Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1842 Part III NEXT-1843 Part I    
 
 
     
1840 - 1849
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840-1849
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part I
Bebel August
Maximilian of Mexico
Carlota
Convention of London
British North America Act
Francia Jose Gaspar
Macdonald Jacques
William I of the Netherlands
William II of the Netherlands
Retour des cendres
Lambton John George
Vaillant Edouard-Marie
Sampson William
Smith William Sidney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part II
Ridpath John Clark
Sankey Ira David
James Fenimore Cooper: "The Pathfinder"
Blunt Wilfrid Scawen
Broughton Rhoda
Robert Browning: "Sordello"
Daudet Alphonse
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Dobson Austin
Hardy Thomas
Thomas Hardy 
"Tess of the d'Urbervilles"
Lemercier  Nepomucene
Lermontov: "A Hero of Our Times"
Modjeska Helena
Symonds John Addington
Verga Giovanni
Zola Emile
Emile Zola
"
J'accuse" (I accuse)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part III
Delacroix: "Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople"
Makart Hans
Hans Makart
Monet Claude
Claude Monet
Nasmyth Alexander
Alexander Nasmyth
Nast Thomas
Nelson's Column
Rodin Auguste
Auguste Rodin
Redon Odilon
Odilon Redon
Blechen Carl
Karl Blechen
Debain Alexandre-Francois
Donizetti: "La Fille du Regiment"
Haberl Franz Xaver
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich
Tchaikovsky - The Seasons
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky
Schneckenburger Max
Wilhelm Karl
"Die Wacht am Rhein"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part IV
Olbers Wilhelm
Blumenbach Johann Friedrich
Ball Robert
Kohlrausch Friedrich Wilhelm
Agassiz Louis
Basedow Carl Adolph
Graves disease
Maxim Hiram
Eyre Edward John
Brummell Beau
Father Damien
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Washington Temperance Society
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part I
Second Battle of Chuenpee
Barere Bertrand
Fisher John Arbuthnot
British Hong Kong
Luzzatti Luigi
Merriman John
Harrison William Henry
Tyler John
Espartero Baldomero
Hirobumi Ito
Clemenceau Georges
Edward VII
Creole case
Laurier Wilfrid
New Zealand
Lamb William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part II
Cheyne Thomas Kelly
Ludwig Feuerbach: "The Essence of Christianity"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Holst Hermann Eduard
Jebb Richard Claverhouse
Ward Lester Frank
Black William
Robert Browning: "Pippa Passes"
Buchanan Robert
Fenimore Cooper: "The Deerslayer"
Coquelin Benoit
Dickens: "The Old Curiosity Shop"
Ewing Juliana Horatia
Sill Edward Rowland
Frederick Marryat: "Masterman Ready"
Mendes Catulle
Mounet-Sully Jean
"Punch, or The London Charivari"
Sealsfield Charles
Scott Clement William
White Joseph Blanco
Ruskin: "The King of the Golden River"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part III
Chantrey Francis
Morisot Berthe
Berthe Morisot
Renoir Pierre-Auguste
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Wagner Otto
Wallot Paul
Olivier Ferdinand
Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier
Bazille Frederic
Frederic Bazille
Zandomeneghi Federico
Federico Zandomeneghi
Guillaumin Armand
Armand Guillaumin
Chabrier Emmanuel
Chabrier - Espana
Emmanuel Chabrier
Dibdin Thomas John
Dvorak Anton
Antonin Dvorak: Rusalka
Antonin Dvorak
Pedrell Felipe
Felip Pedrell: Els Pirineus
Felipe Pedrell
Rossini: "Stabat Mater"
Sax Antoine-Joseph
Schumann: Symphony No. 1
Sgambati Giovanni
Sgambati - Piano Concerto in G minor
Giovanni Sgambati
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part IV
Cooper Astley
Braid James
Hypnosis
Candolle Austin
Aniline
Kocher Emil Theodor
Kolliker Rudolf Albert
Petzval Joseph
Hudson William Henry
Warming Eugenius
Whitworth Joseph
Barnum's American Museum
Bradshaw George
Cook Thomas
Hyer Tom
"The New York Tribune"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part I
Pozzo di Borgo Charles-Andre
Las Cases Emmanuel
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Treaty of Nanking
General Strike of 1842
O’Higgins Bernardo
Giolitti Giovanni
Fiske John
Hartmann Eduard
Hyndman Henry Mayers
James William
Kropotkin Peter Alekseyevich
Anarchism
Anarchism
Lavisse Ernest
Robertson George Croom
Sorel Albert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part II
Banim John
Sue Eugene
Eugene Sue: "The Mysteries of Paris"
Bierce Ambrose
Brandes Georg
Bulwer-Lytton: "Zanoni"
Graham Maria
Coppee Francois
Cunningham Allan
Espronceda Jose
Gogol: "Dead Souls"
Howard Bronson
Lanier Sidney
Lover Samuel
MacKaye Steele
Maginn William
Mallarme Stephane
May Karl
Рое: "The Masque of the Red Death"
Quental Antero Tarquinio
Woodworth Samuel
Macaulay: "Lays of Ancient Rome"
Tupper Martin Farquhar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part III
Vereshchagin Vasily
Vasily Vereshchagin
Boldini Giovanni
Giovanni Boldini
Boito Arrigo
Arrigo Boito: Mefistofele Finale
Arrigo Boito
Glinka: "Russian and Ludmilla"
Hopkinson Joseph
"Hail, Columbia"
Lortzing: "Der Wildschiitz"
Massenet Jules
Massenet "Elegie"
Jules Massenet
Millocker Karl
Millocker: Gasparone
Karl Millocker
New York Philharmonic
Sullivan Arthur
Arthur Sullivan - The Mikado - Overture
Arthur Sullivan
Wagner: "Rienzi"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part IV
Dewar James
Doppler Christian Andreas
Flammarion Camille
Hansen Emile Christian
Long Crawford Williamson
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Charting the Ocean Depths
Mayer Julius Robert
Pelletier Pierre Joseph
Marshall Alfred
Strutt John William
Retzius Gustaf
Fremont John Charles
Darling Grace
Polka
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part I
McKinley William
Braga Teofilo
Wairau Affray
Dilke Charles
Avenarius Richard
Borrow George
Carlile Richard
Thomas Carlyle: "Past and Present"
Creighton Mandell
Liddell and Scott: "Greek-English Lexicon"
Liddell Henry
Scott Robert
Ward James
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part II
Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last of the Barons"
Elisabeth of Romania
Dickens: "Martin Chuzzlewit"
Doughty Charles Montagu
Dowden Edward
Emmett Daniel Decatur
Hood Thomas
Thomas Hood: "Song of the Shirt"
Horne Richard Hengist
James Henry
Rosegger Peter
Suttner Bertha
Harris George Washington
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part III
Allston Washington
Washington Allston
John Ruskin: "Modern Painters"
Trumbull John
John Trumbull
Werner Anton
Anton von Werner
Clairin Georges
Georges Clairin
Donizetti: "Don Pasquale"
Grieg Edward
Grieg - Solveig Song
Edward Grieg
Nilsson Christine
Patti Adelina
Richter Hans
Schumann: "Paradise and the Peri"
Wagner: "The Flying Dutchman"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part IV
British Archaeological Association
Chamberlin Thomas Chrowder
Ferrier David
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Joule James Prescott
Koch Robert
Erbium
Brunel Marc Isambard
Thames Tunnel
Dix Dorothea Lynde
Guy's, Kings and St. Thomas' Rugby Football Club
Sequoyah
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part I
Lowe Hudson
Drouet Jean-Baptiste
Oscar I of Sweden
Dole Sanford Ballard
Laffitte Jacques
Franco-Moroccan War
Polk James Knox
Herrera Jose Joaquin
Treaty of Wanghia
Breshkovsky Catherine
Comstock Anthony
Emerson: "Essays"
Grundtvig Nikolaj Frederik Severin
Hall Granville Stanley
Nietzsche Friedrich
Friedrich Nietzsche
Rice Edmund Ignatius
Riehl Alois
Stanley Arthur Penrhyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part II
Bernhardt Sarah
Sarah Bernhardt
Dumas, pere: "Le Comte de Monte Cristo"
Bridges Robert
Cable George Washington
Carte Richard
Cary Henry Francis
Disraeli: "Coningsby"
France Anatole
Hopkins Gerard Manley
Lang Andrew
Liliencron Detlev
O'Reilly John Boyle
O’Shaughnessy Arthur
Sterling John
William Thackeray: "Barry Lyndon"
Verlaine Paul
Paul Verlaine
"Poems"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part III
Eakins Thomas
Thomas Eakins
Ezekiel Moses Jacob
Moses Ezekiel
Luke Fildes Luke
Luke Fildes
Leibl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Leibl
Munkacsy Mihaly
Mihaly Munkacsy
Repin Ilya
Ilya Repin
Rousseau Henri
Henri Rousseau
Cassatt Mary
Mary Cassatt
Flotow: "Alessandro Stradella"
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E minor
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay
The Best of Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Sarasate Pablo
Pablo de Sarasate - Zigeunerweisen
Pablo de Sarasate
Verdi: "Ernani"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part IV
Grassmann Hermann Gunther
Baily Francis
Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard
DeLong George Washington
Golgi Camillo
Kielmeyer Carl Friedrich
Kinglake Alexander William
Strasburger Eduard Adolf
Huc Evariste Regis
Gabet Joseph
Sturt Charles Napier
Leichhardt Friedrich
Beckford William
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers
"Fliegende Blatter"
Hagenbeck Carl
Keller Friedrich Gottlob
Pasch Gustaf Erik
Young Men’s Christian Association
Williams George
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part I
Root Elihu
Texas
Florida
Flagstaff War
Ludwig II of Bavaria
First Anglo-Sikh War
Sonderbund
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part II
Friedrich Engels: "The Condition of the Working Class in England"
Stirner Max
Disraeli: "Sybil, or The Two Nations"
Hertz Henrik
Prosper Merimee: "Carmen"
Рое: "The Raven"
Spitteler Carl
Wergeland Henrik
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part III
Bode Wilhelm
Hill David Octavius
Ingres: The Comtesse d'Haussonville
Oberlander Adam Adolf
Crane Walter
Walter Crane
Faure Gabriel
Faure - Pavane
Gabriel Faure
Lortzing: "Undine"
Wagner: "Tannhauser"
Widor Charles-Marie
Widor - Piano Concerto No. 1
Charles Marie Widor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part IV
Armstrong William George
Bigelow Erastus Brigham
Cayley Arthur
Cornell Ezra
Submarine communications cable
Heilmann Joshua
Humboldt: "Cosmos"
Kolbe Hermann
Laveran Alphonse
McNaught William
Metchnikoff Elie
Charting the Northwest
Layard Austen Henry
Cartwright Alexander
United States Naval Academy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part I
Battle of Aliwal
Battle of Sobraon
Treaty of Lahore
Greater Poland Uprising
Krakow Uprising
Mexican-American War
Battle of Monterrey
First Battle of Tabasco
Iowa
Pasic Nikola
Evangelical Alliance
Eucken Rudolf Christoph
Pius IX
Whewell William
Young Brigham
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part II
Balzac: "La Cousine Bette"
De Amicis Edmondo
Dostoevsky: "Poor Folk"
Jokai Maurus
Lear Edward
Melville Herman
Herman Melville: "Typee"
Herman Melville
"Moby Dick or The Whale"
Sienkiewicz Henryk
George Watts: "Paolo and Francesca"
De Nittis Giuseppe
Giuseppe de Nittis
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part III
Berlioz: "Damnation de Faust"
Lortzing: "Der Waffenschmied"
Mendelssohn: "Elijah"
Deere John
Deere & Company
Henle Friedrich
Howe Elias
Waitz Theodor
Mohl Hugo
Green William Thomas
Sobrero Ascanio
Heaphy Charles
Brunner Thomas
Europeans in New Zealand
"The Daily News"
Horsley John Callcott
Smithsonian Institution
Zeiss Carl
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part I
Liberia
Second Battle of Tabasco
Battle of Churubusco
BATTLE OF MEXICO CITY
Hindenburg Paul
Sonderbund War
Beecher Henry Ward
Blanc Louis
Proudhon Pierre-Joseph
roudhon: "Philosophy of Poverty"P
Karl Marx: "The Poverty of Philosophy"
Salt Lake City
Charlotte Bronte: "Jane Eyre"
Bronte Emily
Marryat: "The Children of the New Forest"
Thackeray: "Vanity Fair"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part II
Hildebrand Adolf
Liebermann Max
Max Liebermann
Friedrich von Flotow: "Martha"
Verdi: "Macbeth"
Boole George
Edison Thomas Alva
Bell Alexander Graham
Semmelweis Ignaz Philipp
Colenso William
Factory Act of 1847
Fawcett Millicent
Siemens & Halske
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part I
Frederick VII
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Revolutions of 1848
French Revolution of 1848
June Days Uprising
Cavaignac Louis-Eugene
French Constitution of 1848
French Second Republic
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Slovak Uprising 1848-1849
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part I)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part II
First Italian War of Independence
Skirmish of Pastrengo
Battle of Goito
Battle of Custoza
Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
Revolution of 1848 in Luxembourg
Greater Poland Uprising
Moldavian Revolution of 1848
Pan-Slav Congress of 1848
Pan-Slavism
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part II)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part III
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Nasr-ed-Din
Ibrahim Pasha
Abbas I
Wisconsin
Balfour Arthur James
Seneca Falls Convention
Stanton Elizabeth Cady
Delbruck Hans
Macaulay: "History of England"
"The Communist Manifesto"
John Mill: "Principles of Political Economy"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part IV
Augier Emile
Chateaubriand: "Memoires d'Outre-Tombe"
Dumas fils: "La Dame aux Camelias"
Gaskell Elizabet
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
Murger Louis-Henri
Henri Murger: "Scenes de la vie de Boheme"
Terry Ellen
Surikov Vasily
Vasily Surikov
Uhde Fritz
Fritz von Uhde
Gauguin Paul
Paul Gauguin
Caillebotte Gustave
Gustave Caillebotte
Millais: "Ophelia"
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part V
Parry Hubert Hastings
Jerusalem by Hubert Parry
Hubert Parry
Duparc Henri
Duparc Henri: "L'invitation au voyage"
Henri Duparc
Bottger Rudolf Christian
Parsons William
Frege Gottlob
"New Prussian Newspaper"
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"
Grace William Gilbert
Kneipp Sebastian
Lilienthal Otto
Starr Belle
California Gold Rush
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part I
Battle of Chillianwala
Battle of Gujrat
Roman Republic on February 9, 1849
Battle of Novara
Victor Emmanuel II
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Peace of Milan
Taylor Zachary
Dresden Rebellion of 1849
Surrender at Vilagos
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part II
Kemble John Mitchell
Key Ellen
Arnold Matthew
Dickens: "David Copperfield"
Kingsley Charles
Scribe: "Adrienne Lecouvreur"
Strindberg August
Smith Horace
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part III
Waterhouse John William
John William Waterhouse
John Ruskin: "The Seven Lamps of Architecture"
Carriere Eugene
Eugene Carriere
Liszt: "Tasso"
Meyerbeer: "Le Prophete"
Otto Nicolai: "The Merry Wives of Windsor"
Schumann: "Manfred"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part IV
Fizeau Armand
Frankland Edward
Livingstone David
Explorations of David Livingstone
Baines Thomas
"Who's Who"
Bedford College
Bloomer Amelia
Bloomers (clothing)
Stead William Thomas
 
