Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1842 Part I NEXT-1842 Part III    
 
 
     
1840 - 1849
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840-1849
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part I
Bebel August
Maximilian of Mexico
Carlota
Convention of London
British North America Act
Francia Jose Gaspar
Macdonald Jacques
William I of the Netherlands
William II of the Netherlands
Retour des cendres
Lambton John George
Vaillant Edouard-Marie
Sampson William
Smith William Sidney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part II
Ridpath John Clark
Sankey Ira David
James Fenimore Cooper: "The Pathfinder"
Blunt Wilfrid Scawen
Broughton Rhoda
Robert Browning: "Sordello"
Daudet Alphonse
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Dobson Austin
Hardy Thomas
Thomas Hardy 
"Tess of the d'Urbervilles"
Lemercier  Nepomucene
Lermontov: "A Hero of Our Times"
Modjeska Helena
Symonds John Addington
Verga Giovanni
Zola Emile
Emile Zola
"
J'accuse" (I accuse)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part III
Delacroix: "Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople"
Makart Hans
Hans Makart
Monet Claude
Claude Monet
Nasmyth Alexander
Alexander Nasmyth
Nast Thomas
Nelson's Column
Rodin Auguste
Auguste Rodin
Redon Odilon
Odilon Redon
Blechen Carl
Karl Blechen
Debain Alexandre-Francois
Donizetti: "La Fille du Regiment"
Haberl Franz Xaver
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich
Tchaikovsky - The Seasons
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky
Schneckenburger Max
Wilhelm Karl
"Die Wacht am Rhein"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part IV
Olbers Wilhelm
Blumenbach Johann Friedrich
Ball Robert
Kohlrausch Friedrich Wilhelm
Agassiz Louis
Basedow Carl Adolph
Graves disease
Maxim Hiram
Eyre Edward John
Brummell Beau
Father Damien
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Washington Temperance Society
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part I
Second Battle of Chuenpee
Barere Bertrand
Fisher John Arbuthnot
British Hong Kong
Luzzatti Luigi
Merriman John
Harrison William Henry
Tyler John
Espartero Baldomero
Hirobumi Ito
Clemenceau Georges
Edward VII
Creole case
Laurier Wilfrid
New Zealand
Lamb William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part II
Cheyne Thomas Kelly
Ludwig Feuerbach: "The Essence of Christianity"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Holst Hermann Eduard
Jebb Richard Claverhouse
Ward Lester Frank
Black William
Robert Browning: "Pippa Passes"
Buchanan Robert
Fenimore Cooper: "The Deerslayer"
Coquelin Benoit
Dickens: "The Old Curiosity Shop"
Ewing Juliana Horatia
Sill Edward Rowland
Frederick Marryat: "Masterman Ready"
Mendes Catulle
Mounet-Sully Jean
"Punch, or The London Charivari"
Sealsfield Charles
Scott Clement William
White Joseph Blanco
Ruskin: "The King of the Golden River"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part III
Chantrey Francis
Morisot Berthe
Berthe Morisot
Renoir Pierre-Auguste
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Wagner Otto
Wallot Paul
Olivier Ferdinand
Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier
Bazille Frederic
Frederic Bazille
Zandomeneghi Federico
Federico Zandomeneghi
Guillaumin Armand
Armand Guillaumin
Chabrier Emmanuel
Chabrier - Espana
Emmanuel Chabrier
Dibdin Thomas John
Dvorak Anton
Antonin Dvorak: Rusalka
Antonin Dvorak
Pedrell Felipe
Felip Pedrell: Els Pirineus
Felipe Pedrell
Rossini: "Stabat Mater"
Sax Antoine-Joseph
Schumann: Symphony No. 1
Sgambati Giovanni
Sgambati - Piano Concerto in G minor
Giovanni Sgambati
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part IV
Cooper Astley
Braid James
Hypnosis
Candolle Austin
Aniline
Kocher Emil Theodor
Kolliker Rudolf Albert
Petzval Joseph
Hudson William Henry
Warming Eugenius
Whitworth Joseph
Barnum's American Museum
Bradshaw George
Cook Thomas
Hyer Tom
"The New York Tribune"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part I
Pozzo di Borgo Charles-Andre
Las Cases Emmanuel
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Treaty of Nanking
General Strike of 1842
O’Higgins Bernardo
Giolitti Giovanni
Fiske John
Hartmann Eduard
Hyndman Henry Mayers
James William
Kropotkin Peter Alekseyevich
Anarchism
Anarchism
Lavisse Ernest
Robertson George Croom
Sorel Albert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part II
Banim John
Sue Eugene
Eugene Sue: "The Mysteries of Paris"
Bierce Ambrose
Brandes Georg
Bulwer-Lytton: "Zanoni"
Graham Maria
Coppee Francois
Cunningham Allan
Espronceda Jose
Gogol: "Dead Souls"
Howard Bronson
Lanier Sidney
Lover Samuel
MacKaye Steele
Maginn William
Mallarme Stephane
May Karl
Рое: "The Masque of the Red Death"
Quental Antero Tarquinio
Woodworth Samuel
Macaulay: "Lays of Ancient Rome"
Tupper Martin Farquhar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part III
Vereshchagin Vasily
Vasily Vereshchagin
Boldini Giovanni
Giovanni Boldini
Boito Arrigo
Arrigo Boito: Mefistofele Finale
Arrigo Boito
Glinka: "Russian and Ludmilla"
Hopkinson Joseph
"Hail, Columbia"
Lortzing: "Der Wildschiitz"
Massenet Jules
Massenet "Elegie"
Jules Massenet
Millocker Karl
Millocker: Gasparone
Karl Millocker
New York Philharmonic
Sullivan Arthur
Arthur Sullivan - The Mikado - Overture
Arthur Sullivan
Wagner: "Rienzi"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part IV
Dewar James
Doppler Christian Andreas
Flammarion Camille
Hansen Emile Christian
Long Crawford Williamson
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Charting the Ocean Depths
Mayer Julius Robert
Pelletier Pierre Joseph
Marshall Alfred
Strutt John William
Retzius Gustaf
Fremont John Charles
Darling Grace
Polka
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part I
McKinley William
Braga Teofilo
Wairau Affray
Dilke Charles
Avenarius Richard
Borrow George
Carlile Richard
Thomas Carlyle: "Past and Present"
Creighton Mandell
Liddell and Scott: "Greek-English Lexicon"
Liddell Henry
Scott Robert
Ward James
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part II
Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last of the Barons"
Elisabeth of Romania
Dickens: "Martin Chuzzlewit"
Doughty Charles Montagu
Dowden Edward
Emmett Daniel Decatur
Hood Thomas
Thomas Hood: "Song of the Shirt"
Horne Richard Hengist
James Henry
Rosegger Peter
Suttner Bertha
Harris George Washington
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part III
Allston Washington
Washington Allston
John Ruskin: "Modern Painters"
Trumbull John
John Trumbull
Werner Anton
Anton von Werner
Clairin Georges
Georges Clairin
Donizetti: "Don Pasquale"
Grieg Edward
Grieg - Solveig Song
Edward Grieg
Nilsson Christine
Patti Adelina
Richter Hans
Schumann: "Paradise and the Peri"
Wagner: "The Flying Dutchman"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part IV
British Archaeological Association
Chamberlin Thomas Chrowder
Ferrier David
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Joule James Prescott
Koch Robert
Erbium
Brunel Marc Isambard
Thames Tunnel
Dix Dorothea Lynde
Guy's, Kings and St. Thomas' Rugby Football Club
Sequoyah
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part I
Lowe Hudson
Drouet Jean-Baptiste
Oscar I of Sweden
Dole Sanford Ballard
Laffitte Jacques
Franco-Moroccan War
Polk James Knox
Herrera Jose Joaquin
Treaty of Wanghia
Breshkovsky Catherine
Comstock Anthony
Emerson: "Essays"
Grundtvig Nikolaj Frederik Severin
Hall Granville Stanley
Nietzsche Friedrich
Friedrich Nietzsche
Rice Edmund Ignatius
