Chabrier Emmanuel
Chabrier - Espana
Emmanuel Chabrier
Dibdin Thomas John
Dvorak Anton
Antonin Dvorak: Rusalka
Antonin Dvorak
Pedrell Felipe
Felip Pedrell: Els Pirineus
Felipe Pedrell
Rossini: "Stabat Mater"
Sax Antoine-Joseph
Schumann: Symphony No. 1
Sgambati Giovanni
Sgambati - Piano Concerto in G minor
Giovanni Sgambati
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part IV
Cooper Astley
Braid James
Hypnosis
Candolle Austin
Aniline
Kocher Emil Theodor
Kolliker Rudolf Albert
Petzval Joseph
Hudson William Henry
Warming Eugenius
Whitworth Joseph
Barnum's American Museum
Bradshaw George
Cook Thomas
Hyer Tom
"The New York Tribune"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part I
Pozzo di Borgo Charles-Andre
Las Cases Emmanuel
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Treaty of Nanking
General Strike of 1842
O’Higgins Bernardo
Giolitti Giovanni
Fiske John
Hartmann Eduard
Hyndman Henry Mayers
James William
Kropotkin Peter Alekseyevich
Anarchism
Anarchism
Lavisse Ernest
Robertson George Croom
Sorel Albert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part II
Banim John
Sue Eugene
Eugene Sue: "The Mysteries of Paris"
Bierce Ambrose
Brandes Georg
Bulwer-Lytton: "Zanoni"
Graham Maria
Coppee Francois
Cunningham Allan
Espronceda Jose
Gogol: "Dead Souls"
Howard Bronson
Lanier Sidney
Lover Samuel
MacKaye Steele
Maginn William
Mallarme Stephane
May Karl
Рое: "The Masque of the Red Death"
Quental Antero Tarquinio
Woodworth Samuel
Macaulay: "Lays of Ancient Rome"
Tupper Martin Farquhar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part III
Vereshchagin Vasily
Vasily Vereshchagin
Boldini Giovanni
Giovanni Boldini
Boito Arrigo
Arrigo Boito: Mefistofele Finale
Arrigo Boito
Glinka: "Russian and Ludmilla"
Hopkinson Joseph
"Hail, Columbia"
Lortzing: "Der Wildschiitz"
Massenet Jules
Massenet "Elegie"
Jules Massenet
Millocker Karl
Millocker: Gasparone
Karl Millocker
New York Philharmonic
Sullivan Arthur
Arthur Sullivan - The Mikado - Overture
Arthur Sullivan
Wagner: "Rienzi"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part IV
Dewar James
Doppler Christian Andreas
Flammarion Camille
Hansen Emile Christian
Long Crawford Williamson
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Charting the Ocean Depths
Mayer Julius Robert
Pelletier Pierre Joseph
Marshall Alfred
Strutt John William
Retzius Gustaf
Fremont John Charles
Darling Grace
Polka
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part I
McKinley William
Braga Teofilo
Wairau Affray
Dilke Charles
Avenarius Richard
Borrow George
Carlile Richard
Thomas Carlyle: "Past and Present"
Creighton Mandell
Liddell and Scott: "Greek-English Lexicon"
Liddell Henry
Scott Robert
Ward James
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part II
Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last of the Barons"
Elisabeth of Romania
Dickens: "Martin Chuzzlewit"
Doughty Charles Montagu
Dowden Edward
Emmett Daniel Decatur
Hood Thomas
Thomas Hood: "Song of the Shirt"
Horne Richard Hengist
James Henry
Rosegger Peter
Suttner Bertha
Harris George Washington
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part III
Allston Washington
Washington Allston
John Ruskin: "Modern Painters"
Trumbull John
John Trumbull
Werner Anton
Anton von Werner
Clairin Georges
Georges Clairin
Donizetti: "Don Pasquale"
Grieg Edward
Grieg - Solveig Song
Edward Grieg
Nilsson Christine
Patti Adelina
Richter Hans
Schumann: "Paradise and the Peri"
Wagner: "The Flying Dutchman"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part IV
British Archaeological Association
Chamberlin Thomas Chrowder
Ferrier David
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Joule James Prescott
Koch Robert
Erbium
Brunel Marc Isambard
Thames Tunnel
Dix Dorothea Lynde
Guy's, Kings and St. Thomas' Rugby Football Club
Sequoyah
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part I
Lowe Hudson
Drouet Jean-Baptiste
Oscar I of Sweden
Dole Sanford Ballard
Laffitte Jacques
Franco-Moroccan War
Polk James Knox
Herrera Jose Joaquin
Treaty of Wanghia
Breshkovsky Catherine
Comstock Anthony
Emerson: "Essays"
Grundtvig Nikolaj Frederik Severin
Hall Granville Stanley
Nietzsche Friedrich
Friedrich Nietzsche
Rice Edmund Ignatius
Riehl Alois
Stanley Arthur Penrhyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part II
Bernhardt Sarah
Sarah Bernhardt
Dumas, pere: "Le Comte de Monte Cristo"
Bridges Robert
Cable George Washington
Carte Richard
Cary Henry Francis
Disraeli: "Coningsby"
France Anatole
Hopkins Gerard Manley
Lang Andrew
Liliencron Detlev
O'Reilly John Boyle
O’Shaughnessy Arthur
Sterling John
William Thackeray: "Barry Lyndon"
Verlaine Paul
Paul Verlaine
"Poems"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part III
Eakins Thomas
Thomas Eakins
Ezekiel Moses Jacob
Moses Ezekiel
Luke Fildes Luke
Luke Fildes
Leibl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Leibl
Munkacsy Mihaly
Mihaly Munkacsy
Repin Ilya
Ilya Repin
Rousseau Henri
Henri Rousseau
Cassatt Mary
Mary Cassatt
Flotow: "Alessandro Stradella"
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E minor
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay
The Best of Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Sarasate Pablo
Pablo de Sarasate - Zigeunerweisen
Pablo de Sarasate
Verdi: "Ernani"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part IV
Grassmann Hermann Gunther
Baily Francis
Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard
DeLong George Washington
Golgi Camillo
Kielmeyer Carl Friedrich
Kinglake Alexander William
Strasburger Eduard Adolf
Huc Evariste Regis
Gabet Joseph
Sturt Charles Napier
Leichhardt Friedrich
Beckford William
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers
"Fliegende Blatter"
Hagenbeck Carl
Keller Friedrich Gottlob
Pasch Gustaf Erik
Young Men’s Christian Association
Williams George
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part I
Root Elihu
Texas
Florida
Flagstaff War
Ludwig II of Bavaria
First Anglo-Sikh War
Sonderbund
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part II
Friedrich Engels: "The Condition of the Working Class in England"
Stirner Max
Disraeli: "Sybil, or The Two Nations"
Hertz Henrik
Prosper Merimee: "Carmen"
Рое: "The Raven"
Spitteler Carl
Wergeland Henrik
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part III
Bode Wilhelm
Hill David Octavius
Ingres: The Comtesse d'Haussonville
Oberlander Adam Adolf
Crane Walter
Walter Crane
Faure Gabriel
Faure - Pavane
Gabriel Faure
Lortzing: "Undine"
Wagner: "Tannhauser"
Widor Charles-Marie
Widor - Piano Concerto No. 1
Charles Marie Widor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part IV
Armstrong William George
Bigelow Erastus Brigham
Cayley Arthur
Cornell Ezra
Submarine communications cable
Heilmann Joshua
Humboldt: "Cosmos"
Kolbe Hermann
Laveran Alphonse
McNaught William
Metchnikoff Elie
Charting the Northwest
Layard Austen Henry
Cartwright Alexander
United States Naval Academy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part I
Battle of Aliwal
Battle of Sobraon
Treaty of Lahore
Greater Poland Uprising
Krakow Uprising
Mexican-American War
Battle of Monterrey
First Battle of Tabasco
Iowa
Pasic Nikola
Evangelical Alliance
Eucken Rudolf Christoph
Pius IX
Whewell William
Young Brigham
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part II
Balzac: "La Cousine Bette"
De Amicis Edmondo
Dostoevsky: "Poor Folk"
Jokai Maurus
Lear Edward
Melville Herman
Herman Melville: "Typee"
Herman Melville
"Moby Dick or The Whale"
Sienkiewicz Henryk
George Watts: "Paolo and Francesca"
De Nittis Giuseppe
Giuseppe de Nittis
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part III
Berlioz: "Damnation de Faust"
Lortzing: "Der Waffenschmied"
Mendelssohn: "Elijah"
Deere John
Deere & Company
Henle Friedrich
Howe Elias
Waitz Theodor
Mohl Hugo
Green William Thomas
Sobrero Ascanio
Heaphy Charles
Brunner Thomas
Europeans in New Zealand
"The Daily News"
Horsley John Callcott
Smithsonian Institution
Zeiss Carl
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part I
Liberia
Second Battle of Tabasco
Battle of Churubusco
BATTLE OF MEXICO CITY
Hindenburg Paul
Sonderbund War
Beecher Henry Ward
Blanc Louis
Proudhon Pierre-Joseph
roudhon: "Philosophy of Poverty"P
Karl Marx: "The Poverty of Philosophy"
Salt Lake City
Charlotte Bronte: "Jane Eyre"
Bronte Emily
Marryat: "The Children of the New Forest"
Thackeray: "Vanity Fair"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part II
Hildebrand Adolf
Liebermann Max
Max Liebermann
Friedrich von Flotow: "Martha"
Verdi: "Macbeth"
Boole George
Edison Thomas Alva
Bell Alexander Graham
Semmelweis Ignaz Philipp
Colenso William
Factory Act of 1847
Fawcett Millicent
Siemens & Halske
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part I
Frederick VII
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Revolutions of 1848
French Revolution of 1848
June Days Uprising
Cavaignac Louis-Eugene
French Constitution of 1848
French Second Republic
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Slovak Uprising 1848-1849
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part I)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part II
First Italian War of Independence
Skirmish of Pastrengo
Battle of Goito
Battle of Custoza
Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
Revolution of 1848 in Luxembourg
Greater Poland Uprising
Moldavian Revolution of 1848
Pan-Slav Congress of 1848
Pan-Slavism
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part II)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part III
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Nasr-ed-Din
Ibrahim Pasha
Abbas I
Wisconsin
Balfour Arthur James
Seneca Falls Convention
Stanton Elizabeth Cady
Delbruck Hans
Macaulay: "History of England"
"The Communist Manifesto"
John Mill: "Principles of Political Economy"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part IV
Augier Emile
Chateaubriand: "Memoires d'Outre-Tombe"
Dumas fils: "La Dame aux Camelias"
Gaskell Elizabet
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
Murger Louis-Henri
Henri Murger: "Scenes de la vie de Boheme"
Terry Ellen
Surikov Vasily
Vasily Surikov
Uhde Fritz
Fritz von Uhde
Gauguin Paul
Paul Gauguin
Caillebotte Gustave
Gustave Caillebotte
Millais: "Ophelia"
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part V
Parry Hubert Hastings
Jerusalem by Hubert Parry
Hubert Parry
Duparc Henri
Duparc Henri: "L'invitation au voyage"
Henri Duparc
Bottger Rudolf Christian
Parsons William
Frege Gottlob
"New Prussian Newspaper"
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"
Grace William Gilbert
Kneipp Sebastian
Lilienthal Otto
Starr Belle
California Gold Rush
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part I
Battle of Chillianwala
Battle of Gujrat
Roman Republic on February 9, 1849
Battle of Novara
Victor Emmanuel II
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Peace of Milan
Taylor Zachary
Dresden Rebellion of 1849
Surrender at Vilagos
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part II
Kemble John Mitchell
Key Ellen
Arnold Matthew
Dickens: "David Copperfield"
Kingsley Charles
Scribe: "Adrienne Lecouvreur"
Strindberg August
Smith Horace
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part III
Waterhouse John William
John William Waterhouse
John Ruskin: "The Seven Lamps of Architecture"
Carriere Eugene
Eugene Carriere
Liszt: "Tasso"
Meyerbeer: "Le Prophete"
Otto Nicolai: "The Merry Wives of Windsor"
Schumann: "Manfred"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part IV
Fizeau Armand
Frankland Edward
Livingstone David
Explorations of David Livingstone
Baines Thomas
"Who's Who"
Bedford College
Bloomer Amelia
Bloomers (clothing)
Stead William Thomas
 