 
 

1856 Presidential campaign poster representing Frémont as the Pathfinder planting a U.S.
Flag on top of the Rocky Mountains.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1842 Part IV
 
 
 
1842
 
 
Sir Charles Bell (Bell Charles), Scottish anatomist, d. (b. 1774)
 
 

Sir Charles Bell
 
 
 
1842
 
 
Dewar James
 

Sir James Dewar FRS (20 September 1842 – 27 March 1923) was a Scottish chemist and physicist. He is probably best-known today for his invention of the Dewar flask, which he used in conjunction with extensive research into the liquefaction of gases. He was also particularly interested in atomic and molecular spectroscopy, working in these fields for more than 25 years.

 

Sir James Dewar
  Sir James Dewar, (born Sept. 20, 1842, Kincardine-on-Forth, Scot.—died March 27, 1923, London, Eng.), British chemist and physicist whose study of low-temperature phenomena entailed the use of a double-walled vacuum flask of his own design which has been named for him. Educated at the University of Edinburgh, Dewar became a professor at the University of Cambridge (1875) and at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, London (1877), holding both posts throughout his life. Dewar developed structural formulas for benzene (1867), did research in spectroscopy for more than 25 years, and by 1891 had constructed a machine for producing liquid oxygen in quantity. About 1892 he conceived the idea of using vacuum-jacketed vessels for the storage of low-temperature liquid gases, and the resulting device proved so efficient in preventing the influx of external heat that it became an essential tool in low-temperature scientific work. The principle of the Dewar flask has also been used extensively in the common thermos bottle. Dewar was subsequently the first to liquefy hydrogen gas (1898) and to solidify it (1899). He was knighted in 1904. His discovery (1905) that cooled charcoal can be used to help create high vacuums later proved useful in atomic physics. With Sir Frederick Augustus Abel he developed cordite, an explosive.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1842
 
 
Austrian physicist С J. Doppler publishes a paper "On the Colored Light of the Binary Stars" (Doppler effect)
 
 
Doppler Christian Andreas
 

Christian Andreas Doppler (29 November 1803 – 17 March 1853) was an Austrian mathematician and physicist. He is celebrated for his principle — known as the Doppler effect — that the observed frequency of a wave depends on the relative speed of the source and the observer. He used this concept to explain the color of binary stars.

 

Christian Andreas Doppler
  Christian Doppler, (born Nov. 29, 1803, Salzburg, Austria—died March 17, 1853, Venice), Austrian physicist who first described how the observed frequency of light and sound waves is affected by the relative motion of the source and the detector.

This phenomenon became known as the Doppler effect.

Educated at the Polytechnical Institute in Vienna, Doppler became director of the Physical Institute and professor of experimental physics of the University of Vienna in 1850.

His earliest writings were on mathematics, but in 1842 he published Über das farbige Licht der Doppelsterne (“Concerning the Coloured Light of Double Stars”), which contained his first statement of the Doppler effect.

He theorized that since the pitch of sound from a moving source varies for a stationary observer, the colour of the light from a star should alter, according to the star’s velocity relative to Earth.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift) is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source. It is named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who proposed it in 1842 in Prague. It is commonly heard when a vehicle sounding a siren or horn approaches, passes, and recedes from an observer. Compared to the emitted frequency, the received frequency is higher during the approach, identical at the instant of passing by, and lower during the recession.

When the source of the waves is moving toward the observer, each successive wave crest is emitted from a position closer to the observer than the previous wave. Therefore, each wave takes slightly less time to reach the observer than the previous wave. Hence, the time between the arrival of successive wave crests at the observer is reduced, causing an increase in the frequency. While they are travelling, the distance between successive wave fronts is reduced, so the waves "bunch together". Conversely, if the source of waves is moving away from the observer, each wave is emitted from a position farther from the observer than the previous wave, so the arrival time between successive waves is increased, reducing the frequency. The distance between successive wave fronts is then increased, so the waves "spread out".