Riehl Alois
Stanley Arthur Penrhyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part II
Bernhardt Sarah
Sarah Bernhardt
Dumas, pere: "Le Comte de Monte Cristo"
Bridges Robert
Cable George Washington
Carte Richard
Cary Henry Francis
Disraeli: "Coningsby"
France Anatole
Hopkins Gerard Manley
Lang Andrew
Liliencron Detlev
O'Reilly John Boyle
O’Shaughnessy Arthur
Sterling John
William Thackeray: "Barry Lyndon"
Verlaine Paul
Paul Verlaine
"Poems"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part III
Eakins Thomas
Thomas Eakins
Ezekiel Moses Jacob
Moses Ezekiel
Luke Fildes Luke
Luke Fildes
Leibl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Leibl
Munkacsy Mihaly
Mihaly Munkacsy
Repin Ilya
Ilya Repin
Rousseau Henri
Henri Rousseau
Cassatt Mary
Mary Cassatt
Flotow: "Alessandro Stradella"
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E minor
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay
The Best of Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Sarasate Pablo
Pablo de Sarasate - Zigeunerweisen
Pablo de Sarasate
Verdi: "Ernani"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part IV
Grassmann Hermann Gunther
Baily Francis
Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard
DeLong George Washington
Golgi Camillo
Kielmeyer Carl Friedrich
Kinglake Alexander William
Strasburger Eduard Adolf
Huc Evariste Regis
Gabet Joseph
Sturt Charles Napier
Leichhardt Friedrich
Beckford William
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers
"Fliegende Blatter"
Hagenbeck Carl
Keller Friedrich Gottlob
Pasch Gustaf Erik
Young Men’s Christian Association
Williams George
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part I
Root Elihu
Texas
Florida
Flagstaff War
Ludwig II of Bavaria
First Anglo-Sikh War
Sonderbund
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part II
Friedrich Engels: "The Condition of the Working Class in England"
Stirner Max
Disraeli: "Sybil, or The Two Nations"
Hertz Henrik
Prosper Merimee: "Carmen"
Рое: "The Raven"
Spitteler Carl
Wergeland Henrik
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part III
Bode Wilhelm
Hill David Octavius
Ingres: The Comtesse d'Haussonville
Oberlander Adam Adolf
Crane Walter
Walter Crane
Faure Gabriel
Faure - Pavane
Gabriel Faure
Lortzing: "Undine"
Wagner: "Tannhauser"
Widor Charles-Marie
Widor - Piano Concerto No. 1
Charles Marie Widor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part IV
Armstrong William George
Bigelow Erastus Brigham
Cayley Arthur
Cornell Ezra
Submarine communications cable
Heilmann Joshua
Humboldt: "Cosmos"
Kolbe Hermann
Laveran Alphonse
McNaught William
Metchnikoff Elie
Charting the Northwest
Layard Austen Henry
Cartwright Alexander
United States Naval Academy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part I
Battle of Aliwal
Battle of Sobraon
Treaty of Lahore
Greater Poland Uprising
Krakow Uprising
Mexican-American War
Battle of Monterrey
First Battle of Tabasco
Iowa
Pasic Nikola
Evangelical Alliance
Eucken Rudolf Christoph
Pius IX
Whewell William
Young Brigham
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part II
Balzac: "La Cousine Bette"
De Amicis Edmondo
Dostoevsky: "Poor Folk"
Jokai Maurus
Lear Edward
Melville Herman
Herman Melville: "Typee"
Herman Melville
"Moby Dick or The Whale"
Sienkiewicz Henryk
George Watts: "Paolo and Francesca"
De Nittis Giuseppe
Giuseppe de Nittis
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part III
Berlioz: "Damnation de Faust"
Lortzing: "Der Waffenschmied"
Mendelssohn: "Elijah"
Deere John
Deere & Company
Henle Friedrich
Howe Elias
Waitz Theodor
Mohl Hugo
Green William Thomas
Sobrero Ascanio
Heaphy Charles
Brunner Thomas
Europeans in New Zealand
"The Daily News"
Horsley John Callcott
Smithsonian Institution
Zeiss Carl
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part I
Liberia
Second Battle of Tabasco
Battle of Churubusco
BATTLE OF MEXICO CITY
Hindenburg Paul
Sonderbund War
Beecher Henry Ward
Blanc Louis
Proudhon Pierre-Joseph
roudhon: "Philosophy of Poverty"P
Karl Marx: "The Poverty of Philosophy"
Salt Lake City
Charlotte Bronte: "Jane Eyre"
Bronte Emily
Marryat: "The Children of the New Forest"
Thackeray: "Vanity Fair"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part II
Hildebrand Adolf
Liebermann Max
Max Liebermann
Friedrich von Flotow: "Martha"
Verdi: "Macbeth"
Boole George
Edison Thomas Alva
Bell Alexander Graham
Semmelweis Ignaz Philipp
Colenso William
Factory Act of 1847
Fawcett Millicent
Siemens & Halske
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part I
Frederick VII
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Revolutions of 1848
French Revolution of 1848
June Days Uprising
Cavaignac Louis-Eugene
French Constitution of 1848
French Second Republic
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Slovak Uprising 1848-1849
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part I)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part II
First Italian War of Independence
Skirmish of Pastrengo
Battle of Goito
Battle of Custoza
Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
Revolution of 1848 in Luxembourg
Greater Poland Uprising
Moldavian Revolution of 1848
Pan-Slav Congress of 1848
Pan-Slavism
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part II)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part III
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Nasr-ed-Din
Ibrahim Pasha
Abbas I
Wisconsin
Balfour Arthur James
Seneca Falls Convention
Stanton Elizabeth Cady
Delbruck Hans
Macaulay: "History of England"
"The Communist Manifesto"
John Mill: "Principles of Political Economy"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part IV
Augier Emile
Chateaubriand: "Memoires d'Outre-Tombe"
Dumas fils: "La Dame aux Camelias"
Gaskell Elizabet
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
Murger Louis-Henri
Henri Murger: "Scenes de la vie de Boheme"
Terry Ellen
Surikov Vasily
Vasily Surikov
Uhde Fritz
Fritz von Uhde
Gauguin Paul
Paul Gauguin
Caillebotte Gustave
Gustave Caillebotte
Millais: "Ophelia"
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part V
Parry Hubert Hastings
Jerusalem by Hubert Parry
Hubert Parry
Duparc Henri
Duparc Henri: "L'invitation au voyage"
Henri Duparc
Bottger Rudolf Christian
Parsons William
Frege Gottlob
"New Prussian Newspaper"
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"
Grace William Gilbert
Kneipp Sebastian
Lilienthal Otto
Starr Belle
California Gold Rush
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part I
Battle of Chillianwala
Battle of Gujrat
Roman Republic on February 9, 1849
Battle of Novara
Victor Emmanuel II
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Peace of Milan
Taylor Zachary
Dresden Rebellion of 1849
Surrender at Vilagos
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part II
Kemble John Mitchell
Key Ellen
Arnold Matthew
Dickens: "David Copperfield"
Kingsley Charles
Scribe: "Adrienne Lecouvreur"
Strindberg August
Smith Horace
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part III
Waterhouse John William
John William Waterhouse
John Ruskin: "The Seven Lamps of Architecture"
Carriere Eugene
Eugene Carriere
Liszt: "Tasso"
Meyerbeer: "Le Prophete"
Otto Nicolai: "The Merry Wives of Windsor"
Schumann: "Manfred"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part IV
Fizeau Armand
Frankland Edward
Livingstone David
Explorations of David Livingstone
Baines Thomas
"Who's Who"
Bedford College
Bloomer Amelia
Bloomers (clothing)
Stead William Thomas
 