 
 

Kopftitel der Fliegenden Blätter
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1844 Part IV
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Hermann Gunther Grassmann: Die Ausdehnungslehre (Calculus of extension)
 
 
Grassmann Hermann Gunther
 

Hermann Günther Grassmann, (born April 15, 1809, Stettin, Prussia [now Szczecin, Pol.]—died Sept. 26, 1877, Stettin, Ger.), German mathematician chiefly remembered for his development of a general calculus of vectors in Die lineale Ausdehnungslehre, ein neuer Zweig der Mathematik (1844; “The Theory of Linear Extension, a New Branch of Mathematics”).

 

Hermann Günther Grassmann
  Grassmann taught at the Gymnasium in Stettin from 1831 until his death, except for two years (1834–36) of teaching at an industrial school in Berlin. He pursued wide interests, writing on electricity, colour, acoustics, linguistics, botany, and folklore.

In Ausdehnungslehre Grassmann developed Gottfried Leibniz’ idea of an algebra in which symbols representing geometric entities (such as points, lines, and planes) are manipulated according to certain rules. In suitable circumstances this calculus proves far more powerful than earlier methods of coordinate geometry. Grassmann also initiated the representation of subspaces of a given space (e.g., the lines in three-dimensional space) by coordinates; this leads to a point mapping of an algebraic manifold, called the Grassmannian. Somewhat similar ideas were propounded independently and contemporaneously by Sir William R. Hamilton of Great Britain in his quaternion theory; indeed, Grassmann, Hamilton, and the British mathematician George Boole were the pioneers in the field of modern algebra. Although Grassmann’s methods were only slowly adopted, partly because of his obscure writing, they eventually inspired the continental school of vector analysis. Through the work of Élie Cartan of France, his methods have since shown their utility in the study of differential forms, with its important applications to analysis and geometry.

 
 
Grassmann was an accomplished linguist, specializing in Sanskrit literature, and at the age of 53, disappointed with the lack of interest in his mathematical work, he turned all his efforts to Sanskrit studies. His Sanskrit dictionary on the Ṛgveda is still widely used.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1844
 
 
Baily Francis
 

Francis Baily (28 April 1774 – 30 August 1844) was an English astronomer. He is most famous for his observations of 'Baily's beads' during an eclipse of the Sun. Bailey was also a major figure in the early history of the Royal Astronomical Society, as one of the founders and president four times.

 

Francis Baily
  Life
Baily was born at Newbury in Berkshire in 1774 to Richard Baily. After a tour in the unsettled parts of North America in 1796–1797, his journal of which was edited by Augustus de Morgan in 1856, Baily entered the London Stock Exchange in 1799. The successive publication of Tables for the Purchasing and Renewing of Leases (1802), of The Doctrine of Interest and Annuities (1808), and The Doctrine of Life-Annuities and Assurances (1810), earned him a high reputation as a writer on life-contingencies; he amassed a fortune through diligence and integrity and retired from business in 1825, to devote himself wholly to astronomy.

Astronomical work
By 1820, Baily had already taken a leading part in the foundation of the Royal Astronomical Society, and he received its Gold Medal in 1827 for his preparation of the Society's Catalogue of 2881 stars (Memoirs R. Astr. Soc. ii.). Later, in 1843, he would win the Gold Medal again. He was elected as President of the Royal Astronomical Society four times, with two-year terms each (1825–27, 1833–35, 1837–39 and 1843–45). No other person has served in the position more than Baily's four times (a record he shares with George Airy), whilst his eight years in the post are a record.

 
 
The reform of the Nautical Almanac in 1829 was set on foot by his protests. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1832. He recommended to the British Association in 1837, and in great part executed, the reduction of Joseph de Lalande's and Nicolas de Lacaille's catalogues containing about 57,000 stars; he superintended the compilation of the British Association's Catalogue of 8377 stars (published 1845); and revised the catalogues of Tobias Mayer, Ptolemy, Ulugh Beg, Tycho Brahe, Edmund Halley and Hevelius (Memoirs R. Astr. Soc. iv, xiii.).
 
 
His observations of "Baily's Beads", during an annular eclipse of the sun on 15 May 1836, at Inch Bonney in Roxburghshire, started the modern series of eclipse expeditions. The phenomenon, which depends upon the irregular shape of the moon's limb, was so vividly described by him as to attract an unprecedented amount of attention to the total eclipse of 8 July 1842, observed by Baily himself at Pavia.
In other work, he completed and discussed H. Foster's pendulum experiments, deducing from them an ellipticity for the earth of 1/289.48 (Memoirs R. Astr. Soc. vii.). This value was corrected for the length of the seconds-pendulum by introducing a neglected element of reduction, and was used, in 1843, in the reconstruction of the standards of length. His laborious operations for determining the mean density of the earth, carried out by Henry Cavendish's method (1838–1842), yielded the authoritative value of 5.66.

Baily died in London on 30 August 1844 and was buried in the family vault in St Mary's Church in Thatcham. His Account of the Rev. John Flamsteed (1835) is of fundamental importance to the scientific history of that time. It included a republication of the British Catalogue.

 
Baily's beads
 
 
The lunar crater Baily was named in his honour, as was the rigid and thermally insensitive alloy used to cast the 1855 standard yard (Baily's metal, 16 parts copper, 2.5 parts tin, 1 part zinc) and a local primary school in his home town of Thatcham (Francis Baily CofE Primary School).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1844
 
 
Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard
 

Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann, (born Feb. 20, 1844, Vienna, Austria—died Sept. 5, 1906, Duino, Italy), physicist whose greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms (such as mass, charge, and structure) determine the visible properties of matter (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion).

 

Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann
  After receiving his doctorate from the University of Vienna in 1866, Boltzmann held professorships in mathematics and physics at Vienna, Graz, Munich, and Leipzig.

In the 1870s Boltzmann published a series of papers in which he showed that the second law of thermodynamics, which concerns energy exchange, could be explained by applying the laws of mechanics and the theory of probability to the motions of the atoms. In so doing, he made clear that the second law is essentially statistical and that a system approaches a state of thermodynamic equilibrium (uniform energy distribution throughout) because equilibrium is overwhelmingly the most probable state of a material system.

During these investigations Boltzmann worked out the general law for the distribution of energy among the various parts of a system at a specific temperature and derived the theorem of equipartition of energy (Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law).

This law states that the average amount of energy involved in each different direction of motion of an atom is the same. He derived an equation for the change of the distribution of energy among atoms due to atomic collisions and laid the foundations of statistical mechanics.

 
 
Boltzmann was also one of the first continental scientists to recognize the importance of the electromagnetic theory proposed by James Clerk Maxwell of England. Though his work on statistical mechanics was strongly attacked and long-misunderstood, his conclusions were finally supported by the discoveries in atomic physics that began shortly before 1900 and by recognition that fluctuation phenomena, such as Brownian motion (random movement of microscopic particles suspended in a fluid), could be explained only by statistical mechanics.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 


Boltzmann's 1898 I2 molecule diagram showing
atomic "sensitive region" (α, β) overlap
.

 
 
 
1844
 
 
Dalton John, English chemist and physicist, d. (b. 1766)
 
 

John Dalton
 
 
 
1844
 
 
DeLong George Washington
 

George Washington De Long, (born August 22, 1844, New York, New York, U.S.—died October 30, 1881, Siberia [Russia]), American explorer whose disastrous Arctic expedition gave evidence of a continuous ocean current across the polar regions.