For waves that propagate in a medium, such as sound waves, the velocity of the observer and of the source are relative to the medium in which the waves are transmitted. The total Doppler effect may therefore result from motion of the source, motion of the observer, or motion of the medium. Each of these effects is analyzed separately. For waves which do not require a medium, such as light or gravity in general relativity, only the relative difference in velocity between the observer and the source needs to be considered.

 
 
 
1842
 
 
Flammarion Camille
 

Nicolas Camille Flammarion (26 February 1842 – 3 June 1925) was a French astronomer and author. He was a prolific author of more than fifty titles, including popular science works about astronomy, several notable early science fiction novels, and works on psychical research and related topics. He also published the magazine L'Astronomie, starting in 1882. He maintained a private observatory at Juvisy-sur-Orge, France.

 

Nicolas Camille Flammarion,
1880
  Biography
Camille Flammarion was born in Montigny-le-Roi, Haute-Marne, France. He was the brother of Ernest Flammarion (1846–1936), founder of the Groupe Flammarion publishing house. He was a founder and the first president of the Société astronomique de France, which originally had its own independent journal, BSAF (Bulletin de la Société astronomique de France), first published in 1887. In January, 1895, after 13 volumes of L'Astronomie and 8 of BSAF, the two merged, making L’Astronomie the Bulletin of the Societé. The 1895 volume of the combined journal was numbered 9, to preserve the BSAF volume numbering, but this had the consequence that volumes 9 to 13 of L'Astronomie can each refer to two different publications, five years apart from each other.

The "Flammarion engraving" first appeared in Flammarion’s 1888 edition of L’Atmosphère. In 1907, he wrote that he believed that dwellers on Mars had tried to communicate with the Earth in the past. He also believed in 1907 that a seven-tailed comet was heading toward Earth. In 1910, for the appearance of Halley's Comet, he believed the gas from the comet’s tail "would impregnate [the Earth’s] atmosphere and possibly snuff out all life on the planet."

As a young man, Flammarion was exposed to two significant social movements in the western world: the thoughts and ideas of Darwin and Lamarck, and the rising popularity of spiritism with spiritualist churches and organizations appearing all over Europe.

 
 
He has been described as an "astronomer, mystic and storyteller" who was "obsessed by life after death, and on other worlds, and [who] seemed to see no distinction between the two."

He was influenced by Jean Reynaud (1806–1863) and his Terre at ciel (1854), which described a religious system based on the transmigration of souls believed to be reconcilable with both Christianity and pluralism. He was convinced that souls after the physical death pass from planet to planet, progressively improving at each new incarnation.

In Real and Imaginary Worlds (1864) and Lumen (1887), he "describes a range of exotic species, including sentient plants which combine the processes of digestion and respiration.

 
 
This belief in extraterrestrial life, Flammarion combined with a religious conviction derived, not from the Catholic faith upon which he had been raised, but from the writings of Jean Reynaud and their emphasis upon the transmigration of souls. Man he considered to be a “citizen of the sky,” others worlds “studios of human work, schools where the expanding soul progressively learns and develops, assimilating gradually the knowledge to which its aspirations tend, approaching thus evermore the end of its destiny.”

His psychical studies also influenced some of his science fiction, where he would write about his beliefs in a cosmic version of metempsychosis. In "Lumen", a human character meets the soul of an alien, able to cross the universe faster than light, that has been reincarnated on many different worlds, each with their own gallery of organisms and their evolutionary history. Other than that, his writing about other worlds adhered fairly closely to then current ideas in evolutionary theory and astronomy.

  Among other things, he believed that all planets went through more or less the same stages of development, but at different rates depending on their sizes.

The fusion of science, science fiction and the spiritual influenced other readers as well; "With great commercial success he blended scientific speculation with science fiction to propagate modern myths such as the notion that “superior” extraterrestrial species reside on numerous planets, and that the human soul evolves through cosmic reincarnation. Flammarion’s influence was great, not just on the popular thought of his day, but also on later writers with similar interests and convictions." Both George Griffith and Edgar Rice Burroughs are referring to him in their writing. In the English translation of Lumen, Brian Stapleford argues that both Olaf Stapledon and William Hope Hodgson have likely been influenced by Flammarion. Arthur Conan Doyle's The Poison Belt, published 1913, also have a lot in common with Flammarion's worries that the tail of Halley's Comet would be poisonous for earth life.

 
 
Family
Camille was a brother of Ernest Flammarion and Berthe Martin-Flammarion and uncle of a woman named Zelinda. His first wife was Sylvie Petiaux-Hugo Flammarion, and his second wife was Gabrielle Renaudot Flammarion, also a noted astronomer.
 
 
Psychical research
Flammarion approached spiritism, psychical research and reincarnation from the viewpoint of the scientific method, writing, "It is by the scientific method alone that we may make progress in the search for truth. Religious belief must not take the place of impartial analysis. We must be constantly on our guard against illusions.".

Flammarion had studied mediumship and wrote "It is infinitely to be regretted that we cannot trust the loyalty of mediums. They almost always cheat" However, Flammarion a believer in psychic phenomena attended séances with Eusapia Palladino and claimed that some of her phenomena was genuine. He produced in his book alleged levitation photographs of a table and an impression of a face in putty. Joseph McCabe did not find the evidence convincing. He noted that the impressions of faces in putty were always of Palladino's face and could have easily been made, and she was not entirely clear from the table in the levitation photographs.

His book The Unknown (1900) received a negative review from the psychologist Joseph Jastrow who wrote "the work's fundamental faults are a lack of critical judgment in the estimation of evidence, and of an appreciation of the nature of the logical conditions which the study of these problems presents."

After two years investigation into automatic writing he wrote that the subconscious mind is the explanation and there is no evidence for the spirit hypothesis. Flammarion believed in the survival of the soul after death but wrote that mediumship had not been scientifically proven.

 
Illustration de L'atmosphère : description des grands phénomènes de la nature, de Camille Flammarion, publié en 1873.
 
 
Even though Flammarion believed in the survival of the soul after death he did not believe in the spirit hypothesis of Spiritism, instead he believed that Spiritist activities such as ectoplasm and levitations of objects could be explained by an unknown "psychic force" from the medium. He also believed that telepathy could explain some paranormal phenomena.
 

In his book Mysterious Psychic Forces (1909) he wrote:

“ This is very far from being demonstrated. The innumerable observations which I have collected during more than forty years all prove to me the contrary. No satisfactory identification has been made. The communications obtained have always seemed to proceed from the mentality of the group, or when they are heterogeneous, from spirits of an incomprehensible nature. The being evoked soon vanishes when one insists on pushing him to the wall and having the heart out of his mystery. That souls survive the destruction of the body I have not the shadow of a doubt. But that they manifest themselves by the processes employed in séances the experimental method has not yet given us absolute proof. I add that this hypothesis is not at all likely. If the souls of the dead are about us, upon our planet, the invisible population would increase at the rate of 100,000 a day, about 36 millions a year, 3 billions 620 millions in a century, 36 billions in ten centuries, etc.—unless we admit re-incarnations upon the earth itself. How many times do apparitions or manifestations occur? When illusions, auto-suggestions, hallucinations are eliminated what remains? Scarcely anything. Such an exceptional rarity as this pleads against the reality of apparitions.”

 
In the 1920s Flammarion changed some of his beliefs on apparitions and hauntings but still claimed there was no evidence for the spirit hypothesis of mediumship in Spiritism. In his 1924 book Les maisons hantées (Haunted Houses) he came to the conclusion that in some rare cases hauntings are caused by departed souls whilst others are caused by the "remote action of the psychic force of a living person". The book was reviewed by the magician Harry Houdini who wrote it "fails to supply adequate proof of the veracity of the conglomeration of hearsay it contains; it must, therefore, be a collection of myths."

In a presidential address to the Society for Psychical Research in October 1923 Flammarion summarized his views after 60 years into investigating paranormal phenomena. He wrote that he believed in telepathy, etheric doubles, the stone tape theory and "exceptionally and rarely the dead do manifest" in hauntings. He was also a member of the Theosophical Society.

Legacy
He was the first to suggest the names Triton and Amalthea for moons of Neptune and Jupiter, respectively, although these names were not officially adopted until many decades later. George Gamow cited Flammarion as having had a significant influence on his childhood interest in science.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 

Flammarion engraving, Paris 1888, for Flammarion's 1888 L'atmosphère : météorologie populaire (p. 163)
 
 

"What intelligent being, what being capable of responding emotionally to a beautiful sight, can look at the jagged, silvery lunar crescent trembling in the azure sky, even through the weakest of telescopes, and not be struck by it in an intensely pleasurable way, not feel cut off from everyday life here on earth and transported toward that first stop on the celestial journeys? What thoughtful soul could look at brilliant Jupiter with its four attendant satellites, or splendid Saturn encircled by its mysterious ring, or a double star glowing scarlet and sapphire in the infinity of night, and not be filled with a sense of wonder? Yes, indeed, if humankind — from humble farmers in the fields and toiling workers in the cities to teachers, people of independent means, those who have reached the pinnacle of fame or fortune, even the most frivolous of society women — if they knew what profound inner pleasure await those who gaze at the heavens, then France, nay, the whole of Europe, would be covered with telescopes instead of bayonets, thereby promoting universal happiness and peace."