 
 

John Reinhard Weguelin, Castor and Pollux fighting at the Battle of Lake Regillus
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1842 Part II
 
 
 
1842
 
 
Banim John
 

John Banim (3 April 1798 – 30 August 1842), was an Irish novelist, short story writer, dramatist, poet and essayist, sometimes called the "Scott of Ireland." He also studied art, working as a painter of miniatures and portraits, and as a drawing teacher, before dedicating himself to literature.

 

John Banim
  Early life
John Banim was born in Kilkenny. At the age of four, he was sent to a local school where he was taught the basics of reading and grammar. He was removed from this school at age five and sent to the English Academy at Kilkenny where his older brother Michael (1796–1874) was a student. An account of this school is given in the novel Father Connell. After five years at the English Academy, John was sent to a seminary run by the Rev.

Magrath, considered to be the finest Roman Catholic school in Ireland, where he remained for a year before being sent to another academy run by a well-known teacher named Terence Doyle. Throughout his school years he read avidly and wrote his own stories and poems. As a boy he came up with a birthday tradition where he would gather all of his writings of the previous year, re-read them critically, and then burn the ones he found lacking.

When he was ten, John visited the home of the poet Thomas Moore, bringing along some of his own poetry in manuscript. Moore encouraged John in his writing and gave him a season ticket to his private theatre in Kilkenny, where Moore himself was performing at the time. In his thirteenth year he entered Kilkenny College and devoted himself specially to drawing and miniature painting.

 
 
He pursued his artistic education for two years in the schools of the Royal Dublin Society, and afterwards taught drawing in Kilkenny, where he fell in love with one of his pupils, a girl of seventeen named Anne. His affection was returned, but the parents of the young lady interfered and removed her from Kilkenny. She pined away and died less than two months later of consumption. Her death made a deep impression on Banim, whose health suffered severely and permanently.
 
 
Career
After spending the whole of 1818 recuperating, he spent five months living in idleness and dissipation, a choice that he soon regretted, as he began to get into debt. He then chose to return to his former industrious ways; he painted portraits and contributed to a local paper, the Leinster Gazette, of which he became the editor.

In 1820, he went to Dublin after deciding to commit himself to the work of literature. Upon his arrival in Dublin, he went to meet an old student friend, the artist Thomas J. Mulvaney, who aided and advised him. At this time, the Dublin artists where trying to obtain a Charter of Incorporation and a government grant for the aid of Irish artists. Banim had become a contributor to several important Dublin newspapers in the short time that he had been in the city, and he was able to use his position with the papers to help strengthen the artists's claim in the public press. In 1820, the artists were granted their charter, and they gave an address and a considerable sum of money to Banim for his support. Much of the money he made in his early days in Dublin went to paying off his debts.

He became friends with the writer Charles Phillips, who helped him with his literary pursuits. Banim had thought of going to London, but Phillips convinced him to stay in Dublin. Phillips gave Banim advice in regard to some of his poetry and showed his early poem Ossian's Paradise to several publishers; it was published in 1821 as The Celt's Paradise. While still in manuscript the poem had been shown to Sir Walter Scott, who expressed a favourable opinion of it. After the publication of The Celt's Paradise, he focused on writing a classical tragedy. Banim's play Damon and Pythias was performed at Covent Garden on 28 May 1821, with William Macready as Damon and Charles Kemble as Pythias. It was later performed at the Theatre Royal, Dublin.

 
Tales of the O'Hara Family, Second Series, 1826
 
 
He visited Kilkenny at the end of 1821 where, with the help of his profits from Damon and Pythias, he was able to pay the last of his old debts. During his visit he discussed his future plans for novels and stories with his brother Michael. While in Kilkenny, he lodged in the home of a close friend of his father, a man named John Ruth. He spent his days in the company of his brother and of John Ruth's three daughters. In a matter of weeks he came to love John's youngest daughter, Ellen Ruth. Before asking her to marry him, he returned to Dublin to take care of his affairs. He returned to Kilkenny in February 1822, and, after a courtship of five months, he and Ellen were married.

In 1822, he planned, in conjunction with Michael, a series of tales illustrative of Irish life, which should be for Ireland what the Waverley Novels were for Scotland; and the influence of his model is distinctly traceable in his writings. Another influence were the tales of everyday life by John Galt.

 
 
He then set out for London, where he supported himself and his wife by writing for magazines and for the stage. Their first residence was at No. 7, Amelia Place, Brompton, the former home of John Philpot Curran. At the end of 1822 his wife fell ill, and in November gave birth to a stillborn child. Her illness required John to do more work to meet the costs of her treatment. In 1823 John's own earlier illness returned. He was sick for several months before recovering, his finances, by that time, greatly diminished.

Unable to do much work for the weekly papers because of his illness, he began doing more work for monthly periodicals. This allowed him the time to do more carefully written and serious work. Around this time he was visited by the writer Gerald Griffin, new to London, and in need of guidance. Banim befriended Griffin and did everything he could to assist him, helping to edit his plays and to have them submitted for production. Griffin said the following of Banim in a letter:

"What would I have done if I had not found Banim? I should never be tired of talking about and thinking of Banim. Mark me! he is a man – the only one I have met since I left Ireland, almost."

Banim published a volume of miscellaneous essays anonymously in 1824, called Revelations of the Dead Alive. He met the American author Washington Irving the same year, finding him to be a good hearted and genuine man, while other literary celebrities he had met had disappointed him. The first series of Tales of the O'Hara Family appeared in April 1825, achieving immediate and decided success. One of the most powerful of them, Crohoore of the Bill Hook, was by Michael Banim. The two had worked on the Tales through correspondence during 1823–24, periodically sending each other their completed work to be read and criticised. Banim and Gerald Griffin were still close friends, despite a misunderstanding that had temporarily parted them, and Griffin was often called upon to offer criticism on the Tales.

After the publication of Tales of the O'Hara Family, John began work on a his novel The Boyne Water, a story of Protestant – Catholic relations during the Williamite War. He travelled back to Ireland, spending time in Derry and Belfast, to do research on the novel, which was published in 1826. That same year, a second series of Tales of the O'Hara Family was published, containing the novel, The Nowlans.

  Upon visiting John in London, in the summer of 1826, Michael found that his brother's illness had aged him and made him appear much older than his twenty eight years. The next effort of the "O'Hara family" was almost entirely the production of Michael.

The Croppy, a Tale of 1798 (1828), a novel of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, is hardly equal to the earlier tales, though it contains some wonderfully vigorous passages. The Mayor of Windgap, and The Ghost Hunter (both by Michael Banim), The Denounced (1830) and The Smuggler (1831) followed in quick succession, and were received with considerable favour. Most of these deal with the darker and more painful phases of life, but the feeling shown in his last, Father Connell, is brighter and more tender.