 

George Washington De Long
  George Washington DeLong (August 22, 1844 – October 31, 1881) was a United States Navy officer and explorer.

Biography
Born in New York City, he was educated at the United States Naval Academy, and graduated in 1865. In 1879, backed by James Gordon Bennett, Jr., owner of the New York Herald newspaper, and under the auspices of the US Navy, Lieutenant Commander DeLong sailed from San Francisco, California on the ship USS Jeannette with a plan to find a quick way to the North Pole via the Bering Strait.

As well as collecting scientific data and animal specimens, DeLong discovered and claimed three islands (De Long Islands) for the United States in the summer of 1881.

The ship became trapped in the ice pack in the Chukchi Sea northeast of Wrangel Island in September 1879. It drifted in the ice pack in a northwesterly direction until it was crushed in the shifting ice and sank on June 12, 1881 in the East Siberian Sea.

DeLong and his crew then traversed the ice pack to try to reach Siberia pulling three small boats.

 
 
After reaching open water on September 11 they became separated and one boat, commanded by Executive Officer Charles W. Chipp, was lost; no trace of it was ever found. DeLong's own boat reached land, but only two men sent ahead for aid survived. The third boat, under the command of Chief Engineer George W. Melville, reached the Lena delta and was rescued.
 
 

USS Jeannette
 
DeLong died of starvation near Matvay Hut, Yakutia, Siberia. Melville returned a few months later and found the bodies of DeLong and his boat crew. Overall, the doomed voyage took the lives of twenty expedition members, as well as additional men lost during the search operations.

DeLong and five of his men are buried in Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx section of New York City.

 
 

The grave of George Washington DeLong
 
 
Namesakes
Two US Navy ships have been named USS DeLong in his honor, as were the De Long Mountains in northwest Alaska.
In 1890, the officers and men of the United States Navy dedicated a granite-and-marble monument to the memory of Lieut. George Washington DeLong and the crew of the USS Jeannette. Lieut. George Partridge Colvocoresses designed the monument — a cross with carved icicles hanging from it that sits atop a cairn. The 24-foot (7.3 m)-high structure is in the U.S. Naval Academy Cemetery overlooking the Severn River.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1844
 
 
Golgi Camillo
 

Camillo Golgi, (born July 7, 1843/44, Corteno, Italy—died Jan. 21, 1926, Pavia), Italian physician and cytologist whose investigations into the fine structure of the nervous system earned him (with the Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal) the 1906 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

 

Camillo Golgi
  As a physician at a home for incurables in Abbiategrasso, Italy (1872–75), and with only rudimentary facilities at his disposal, Golgi devised (1873) the silver nitrate method of staining nerve tissue, an invaluable tool in subsequent nerve studies.

This stain enabled him to demonstrate the existence of a kind of nerve cell (which came to be known as the Golgi cell) possessing many short, branching extensions (dendrites) and serving to connect several other nerve cells.

The discovery of Golgi cells led the German anatomist Wilhelm von Waldeyer-Hartz to postulate, and Ramón y Cajal to establish, that the nerve cell is the basic structural unit of the nervous system, a critical point in the development of modern neurology.

After his arrival at the University of Pavia (1875), Golgi found and described (1880) the point (now known as the Golgi tendon spindle or Golgi tendon organ) at which sensory nerve fibres end in rich branchings encapsulated within a tendon.

He also discovered (1883) the presence in nerve cells of an irregular network of fibrils (small fibres), vesicles (cavities), and granules, now known as the Golgi complex or Golgi apparatus.

 
 
The Golgi complex is found in all cells except bacteria and plays an important role in the modification and transport of proteins within the cell.
 
 


Drawing by Camillo Golgi of a hippocampus stained
with the silver nitrate method.

 
Turning to the study of malaria (1885–93), Golgi found that the two types of intermittent malarial fevers (tertian, occurring every other day, and quartan, occurring every third day) are caused by different species of the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and that the paroxysms of fever coincide with release of the parasite’s spores from red blood cells.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1844
 
 
Kielmeyer Carl Friedrich
 

Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer (October 22, 1765 – August 14, 1844) was a German biologist and naturalist born in Bebenhausen, today part of the city of Tübingen.

 

Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer
  He initially studied at Karlsschule Stuttgart, then furthered his education at the University of Göttingen (1786–88), where he had as instructors Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich Gmelin and Georg Christoph Lichtenberg. Afterwards, he returned to Karlsschule Stuttgart, where in 1792 he was appointed professor of chemistry.

In 1796 he became a professor of chemistry and botany at the University of Tübingen, where he established the Botanischer Garten der Universität Tübingen in 1804. In 1816 he returned to Stuttgart as scientific director of the royal library, botanical garden, et al. He died in Stuttgart.

Kielmeyer was a pioneer of Naturphilosophie, and was an important influence on the career of philosopher Friedrich Schelling. He was a prominent figure in pre-Darwinian evolutionary science, being remembered for development of an early theory of biological recapitulation.

He published little in his lifetime, and much of what is known about his scientific philosophy is derived from lectures he gave.

The plant genus Kielmeyera was named in his honor by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius in 1826.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1844
 
 
A. W. Kinglake: "Eothen"
 
 
Kinglake Alexander William
 

Alexander William Kinglake (5 August 1809 – 2 January 1891) was an English travel writer and historian.

 

Alexander William Kinglake
  He was born near Taunton, Somerset and educated at Eton College and Trinity College, Cambridge. He was called to the Bar in 1837, and built up a thriving legal practice, which in 1856 he abandoned in order to devote himself to literature and public life.

His first literary venture had been Eothen; or Traces of travel brought home from the East (London: J. Ollivier, 1844), a very popular work of Eastern travel, apparently first published anonymously, in which he described a journey he made about ten years earlier in Syria, Palestine and Egypt, together with his Eton contemporary Lord Pollington. Elliot Warburton said it evoked "the East itself in vital actual reality" and it was instantly successful. However, his magnum opus was his Invasion of the Crimea, in 8 volumes, published from 1863 to 1887 by Blackwood, Edinburgh, one of the most effective works of its class. It has been accused of being too favourable to Lord Raglan, and unduly hostile to Napoleon III, for whom the author had an extreme aversion.
The town of Kinglake in Victoria, Australia, and the adjacent national park are named after him.

A Whig, Kinglake was elected at the 1857 general election as one of the two Members of Parliament (MP) for Bridgwater, having unsuccessfully contested the seat in 1852.

 
 
He was returned at next two general elections, but the result of the 1868 general election in Bridgwater was voided on petition on 26 February 1869. No by-election was held, and after a Royal Commission found that there had extensive corruption, the town was disenfranchised in 1870.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1844
 
 
S. F. B. Morse's (Morse Samuel) telegraph used for the first time between Baltimore and Washington
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Strasburger Eduard Adolf
 

Eduard Adolf Strasburger, (born Feb. 1, 1844, Warsaw, Pol., Russian Empire [now in Poland]—died May 18, 1912, Bonn, Ger.), German plant cytologist who elucidated the process of nuclear division in the plant kingdom.

 

Eduard Adolf Strasburger
  Strasburger was educated at the universities of Paris, Bonn, and Jena, where he received a Ph.D. in 1866. He taught at the universities of Warsaw (1868), Jena (1869–80), and Bonn (1880–1912). Strasburger’s earliest research was a continuation of the work begun by the German botanist Wilhelm Hofmeister on the alternation of generations. Strasburger was the first to provide an accurate description of the embryonic sac in gymnosperms (such as conifers) and angiosperms (the flowering plants) along with a demonstration of double fertilization in the angiosperms. He set forth the basic principles of mitosis in his Über Zellbildung und Zelltheilung (1876; “On Cell Formation and Cell Division”), and in each succeeding edition he clarified and modified the description of the process until in the third edition (1880) he enunciated one of the modern laws of plant cytology: that new nuclei can arise only from the division of other nuclei. In 1882 he devised the terms cytoplasm and nucleoplasm to describe the cell body and nucleus, respectively. Next, he showed that during fertilization in the flowering plants the nucleus is the primary structure concerned in heredity. In 1888 he established that the nuclei of the germ cells of angiosperms undergo meiosis—i.e., a reduction division yielding nuclei with half the number of chromosomes of the original nuclei. Strasburger’s later work on the upward movement of sap proved that the process is physical rather than physiological. With other outstanding botanists, he wrote Lehrbuch der Botanik (1894; “Textbook of Botany”).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1844
 
 
French missionaries Evariste R. Hue and Joseph Gabet begin journey from China to Tibet (arriving at Lhasa 1846). Evariste Regis Huc and Joseph Gabet 1844-1846 expedition
 
 
Huc Evariste Regis
 

Evariste Regis Huc, C.M., or the Abbé Huc, (1813–1860) was a French missionary Catholic priest and traveller, famous for his accounts of China, Tartary and Tibet, in his book "A Journey Through the Chinese Empire". Since the travels of the Englishman, Thomas Manning, in Tibet (1811–1812), no European had visited Lhasa. Huc stimulated European interest in Central Asia and blazed a trail for Asian studies.

 

Evariste Regis Huc
  Early life
Huc was born in Caylus, Tarn-et-Garonne in France on August 1, 1813. When he was 24, he entered the Congregation of the Mission (also known as Vincentians) at Paris. Shortly after receiving Holy Orders in 1839, he was sent to China. He spent some eighteen months in the Vincentian seminary in Macau preparing himself for the regular work of a missionary and learning the Chinese language. He modified his personal appearance and dress in accordance with Chinese taste, then started from Guangzhou (Canton). He at first pastored a Catholic mission in the southern provinces.