— Camille Flammarion, 1880

"This end of the world will occur without noise, without revolution, without cataclysm. Just as a tree loses leaves in the autumn wind, so the earth will see in succession the falling and perishing all its children, and in this eternal winter, which will envelop it from then on, she can no longer hope for either a new sun or a new spring. She will purge herself of the history of the worlds. The millions or billions of centuries that she had seen will be like a day. It will be only a detail completely insignificant in the whole of the universe. Presently the earth is only an invisible point among all the stars, because, at this distance, it is lost through its infinite smallness in the vicinity of the sun, which itself is by far only a small star. In the future, when the end of things will arrive on this earth, the event will then pass completely unperceived in the universe. The stars will continue to shine after the extinction of our sun, as they already shone before our existence. When there will no longer be on the earth a sole concern to contemplate, the constellations will reign again in the noise as they reigned before the appearance of man on this tiny globule. There are stars whose light shone some millions of years before we arrived … The luminous rays that we receive actually then departed from their bosom before the time of the appearance of man on the earth. The universe is so immense that it appears immutable, and that the duration of a planet such as that of the earth is only a chapter, less than that, a phrase, less still, only a word of the universe’s history."

— Camille Flammarion, La Fin du Monde (The End of the World)

 
 
 
1842
 
 
Hansen Emile Christian
 

Emile Christian Hansen, (born May 8, 1842, Ribe, Denmark—died August 27, 1909, Copenhagen), Danish botanist who revolutionized the brewing industry by his discovery of a new method of cultivating pure strains of yeast.

 

Emile Christian Hansen
  Hansen, who began his working life as a journeyman house painter, received a Ph.D. in 1877 from the University of Copenhagen.

Two years later he was appointed head of the physiology department at the Carlsberg Laboratory in Copenhagen, where he remained until his death.

His research was concerned mainly with yeasts that convert carbohydrates to alcohol, and in 1888 he published an article that described his method for obtaining pure cultures of yeast.

The yeast grown from these single strains was widely adopted in the bottom-fermentation brewing industries.

Further investigations led him to the discovery of a number of species of yeast.

He defined the characters of the different species and devised a system of classification.

After further study he devised additional methods for the culture and isolation of certain species.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1842
 
 
Joseph Henry's (Henry Joseph) discovery of the oscillatory character of electrical discharge
 
 
 
1842
 
 
American physician Crawford W. Long uses ether to produce surgical anesthesia
 
 
Long Crawford Williamson
 

Crawford Williamson Long (November 1, 1815 – June 16, 1878) was an American surgeon and pharmacist best known for his first use of inhaled sulfuric ether as an anesthetic. Although his work was unknown outside a small circle of colleagues for several years, he is now recognized as the first physician to have administered ether anesthesia for surgery.

The Crawford W. Long childhood home is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

 

Crawford Williamson Long
  Life and work
Long was born in Danielsville, Madison County, Georgia on November 1, 1815.

He received his M.D. degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 1839. After observing the same physiological effects with diethyl ether ("ether") that Humphry Davy had described for nitrous oxide in 1800, Long used ether for the first time on March 30, 1842 to remove a tumor from the neck of a patient, James M. Venable, in Jefferson, Georgia. Long subsequently removed a second tumor from Venable and used ether as an anesthetic in amputations and childbirth. The results of these trials were published in 1849 in The Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. An original copy of this publication is held in the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Crawford Long was a member of the Demosthenian Literary Society while a student at the University of Georgia and shared a room with Alexander Stephens, Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. Long was a cousin of the western legend Doc Holliday.

Long died in Athens, Georgia in 1878. The Emory-University-operated Crawford W. Long Hospital in downtown Atlanta, Georgia was named in his honor in 1931 and retained that name for 78 years.

 
 
In 2009 the hospital was renamed "Emory University Hospital Midtown". The Crawford W. Long Museum in downtown Jefferson, Georgia has been in operation since 1957. Crawford Long Middle School, in Atlanta, Georgia, was also named in his honor. A statue of Crawford Long stands in the crypt of the United States Capitol as one of the two designated monuments to represent the state of Georgia in the National Statuary Hall Collection.

On October 16, 1846, unaware of Long's prior work with ether during surgery, William T. G. Morton administered ether anesthesia before a medical audience at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Although Long had informed several surgical colleagues who had similarly administered ether in their practices, Morton is generally credited with the first public demonstration of ether anesthesia. In 1854, Long requested William Crosby Dawson, a U.S. Senator, to present his claims of ether anesthesia discovery to the attention of Congress.

He died of a stroke on June 16, 1878 shortly after helping to deliver a baby.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1842
 
 
Amer. naval officer Matthew F. Maury begins his researches in oceanography
 
 
Matthew Fontaine Maury
 
Matthew Fontaine Maury (January 14, 1806 – February 1, 1873), United States Navy, was an American astronomer, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, and educator.
 

Matthew Fontaine Maury
  He was nicknamed "Pathfinder of the Seas" and "Father of Modern Oceanography and Naval Meteorology" and later, "Scientist of the Seas," due to the publication of his extensive works in his books, especially The Physical Geography of the Sea (1855), the first extensive and comprehensive book on oceanography to be published. Maury made many important new contributions to charting winds and ocean currents, including ocean lanes for passing ships at sea.

In 1825 at age 19, Maury joined the United States Navy as a midshipman on board the frigate USS Brandywine. Almost immediately he began to study the seas and record methods of navigation. When a leg injury left him unfit for sea duty, Maury devoted his time to the study of navigation, meteorology, winds, and currents. He became Superintendent of the U.S. Naval Observatory and head of the Depot of Charts and Instruments. Here, Maury studied thousands of ships' logs and charts.

He published the Wind and Current Chart of the North Atlantic, which showed sailors how to use the ocean's currents and winds to their advantage and drastically reduced the length of ocean voyages. Maury's uniform system of recording oceanographic data was adopted by navies and merchant marines around the world and was used to develop charts for all the major trade routes.

With the outbreak of the Civil War, Maury, a Virginian, resigned his commission as a US Navy commander and joined the Confederacy. He spent the war in the South, as well as abroad in Great Britain, Ireland, and France.

 
 
He helped acquire a ship, CSS Georgia, for the Confederacy while also advocating stopping the war in America among several European Nations. Following the war, Maury accepted a teaching position at the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, Virginia. He died at his V.M.I. home in Lexington in 1873 after completing an exhausting state-to-state lecture tour on national and international weather forecasting on land. He had also completed his book on his Geological Survey of Virginia and a new series of geography for young people.
 
 

Portrait of Matthew Fontaine Maury by Ella Sophonisba Hergesheimer, 1923
  Matthew Fontaine Maury, (born Jan. 14, 1806, Spotsylvania county, Va., U.S.—died Feb. 1, 1873, Lexington, Va.), U.S. naval officer, pioneer hydrographer, and one of the founders of oceanography.

Maury entered the navy in 1825 as a midshipman, circumnavigated the globe (1826–30), and in 1836 was promoted to the rank of lieutenant. In 1839 he was lamed in a stagecoach accident, which made him unfit for active service. In 1842 he was placed in charge of the Depot of Charts and Instruments, out of which grew the U.S. Naval Observatory and Hydrographic Office.

To gather information on maritime winds and currents, Maury distributed to captains specially prepared logbooks from which he compiled pilot charts, enabling ships to shorten the time of sea voyages. In 1848 he published maps of the main wind fields of the Earth. Maury’s work inspired the first international marine conference, held in Brussels in 1853. He was U.S. representative at the meeting that led to the establishment of the International Hydrographic Bureau. Provided with worldwide information, Maury was able to produce charts of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. He also prepared a profile of the Atlantic seabed, which proved the feasibility of laying a transatlantic telegraph cable. In 1855 he published the first modern oceanographic text, The Physical Geography of the Sea. In that year his Sailing Directions included a section recommending that eastbound and westbound steamers travel in separate lanes in the North Atlantic to prevent collisions.

 
 
On the outbreak (1861) of the American Civil War, Maury returned to Virginia to become head of coast, harbour, and river defenses for the Confederate Navy, for which he attempted to develop an electric torpedo. In 1862 he went to England as a special agent of the Confederacy, and at the war’s end (1865) he went to Mexico, where the emperor Maximilian made him imperial commissioner of immigration so that Maury could establish a Confederate colony there. In 1866, when the emperor abandoned this scheme, Maury went back to England. He returned to the United States in 1868 and accepted the professorship of meteorology at Virginia Military Institute, a post he held until his death. Maury Hall at Annapolis, Md., is named in his honour, and his birthday is a school holiday in Virginia.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

First printed map of oceanic bathymetry, published by Maury in Explanations with data from USS Dolphin (1836)
 
 
 
Charting the Ocean Depths
 
 
In the early 19th century, the British Admiralty realized that marine science might benefit Arctic exploration. John Ross, sailing into Davis Strait in 1818 on his search for the Northwest Passage, hoped to distinguish between rivers and seaways by measuring the temperature and salinity of the water beneath the surface-ice meltwater. Estuarine deep water would be cold but fresh, that of marine channels would be slightly warmer and saline. Such measurements could be important aids to exploration m areas where ice and snow masked the landscape, where visibility was hampered by fogs, and the magnetic compass erratic. The Admiralty was optimistic of success, for the ships had been issued with Six's marine thermometer and Massey's sounder, both invented some years previously. Massey's sounder consisted of a series of counting-wheels that were turned by vanes as they sank through the water. The mechanism was slipped out of gear by the action of hauling it up, leaving the pointer to show what Massey claimed was a true vertical depth.
 
 
Global charting
 
Beyond home waters, ships' captains relied on their charts to indicate the way into unfamiliar harbors, to warn of dangerous submerged rocks and sandbanks, and to identify good "holding ground" for safe anchorage. Soundings were noted on charts from the 16th century onward, and this was eventually to lead to government-sponsored continuous hydrographic global charting, an activity- that has continued right up to the present day.