In 1827, John became friends with the young writer John Sterling. He accompanied Sterling on an excursion to Cambridge, which temporarily restored Banim's health. His illness soon returned, along with consequent poverty. He continued to write, and encouraged Michael in his writing of The Croppy. In July 1827 John's second child, a daughter, was born. In 1828 John's novel The Anglo-Irish of the Nineteenth Century was published anonymously, but wasn't well received by critics or the public.

After another misunderstanding with Gerald Griffin, the two resumed their friendship through correspondence in the middle of 1828. Their friendship was of high importance to both writers, and brought them much satisfaction. During this time John and his wife lived in Eastbourne, East Sussex, where they had moved for the sake of John's health, and then Sevenoaks in Kent. In 1829 they moved to Blackheath, London for business purposes.

In the Autumn of 1829, he went to France on the recommendation of his doctors. While in France he wrote The Smuggler, which went unpublished until 1831 due to a dispute with the publisher.

He also submitted a novel called The Dwarf Bride for publication, but the manuscript was lost by the publisher. In June 1830 his mother died. John was unable to return to Kilkenny to see her due to his increasingly frail health. He continued to make something of a living contributing to periodicals and writing plays. In 1831 his first son was born. His son's birth improved John's state of mind after the death of his mother, but it also placed him in deeper financial need. In 1832 he suffered an attack of Colera but survived.

 
 
At the end of 1832, his second son was born. Soon after, in January 1833, a movement to relieve his wants was set on foot by the entreaties of Ellen Banim to John's literary friends, and then by the English press, headed by John Sterling and his father in The Times. Contributions were also collected in Ireland. A sufficient sum was obtained to remove him from any danger of actual want. Among the contributors were Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey and Sir Robert Peel in England and Samuel Lover in Ireland.
 
 
Later life
In 1833, he and his wife moved to Paris, in the hope that John would find a doctor who could help him with his condition.

He was diagnosed as having an inflammation of the lower spine, and subjected to often excruciating treatments, which provided no relief. The death of his youngest son came early in 1834. He stayed in Paris throughout 1834, doing what writing he was capable of and spending time in the society of the distinguished literary men of the city. His oldest son died at the beginning of 1835, of croup.

He returned to Ireland in July 1835, taking up residence in Dublin. On meeting him again in August, Michael Banim found his condition to be that of a complete invalid.

He was often in pain and had to use opiates to sleep, but during the short intervals between the attacks of his illness, he was able to enjoy conversation and the company of his brother and friends.

In September he returned to Kilkenny and was received with an address from the citizens of Kilkenny showing their appreciation of him, and a subscription from them of £85.

After a short stay in his childhood home, he settled in Windgap Cottage, a short distance from Kilkenny. He passed the remainder of his life there, dying on 13 August 1842.

Michael Banim had acquired a considerable fortune which he lost in 1840 through the bankruptcy of a firm with which he had business relations. After this disaster, he wrote Father Connell (1842), Clough Fionn (1852), and The Town of the Cascades (1862). Michael Banim died at Booterstown in 1874.

 
1865 cover of The Bit o' Writin by John and Michael Banim.
 
 
Legacy
His strength lies in the delineation of the characters of the Irish lower classes, and the impulses, often misguided and criminal, by which they are influenced, and in this he showed remarkable power.

An assessment in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1911) reads:

The true place of the Banims in literature is to be estimated from the merits of the O'Hara Tales; their later works, though of considerable ability, are sometimes prolix and are marked by too evident an imitation of the Waverley Novels. The Tales, however, are masterpieces of faithful delineation. The strong passions, the lights and shadows of Irish peasant character, have rarely been so ably and truly depicted. The incidents are striking, sometimes even horrible, and the authors have been accused of straining after melodramatic effect. The lighter, more joyous side of Irish character, which appears so strongly in Samuel Lover, receives little attention from the Banims.

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1842
 
 
Publication of Balzac's "La Comedie humaine" begins
 
 
see also: Balzac
 
see also: Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
 
 
 
     
 
Honore de Balzac

"Father Goriot"
     
 
 
     
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1842
 
 
Eugene Sue: "The Mysteries of Paris"
 
 
Sue Eugene
 

Eugene Sue, pseudonym of Marie-joseph Sue (born Jan. 26, 1804, Paris, France—died Aug. 3, 1857, Annecy, Savoy), French author of sensational novels of the seamy side of urban life and a leading exponent of the roman-feuilleton (“newspaper serial”).
His works, although faulted for their melodramatics, were the first to deal with many of the social ills that accompanied the Industrial Revolution in France.

 

Eugene Sue by Francois Gabriel Lepaulle
  Sue’s early experiences as a naval surgeon prompted his first books, several highly coloured sea stories (e.g., Plik et Plok, 1831). He also wrote a number of historical novels and worked as a journalist. Having inherited a fortune from his father, Sue became a well-known dandy. His carriage and horses, pack of beagles, and displays of luxury made him the talk of Paris. He was one of the first members of the exclusive French Jockey Club (1834).
He depicted contemporary “high life” in Arthur (1838) and Mathilde (1841). The latter showed socialist tendencies, and Sue turned in this direction in Les Mystères de Paris (1842–43; The Mysteries of Paris)—which influenced Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables—and Le Juif errant (1844–45; The Wandering Jew). Published in installments, these long but exciting novels vastly increased the circulation of the newspapers in which they appeared. Both books display Sue’s powerful imagination, exuberant narrative style, and keen dramatic sense. These qualities, along with Sue’s realistic and sympathetic depictions of the urban poor, help to compensate for his implausible plots and one-dimensional characters. Sue’s other books are less successful.

After participating in the 1848 Revolution, Sue was elected Socialist deputy for the Seine in 1850. He opposed Louis Napoleon’s coup d’état in 1851, went into exile at Annecy, Savoy (then independent of France), and remained there until his death.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
see also: Eugene Sue
 
 
 
Eugene Sue: "The Mysteries of Paris"
 

The Mysteries of Paris (French: Les Mystères de Paris) is a novel by the French writer Eugene Sue. It was published serially in 90 parts in Journal des débats from 19 June 1842 until 15 October 1843, making it one of the first serial novels published in France. It was an instant success, The Mysteries of Paris singlehandedly increased the circulation of Journal des débats. It founded the "City mysteries" genre, spawning many imitations.

 
Plot
The hero of the novel is the mysterious and distinguished Rodolphe, who is really the Grand Duke of Gerolstein (a fictional kingdom of Germany) but is disguised as a Parisian worker.

Rodolphe can speak in argot, is extremely strong and a good fighter. Yet he also shows great compassion for the lower classes, good judgment, and a brilliant mind. He can navigate all layers of society in order to understand their problems, and to understand how the different social classes are linked. Rodolphe is accompanied by his friends Sir Walter Murph, an Englishman, and David, a gifted black doctor, formerly a slave.

The first figures they meet are Le Chourineur and La Goualeuse. Rodolphe saves La Goualeuse from Le Chourineur's brutality, and saves Le Chourineur from himself, knowing that the man still has some good in him. La Goualeuse is a prostitute, and Le Chourineur is a former butcher who has served 15 years in prison for murder. Both characters are grateful for Rodolphe's assistance, as are many other characters in the novel.

Though Rodolphe is described as a flawless man, Sue otherwise depicts the Parisian nobility as deaf to the misfortunes of the common people and focused on meaningless intrigues. For this reason, some, such as Alexandre Dumas, have considered the novel's ending a failure. Rodolphe goes back to Gerolstein to take on the role to which he was destined by birth, rather than staying in Paris to help the lower classes.