Moving on to Beijing (Peking), Huc gained more knowledge of the Chinese language, then settled in the Valley of Black Waters or Heishui[disambiguation needed], 300 miles (480 km) north of Beijing and just within the borders of Mongolia. There, beyond the Great Wall of China, a large but scattered population of native Christians had taken refuge from the persecutions of Jiajing (Kia-king), in an earlier era.

 
 
Tibet
Huc devoted himself to the study of the dialects and customs of the "Tatars," for whom he translated several religious texts. Huc's intention was to travel from China to Lhasa, and from there to India[3] (much as Hsuan Tsang had travelled via Tashkent, Samarkand and Taxila much earlier, in the 7th century). This work prepared him for his journey to Tibet in 1844 at the instigation of the vicar apostolic of Mongolia. By September 1844 he reached Dolon Nor and made arrangements for his journey. Soon after, accompanied by his fellow-Vincentian, Joseph Gabet, and a young Mongour priest who had embraced Christianity, he set out. To escape attention the party assumed the dress of llamas or priests. Crossing the Yellow River, they advanced into the terrible sandy tract known as the Ordos Desert. After suffering dreadfully from want of water and fuel they entered Gansu, having recrossed the flooded Hwang-ho. Upon entering Kuen-Kiang-Hien both missionaries fell dreadfully ill and had to put the journey on hold to rest and recover. By January 1845 they reached Tang-Kiul on the boundary. Rather than take an independent four months journey to Lhasa, they waited eight months for a Tibetan embassy expected to return from Peking. Under an intelligent teacher they meanwhile studied the Tibetan language and Buddhist literature. During three months of their stay they resided in the ancient Kunbum Llamasery, which was said to accommodate 4,000 persons. In late September 1845 they joined the returning embassy, which comprised 2,000 men and 3,700 animals.

Crossing the deserts of Koko Nor (Qinghai), they passed the great Koko Nor lake, with its island of contemplative llamas. The missionaries, along with Evariste, engaged in prolonged and thoughtful conversations and meditations with these llamas, contributing to the entirety of their success in China. Llamas of these sorts possessed unimaginable magic power, and blessed them for the hot, wet journey ahead. After a difficult journey across snow-covered mountains, they entered Lhasa on 29 January 1846. Favourably received by the regent, they opened a little chapel. They had begun to establish their mission when Qishan, the Chinese resident interceded. During the First Opium War (1839-1842) Qishan, then the governor of Zhili Province, had entered into negotiations with Captain Charles Elliot, first at Dagu, then at Canton. His action being disapproved, Qishan had been degraded, sentenced to death, reprieved, then sent to Tibet as imperial commissioner. Sensing the potential trouble if Huc and Gabet were to reach India from Tibet, Qishan expelled Gabet and Huc from Lhasa on 26 February 1846 under guard.
Following an official inquiry into their motives for being in Tibet, they were officially escorted to Canton in October 1846.

  Reflections
Abbé Gabet returned to Europe in late 1846 in the company of Alexander Johnston, secretary to John Francis Davis, British minister plenipotentiary to China. Davis reported Gabet's exciting information with its strategic significance about Central Asia to Palmerston.

Huc remained at Canton for nearly three years, writing his account of travels in China and Central Asia. Souvenirs d'un voyage dans la Tartarie, le Thibet, et la Chine pendant les années 1844, 1845 et 1846 appeared in Paris in 1850. It was soon published in English, in 1851. A German translation appeared in Leipzig in 1855, followed by Dutch, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, Russian and Czech (Prague, 1887). It was one of the favorite books of the famous writer Jaroslav Hašek).[citation needed] Popular editions followed, including an illustrated, simplified story text for schoolboys. It was abridged and translated by Julie Bedier as High Road in Tartary (1948).

Huc's works are written in a lucid, spicy, picturesque style, securing for them an unusual degree of popularity. However, his esteem for Tibetan manners and religion was not welcomed by his Church: "The late Abbé Huc pointed out the similarities between the Buddhist and Roman Catholic ceremonials with such a naïveté, that, to his surprise, he found his delightful 'Travels in Thibet' placed on the 'Index'."

The Souvenirs is a narrative of a remarkable feat of travel. Huc was unjustly suspected of sensationalizing his travels. Although a careful observer, he was by no means a practical geographer. The record of his travels lacks precise scientific data. The authenticity of Huc's journey was questioned by the Russian traveller, Nikolai Przhevalsky, but vindicated by others. Of course, both Huc and Gabet had written brief reports of their journey from 1847 on for the "Annales de la Propagation de la Foi" and the "Annales de la Congrégation de la Mission". More recently, Huc's writings have been criticized for presenting 'facts' negatively because of his heavy western-European/Christian view point. Retrospectively, his writings could be considered in the same category as Truman Capote's "In Cold Blood", aka a nonfiction novel.

The sequel, The Chinese Empire (1854) is a more comprehensive compendium of the religion, laws, usages and institutions of China, followed by a multi-volume history of Christianity in China and Central Asia. Huc gives many accounts of Chinese culture, and religion, including Christianity throughout the history of China. He also goes in to detail about the three traditional Chinese religions, Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism. In his attempt to spread Christianity he remarks on the status of women in China. During this time period women were expected to act in certain ways.

 
 
As a married woman, you were expected to be a shadow of the man in the house. Being in this situation of social bondage inspired many women to convert to Christianity, which provided education and a social community.

At this time in China all religions were tolerated but there were three principal religions. Confucianism which is also known as "The Doctrine of the Lettered". Confucius is regarded as the patriarch and reformer of the religion which gives its followers a positive outlook on life. The second religion is know as Taoism or the Primitive religion. Taught by a contemporary of Confucius Lao-tze this religion is similar to Confucianism. The priests and priestesses are sworn to celibacy and practice things such as magic, astrology, and necromancy. The last religion is Buddhism. This religion follows the teachings of the Buddha and ends ones suffering though his understanding of the four noble truths.

According to Huc, there is a Chinese law called Ta-tsing Luli. This is divided into seven portions as follows: General Laws, Civil Laws, Fiscal Laws, Ritual Laws, Military Laws, Criminal Laws, and laws concerning public works.

 
 
At the time of Huc it was general to regard Asia and China specifically as the classic ground of despotism and slavery, and Chinese people were considered as absolutely submissive to the authorities. However, while travelling through the Empire he came to the conclusion that religion, customs and prejudices opposed invincible obstacles to the free exercise of people’s will.

As a frequent symbol of Chinese people being opposed to the Government, he mentions principal gates with a large assortment of old boots.

They appeared in almost every town of the Empire and were a clear visual sign of public’s opinion opposed to Government’s. Principal gates were also important monuments to show how many good Mandarins the country actually had despite calumnious reports and injustices experienced by many of them because of the Government’s influence.

  Later years
Gabet went on to Rio de Janeiro, where he died soon afterwards. Huc returned to Europe in poor health in 1852. In his last years he took an active role in events in Cochin China He urged Napoléon III to take action, saying, "The Far East will soon be the theater of great events. If the emperor wills, France will be able to play an important and glorious role there." Napoleon took the first steps to establish a French colonial influence in East Asia. He launched a naval expedition in 1858 to punish the Vietnamese people for their mistreatment of French Catholic missionaries and demanded that the Vietnamese cede the port of Tourane and the island of Poulo-Condor, under an old treaty of 1787, which had never been used. This eventually led to a full-out invasion in 1861.

Residing in Paris, Huc died on 31 March 1860.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Gabet Joseph
 

Joseph Gabet (Chinese name QIN Gabi 秦噶哔,born 4 December 1808 at Nevy-sur-Seille, in the Jura, France, died 1853) was a French Catholic missionary belonging to the Congregation of the Mission Order, known as the Lazarites. He was active in Northern China and then Mongolia. He travelled to Tibet with Évariste Huc. After returning to Europe he was subsequently sent by the Order to Brazil, where he died in Rio de Janeiro in 1853.

 
Biography
Joseph Gabet was ordained priest in 1833 and joined the Lazarite order. In 1834, in company with his fellow Lazarite missionaries Jean-Gabriel Perboyre and Joseph Perry, he travelled to China. After arriving in Macao in 1835 he learned Chinese before being sent to Tartary in the north of the Chinese Empire, later known as Manchuria.

In 1844, together with Évariste Huc, another Lazarite missionary, and a young Mongol lama, he set out on a journey westward to explore "Mongol Tartary". They stayed for six months in the monastery of Kounboum near Koukou-Noor (Lake Qinghai), learning the Tibetan language and studying the Buddhist religion, before setting out for Tibet in August 1845.

They attached themselves to the caravan of the Dalai Lama's emissary returning from Peking (Beijing). Crossing the high plateaux in midwinter Gabet came close to dying of cold. The caravan reached Lhasa at the end of 1845. Évariste Huc described the journey in his book "Souvenirs d’un voyage dans la Tartarie, le Thibet et la Chine pendant les années 1844, 1845 et 1846" ("Memories of a journey through Tartary, Tibet and China in 1844, 1845 and 1846").

Although well received by the Minister-Regent who governed Tibet in the name of the Dalai Lama, the missionaries aroused the suspicion of Qishan, the Chinese Emperor's resident representative in Tibet, who secured their expulsion in February 1846. Gabet and Huc were sent with an official escort via "Ta-Tsien-Lou" (Kangding) and Chengdu to Canton, arriving there in September 1846. Huc described the journey to Canton in his book "L'empire chinois" ("The Chinese Empire").

Gabet hoped to secure permission from the Chinese and Tibetan authorities for himself and Huc to return to Tibet but was ordered to return to Europe without delay in order to help resolve the dispute that had arisen between the Lazarite order and the Missions étrangères over the reallocation of responsibility for mission work in Tibet after Gabet et Huc were thought to have disappeared.