The best hydrographic charts offered a great deal of information about the ocean over the continental shelves. Near-shore underwater features were located by triangulation, and lines of closely spaced soundings gave a good picture of the nature of bottom sediments. Further out to sea, charting was far more arduous. The British Captain
Robert Wauchope reported on a sounding that he had made in 1816 when he attached a water-sampler to 1435 fathoms (8610 feet/2624 meters) of rope, weighted by seven cannon-shot spaced down the line and with a 72-lb (33-kg) sinker. The rope itself was 2.5 inches (6.3 centimeters) thick, increasing to 3.5 inches (8.9 centimeters) near the surface. It took 22 minutes to veer this cumbersome assembly overboard and then the efforts of 100 men working the capstan for 1 hour 20 minutes to haul it in, due to the great friction between rope and water. Consequently, such soundings were seldom made and the few that were made were judged worthy of report.

Soundings were made far apart, and their location relied on the navigators accurate observation of his position at the time. Charts also recorded isolated rocks and reefs that had been reported by ships' captains on earlier voyages but whose existence was doubtful. These "vigias," as they were called, might be only icebergs or clumps of weed, glimpsed through fog or driving ram, but they remained on the charts, as a precaution, until modern sounding techniques proved or disproved their existence.
 
 

 


John Ross had this "clamm," or grab, made on board his ship during his search in 1818 for a Northwest Passage.

It was intended to help him determine when he was in a seaway rather than a river.
 
 
 
French and Russian expeditions
 
During the 19th century French and Russian expeditions were also active in charting the oceans. When the Russian ships Rurick (1815-18) and Predpriatie (1823-26) sailed round the world from their Baltic home port to Russia's Pacific settlements, their captains sounded the deep water along their routes. French ships visited the Pacific and nosed down toward the Antarctic comment. Jules Dumont d'Urville explored and collected botanical specimens on his two expeditions in Astrolabe (1826-29 and 1837-42) but did not neglect the water beneath his keel.

Abel Dupetit-Thouars was despatched in Venus (1836—39) on a political mission to help and protect French whalers in the Pacific but, as his route led through regions seldom visited by naval ships, he was also ordered to spend some rime on hydrographic work.
 
 

The first map of an ocean basin was compiled by Matthew Fontaine Maury and appeared in his book The Physical Geography of the Sea, published in 1855. Based on soundings made with Brooke's detaching-weight sounder, it contains a number of errors but is less misleading than reports of previous soundings.
 
 
American endeavors
 
Lt Matthew Fontaine Maury, head of the US Depot of Charts and Instruments (later the US Naval Observatory) from 1842 to 1861, enlisted the help of his ships' captains to compile his charts ot surface currents and winds, and asked them to make deep soundings. Maury was suspicious of many of the great depths reported and hoped that the detaching-weight sounder invented by his assistant, John Brooke, would give more reliable results. However, his claim that there was "between Cape Race in Newfoundland and Cape Clear in Ireland, a remarkable steppe which is already known as the telegraphic plateau'' was to be proved wrong. Some of his soundings were simply erroneous, none had registered the deeper basins, and others had landed on the rocky midocean ridge. Maury's Physical Geography was influential, but sonae of his statements owed more to his religious beliefs than to reality.

The American Civil War (1861—65) delayed progress in deep-sea exploration, but US surveyors soon caught up and by the third quarter of the 19th century they had taken a leading position.
Some ancient concepts of the sea ciied hard. Professor Charles Wyville Thomson, later to become one of the world's most famous marine biologists, recounted, "There was a curious popular notion ... that, in going down, the seawater became gradually under the pressure heavier and heavier, and that all the loose things in the sea floated at different levels, according to their specific weight: skeletons of men, anchors and shot and cannon, and last of all broad gold pieces wrecked in the loss of many a galleon on the Spanish Main ... beneath which there lay all the depth of clear still water, which was heavier than molten gold."
 
 
 

The Gulf Stream

 

Captains of sailing ships had known for some time about the existence of a great current that flows from the Gulf of Florida to Europe when, in 1765, it was first marked on a chart by William Gerard de Brahm. Ten years later, Benjamin Franklin noted the marked change in water color and weed content when his ship entered the warm current, and he persuaded his seafaring cousin Timothy Folger to mark the course, dimensions, and velocity of the Gulf Stream on a chart.
Survey ships were borne along by the very current whose depth they sought to measure until 1876, when the American lieutenant John Pillsbury devised a method of anchoring in deep water; he then lowered a heavy current meter into each level of the Stream far below his keel. Modern survey ships drop neutrally buoyant floats, with transmitters attached, into each level of the Gulf Stream. These floats rise and fall with changing temperature and salinity, and travel with the current, transmitting their position.
Heat-sensing radiometers on satellites create images of the warm water of the Gulf Stream as it flows north (as in the picture above). Along its western flank the stream flows at 60 miles (100 kilometers) or more per day. Meanders develop on the ocean side, breaking off in eddies that spin out into the open water. They create boundaries between water masses of differing qualities, which are similar to the atmospheric fronts of our daily weather systems.

 
 
 
1842
 
 
Ger. physicist Julius Robert von Mayer publishes his paper "On the Forces of the Inanimate Nature" (beginnings of thermodynamics)
 
 
Mayer Julius Robert
 

Julius Robert von Mayer (November 25, 1814 – March 20, 1878) was a German physician and physicist and one of the founders of thermodynamics.

 

Julius Robert von Mayer
  He is best known for enunciating in 1841 one of the original statements of the conservation of energy or what is now known as one of the first versions of the first law of thermodynamics, namely that "energy can be neither created nor destroyed".
In 1842, Mayer described the vital chemical process now referred to as oxidation as the primary source of energy for any living creature. His achievements were overlooked and priority for the discovery of the mechanical equivalent of heat was attributed to James Joule in the following year. He also proposed that plants convert light into chemical energy.

Early life

Von Mayer was born on November 25, 1814 in Heilbronn, Württemberg (Baden-Württemberg, modern day Germany), the son of a pharmacist. He grew up in Heilbronn. After completing his Abitur, he studied medicine at the University of Tübingen, where he was a member of the Corps Guestphalia, a German Student Corps. During 1838 he attained his doctorate as well as passing the Staatsexamen. After a stay in Paris (1839/40) he left as a ship's physician on a Dutch three-mast sailing ship for a journey to Jakarta.

Although he had hardly been interested before this journey in physical phenomena, his observation that storm-whipped waves are warmer than the calm sea started him thinking about the physical laws, in particular about the physical phenomenon of warmth and the question whether the directly developed heat alone (the heat of burning), or the sum of the quantities of heat developed in direct and indirect ways are to be accounted for in the burning process. After his return in February 1841 Mayer dedicated his efforts to solve this problem.

In 1841 he settled in Heilbronn and married.

 
 
Development of ideas
Even as a young child, Mayer showed an intense interest with various mechanical mechanisms. He was a young man who performed various experiments of the physical and chemical variety. In fact, one of his favorite hobbies was creating various types of electrical devices and air pumps. It was obvious that he was intelligent. Hence, Mayer attended Eberhard-Karls University in May 1832. He studied medicine during his time there.
 
 
In 1837, he and some of his friends were arrested for wearing the couleurs of a forbidden organization. The consequences for this arrest included a one year expulsion from the college and a brief period of incarceration. This diversion sent Mayer traveling to Switzerland, France, and the Dutch East Indies. Mayer drew some additional interest in mathematics and engineering from his friend Carl Baur through private tutoring. In 1841, Mayer returned to Heilbronn to practice medicine, but physics became his new passion.

In June 1841, he completed his first scientific paper entitled "On the Quantitative and Qualitative Determination of Forces". It was largely ignored by other professionals in the area. Then, Mayer became interested in the area of heat and its motion. He presented a value in numerical terms for the mechanical equivalent of heat. He also was the first person to describe the vital chemical process now referred to as oxidation as the primary source of energy for any living creature.

In 1848 he calculated that in the absence of a source of energy the Sun would cool down in only 5000 years, and he suggested that the impact of meteorites kept it hot.

Since he was not taken seriously at the time, his achievements were overlooked and credit was given to James Joule. Mayer almost committed suicide after he discovered this fact. He spent some time in mental institutions to recover from this and the loss of some of his children. Several of his papers were published due to the advanced nature of the physics and chemistry. He was awarded an honorary doctorate in 1859 by the philosophical faculty at the University of Tübingen. His overlooked work was revived in 1862 by fellow physicist John Tyndall in a lecture at the London Royal Institution. In July 1867, Mayer published "Die Mechanik der Wärme." This publication dealt with the mechanics of heat and its motion. On November 5, 1867, Mayer was awarded personal nobility by the Kingdom of Württemberg (von Mayer) which is the German equivalent of a British knighthood. Julius Robert von Mayer died from tuberculosis on March 20, 1878 in Germany.

  Mayer's place in the history of physics
After Sadi Carnot stating it for caloric, Mayer was the first person to state the law of the conservation of energy, one of the most fundamental tenets of modern day physics. The law of the conservation of energy states that the total mechanical energy of a system remains constant in any isolated system of objects that interact with each other only by way of forces that are conservative.

Mayer's first attempt at stating the conservation of energy was a paper he sent to Johann Christian Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik, in which he postulated a conservation of force (Erhaltungssatz der Kraft). However, owing to Mayer's lack of advanced training in physics, it contained some fundamental mistakes and was not published. Mayer continued to pursue the idea steadfastly and argued with the Tübingen physics professor Johann Gottlieb Nörremberg, who rejected his hypothesis. Nörremberg did, however, give Mayer a number of valuable suggestions on how the idea could be examined experimentally; for example, if kinetic energy transforms into heat energy, water should be warmed by vibration.