 
Poster announcing the publication of Les Mystères de Paris (1843), a French language novel by Eugène Sue (1804-1857)
 
 
Themes and style
Sue was the first author to bring together so many characters from different levels of society within one novel, and thus his book was popular with readers from all classes. Its realistic descriptions of the poor and disadvantaged became a critique of social institutions, echoing the socialist position leading up to the Revolutions of 1848. "Sue made a fortune even as he made a political statement, seeking to convince his readers that the suffering classes are victims rather than criminals."
 
 
Sue showed how vice was not the only cause of suffering, but also caused by inhumane social conditions.

The novel is melodramatic depicting a world where good and evil are clearly distinct. Randolph, the Prince, embodies good. Ferand, a lawyer and representative of a new commercial order, embodies evil.

The novel was partly inspired by the Memoirs (1828) of Eugène François Vidocq, a French criminal and criminalist whose life story inspired several other writers, including Victor Hugo and Honoré de Balzac. Its greatest inspiration, however, was the works of James Fenimore Cooper: Sue took the plot structure of the Natty Bumppo novels and moved them to the city where buildings replaced trees and underworld gangs replaced Indians.

Criticism
The most extended criticism of the novel was by Karl Marx, who discussed it in The Holy Family (1845). Marx used the novel to attack the Young Hegelians who he thought advocated a too simplistic view of reality. Marx found Sue unintentionally making a mockery of mystery, turning character into caricature. Marx's basic point was that although the social conditions of Paris under Louis Philippe had indeed improved, the underlying belief systems were still medieval. Whatever sympathy Sue created for the poor, he failed to come to terms with the true nature of the city, which had changed little.

 
"'Cecily! Cecily!' Murmured a Voice"
Original Etching by Adrian Marcel
 
 
Edgar Allan Poe wrote an essay about the novel. He says the incidents which follow the premise are credible, but the premise itself is laughably impossible.
 
 
Legacy
Numerous novels inspired by The Mysteries of Paris were published all over the Western world, creating the City mysteries genre that explored the "mysteries and miseries" of cities. Works in the genre include Les Mystères de Marseille by Émile Zola, The Mysteries of London by George W. M. Reynolds, Les Mystères de Londres by Paul Féval, Les Mystères de Lyon (featuring the Nyctalope) by Jean de La Hire, I misteri di Napoli by Francesco Mastriani, the Mystères de Munich, Les Nouveaux Mystères de Paris (featuring Nestor Burma) by Léo Malet.

In America, cheap pamphlet and serial fiction exposed the "mysteries and miseries" of New York, Baltimore, Boston, San Francisco and even small towns such as Lowell and Fitchburg, Massachusetts.
Ned Buntline wrote The Mysteries and Miseries of New York in 1848, but the leading American writer in the genre was George Lippard whose best seller was The Quaker City, or The Monks of Monk Hall: a Romance of Philadelphia Life, Mystery and Crime (1844); he went on to found the paper The Quaker City as a vehicle for more of his mysteries and miseries. In 1988, Michael Chabon paid tribute to the genre with The Mysteries of Pittsburgh.

Dumas, at the urging of his publishers, was inspired to write The Count of Monte Cristo in part by the runaway success of The Mysteries of Paris. He had been working on a series of newspaper articles about historical tourism in Paris and was convinced to turn them into a sensationalist melodramatic novel.

 
"Slowly Dancing and Whirling around Me"
Original Etching by Porteau
 
 
Adaptations
The original novel was very long, in some editions over 1000 pages. It has been adapted for the stage, and was made into a feature film several times, most notably in 1962 as Les Mystères de Paris, a French film by André Hunebelle, starring Jean Marais.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 

"Then Left Me"
Original Etching by Adrian Marcel
 
"Touched with His Lips through the Grating"
Original Etching by Mercier
 
 
 
     
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1842
 
 
Bierce Ambrose
 

Ambrose Bierce, in full Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce, Gwinnett also spelled Gwinett (see Researcher’s Note) (born June 24, 1842, Meigs county, Ohio, U.S.—died 1914, Mexico?), American newspaperman, wit, satirist, and author of sardonic short stories based on themes of death and horror. His life ended in an unsolved mystery.

 

Ambrose Bierce, by J.H.E. Partington
  Reared in Kosciusko county, Indiana, Bierce became a printer’s devil (apprentice) on a Warsaw, Indiana, paper after about a year in high school. In 1861 he enlisted in the 9th Indiana Volunteers and fought in a number of American Civil War battles, including Shiloh and Chickamauga. After being seriously wounded in the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain in 1864, he served until January 1865, and he received a merit promotion to major in 1867.

Resettling in San Francisco, which was experiencing an artistic renaissance, he began contributing to periodicals, particularly the News Letter, of which he became editor in 1868. Bierce was soon the literary arbiter of the West Coast. The Haunted Valley (1871) was his first story. In December 1871 he married Mary Ellen Day, and from 1872 to 1875 the Bierces lived in England, where he wrote for the London magazines Fun and Figaro, edited the Lantern for the exiled French empress Eugénie, and published three books, The Fiend’s Delight (1872), Nuggets and Dust Panned Out in California (1872), and Cobwebs from an Empty Skull (1874).

In 1877 he became associate editor of the San Francisco Argonaut but left it in 1879–80 for an unsuccessful try at placer mining in Rockerville in the Dakota Territory. Thereafter he was editor of the San Francisco Illustrated Wasp for five years.

 
 
In 1887 he joined the staff of William Randolph Hearst’s San Francisco Examiner, for which he wrote the “Prattler” column.

In 1896 Bierce moved to Washington, D.C., where he continued newspaper and magazine writing. In 1913, tired of American life, he went to Mexico, then in the middle of a revolution led by Pancho Villa. His end is a mystery, but a reasonable conjecture is that he was killed in the siege of Ojinaga in January 1914.

Bierce separated from his wife, lost his two sons, and broke many friendships. As a newspaper columnist, he specialized in critical attacks on amateur poets, clergymen, bores, dishonest politicians, money grabbers, pretenders, and frauds of all sorts. His principal books are In the Midst of Life (1892), which includes some of his finest stories, such as An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge, A Horseman in the Sky, The Eyes of the Panther, and The Boarded Window; and Can Such Things Be? (1893), which includes The Damned Thing and Moxon’s Master. Bierce’s The Devil’s Dictionary (originally published in 1906 as The Cynic’s Word Book) is a volume of ironic, even bitter, definitions that has often been reprinted. His Collected Works was published in 12 volumes, 1909–12. The Enlarged Devil’s Dictionary, edited by E.J. Hopkins, appeared in 1967 and was reprinted in 2001. A Sole Survivor: Bits of Autobiography, edited by S.T. Joshi and David E. Schultz, was published in 1998, and A Much Misunderstood Man: Selected Letters of Ambrose Bierce, also edited by Joshi and Schultz, was published in 2003.

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1842
 
 
Brandes Georg
 
Georg Brandes, in full Georg Morris Cohen Brandes (born Feb. 4, 1842, Copenhagen, Den.—died Feb. 19, 1927, Copenhagen), Danish critic and scholar who, from 1870 through the turn of the century, exerted an enormous influence on the Scandinavian literary world.
 

Georg Brandes, a sketch for a painting,
by P.S. Krøyer, 1900
  Born into a Jewish family, Brandes graduated from the University of Copenhagen in 1864. He was influenced by the French critics Hippolyte Taine and Ernest Renan and by the English political philosopher John Stuart Mill, all of whom he had met in Paris during his European travels (1865–71).