  Gabet's 90 page report addressed to the Pope, "Coup d'œil sur l'état des missions de Chine présenté au Saint-Père le pape Pie IX" ("View of the state of the missions in China presented to the Holy Father Pope Pius IX"), published in France in 1848, was severely critical of the state of the Catholic mission to China and its future prospects. Christian missionaries had returned to China at the start of the 19th century after a long absence that followed the end of the Jesuit mission when the Order was dissolved by the Pope in 1773). In spite of the 1735 edict proscribing Christian worship, Christian communities were broadly tolerated provided that they remained discreet. Nevertheless Jean-Gabriel Perboyre had been executed in public in Wuhan in 1840. The edict of official tolerance appended to the Treaty of Whampoa (Huangpu) between France and China was only promulgated in 1844.

Joseph Gabet examined the limited success that the missions had achieved despite of the number of missionaries sent out and the funds that had been devoted to mission work in China. He drew attention to the Church's success in establishing itself in the West in the early centuries, despite persecution, thanks to its reliance on hard work as well as the grace of God, and he believed the same could be accomplished in China. He observed that:

the missionaries were not sufficiently familiar with the language and showed insufficient respect for Chinese culture;
only a limited number of locally born Chinese were trained for the priesthood and they were not treated as equals by the missionaries; their training was at odds with their culture;
missionaries belonging to different orders quarreled over territories and communities to the point of attracting the attention of the civil authorities and causing scandal to the faithful.
The work was not well received in Rome or by the missionaries. In 1850 his superior in China, the Vicar Apostolic of Manchuria, had him condemned by the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. Gabet's ideas on the subject of "inculturation" were neglected until the 20th century when they were taken up again with more success by Vincent Lebbe (1877 - 1940)).

 
 
In 1848, Gabet's superiors sent him to Brazil to become almoner to a convent of nuns. He died of yellow fever in Rio de Janeiro in March 1853, at the age of 45.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
see also: Roads to Lhasa (Evariste Regis Huc and Joseph Gabet 1844-1846)
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Charles Sturt 1844 expedition
 
 
Sturt Charles Napier
 
 
Captain Charles Napier Sturt (28 April 1795 – 16 June 1869) was a British explorer of Australia, and part of the European exploration of Australia. He led several expeditions into the interior of the continent, starting from both Sydney and later from Adelaide. His expeditions traced several of the westward-flowing rivers, establishing that they all merged into the Murray River. He was searching to determine if there was an "inland sea".
 

Early life
Charles Sturt was born in Bengal, British India, the eldest son (of thirteen children) of Thomas Lenox Napier Sturt, a judge under the British East India Company. At the age of five, Charles was sent to relations in England to be educated, and after attending a preparatory school he was sent to Harrow in 1810.

In 1812, Charles went to read with a Mr. Preston near Cambridge, but his father was not wealthy and had difficulty finding the money to send him to Cambridge University, or to establish him in a profession. An aunt made an appeal to the Prince Regent and, on 9 September 1813, Sturt was gazetted as an ensign with the 39th (Dorsetshire) Regiment of Foot in the British Army.

Sturt saw action with the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular War and against the Americans in Canada, returning to Europe a few days after the Battle of Waterloo. Sturt was gazetted lieutenant on 7 April 1823 and promoted captain on 15 December 1825. With a detachment from his regiment, Sturt escorted convicts aboard the Mariner to New South Wales, arriving in Sydney on 23 May 1827.

 
 

Charles Napier Sturt
  Australia and Sturt's first two expeditions
Sturt found the conditions and climate in New South Wales much better than he expected and he developed a great interest in the country. The Governor of New South Wales, Sir Ralph Darling, formed a high opinion of Sturt and appointed him major of brigade and military secretary. Sturt became friendly with John Oxley, Allan Cunningham, Hamilton Hume and other explorers. Sturt was keen to explore the Australian interior, especially its rivers.
Sturt received approval from Governor Darling on 4 November 1828 to explore the area of the Macquarie River in western New South Wales. It was not, however, until 10 November that the party started out. It consisted of Sturt, his servant Joseph Harris, two soldiers and eight convicts; on 27 November Sturt was joined by Hamilton Hume as his first assistant. Hume's experience proved to be very useful. A week was spent at Wellington Valley breaking in oxen and horses and on 7 December the real start into comparatively little known country was made. 1828–29 was a period of drought and there was difficulty in getting sufficient water. The courses of the Macquarie, Bogan and Castlereagh rivers had been followed, and though its importance was scarcely sufficiently realized, the Darling River had been discovered. The party returned to Wellington Valley on 21 April 1829. The expedition proved that northern New South Wales was not an inland sea, but deepened the mystery of where the western-flowing rivers of New South Wales went.
 
 

In 1829 Governor Darling approved an expedition to solve this mystery. Sturt proposed to travel down the Murrumbidgee River, whose upper reaches had been seen by the Hume and Hovell expedition. In place of Hume, who was unable to join the party, George Macleay went "as a companion rather than as an assistant". A whaleboat built in sections was carried with them which was assembled, and on 7 January 1830 the eventful voyage down the Murrumbidgee began. In January 1830 Sturt's party reached the confluence of the Murrumbidgee and a much larger river, which Sturt named the Murray River. It was in fact the same river which Hume and Hovell had crossed further upstream and named the Hume. Several times the party was in danger from the Aborigines but Sturt always succeeded in appeasing them.

Sturt then proceeded down the Murray, until he reached the river's confluence with the Darling. Sturt had now proved that all the western-flowing rivers eventually flowed into the Murray. In February 1830, the party reached a large lake which Sturt called Lake Alexandrina. A few days later, they reached the sea. There they made the disappointing discovery that the mouth of the Murray was a maze of lagoons and sandbars, impassable to shipping.

The party then faced the ordeal of rowing back up the Murray and Murrumbidgee, against the current, in the heat of an Australian summer. Their supplies ran out and when they reached the site of Narrandera in April they were unable to go any further. Sturt sent two men overland in search of supplies and they returned in time to save the party from starvation, but Sturt went blind for some months and never fully recovered his health. By the time they arrived back in Sydney they had rowed and sailed nearly 2,900 kilometres of the river system.

 
 

Early expeditions of Sturt
 
 
A break from exploring
Sturt briefly served as Commander on Norfolk Island where mutiny was brewing among the convicts, but in 1832 he was obliged to go to England on sick leave and arrived there almost completely blind. In 1833 he published his Two Expeditions into the Interior of Southern Australia during the years 1828, 1829, 1830 and 1831, of which a second edition appeared in 1834. For the first time the public in England realized the importance of Sturt's work. Governor Darling's somewhat tardy but appreciative dispatch of 14 April 1831, and his request for Sturt's promotion, had had no result, and nothing came of the request by Sir Richard Bourke who had succeeded Darling that Viscount Goderich should give "this deserving officer your Lordship's protection and support". Though it seems to have been impossible to persuade the colonial office of the value of Sturt's work his book had one important effect. It was read by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, and led to the choice of South Australia for the new settlement then in contemplation. In May 1834, in view of his services, Sturt applied for a grant of land intending to settle on it in Australia, and in July instructions were given that he was to receive a grant of 5,000 acres (2,000 ha), Sturt on his part agreeing to give up his pension rights. On 20 September 1834 Sturt married Charlotte Christiana Greene, daughter of an old family friend. and soon afterward sailed for Australia.
  Return to Australia
Sturt returned to Australia in mid-1835 to begin farming on his own 5,000 acres (20 km2) of land granted to him by the New South Wales government on the lower reaches of Ginninderra Creek, near present-day Canberra. (Sturt named the property 'Belconnen', a name now applied to the nearby population centre.) In 1838 he, with Giles Strangways, a Mr McLeod and Captain John Finnis, herded cattle overland from Sydney to Adelaide, on the way proving that the Hume and the Murray were the same river.

In September 1838 he led an expedition to the Murray Mouth which settled all dispute as to the suitability of Adelaide for the colony's capital. After returning to NSW to settle his affairs, Sturt then settled at Grange, South Australia in early 1839 and was appointed Surveyor-General and member of the South Australian Legislative Council until the London-appointed Surveyor-General Edward Frome unexpectedly arrived. In the meantime, in December 1839, Sturt and his wife accompanied George Gawler, Julia Gawler, and Henry Inman on a Murray River expedition, discovering Mount Bryan. Julia Gawler, Charlotte Sturt, and Charlotte's maidservant thereby became the first white women to travel the Murray.

Sturt was briefly Registrar-General but he soon proposed a major expedition into the interior of Australia as a way of restoring his reputation in the colony and London.
 
 

Sturt leaving Adelaide in 1844
 
 
Exploring from Adelaide, Sturt's third and final expedition
Sturt was driven by a conviction that it was his destiny to discover a great salt water lake, known as 'the inland sea', in the middle of Australia. At very least, he wanted to be the first explorer to plant his foot in 'the centre' of Australia. In August 1844, he set out with a party of 15 men, 200 sheep, six drays and a boat to explore north-western New South Wales and to advance into central Australia. They travelled along the Murray River and Darling River before passing the future site of Broken Hill, but were then stranded for months by the extreme summer conditions near the present site of Milparinka.
When the rains eventually came Sturt moved north and established a depot at Fort Grey in today's Sturt National Park. With a small group of men, including explorer John McDouall Stuart as his draughtsman, Sturt pressed on across Sturt's Stony Desert and into the Simpson Desert, at which point he was unable to go further and turned back to the depot. Sturt made a second attempt to reach the centre of Australia, but he developed scurvy in the extreme conditions. His health broke down and he was forced to abandon the attempt. John Harris Browne, surgeon on the expedition, assisted Sturt, took over leadership of the party and after travelling 3,000 miles (4,800 km) brought it back to safety.
  Later life and legacy
Early in 1847 Sturt went to England on leave. He arrived in October and was presented with the Royal Geographical Society's gold medal. He prepared his Narrative of an Expedition into Central Australia for publication, however it was not published until early in 1849. Throughout this time he was suffering again with poor eyesight.