Mayer not only performed this demonstration, but determined also the quantitative factor of the transformation, calculating the mechanical equivalent of heat. The result of his investigations was published 1842 in the May edition of Justus von Liebig's Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie. It was translated as Remarks on the Forces of Inorganic Nature In his booklet Die organische Bewegung im Zusammenhang mit dem Stoffwechsel (The Organic Movement in Connection with the Metabolism, 1845) he specified the numerical value of the mechanical equivalent of heat: at first as 365 kgf·m/kcal, later as 425 kgf·m/kcal; the modern values are 4.184 kJ/kcal (426.6 kgf·m/kcal) for the thermochemical calorie and 4.1868 kJ/kcal (426.9 kgf·m/kcal) for the international steam table calorie.

This relation implies that, although work and heat are different forms of energy, they can be transformed into one another. This law is called the first law of the caloric theory and led to the formulation of the general principle of conservation of energy, definitively stated by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1847.

 
 
Later life
For dispute over priority with Joule, see main article Mechanical equivalent of heat: Priority.
Mayer was aware of the importance of his discovery, but his inability to express himself scientifically led to degrading[clarification needed] speculation and resistance from the scientific establishment. Contemporary physicists rejected his principle of conservation of energy, and even acclaimed physicists Hermann von Helmholtz and James Prescott Joule viewed his ideas with hostility. The former doubted Mayer's qualifications in physical questions, and a bitter dispute over priority developed with the latter.

In 1848 two of his children died rapidly in succession, and Mayer's mental health deteriorated. He attempted suicide on May 18, 1850 and was committed to a mental institution. After he was released, he was a broken man and only timidly re-entered public life in 1860. However, in the meantime, his scientific fame had grown and he received a late appreciation of his achievement, although perhaps at a stage where he was no longer able to enjoy it.

He continued to work vigorously as a physician until his death.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1842
 
 
Pelletier Pierre Joseph
 

Pierre-Joseph Pelletier (22 March 1788 – 19 July 1842) was a French chemist who did notable research on vegetable alkaloids, and was the co-discoverer of quinine and strychnine. He was colaborater and co-author with Polish chemist Filip Walter.

 

Pierre-Joseph Pelletier
  Pierre-Joseph Pelletier, (born March 22, 1788, Paris, Fr.—died July 19, 1842, Paris), French chemist who helped found the chemistry of alkaloids.

Pelletier was professor at and, from 1832, director of the School of Pharmacy, Paris. In 1817, in collaboration with the chemist Joseph-Bienaimé Caventou, he isolated chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants that is essential to the process of photosynthesis. His interests soon turned to a new class of vegetable bases now called alkaloids, and he isolated emetine.

With Caventou he continued his search for alkaloids, and in 1820 they discovered brucine, cinchonine, colchicine, quinine, strychnine, and veratrine. Some of these compounds soon found medicinal uses. Such applications marked the beginning of the gradual shift away from the use of crude plant extracts and toward the use of natural and synthetic compounds found in nature or formulated by the chemist.

In 1823 Pelletier published analyses of several alkaloids, thus providing a basis for alkaloid chemistry.

He also did important studies of other compounds, including caffeine, piperine, and picrotoxin.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1842
 
 
Marshall Alfred
 

Alfred Marshall, (born July 26, 1842, London, England—died July 13, 1924, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire), one of the chief founders of the school of English neoclassical economists and the first principal of University College, Bristol (1877–81).

 

Alfred Marshall
  Marshall was educated at Merchant Taylors’ School and at St. John’s College, Cambridge. He was a fellow and lecturer in political economy at Balliol College, Oxford, from 1883 to 1885 and a professor of political economy at the University of Cambridge from 1885 to 1908 and thereafter devoted himself to his writing. From 1891 to 1894 he was a member of the Royal Commission on Labour. Marshall’s Principles of Economics (1890) was his most important contribution to economic literature. It was distinguished by the introduction of a number of new concepts, such as elasticity of demand, consumer’s surplus, quasirent, and the representative firm—all of which played a major role in the subsequent development of economics. In this work Marshall emphasized that the price and output of a good are determined by supply and demand, which act like “blades of the scissors” in determining price. This concept has endured: modern economists trying to understand changes in the price of a particular good start by looking for factors that may have shifted the demand or supply curves. Marshall’s Industry and Trade (1919) studied industrial organization; Money, Credit and Commerce (1923) was written at a time when the economic world was deeply divided on the theory of value. Marshall succeeded, largely by introducing the element of time as a factor in analysis, in reconciling the classical cost-of-production principle with the marginal-utility principle formulated by William Jevons and the Austrian school of economics. Marshall is often considered to have been in the line of notable English economists that includes Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and John Stuart Mill.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1842
 
 
Strutt John William
 
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, in full John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh of Terling Place (born November 12, 1842, Langford Grove, Maldon, Essex, England—died June 30, 1919, Terling Place, Witham, Essex), English physical scientist who made fundamental discoveries in the fields of acoustics and optics that are basic to the theory of wave propagation in fluids. He received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904 for his successful isolation of argon, an inert atmospheric gas.
 

John William Strutt
  Strutt suffered from poor health throughout his childhood and youth, and it was necessary for him to be withdrawn from both Eton and Harrow. In 1857 he began four years of private study under a tutor. In 1861 Strutt entered Trinity College, Cambridge, from which he was graduated with a B.A. in 1865.

He early developed an absorbing interest in both the experimental and mathematical sides of physical science, and in 1868 he purchased an outfit of scientific apparatus for independent research. In his first paper, published in 1869, he gave a lucid exposition of some aspects of the electromagnetic theory of James Clerk Maxwell, the Scottish physicist, in terms of analogies that the average man would understand.

An attack of rheumatic fever shortly after his marriage in 1871 threatened his life for a time. A recuperative trip to Egypt was suggested, and Strutt took his bride, Evelyn Balfour, the sister of Arthur James Balfour, on a houseboat journey up the Nile for an extended winter holiday. On this excursion he began work on his great book, The Theory of Sound, in which he examined questions of vibrations and the resonance of elastic solids and gases.
The first volume appeared in 1877, followed by a second in 1878, concentrating on acoustical propagation in material media. After some revision during his lifetime and successive reprintings after his death, the work has remained the foremost monument of acoustical literature.

 
 
Shortly after returning to England he succeeded to the title of Baron Rayleigh in 1873, on the death of his father.
Rayleigh then took up residence at Terling Place, where he built a laboratory adjacent to the manor house. His early papers deal with such subjects as electromagnetism, colour, acoustics, and diffraction gratings. Perhaps his most significant early work was his theory explaining the blue colour of the sky as the result of scattering of sunlight by small particles in the atmosphere. The Rayleigh scattering law, which evolved from this theory, has since become classic in the study of all kinds of wave propagation.

Rayleigh’s one excursion into academic life came in the period 1879–84, when he agreed to serve as the second Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics at Cambridge, in succession to James Clerk Maxwell. There Rayleigh carried out a vigorous research program on the precision determination of electrical standards. A classical series of papers, published by the Royal Society, resulted from this ambitious work. After a tenure of five years he returned to his laboratory at Terling Place, where he carried out practically all his scientific investigations.

A few months after resigning from Cambridge, Rayleigh became secretary of the Royal Society, an administrative post that, during the next 11 years, allowed considerable freedom for research.

 
 

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh
  Rayleigh’s greatest single contribution to science is generally considered to have been his discovery and isolation of argon, one of the rare gases of the atmosphere. Precision measurements of the density of gases conducted by him in the 1880s led to the interesting discovery that the density of nitrogen obtained from the atmosphere is greater by a small though definite amount than is the density of nitrogen obtained from one of its chemical compounds, such as ammonia. Excited by this anomaly and stimulated by some earlier observations of the ingenious but eccentric 18th-century scientist Henry Cavendish on the oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen, Rayleigh decided to explore the possibility that the discrepancy he had discovered resulted from the presence in the atmosphere of a hitherto undetected constituent.

After a long and arduous experimental program, he finally succeeded in 1895 in isolating the gas, which was appropriately named argon, from the Greek word meaning “inactive.” Rayleigh shared the priority of the discovery with the chemist William Ramsay, who also isolated the new gas, though he began his work after Rayleigh’s publication of the original density discrepancy. Shortly before winning the Nobel Prize, Rayleigh wrote the entry on argon for the 10th edition (1902) of the Encyclopædia Britannica. In 1904 Rayleigh was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics; Ramsay received the award in chemistry for his work on argon and other inert elements. The next year Rayleigh was elected president of the Royal Society.
 
 
In his later years, when he was the foremost leader in British physics, Rayleigh served in influential advisory capacities in education and government. In 1908 he accepted the post of chancellor of the University of Cambridge, retaining this position until his death. He was also associated with the National Physical Laboratory and government committees on aviation and the treasury. Retaining his mental powers until the end, he worked on scientific papers until five days before his death, on June 30, 1919.

R. Bruce Lindsay

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1842
 
 
Retzius Gustaf
 

Magnus Gustaf (or Gustav) Retzius (17 October 1842 – 21 July 1919) was a Swedish physician and anatomist who dedicated a large part of his life to researching the histology of the sense organs and nervous system.

 

Magnus Gustaf Retzius
  Biography
Retzius was born in Stockholm, son of the anatomist Anders Retzius (and grandson of the naturalist and chemist Anders Jahan Retzius). He enrolled at Uppsala University in 1860, and received his medicine kandidat degree there in 1866, transferred to the Karolinska Institute (KI), where he became medicine licentiat in 1869 and completed his doctorate in medicine (Ph.D.) in 1871 at Lund University.