Brandes conceived it his mission to liberate Denmark from its cultural isolation and provincialism. He brought the liberal political and cultural trends of western Europe to his countrymen with the zeal of a reformer.

In 1871 he began a series of lectures at the University of Copenhagen, published as Hovedstrømninger i det 19de aarhundredes litteratur, 6 vol. (1872–90; Main Currents in 19th Century Literature). In these lectures, which catalyzed the breakthrough to realism in Danish literature, Brandes called for writers to reject the fantasy and abstract idealism of late Romanticism and instead work in the service of progressive ideas and the reform of modern society.

He became a friend of the Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen, who charged him to lead the revolution of the spirit for which he himself was fighting. Brandes also befriended and championed such other important Scandinavian writers as B.M. Bjørnson, Jens Peter Jacobsen, Jonas Lie, Alexander Kielland, and August Strindberg. He thus became a principal leader of the naturalist movement in Scandinavian literature.

 
 
Though Brandes gained a following among the Copenhagen liberal intelligentsia, he was strongly opposed by conservative countrymen, who attacked him as being an “atheist Jew.” Disappointed at being denied the professorship of aesthetics at the University of Copenhagen, Brandes settled in Berlin (1877–83).

Brandes wrote many scholarly studies illustrating his radical ideas, including monographs on the Danish religious philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, the German socialist leader Ferdinand Lassalle, and the Danish playwright Ludvig Holberg. Notable among his critical works are Det moderne gjennembruds mænd (1883; “Men of the Modern Breakthrough”; i.e., his own followers) and Danske digtere (1877; “Danish Poets”).

In the late 1880s, influenced by Friedrich Nietzsche, Brandes developed a philosophy of aristocratic radicalism, expressed in Aristokratisk radicalisne (1889) and also in his later biographies of William Shakespeare, J.W. von Goethe, Voltaire, Julius Caesar, and Michelangelo. Though Brandes returned to Denmark in 1902 as professor at the University of Copenhagen, he remained a controversial figure. He never lacked the courage to denounce tyranny and reaction, and such works as Sagnet om Jesus (1925; Jesus, a Myth) made him many enemies.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
     
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1842
 
 
Brentano Clemens, German poet and novelist, d. (b. 1778)
 
 

Clemens Brentano
 
 
see also: Clemens Brentano
 
 
     
  Western Literature

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1842
 
 
 

Zanoni is an 1842 novel by Bulwer-Lytton Edward George, a story of love and occult aspiration. By way of introduction, the author confesses: "...It so chanced that some years ago, in my younger days, whether of authorship or life, I felt the desire to make myself acquainted with the true origins and tenets of the singular sect known by the name of Rosicrucians." A manuscript came into his hands written in the most unintelligible cipher, a manuscript which through the author's own interpretation became Zanoni.

 
Plot
Zanoni, a timeless Rosicrucian brother, cannot fall in love without losing his power of immortality; but he does fall in love with Viola Pisani, a promising young opera singer from Naples, the daughter of Pisani, a misunderstood Italian violinist. An English gentleman named Glyndon loves Viola as well, but is indecisive about proposing marriage, and then renounces his love to pursue occult study. The story develops in the days of the French Revolution in 1789. Zanoni has lived since the Chaldean civilisation. His master Mejnor warns him against a love affair but Zanoni does not heed. He finally marries Viola and they have a child. As Zanoni experiences an increase in humanity, he begins to lose his gift of immortality. He finally dies in the guillotine during the French Revolution.
 
 
Theme
Bulwer-Lytton humanised Gothic art and evoked its poetry to suit the Victorian era. In Zanoni, Bulwer-Lytton alludes to deep Rosicrucian mysteries regarding the four elements, secrets which only initiated Rosicrucians have the power to reveal, the ultimate goal being the discovery of the Elixir of life and the attainment of immortality and eternal youth. This is all depicted in Zanoni himself who at the time of Babylon abandoned all human passions to become immortal but during the French Revolution, to become human again, he falls in love and dies in the guillotine.

The name Zanoni is derived from the Chaldean root zan, meaning "sun", and the chief character is endowed with solar attributes.

Argument
From the viewpoint of Platonism and Neo-Platonism, Zanoni evokes the themes of the four types of divine madness covered in Plato's Phaedrus: These are prophetic, initiatic, poetic and erotic madness.

These four threads are interwoven through the entire fabric of the work, creating an atmosphere of divine madness. Even Zanoni's attempt to become human again becomes an apotheosis with his ultimate sacrifice.

Disraeli prediction
According to occult author C. Nelson Stewart, Bulwer-Lytton is well-versed in Rosicrucian and occult lore, all of which he brings to bear on his novel Zanoni; he also demonstrates a profound knowledge of Astrology in his Disraeli prediction: "...He will die, whether in or out of office, in an exceptionally high position, greatly lamented, and surrounded to the end by all the magnificent planetary influences of a propitious Jupiter."

 
First edition title page
 
 
Influence
What influence, if any, Zanoni could have had on Nietzsche is a matter of pure conjecture. A. R. Orage himself re-read Zanoni within two years of having read Thus Spoke Zarathustra and in an article on Zanoni, written in 1902, he mentions Nietzche for the first time. For Orage, Zanoni's teacher Mejnor's plan to create a race of supermen is most agreeable and a reading subject worthy of Cecil Rhodes.

It is Zanoni's ultimate sacrifice that would give Bulwer-Lytton's friend Charles Dickens an idea on how to end A Tale of Two Cities.

Guardian of the Threshold
Speaking to Glyndon, Mejnour says of the Guardian, "...Know, at least, that all of us – the highest and the wisest – who have, in sober truth, passed beyond the threshold, have had, as our first fearful task, to master and subdue its grisly and appalling guardian."

According to the German Occultist Rudolf Steiner, the Guardian of the Threshold is an actual figure of an astral nature which was fictionalised by Bulwer-Lytton in the novel Zanoni.

Samael Aun Weor refers to Adonai as Zanoni's real Master and to the Guardian of the Threshold as the Psychological 'I' or reincarnating ego.

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1842
 
 
Burney Fanny: "Diary and Letters" (posth.)
 
 

Fanny Burney: "Diary and Letters"
 
 
see also: Fanny Burney
 
 
     
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1842
 
 
Graham Maria
 

Maria Graham (19 July 1785 – 21 November 1842), later Maria, Lady Callcott, was a British writer of travel books and children's books, and also an accomplished illustrator.

 

Maria Callcott, painted by her second husband, Sir Augustus Wall Callcott.
  Early life
She was born near Cockermouth in Cumberland as Maria Dundas, and didn't see much of her father during her childhood and teenage years, as he was one of the many naval officers that the Scottish Dundas clan has raised through the years. George Dundas (1756–1814) (not to be confused with the much more famous naval officer George Heneage Lawrence Dundas) was made post-captain in 1795 and saw plenty of action as commander of HMS Juno, a Fifth Rate 32-gun frigate, between 1798 and 1802. In 1803 he was given the command of HMS Elephant, a 74 gun third-rate that had been Nelson's flagship during the Battle of Copenhagen in 1801, and took her down to Jamaica to patrol the Caribbean waters until 1806.