Sturt returned to Adelaide with his family, arriving back in August 1849. He was immediately appointed Colonial Secretary with a seat in the council. There was no lack of work in the ensuing years. Roads were constructed, and navigation on the Murray was encouraged. But Sturt had renewed trouble with his eyes.

On 30 December 1851 Sturt resigned his position and was given a pension of £600 a year and settled down on 500 acres (200 ha) of land close to Adelaide and the sea. But the gold discoveries had increased the cost of living, and on 19 March 1853 Sturt and his family sailed for England. Sturt lived at Cheltenham and devoted himself to the education of his children.

In 1855 Sturt applied unsuccessfully for the positions of Governor of Victoria and in 1858 for Governor of Queensland.

 
 

Sturt's age, uncertain health, and comparatively small income were against him. By 1860 Sturt's three sons were all in the army, and the remainder of his family went to live at Dinan to economize after the expenses of education and fitting out. Unfortunately the town was unhealthy and in 1863 a return was made to Cheltenham. In 1864 Sturt suffered a great grief in the death of one of his sons in India. In March 1869 he attended the inaugural dinner of the Colonial Society, at which Lord Granville mentioned that it was the intention of the government to extend the Order of St Michael and St George to the colonies. Sturt allowed himself to be persuaded by his friends to apply for a knighthood (KCMG), but afterwards regretted he had done so when he heard there were innumerable applications.

Sturt's health had been very variable and on 16 June 1869 he died suddenly. He was survived by his widow, two sons, Colonel Napier George Sturt, R.E. and Major-General Charles Sheppey Sturt, and daughter Charlotte. Mrs Sturt was granted a civil list pension of £80 a year, and the queen granted her the title of Lady Sturt as if her husband's nomination to a knighthood of the order of St Michael and St George had been gazetted. Reproductions of portraits by Crossland and Koberwein will be found in Mrs N. G. Sturt's Life, which suggest the charm and refinement of Sturt's character.

Sturt is buried in Cheltenham Cemetery.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1844
 
 
Friedrich Leichardt 1844-1845 expedition
 
 
Leichhardt Friedrich
 
Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Leichhardt, known as Ludwig Leichhardt, (23 October 1813 - c.1848) was a Prussian explorer and naturalist, most famous for his exploration of northern and central Australia.
 
Biography
Early life

Leichhardt was born in the village Trebatsch, today part of Tauche, in the Prussian Province of Brandenburg. He was the fourth son and sixth of the eight children of Christian Hieronymus Matthias Leichhardt, farmer and royal inspector and his wife Charlotte Sophie, née Strählow. Between 1831 and 1836 Leichhardt studied philosophy, language, and natural sciences at the Universities of Göttingen and Berlin but never received a university degree. He moved to England in 1837, continued his study of the natural sciences at various places, including the British Museum, London, and the Jardin des Plantes, Paris, and undertook field work in several European countries, including France, Italy and Switzerland.
 
 

Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Leichhardt
  Explorer
On 14 February 1842 Leichhardt arrived in Sydney, Australia. His aim was to explore inland Australia and he was hopeful of a government appointment in his fields of interest.[4] In September 1842 Leichhardt went to the Hunter River valley north of Sydney to study the geology, flora and fauna of the region, and to observe farming methods. He then set out on his own on a specimen-collecting journey that took him from Newcastle, New South Wales, to Moreton Bay in Queensland.

After returning to Sydney early in 1844, Leichhardt hoped to take part in a proposed government-sponsored expedition from Moreton Bay to Port Essington (300 km north of Darwin, Northern Territory). When plans for this expedition fell through Leichhardt decided to mount the expedition himself, accompanied by volunteers and supported by private funding. His party left Sydney in August 1844 to sail to Moreton Bay, where four more joined the group. The expedition departed on 1 October 1844 from Jimbour, the farthest outpost of settlement on the Queensland Darling Downs.

After a nearly 4,800 km (3,000 mi) overland journey, and having long been given up for dead, Leichhardt arrived in Port Essington on 17 December 1845.

 
 

He returned to Sydney by boat, arriving on 25 March 1846 to a hero's welcome. The Journal of an Overland Expedition in Australia, from Moreton Bay to Port Essington, a Distance of Upwards of 3000 km, During the Years 1844 and 1845 by Leichhardt describes this expedition.

A memorial to John Gilbert, one of Leichhardt's companions on this journey, can be found on the north wall of St James' Church, Sydney. Under the title Dulce et Docorum Est Pro Scientia Mori (a variation on the more commonly seen Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori) the inscription on the monument, which was "erected by the colonists of New South Wales" reads: "in memory of John Gilbert, Ornithologist, who was speared by the blacks on 29 June 1845 during the first overland expedition to Port Essington by Dr Ludwig Leichhardt and his intrepid companions". There is also a memorial to Gilbert at Gilbert's Lookout at Taroom.

Leichhardt's second expedition, undertaken with a government grant and substantial private subscriptions, started in December 1846. It was supposed to take him from the Darling Downs to the west coast of Australia and ultimately to the Swan River and Perth. However, after covering only 800 km the expedition team was forced to return in June 1847 due to heavy rain, malarial fever and famine. After recovering from malaria Leichhardt spent six weeks in 1847 examining the course of the Condamine River, southern Queensland, and the country between the route of another expedition led by Sir Thomas Mitchell in 1846 and his own route, covering nearly 1,000 km.

 
 

The first expedition of Leichhardt
 
 

In April 1847 Leichhardt shared the annual prize of the Paris Geographical Society, for the most important geographic discovery with French explorer Rochet d'Héricourt. Soon afterward, on 24 May, the Royal Geographical Society, London, awarded Leichhardt its Patron's Medal as recognition of 'the increased knowledge of the great continent of Australia' gained by his Moreton Bay-Port Essington journey. Leichhardt himself never saw these medals but was aware he had been awarded them. In one of his last known letters he wrote:

I've had the pleasure of hearing that the geographical society in London has awarded me one of its medals, and that the Parisian geographical society has conferred a similar honour upon me. Naturally I'm very pleased to think that such discerning authorities consider me worthy of such honour; but whatever I have done has never been for honour. I have worked for the sake of science, and for nothing else.
In 2012 the National Museum of Australia purchased the medal awarded to Leichhardt by London's Royal Geographical Society in 1847. It came directly from descendants of the Leichhardt family in Mexico.

 
 
Disappearance
In 1848 Leichhardt again set out from the Condamine River to reach the Swan River. The expedition consisted of Leichhardt, four Europeans, two Aboriginal guides, seven horses, 20 mules and 50 bullocks. He was last seen on 3 April 1848 at McPherson's Station, Coogoon, on the Darling Downs. His disappearance after moving inland, although investigated by many, remains a mystery. The expedition had been expected to take two to three years, but after no sign or word was received from Leichhardt it was assumed that he and the others in the party had died. The latest evidence suggests that they may have perished somewhere in the Great Sandy Desert of the Australian interior. The Europeans are named as Adolph Classen, Arthur Hentig, Donald Stuart and Kelly. The aboriginals were Wommai and Billy Bombat, from Port Stephens.

Four years after Leichhardt's disappearance the Government of New South Wales sent out a search expedition under Hovenden Hely. The expedition found nothing but a single campsite with a tree marked "L" over "XVA". In 1858 another search expedition was sent out, this time under Augustus Gregory. This expedition found only a couple of trees marked "L".

In 1864 Duncan McIntyre discovered two trees marked with "L" on the Flinders River near the Gulf of Carpentaria. After his return to Victoria McIntyre telegraphed the Royal Society on 15 December 1864 that he had found "two trees marked L about 15 years old". He was subsequently appointed leader of a search expedition, but found no further trace of Leichhardt.

In 1869 the Government of Western Australia heard rumours of a place where the remains of horses and men killed by indigenous Australians could be seen. A search expedition was sent out under John Forrest, but nothing was found, and it was decided that the story might refer to the bones of horses left for dead at Poison Rock during Robert Austin's expedition of 1854.

The mystery of Leichhardt's fate remained in the minds of explorers for many years. During David Carnegie's expedition through the Gibson and Great Sandy Deserts in 1896 he encountered some Aborigines who had among their possessions an iron tent peg, the lid of a tin matchbox and part of the ironwork of a saddle. Carnegie speculated that these were from Leichhardt's expedition. Except for a small brass plate that was found in 1900 bearing Leichhardt's name, "no artefacts with corroborated provenance have been able to shed light on Leichhardt's final expedition".

In 1975, a ranger named Zac Mathias exhibited photographs in Darwin of aboriginal cave paintings that showed white men with an animal.

  The Leichhardt nameplate
In 2006 Australian historians and scientists authenticated a tiny brass plate (15 cm x 2 cm) marked "LUDWIG LEICHHARDT 1848", discovered around 1900 by an Aboriginal stockman near Sturt Creek, between the Tanami and Great Sandy deserts, just inside Western Australia from the border with the Northern Territory.

When found, the plate was attached to a partially burnt shotgun slung in a boab tree which was engraved with the initial "L". The plate is now part of the National Museum of Australia collection.

Prior to the nameplate being authenticated, historians could only speculate on the route Leichhardt had taken and how far he had journeyed before perishing.

The location of the plate indicated that he made it at least two thirds of the way across the continent during his east-west crossing attempt.

It also suggested that he was following a northern arc from Moreton Bay in Queensland to the Swan River in Western Australia, following the headwaters of rivers, rather than heading straight through the desert interior.

Aboriginal oral history
In 2003, a librarian found a letter in the NSW State Library that may shed light on Leichhardt's disappearance. Dated April 2, 1874, the letter, received by Sydney clergyman William Branwhite Clarke, was written by W.P. Gordon, a station owner from the Darling Downs who had met Leichhardt in the days before his party vanished.

The letter relates how Gordon moved to Wallumbilla and how, after living there for more than 10 years, he had befriended the Wallumbilla tribe who now openly shared their stories and folklore with him.