He received an extraordinary professorship in histology at KI in 1877 and an ordinary professorship in anatomy there in 1889 (acting from 1888), but resigned in 1890 after conflicts with other members of the institute; his wealthy marriage actually allowed him to pursue his research and writing without employment.

Gustaf Retzius published more than 300 scientific works in anatomy, embryology, eugenics, craniometry, zoology and botany. He gave his name to the 60 micrometer-long Retzius cells in the central nervous system of the leech (Hirudo medicinalis). However, there is also a darker side of his scientific career: Gustaf Retzius is one of the fathers of the pseudoscientific race theory, "scientific racism", and one of those who tried to glorify the "Nordic race" as the highest race of mankind. He was also a journalist and the editor of the newspaper Aftonbladet (1884–87). Retzius was married to the feminist Anna Hierta, daughter of Aftonbladet's founder Lars Johan Hierta.

 
 
Gustaf Retzius was politically and socially active. Together with his wife he founded the Hierta-Retzius foundation, which is now administered by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which Retzius was a member of from 1879. The foundation has two funds, one for the promotion of biological research and the other for supporting projects of an important scientific or social nature. In 1901 Gustaf Retzius became a member of the Swedish Academy.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1842
 
 
Fremont John Charles
 

John C. Frémont, in full John Charles Frémont (born January 21, 1813, Savannah, Georgia, U.S.—died July 13, 1890, New York, New York), American military officer and an early explorer and mapmaker of the American West, who was one of the principal figures in opening up that region to settlement and was instrumental in the U.S. conquest and development of California. He was also a politician who ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. presidency in 1856 as the first candidate of the newly formed Republican Party.

 

John C. Frémont, 1852 portrait,
by William S. Jewett
  When Frémont was six years old, his father, a French émigré, died, and the family moved from Georgia to Charleston, South Carolina. There Frémont entered the College of Charleston in 1829, where he displayed an especially marked aptitude for mathematics. He was expelled before graduation for irregular attendance but was granted a B.A. degree in 1836. In 1833, through the efforts of the prominent South Carolina politician Joel R. Poinsett, Frémont secured a position as a teacher of mathematics aboard the U.S. warship Natchez, which cruised along the South American coast for two and a half years. After returning, he served as assistant engineer on a railroad survey between Charleston and Cincinnati, Ohio.

In 1838 Poinsett—by then the U.S. secretary of war—commissioned Frémont as a second lieutenant of topographical engineers for the U.S. Army and assigned him to assist the French scientist Joseph Nicolas Nicollet on a three-year mission of surveying and mapping the upper Mississippi and Missouri rivers. Frémont also headed an expedition (1841) to survey the Des Moines River for Nicollet, the Frenchman having given him expert instruction in geology, topography, and astronomy. His growing taste for wilderness exploration was whetted by the expansionist enthusiasm of Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton, who became his adviser, sponsor, and, in 1841, father-in-law. Benton’s influence in government enabled Frémont to accomplish within the next few years the mapping of much of the territory between the Mississippi valley and the Pacific Ocean.

 
 
In 1842, as emigration to the Oregon country in the Pacific Northwest was growing dramatically in importance for the nation, the War Department sent Frémont on an expedition to survey the route west from the Mississippi River to the Wyoming region. While in the Wind River Range there, he scaled the mountain that now bears his name (Fremont Peak). In 1843, accompanied by the colourful guide Kit Carson and mountain man Thomas Fitzpatrick, he completed an even more important survey to the mouth of the Columbia River. After thoroughly exploring much of the Pacific Northwest, he went southward into Mexican-controlled territory. He first went through what is now northwestern Nevada and then made a perilous westward winter crossing of the Sierra Nevada to California, reaching Fort Sutter on the Sacramento River in March 1844. That exploit, which was included in the report he made of the trip after returning east, added greatly to his fame.
 
 

John C. Frémont by George Healy
  War between the United States and Mexico over the annexation of Texas seemed imminent, and in the spring of 1845 Frémont headed a third expedition west, ostensively to explore the Great Basin and Pacific coast but also with secret instructions for action in case of war. Upon his arrival in southern California at the end of the year, he and his armed party defied Mexican authorities before backing down and heading north into southern Oregon.
He and his group soon returned south (early May 1846) after he received a dispatch (the contents of which are still unknown) from a confidential messenger from Washington, D.C. Back in California, Frémont threw his support behind a small group of dissident American settlers near Sonoma who had started an unofficial uprising and had established the short-lived Bear Flag Republic. News of the U.S. declaration of war with Mexico soon reached California, and Frémont was appointed by Commodore Robert F. Stockton as major of a battalion there that consisted mostly of American volunteers. Frémont and Stockton completed the conquest of the future 31st state.

Meanwhile, General Stephen Watts Kearny entered California from the southeast with orders to establish a government. This led to a conflict of authority in which Frémont involved himself after accepting California’s capitulation from Mexican officials at Cahuenga Pass, near Los Angeles.

 
 
Stockton had appointed Frémont military governor of California, but Kearny would not recognize the appointment. Frémont nonetheless served as governor for two months, at which time Kearny had him arrested after having received confirmation of his own authority. Frémont was returned to Washington, D.C., and, in 1847–48, court-martialed for mutiny, disobedience, and conduct prejudicial to military discipline. He was sentenced to dismissal from the army. Although his penalty was set aside by President James K. Polk, Frémont, bitter about the ordeal, resigned from the army. Through it all he retained the high regard of the general public.
 
 

1856 Presidential campaign poster representing Frémont as the Pathfinder planting a U.S.
Flag on top of the Rocky Mountains.
 
 
Frémont returned west to California to an estate he had purchased in the Sierra Nevada foothills near Mariposa, only to find himself in the midst of the California Gold Rush. After rich ore veins were found on his land, he became a multimillionaire. In 1850, following California’s admittance to the union, he was elected one of the state’s first two senators. A firm opponent of slavery, he lost a reelection bid in 1851 to a pro-slavery candidate.

However, his popularity in helping to secure California for the country and the publicity generated by yet another expedition—to Utah Territory in 1853–54—led to him being nominated for the presidency in 1856 by the new Republican Party.
 
 

Portrait of Frémont, ca. 1857, by Charles Loring Elliott (Brooklyn Museum)
  In the election he was defeated by the Democratic candidate, James Buchanan, but came closer to uniting the electorate of the North and West against the South than had any previous candidate.

Frémont was appointed a major general of Union troops in Missouri after the American Civil War began, but he proved to be an ineffective leader. Further, in August 1861 he ordered the confiscation of the property of Missourians in rebellion as well as the emancipation of the state’s slaves. President Abraham Lincoln, believing those actions to be premature and fearing that they would alienate border states, relieved Frémont of his command shortly thereafter. The next year Frémont was given leadership of another army—this time in the Appalachian region—but he proved ineffective against the rapid maneuvers of his opponent, the Confederate general Thomas (“Stonewall”) Jackson. After losing command of his army to a rival, John Pope, Frémont again angrily resigned from the military. He was still popular enough to be considered for the presidential nomination again in 1864 by the radical wing of the Republican Party. He withdrew his candidacy, however, to avoid dividing the party, since that probably would have resulted in the defeat of Lincoln. Thereafter he retired from public life to devote himself to railroad projects in the West. In 1878, after losing his fortune, he was appointed governor of the Arizona Territory, where he served until 1883.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
see also: Surveying the West
 
 
 
 
 
1842
 
 
Darling Grace
 
Grace Darling (24 November 1815 – 20 October 1842) was an English lighthouse keeper's daughter, famed for participating in the rescue of survivors from the shipwrecked Forfarshire in 1838. The paddlesteamer ran aground on the Farne Islands off the coast of Northumberland in northeast England; nine members of her crew were saved.
 

Portrait by Thomas Musgrave Joy
  Biography
Grace Horsley Darling was born on 24 November 1815 at her grandfather's cottage in Bamburgh in Northumberland. She was the seventh of nine children (four brothers and four sisters) born to William and Thomasin Darling, and when only a few weeks old she was taken to live on Brownsman Island, one of the Farne Islands, in a small cottage attached to the lighthouse.

Her father ran the lighthouse (built in 1795) for Trinity House and earned a salary of £70 per annum with a bonus of £10 for satisfactory service. The accommodation was basic and the lighthouse was not in the best position to guide shipping to safety, so in 1826 the family moved to the newly constructed lighthouse on Longstone Island.

Longstone Lighthouse had better accommodation, but the island itself was slightly less hospitable, so William would row back to Brownsman to gather vegetables from their former garden and to feed the animals.

The family spent most of their time on the ground floor of the lighthouse which consisted of a large room, heated by a wood stove. The room was their living room, dining room and kitchen in one and had a spiral staircase leading to three bedrooms above and of course the light at the top of the tower.

 
 
In the early hours of 7 September 1838, Darling, looking from an upstairs window of the Longstone Lighthouse on the Farne Islands, spotted the wreck and survivors of the Forfarshire on Big Harcar, a nearby low rocky island. The Forfarshire had foundered on the rocks and broken in half: one of the halves had sunk during the night.

She and her father William determined that the weather was too rough for the lifeboat to put out from Seahouses (then North Sunderland), so they took a rowing boat (a 21 ft, 4-man Northumberland coble) across to the survivors, taking a long route that kept to the lee side of the islands, a distance of nearly a mile. Darling kept the coble steady in the water while her father helped four men and the lone surviving woman, Mrs. Dawson, into the boat. Although she survived the sinking, Mrs Dawson had lost her two young children during the night. William and three of the rescued men then rowed the boat back to the lighthouse. Darling then remained at the lighthouse while William and three of the rescued crew members rowed back and recovered four more survivors.
 