In 1808 his sea-fighting years were over and he took an appointment as head of the naval works at the British East India Company's dockyard in Bombay. When he went out to India he brought his now 23-year-old daughter along. During the long trip Maria Dundas fell in love with a young Scottish naval officer aboard, Thomas Graham, third son to Robert Graham, the last Laird of Fintry. They married in India in 1809. In 1811, the young couple returned to England, where Graham published her first book, Journal of a Residence in India, followed soon afterwards by Letters on India. A few years later her father was appointed Commissioner of the naval dockyard in Cape Town, where he died in 1814, aged 58, having been promoted rear-admiral just two months earlier.

 
 
Widow in Chile
As all other naval officers' wives, Graham spent several years ashore, seldom seeing her husband. Most of these years she lived in London. But while other officers’ wives spent their time with domestic chores, she worked as a translator and book editor. In 1819 she lived in Italy for a time, which resulted in the book Three Months Passed in the Mountains East of Rome, during the Year 1819. Being very interested in the arts, she also wrote a book about the French baroque painter Nicolas Poussin, Memoirs of the Life of Nicholas Poussin (French first names were usually Anglicised in those days), in 1820.

In 1821, Graham was invited to accompany her husband aboard HMS Doris, a 36 gun frigate under his command. The destination was Chile, and the purpose was to protect British mercantile interests in the area. In April 1822, shortly after the ship had rounded Cape Horn, her husband died of a fever, so HMS Doris arrived in Valparaiso without a captain, but with a distraught captain’s widow. All the naval officers stationed in Valparaiso – British, Chilean and American – tried to help Maria (one American captain even offered to sail her back to Britain), but she was determined to manage on her own. She rented a small cottage, turned her back on the English colony ("I say nothing of the English here, because I do not know them except as very civil vulgar people, with one or two exceptions", she later wrote), and lived among the Chileans for a whole year. Later in 1822, she experienced one of Chile’s worst earthquakes in history, and recorded its effects in detail – something nobody had done before.
 
 

1819 portrait of Graham by Sir Thomas Lawrence
  Tutor to the princess
In 1823, she began her journey back to Britain. She made a stop in Brazil and was introduced to the newly appointed Brazilian emperor and his family. The year before, the Brazilians had declared independence from Portugal and had asked the resident Portuguese crown prince to become their emperor. It was agreed that Graham should become the tutor of the young Princess Maria da Gloria, so when she reached London, she just handed over the manuscripts of her two new books to her publisher (Journal of a Residence in Chile during the Year 1822. And a Voyage from Chile to Brazil in 1823 and Journal of a Voyage to Brazil, and Residence There, During Part of the Years 1821, 1822, 1823, illustrated by herself), collected suitable educational material, and returned to Brazil in 1824. She stayed in the royal palace only until October of that year, when she was asked to leave due to courtiers' suspicion of her motives and methods (courtiers seem to have feared, with some justice, that she intended to Anglicize the princess). During her few months with the royal family, she developed a close friendship with the empress, Maria Leopoldina of Austria, who passionately shared her interests in the natural sciences. After leaving the palace, Graham experienced further difficulties in arranging for her transport home; unwillingly, she remained in Brazil until 1825, when she finally managed to arrange a passport and passage to England.
 
 
Her treatment by palace courtiers left her with ambivalent feelings about Brazil and its government; she later recorded her version of events in her unpublished manuscript "Memoir of the Life of Don Pedro".

In March 1826, King John VI of Portugal died. His son Pedro inherited the throne, but preferred to remain Emperor of Brazil and thus abdicated the Portuguese throne in favour of his six-year-old daughter within two months.

 
 

Laranjeiras outside Rio de Janeiro 1821. Drawing by Maria Callcott in Journal of a Voyage to Brazil.
 
 
Booke about HMS Blonde's famous journey
After her return from Brazil in 1825, her publisher, John Murray, asked her to write a book about the famous and recently completed voyage of HMS Blonde to the Sandwich Islands (as Hawaii was then known). King Kamehameha II and Queen Kamamalu of Hawaii had been on a visit to London in 1824, when they both died of the measles, against which they had no immunity. HMS Blonde was commissioned by the British Government to return their bodies to the Hawaiian Islands, with George Anson Byron, a cousin of the poet Byron, in command. The resulting book, Voyage Of The H.M.S. Blonde To The Sandwich Islands, In The Years 1824-1825, contained a history of the exotic royal couple's unfortunate visit to London, a résumé of the discovery of the Hawaiian Islands and visits by British explorers, as well as the story about Blonde’s journey. Graham wrote it with the help of official papers and journals kept by the chaplain, R. Rowland Bloxam; there is also a short section based on the records of the naturalist Andrew Bloxam.
 
 

The English burial ground outside Rio de Janeiro 1823. Drawing by Maria Callcott in Journal of a Voyage to Brazil.
 
 
Second marriage
When she arrived in London, Graham had taken rooms in Kensington Gravel Pits, just south of Notting Hill Gate, which was something of an artists’ enclave. There lived the Royal Academy painter Augustus Wall Callcott and his musician brother John Wall Callcott, but also painters like John Linnell, David Wilkie and William Mulready, and musicians such as William Crotch (the first principal of the Royal Academy of Music) and William Horsley (John Callcott’s son-in-law). In addition, this close-knit group was frequently visited by artists like John Varley, Edwin Landseer, John Constable and J.M.W. Turner.
 
 
Graham's lodgings very quickly became a focal point for London's intellectuals, such as the Scottish poet Thomas Campbell, Graham's book publisher John Murray and the historian Francis Palgrave, but her keen interest and knowledge of painting (she was a skilled illustrator of her own books, and had written the book about Poussin) made it inevitable that she would quickly become part of the artists’ enclave as well.

Graham and Callcott married on his 48th birthday, 20 February 1827. In May of that year, the Callcotts embarked upon a year-long honeymoon to Italy, Germany and Austria where they studied the art and architecture of those countries exhaustively and met many of the leading art critics, writers and connoisseurs of the time.

Disability

In 1831 Maria Callcott ruptured a blood vessel and became physically disabled. She could no longer travel, but she could continue to entertain her friends, and could continue her writing.

In 1828, immediately after returning from their honeymoon, she had published A Short History of Spain, and in 1835 the writings during her long convalescence resulted in the publication of two books; Description of the chapel of the Annunziata dell’Arena; or Giotto’s Chapel in Padua, and her first and most famous book for children; Little Arthur’s History of England, which has been reprinted numerous times since then (already in 1851 the 16th edition was published, and it was last reprinted in 1975). Little Arthur was followed in 1836 by a French version; Histoire de France du petit Louis.

  Caused geological debate
In the mid-1830s her description of the earthquake in Chile of 1822 started a heated debate in the Geological Society, where she was caught in the middle of a fight between two rivalling schools of thought regarding earthquakes and their role in mountain building. Besides describing the earthquake in her Journal of a Residence in Chile, she had also written about it in more detail in a letter to Henry Warburton, who was one of the Geological Society’s founding fathers. As this was one of the first detailed eyewitness accounts by "a learned person" of an earthquake, he found it interesting enough to publish in Transactions of the Geological Society of London in 1823.

One of her observations had been that of large areas of land rising from the sea, and in 1830 that observation was included in the groundbreaking work The Principles of Geology by the geologist Charles Lyell, as evidence in support of his theory that mountains were formed by volcanoes and earthquakes. Four years later the president of the Society, George Bellas Greenough, decided to attack Lyell’s theories. But instead of attacking Lyell directly, he did it by publicly ridiculing Maria Callcott’s observations.