One detailed story referred to the death of a white man who was leading a party of mules and bullocks along the Maranoa River many years earlier.

According to the Wallumbilla, a large group of Aboriginals had encircled the party and killed everyone in it.

It has been speculated that if the story was true, the expedition’s belongings were likely traded widely after the killings, explaining how items that could only have come from Leichhardt’s expedition were found in the Gibson Desert and why the rifle butt with the brass plate was found some 4,000 kilometres west of the Maranoa River.

Theories
The validity of all the claimed 'Leichhardt' relics and the various theories proposed are summarised and assessed in a 2013 book entitled Where is Dr Leichhardt?: the greatest mystery in Australian history.

 
 


Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Leichhardt

  Legacy
Leichhardt’s contribution to science, especially his successful expedition to Port Essington in 1845, was officially recognised. In 1847 the Geographical Society, Paris, awarded its annual prize for geographic discovery equally to Leichhardt and a French explorer, Rochet d'Héricourt; also in 1847, the Royal Geographical Society in London awarded Leichhardt its Patron's Medal; and Prussia recognised his achievement by granting him a king's pardon for having failed to return to Prussia when due to serve a period of compulsory military training. The Port Essington expedition was one of the longest land exploration journeys in Australia, and a useful one in the discovery of excellent pastoral country.

Harsh criticism of Leichhardt’s character was published some time after his disappearance and his reputation suffered badly. The fairness of this criticism continues to be debated. Nevertheless, Leichhardt's accounts and collections were valued, and his observations are generally considered to be accurate. He is remembered as one of the most authoritative early recorders of Australia’s environment and the best trained natural scientist to explore Australia to that time. Leichhardt left a record of his observations in Australia from 1842 to 1848 in diaries, letters, notebooks, sketch-books, maps, and in his published works.

 
 

Leichhardt’s failed attempt to make the first east–west crossing of the Australian continent may be compared with the Burke and Wills expedition of 1860-61, which succeeded in crossing from south to north, but failed to return. However, Leichhardt's success in making it to Port Essington in 1845 was a major achievement, which ranks him with other successful European explorers of Australia.

Australia has commemorated Ludwig Leichhardt through the use of his name in several places: Leichhardt, a suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, and the surrounding Municipality of Leichhardt; Leichhardt, a suburb of Ipswich; the Leichhardt Highway and the Leichhardt River in Queensland; and the Division of Leichhardt in the Australian Parliament. A species of Eucalyptus tree bears Leichhardt's name and the insect Petasida ephippigera is commonly known as Leichhardt's grasshopper.

Leichhardt's last expedition was the inspiration for the novel Voss by Patrick White. His life also inspired a range of "Lemurian" novels, starting with George Firth Scott's book The Last Lemurian (1898).

In February 2013 the band Manilla Road released a song called Mysterium, based on Leichhardt's explorations and disappearance.

Letters from Leichhardt to his fellow expedition team member Frederick Isaac are held in the State Library of New South Wales.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
see also: Into the Interior
 
 
 
 
 
1844
 
 
First public bath and wash houses opened in Liverpool, England
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Beckford William
 

William Beckford, (born Sept. 29, 1760, London, Eng.—died May 2, 1844, Bath, Somerset), eccentric English dilettante, author of the Gothic novel Vathek (1786). Such writers as George Gordon, Lord Byron, and Stéphane Mallarmé acknowledged his genius. He also is renowned for having built Fonthill Abbey, the most sensational building of the English Gothic revival.

 

William Beckford in 1782
by George Romney
  Beckford was the only legitimate son of William Beckford the Elder, twice lord mayor of London, and was the heir to a vast fortune accumulated by three generations of his Beckford ancestors, who were sugar planters in Jamaica. His mother was descended from Mary Stuart. He was a precocious child, and his natural talents were given every encouragement. At five he received piano lessons from the nine-year-old W.A. Mozart. He also received training in architecture and drawing from prominent teachers. He inherited his fortune in 1770, upon the death of his father.

In 1778, after a period of travel and study in Europe, Beckford returned to England, where he later met the 11-year-old son and heir of Viscount Courtenay, a boy for whom Beckford felt strong romantic (but probably not sexual) attraction. Following a lavish three-day Christmas party held in the boy’s honour at Fonthill, Beckford conceived the story of the caliph Vathek, a monarch as impious as he is voluptuous, who builds a tower so high that from it he can survey all the kingdoms of the world. Vathek challenges Mohammed in the seventh heaven and so brings about his own damnation and his banishment to the subterranean kingdom ruled by Eblis, prince of darkness.

Completed in outline in three days and two nights, the tale was written in French during the first four months of 1782, in all the gaiety of a London society greeting the inheritor of a fortune. A protégé of Lord Chancellor Thurlow, with a seat in the House of Commons, and married to the beautiful Lady Margaret Gordon, Beckford was expecting to be elevated to the peerage in December 1784. In the autumn of that year, scandal broke when he was charged with sexual misconduct with young Courtenay.

 
 
 Reports of the scandal were quickly spread, and, though Beckford’s guilt was never proved, in mid-1785 he, with his wife and baby daughter, was forced into exile. In May 1786, in Switzerland, his wife died of puerperal fever after giving birth to a second daughter. About that time, Beckford also learned that Vathek, which he had given to the Reverend Samuel Henley for translation, would be published anonymously, with a preface in which Henley claimed that it had been taken directly from the Arabic. Beckford remained abroad for many years. From 1796, after his return to England, he devoted his energies to his Gothic “abbey” at Fonthill. His architect was James Wyatt, but Beckford himself supervised the planning and building of what became the most extraordinary house in England. He lived there as a recluse, collecting curios, costly furnishings and works of art and reading the library of Edward Gibbon, which he had purchased in its entirety. In 1807 the house’s great central tower collapsed and was rebuilt. Beckford’s extravagances forced him to sell his estate in 1822. The tower later collapsed again, destroying part of the building.

Beckford’s literary reputation rests solely on Vathek. Though all agree that it is uneven and stylistically uncertain, the strength of its final image has sustained Beckford’s reputation for more than two centuries. A classic among Gothic novels, the book is a masterpiece of fantastic invention and bizarre detail. Among Beckford’s other published works are accounts of his travels, two parodies of Gothic and sentimental novels, and a journal, Life at Fonthill, 1807–22.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 

 

 
1844
 
 
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers founded (beginning of modern cooperative movement)
 
 
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers
 

The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, founded in 1844, was an early consumer co-operative, and one of the first to pay a patronage dividend, forming the basis for the modern co-operative movement. Although other co-operatives preceded them, the Rochdale Pioneers' co-operative became the prototype for societies in Great Britain. The Rochdale Pioneers are most famous for designing the Rochdale Principles, a set of principles of co-operation that provide the foundation for the principles on which co-ops around the world operate to this day. The model the Rochdale Pioneers used is a focus of study within co-operative economics.

 
History
The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers was a group of 28, around half were weavers in Rochdale, Lancashire, England, that was formed in 1844. As the mechanisation of the Industrial Revolution was forcing more and more skilled workers into poverty, these tradesmen decided to band together to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford. With lessons from prior failed attempts at co-operation in mind, they designed the now famous Rochdale Principles, and over a period of four months they struggled to pool £1 per person for a total of 28 pounds of capital. On 21 December 1844, they opened their store with a very meagre selection of butter, sugar, flour, oatmeal and a few candles. Within three months, they expanded their selection to include tea and tobacco, and they were soon known for providing high quality, unadulterated goods. Ten years later, the British co-operative movement had grown to nearly 1,000 co-operatives.

The Archive for the Co-operative movement in Rochdale is held by Local Studies, Rochdale Boroughwide Cultural Trust. Rochdale Pioneers traded independently until 1991, with name changes inspired by mergers with neighbouring co-operatives, as Pioneers from 1976, and Norwest Pioneers from 1982, based in Wythenshawe, Manchester by 1991. In 1991, then Norwest Co-operative Society transferred its engagements to United Co-operatives, that was run from Rochdale when it in turn transferred to the Manchester-based national hybrid society, The Co-operative Group, in 2007.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1844
 
 
"Fliegende Blatter"
 

German humorous weekly paper "Fliegende Blatter," Munich

 
The Fliegende Blätter ("Flying Leaves"; also translated as "Flying Pages" or "Loose Sheets") was a German weekly non-political humor and satire magazine appearing in Munich. Many of the illustrations were by well-known artists such as Wilhelm Busch, Count Franz Pocci, Hermann Vogel, Carl Spitzweg, Julius Klinger, Edmund Harburger, Adolf Oberländer and others. It was published by Braun & Schneider, a company belonging to the wood engraver Kaspar Braun and illustrator Friedrich Schneider. Aimed at the German bourgeoisie, it reached a maximum circulation of c.95,000 copies by 1895. It merged in 1928 with a competitor, the Meggendorfer-Blätter.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 

Kopftitel der Fliegenden Blätter
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Hagenbeck Carl
 

Carl Hagenbeck, (born June 10, 1844, Hamburg [Germany]—died April 14, 1913, Hamburg), internationally known German animal dealer and trainer who controlled animals by befriending them, emphasizing for spectators their intelligence and tractability over their ferocity. He also created the prototype for open-air zoos.

 

Carl Hagenbeck
  Hagenbeck’s father was a fishmonger who had maintained a small animal menagerie, and the young Hagenbeck began his career as an animal dealer, hiring hunters and taking orders from zoos and circuses. He assumed ownership of his father’s enterprise in 1866 and soon was the leading dealer in Europe. When the animal trade declined in the 1870s, he began to produce and travel with “ethnographical shows,” spectacles featuring people and animals from remote regions. One tableau, for example, included a Sami (Lapp) family with reindeer and sledge. In 1884 he toured with 67 Ceylonese, 25 elephants, and a herd of cattle.