 

Lighthouse at Longstone. The upper window in the white ring is Grace Darling's bedroom, from which she watched the sinking of the Forfarshire.
 
 
Meanwhile the lifeboat had set out from Seahouses but arrived at Big Harcar rock after Darling and her father had completed their rescue operation: all they found were the dead bodies of Mrs Dawson's children and of a vicar. It was too dangerous to return to North Sunderland so they rowed to the lighthouse to take shelter. Darling's brother, William Brooks Darling, was one of the seven fishermen in the lifeboat. The weather deteriorated to the extent that everyone was obliged to remain at the lighthouse for three days before returning to shore.
 
 

Frontispiece image of Grace from Grace Darling – Heroine of the Farne Islands by Eva Hope
  The Forfarshire had been carrying 62 people. The vessel broke in two almost immediately upon hitting the rocks. Those rescued by Darling and her father were from the bow section of the vessel which had been held by the rocks for some time before sinking. All that remained at daybreak was the portside paddlebox casing.

Nine other passengers and crew had managed to float off a lifeboat from the stern section before it too sank, and were picked up in the night by a passing Montrose sloop and brought into South Shields that same night.

As news of her role in the rescue reached the public, her combination of bravery and simple virtue set her out as exemplary, and led to an uneasy role as the nation's heroine. Subscriptions and donations totaling over £700 were raised for her, including £50 from Queen Victoria; more than a dozen portrait painters sailed to her island home to capture her likeness, and hundreds of gifts, letters, and even marriage proposals were delivered to her.

Her unexpected wealth and fame were such that the Duke of Northumberland took on a role as her self-appointed guardian and founder of a trust, established to look after the donations offered to her. His personal gifts to her and her family included a timepiece, and a silver teapot.

In 1842, Grace fell ill while visiting the mainland, and was in convalescence with her cousins, the MacFarlanes, in their house in Narrowgate, Alnwick. The Duchess of Northumberland heard of her situation, and arranged for her to be moved to better accommodation close to Alnwick Castle, and tended to the ailing heroine in person as well as providing Grace with the services of the ducal family physician.

 
 
Grace's condition declined, however, and in the final stages of her illness she was conveyed to the place of her birth, in Bamburgh. Grace Darling died of tuberculosis in October 1842, aged 26.
 
 
Legacy
Darling is buried with her father and mother in a modest grave in St. Aidan’s churchyard, Bamburgh, where a nearby elaborate cenotaph commemorates her life. A plain stone monument to her was erected in St. Cuthbert’s Chapel on Great Farne Island in 1848.

Darling’s achievement was celebrated in her lifetime: she received a large financial reward in addition to the plaudits of the nation. A number of fictionalised depictions propagated the Grace Darling legend, such as Grace Darling, or the Maid of the Isles by Jerrold Vernon (1839), which gave birth to the legend of “the girl with windswept hair”. Her deed was committed to verse by William Wordsworth in his poem Grace Darling (1843). A lifeboat with her name was presented to Holy Island. One of a series of Victorian paintings by William Bell Scott at Wallington Hall in Northumberland depicts her rescue. The McManus Galleries in Dundee includes three paintings by Thomas Musgrave Joy which celebrate Grace Darling's deeds with the Forfarshire.

At Bamburgh, there is a museum dedicated to her achievements and the seafaring life of the region. It re-opened in December 2007 following renovation. The Royal National Lifeboat Institution Mersey class lifeboat at Seahouses bears the name Grace Darling.

Singer/songwriter Dave Cousins of Strawbs wrote "Grace Darling" (on Ghosts) in tribute and as a love song. North East musical playwright Dennis A Westgate wrote a musical based on the life of Grace Darling, exploring her life from childhood through to her death in 1842.

 
Grave of Grace Darling and her family, St Aidan's churchyard, Bamburgh
 
 
The premiere was performed by a community theatre company based in York, The York Stars, July 2010 to help promote Grace Darling and the work of the RNLI.

The children's singing group The Limeliters sang a different "Grace Darling" (featuring the refrain "Help, help, came a desperate yelp!") in their 1962 album, recorded live in concert, Through Children's Eyes.

It was suggested by Richard Armstrong in his 1965 biography Grace Darling: Maid and Myth that she may have suffered from a cleft lip. He is the only biographer to put forward this theory, which has been strongly disputed by other experts.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1842
 
 
Charity Davis, longest- lived American woman, b. (d. 1961, aged 119 years 160 days)
 
 
 
1842
 
 
The polka, a lively dance of Czech origin, comes into fashion
 
 
Polka
 

The Polka (literally meaning "Polish lady") is a Central European dance and also a genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia. Polka is still a popular genre of folk music in many European countries and is performed by folk artists in Poland (Clarinet Polka), Latvia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Hungary, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and Slovakia. Local varieties of this dance are also found in the Nordic countries, United Kingdom, France, Ireland, Latin America, the French Antilles and in the United States.

 
History
Etymology

Although the dance did not originate in Poland, its name is derived from the Czech polka meaning "Polish lady" (feminine form corresponding to polák, a Pole). The theory that it comes from the Czech word půlka ("half"), referring to the short half-steps featuring in the dance, is now "discredited". Czech cultural historian and ethnographer Čeněk Zíbrt, who wrote in detail about the origin of the dance, in his book, Jak se kdy v Čechách tancovalo cites an opinion of František Doucha (1840, Květy, p. 400) that "polka" was supposed to mean "tanec na polo" (n.b. the absence of diacritics), i.e. "a dance in half", both referring to the half-tempo 2/4 and the half-jump step of the dance. Zíbrt also ironically dismisses the etymology suggested by A. Fähnrich (in Ein etymologisches Taschenbuch, Jiein, 1846) that polka comes from the Bohemian word pole (farmland). On the other hand, Zdeněk Nejedlý suggests that the etymology given by Fr. Doucha is nothing but an effort to prove the "true Czech folk" origin of Polka. Instead, he claims that according to Jaroslav Langr ("České krakováčky" in: Čas. Čes. musea, 1835, Sebr. spisy I, 256) in the area of Hradec Králové, the tune Krakoviáky from the collection Slovanské národní písně of František Ladislav Čelakovský became very popular so that it was used to dance (Czech dances) třasák, břitva, kvapík, and this way was called "Polka". Nejedly also writes that Václav Vladivoj Tomek also claims the Hradec Králove roots of a Polka.

The word was widely introduced into the major European languages in the early 1840s. It should not be confused with the polska, a Swedish About this sound 3/4-beat (help·info) dance with Polish roots (cf. polka-mazurka). A related dance is the redowa. Polkas almost always have a About this sound 2/4 (help·info) time signature. Folk music of Polka style appeared in written music about 1800.

 
Polka
 
 
Origin and popularity
The beginning of the propagation of dance and accompanying music called polka is generally attributed to a young woman, Anna Slezakova (born Anna Chadimova) of Týnec nad Labem, Bohemia, who danced to accompany a local folk song called "Strýček Nimra koupil šimla", or "Uncle Nimra Bought a White Horse", in 1834. She is said to have called the dance Madera, because of its liveliness. The dance was further propagated by the music teacher Josef Neruda, who witnessed Anna dance in an unusual way, put the tune to paper, and taught other young men to dance it. Čeněk Zíbrt mentions that when he published this traditional story in 1894 in Narodni Listy newspaper, he received a good deal of feedback from eyewitnesses. In particular, he wrote that according to further witness, the originating event actually happened in 1830, in Kostelec nad Labem, where she worked as a housemaid. Zibrt writes that he published the first version of the story in Bohemia (June 5, 1844), from where it was reprinted all over Europe and in the United States. Zibrt also wrote that simple Czech folk claimed that they knew and danced Polka long before the nobles got hold of it, i.e., it is a truly folk Czech dance.



Polka

By 1835, this dance had spread to the ballrooms of Prague. From there, it spread to Vienna by 1839,[6] and in 1840 was introduced in Paris by Raab, a Prague dance instructor.

It was so well received by both dancers and dance masters in Paris that its popularity was referred to as "polkamania." The dance soon spread to London and was introduced to America in 1844. It remained a popular ballroom dance until the late 19th century, when it would give way to the two-step and new ragtime dances.

Polka dancing enjoyed a resurgence in popularity after World War II, when many Polish refugees moved to the US, adopting this Bohemian style as a cultural dance. Polka dances are still held on a weekly basis across many parts of the US with significant populations of central European origin. It was also found in parts of South America.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
Bedrich Smetana: Louisa's Polka
 
Music: Louisa's Polka -- Bedrich Smetana
Performed by Brno State Philharmonic Orchestra
Conductor: Frantisek Jilek

Visual excerpts taken from these videos:
Fred Astaire and Eleanor Powell: "Jukebox Dance" -- Film: Broadway Melody (1940)
Fred Astaire, Leslie Caron: "Sluefoot" -- Daddy Long Legs (1955)
Fred Astaire and Eleanor Powell: "Begin the Beguine" -- Film: Broadway Melody (1940)
Fred Astaire and Marjorie Reynolds : "Be Careful, It's My Heart"-- Holiday Inn (1942)
Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers: "Too Hot to Handle" -- Roberta (1935).
Lisa Miles and Tim Balfour - A Variation on Fred and Ginger for the third act of Opera Australia's production of Die Fledermaus at the Sydney Opera House.
Mikhail Baryshnikov and Gregory Hines -- Film: White Nights (1985)
Fred Astaire and Rita Hayworth: "So Near and Yet So Far" -- Film: You Will Never Get Rich (1941)

 
 
 
 
 
1842
 
 
Queen Victoria makes her first railroad journey, Windsor to Paddington, London
 
 
     
 
Queen Victoria

Victorian era
     
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1842 Part III NEXT-1843 Part I