In 1887 Hagenbeck took up the cause of humane treatment of animals with the aim of demonstrating that the beatings and hot irons then used in animal training were both cruel and unnecessary.

In 1889 he introduced a lion act in which, as a finale, three lions pulled him around the cage in a chariot. After some years, the Hagenbeck system gradually replaced harsher training methods used in circuses and expositions in Europe and North America. During a trip to the United States in 1906, Hagenback sold his traveling animal show to Benjamin Wallace, who renamed it the Hagenbeck-Wallace Circus.

 
 
The following year, Hagenbeck opened a zoological garden at Stellingen, near Hamburg, where he exhibited animals in uncovered, barless pits. He developed panoramas for such animals as polar bears and tigers that imitated their native habitats. In addition to serving as a prototype for future zoos, Hagenbeck’s zoological garden was a source of animals for zoos and circuses.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Carl Hagenbeck
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Wood-pulp paper invented by Friedrich Gottlob Keller
 
 
Keller Friedrich Gottlob
 

Friedrich Gottlob Keller (born June 27, 1816 in Hainichen, Saxony – died September 8, 1895 in Krippen, Saxony) was a German machinist and inventor, who (at the same time as Charles Fenerty) invented the wood pulp process for the use in papermaking. He is widely known for his wood-cut machine (used for extracting the fibres needed for pulping wood). Unlike Charles Fenerty, F.G. Keller took out a patent for his wood-cut invention.

 
History of paper (before 1844)
Before wood pulp, paper was made from rags. Papermaking began in Egypt (see Papyrus) c3000 BC. And in 105 AD, Ts'ai Lun a Chinese inventor, invented modern papermaking using rags, cotton, and other plant fibres by pulping it. Then in the 18th century a French scientist by the name of René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur suggested that paper could be made from trees. Though he never experimented himself, his theory caught the interest of others, namely Matthias Koops. In 1800 Koops published a book on papermaking made from straw. Its outer covers were made from trees. His method wasn't like Fenerty's (pulping wood); instead he simply ground the wood and adhered it together. His book does not mention anything to do with wood pulping.
 
 

Friedrich Gottlob Keller
  Early life
Keller spent his childhood and youth working for his father as a weaver and leaf-binder in Hainichen, Saxony (north-eastern Germany). But he was very unhappy. His interests were in machines. Keller carried with him an "idea-book", where he jotted down all these different kinds of machines. He had subscriptions to many of the leading publications on machines, and was well read in the sciences on mechanics. In his latter years he recalled an article he read in his youth about the works of the French mathematician René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur. He took great interest in Réaumur's works, and was curious about his efforts in finding a method for making paper from trees. Réaumur himself never pursued the idea (later saying in 1742, "I am ashamed not yet to have tried this [paper making from trees] experiment since it is more than twenty years since I have realized the importance of it and since I have announced it."). It was an idea that stuck with Keller. And in 1841 the 25-year-old Keller jotted down in his "idea-book" about a wood-cut machine; a machine that could extract the fibres from trees for the use in pulped wood paper making.

Keller's invention

From 1841 (after noting his idea), Keller worked eagerly on his wood-cut machine. He had spent most of his life so far with his father as a weaver and binder, and making attempts on inventing all sorts of machines. But this wood-cut machine became his true passion, which he remained dedicated to over the following three years (from 1841 to 1844). In 1844 he completed his work and produced a piece of pulped wood paper from his wood-cut machine. In the summer of 1844 he sent in a sample paper to the German government. He wanted to get financial support for an improved wood-grinder machine and to develop papermaking further, but was declined.
 
 
This is interesting because both Charles Fenerty and F.G. Keller started at the same time, and made their discovery public at the same time, and at the same time found that no one was interested in it. But Keller remained dedicated. Since he couldn’t get national support, Keller sold his invention to a paper specialist, Heinrich Voelter, for about £80. A patent was granted to Keller in August 1845, in Saxony, Germany, in both names (Keller and Voelter), and Voelter began production on a mass scale. Voelter did not want to leave Keller at first because only Keller possessed the knowledge to build a suitable wood-grinding machine. But eventually that changed. After 1848 the first machines came out, and in 1852 the renewal of the patent came due, but Keller did not have the money to renew his part of the patent. Therefore, Voelter was the sole patent holder and continued the work, in large profit, without Keller.
 
 

The F.G. Keller wood-grinding machine c.1854
 
 
Latter years
Heinrich Voelter remained the sole patent holder, leaving Keller unemployed and penniless. The wood-grinding machine was a success though. Voelter had sold many throughout Europe and the Americas. By 1852 ground-wood pulped paper was being produced regularly in the mill of "H. Voelter’s Sons" in Heidenheim, Germany. The "Frankenberger Intelligence and Weekly" (in Saxony, Germany) was the first newspaper to use Keller’s invention; pulped wood newsprint. It took a couple decades for newspaper and book printers to get comfortable which the idea of using pulped wood instead of pulped rags, but by the 1860s the new process had gained much popularity, and the transition began. By the end of the 19th-century there were few remaining printers (in the western world) using rags in lieu of wood for paper making. Throughout his life, Keller received no royalties from his invention. In 1870 he received from a number of German paper makers and other associations a small sum of money, which he used to buy a house in Krippen, Germany. Then towards the end of his life, various countries put together a fair sum of money for him, enough for a worry-free retirement, and he also received several awards in recognition of his invention.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1844
 
 
Gustaf Pasch of Sweden proposes safer matches by placing some combustion ingredients on striking surface
 
 
Pasch Gustaf Erik
 

Gustaf Erik Pasch (born Berggren) (September 3, 1788 – September 6, 1862) was a Swedish inventor and professor of chemistry at Karolinska institute in Stockholm and inventor of the safety match. He was born in Norrköping, the son of a carpenter. He enrolled at Uppsala University in 1806 and graduated with a masters degree in 1821. Pasch is mostly known for the safety match, but he was also involved with making waterproof concrete for the Göta Canal, manufacture of bank notes and growing of silk worms. He married Augusta Fredrika Vilhelmina Berg in 1827.

In 1827, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

 
Safety matches
The safety matches were mainly the work of two Swedish chemists; Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who invented the modern chemical notation, discovered that the dangerous white phosphorus in matches could be replaced with the more benign red phosphorus, but was not able to produce a match reliable enough for everyday use. Pasch, a student of Berzelius, managed to construct the match by both replacing the white phosphorus with red, and moving the phosphorus from the head of the match to a specially prepared striking surface.

Pasch was granted a patent on the safety match in 1844. Manufacturing was started at "J.S. Bagge & co:s Kemiska fabrik" (J.S. Bagge & Company's Chemical Factory) in Stockholm, but ran into difficulties due to the quality of the striking surface. Another problem was that the production of red phosphorus was prohibitively expensive making the final matches very expensive.
  Because of this, Pasch was unable to commercially exploit his invention and production soon ceased. It was not until John Edvard Lundström and his younger brother Carl Frans, who took the Pasch design and improved on it that the safety match became commercially successful a decade later, around 1855-60. Lundström's safety match got an award at the “World Exhibition” in Paris 1855.

Later life

Pasch died without getting rich from the invention that would be the fuel of the Kreuger empire. He was however successful in his role as professor and a member of many prominent societies.

From 1846 to 1861, Pasch published the annuals of the Swedish silkgrower society. From 1827 to his death he was the secretary of "Kungliga Patriotiska sällskapet" (The Royal Patriot Society).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1844
 
 
British railroad mileage (26 in 1828) reaches 2,236
 
 
 
1844
 
 
Young Men’s Christian Association
 

YMCA, in full Young Men’s Christian Association, nonsectarian, nonpolitical Christian lay movement that aims to develop high standards of Christian character through group activities and citizenship training. It originated in London in 1844, when 12 young men, led by George Williams, an employee in, and subsequently the head of, a drapery house, formed a club for the “improvement of the spiritual condition of young men in the drapery and other trades.”

 
Similar clubs spread rapidly in the United Kingdom and reached Australia in 1850 and North America in 1851, where the organization eventually reached its greatest development. The first club in North America was founded in Montreal, the second in Boston.

YMCA programs include sports and physical education, camping, counseling, formal and informal education, public affairs, and citizenship activities. Among other activities, the YMCA sponsors hotels, residence halls, and cafeterias. In the United States it operates several degree-granting institutions as well as many other schools at all levels, including night classes for adults. In 2010 the U.S. movement changed its name to “the Y,” though specific branches continued to use YMCA in their name.

The YMCA began providing service to the armed forces, in the United States, during the Civil War, and it continued giving service through all wars thereafter. By the Geneva Convention of 1929, it was charged with promoting educational and recreational facilities in many prisoner-of-war camps.

Local YMCA organizations are affiliated with national councils, which in turn are members of the World Alliance of YMCAs, established in 1855 with headquarters in Geneva. At the centennial of the World Alliance in 1955, a series of conferences held in Paris was attended by 8,000 delegates representing more than 4 million members in 76 countries and territories. By the early 21st century, the YMCA had expanded to more than 45 million members in some 125 countries and territories.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
Williams George
 

Sir George Williams (October 11, 1821 – November 6, 1905), was the founder of the YMCA.

 

Sir George Williams
  Williams was born on a farm in Dulverton, Somerset, England. As a young man, he described himself as a "careless, thoughtless, godless, swearing young fellow" but eventually became a devout Christian.

He went to London and worked in a draper's shop. Appalled by the terrible conditions in London for young working men, he gathered a group of his fellow drapers together to create a place that would not tempt young men into sin. That place was the YMCA, which he founded in 1844.[2] One of the earliest converts and contributors to the new association was George's employer, George Hitchcock, whose daughter Helen Jane Maunder Hitchcock he went on to marry in 1853.

Williams was knighted in 1894 by Queen Victoria. After his death in 1905, he was commemorated by a stained-glass window in the nave of Westminster Abbey. Sir George Williams is buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 

 
 
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