Maria Callcott, however, was not someone who accepted ridicule. Her husband and her brother offered to duel Greenough, but she said, according to her nephew John Callcott Horsley, "Be quiet, both of you, I am quite capable of fighting my own battles, and intend to do it". She went on to publish a crushing reply to Greenough, and was shortly thereafter backed by none other than Charles Darwin, who had observed the same land rising during Chile’s earthquake in 1835, aboard the Beagle.

 
 

Dragon Tree & Peak of Teneriffe. Drawing by Maria Callcott in her book Journal of a Voyage to Brazil, published 1824
 
 
In 1837 Augustus Callcott was knighted and his wife became known as Lady Callcott. Shortly afterwards her health began to deteriorate, and in 1842 she died aged 57. She continued to write until the very end, and her last book was A Scripture Herbal, an illustrated collection of tidbits and anecdotes about plants and trees mentioned in the Bible, which was published the same year she died.

Augustus Callcott died two years later, at the age of 65, having been made Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures in 1843.

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1842
 
 
Coppee Francois
 

Francois Edouard Joachim Coppee (26 January 1842 – 23 May 1908) was a French poet and novelist.

 

Francois Coppée, by Nadar, c. 1880.
  Biography
He was born in Paris to a civil servant. After attending the Lycée Saint-Louis he became a clerk in the ministry of war, and won public favour as a poet of the Parnassian school. His first printed verses date from 1864. In 1869 his first play, Le Passant, was received with approval at the Odéon theatre, and later Fais ce que dois (1871) and Les Bijoux de la délivrance (1872), short poetic dramas inspired by the Franco-Prussian War, were applauded.

After holding a post in the library of the senate, Coppée was chosen in 1878 as archivist of the Comédie Française, an office he held till 1884. In that year his election to the Académie française caused him to retire from all public appointments. He was made an officer of the Legion of Honour in 1888.

Coppée was famed as le poète des humbles (the poet of the humble). His verse and prose focus on plain expressions of emotion, patriotism, the joy of young love, and the pitifulness of the poor. He continued to write plays, mostly serious dramas in verse, two in collaboration with Armand d'Artois. The performance of a short episode of the Commune, Le Pater, was prohibited by the government in 1889. Coppée published his first prose work in 1875 and went on to publish short stories, an autobiography of his youth, a series of short articles on miscellaneous subjects, and La Bonne Souffrance, a popular account of his reconversion to the Roman Catholic Church.

 
 
His conversion was due to a severe illness which twice brought him close to death. He was also interested with public affairs, joining the most violent section of the Nationalist movement (while remaining contemptuous of the apparatus of democracy) and taking a leading part against Alfred Dreyfus in the Dreyfus affair. He was one of the founders of the Ligue de la Patrie Française.

Criticism
The poet Arthur Rimbaud, a young contemporary of Coppée, published numerous parodies of Coppée's poetry. Rimbaud's parodies were published in L'Album Zutique (in 1871? 1872?). Most of these poems parody the style ("chatty comfortable rhymes" that were "the delight of the enlightened bourgeois of the day") and form (Alexandrine couplets arranged in ten line verses) of some short poems by Coppée. Rimbaud published them under the name François Coppée.

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1842
 
 
Cunningham Allan
 

Allan Cunningham (7 December 1784 – 30 October 1842) was a Scottish poet and author.

 

Allan Cunningham, Henry Room,
c.1840
  Life
He was born at Keir, near Dalswinton, Dumfriesshire, and first worked as a stonemason's apprentice. His father was a neighbour of Robert Burns at Ellisland, and Allan with his brother James visited James Hogg, the "Ettrick shepherd", who became a friend to both. Cunningham's other brothers were the naval surgeon Peter Miller Cunningham (1789–1864) and the poet, Thomas Mounsey Cunningham (1776–1834). Cunningham was apprenticed to a stonemason, but gave his leisure to reading and writing imitations of old Scottish ballads. In 1809 he collected old ballads for Robert Hartley Cromek's Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway Song; he sent in, however, poems of his own, which the editor inserted, even though he may have suspected their real authorship. It gained for him the friendship of Walter Scott and Hogg.

In 1810 Cunningham went to London, where he worked as a parliamentary reporter and journalist till 1814, when he became clerk of the works in the studio of the sculptor, Francis Chantrey, a post he kept until Chantrey's death in 1841.

Works
Cunningham contributed some songs to Eugenius Roche's Literary Recreations in 1807. He wrote, three novels, a life of Sir David Wilkie, and Lives of Eminent British Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (1829–33), that include biographies of William Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough and William Blake.

 
 
Besides these he wrote many songs A Wet Sheet and a Flowing Sea is a sea-song; and many other of Cunningham's songs became popular. He also brought out an edition of Robert Burns' Works.

Other works included:

-Sir Marmaduke Maxwell (1820) (play)
-The King of the Peak (1822), the story of Sir George Vernon and his daughter, Dorothy Vernon's supposed elopement with John Manners from Haddon Hall.

Family

Cunningham was married to Jean Walker, who had been servant in a house where he lived, and they had five sons and one daughter, all of whom rose to important positions, and inherited in some degree his literary gifts. Among them were Joseph Davey Cunningham, Alexander Cunningham, Peter Cunningham and Francis Cunningham.

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1842
 
 
Espronceda Jose
 

José Ignacio Javier Oriol Encarnación de Espronceda y Delgado (25 March 1808 — 23 May 1842) was a Romantic Spanish poet.

 

José Ignacio Javier Oriol Encarnación de Espronceda y Delgado
  José de Espronceda y Delgado, (born March 25, 1808, Almendralejo, Spain—died May 23, 1842, Madrid), Romantic poet and revolutionary, often called the Spanish Lord Byron.
He fled Spain in 1826 for revolutionary activities and in London began a tempestuous affair with Teresa Mancha (the subject of Canto a Teresa) that dominated the next 10 years of his life. He participated in the July Revolution of France (1830), and following the death of Ferdinand VII in 1833 he was allowed to return to Spain, where he was a founder-member of the Republican Party and was imprisoned several times for revolutionary activities. His historical novel Sancho Saldaña (1834), influenced by Sir Walter Scott, was written in prison in Badajoz. El estudiante de Salamanca (1839; “The Student of Salamanca”), a milestone of Iberian Romanticism, is a variant of the Don Juan legend that carries to extremes the antisocial and antireligious attitudes of its protagonist. Espronceda was most admired for his lyric poetry, and his Poesías (1840; “Poems”) shows the influence of both Lord Byron and Scott. The unfinished poem El diablo mundo (“The Devilish World”) contains ideological reflections and is considered one of his best works. Espronceda served as secretary of the diplomatic legation to The Hague (1840) and deputy to the Cortes from Almeria (1842). He also wrote several plays—Blanca de Borbón (1870), Ni el tío ni el sobrino (1834; “Neither the Uncle nor the Nephew”), and Amor venga sus agravios (1838; “Love Avenges Its Affronts”).

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1842
 
 
Gogol: "Dead Souls"
 

Dead Souls (Russian: Мёртвые ду́ши, Myórtvyjye dúshi) is a novel by Gogol Nikolai, first published in 1842, and widely regarded as an exemplar of 19th-century Russian literature. The purpose of the novel was to demonstrate the flaws and faults of the Russian mentality and character. Gogol masterfully portrayed those defects through Paul Ivanovitch Chichikov (the main character) and the people whom he encounters in his endeavours.

These people are typical of the Russian middle-class of the time. Gogol himself saw it as an "epic poem in prose", and within the book as a "novel in verse". Despite supposedly completing the trilogy's second part, Gogol destroyed it shortly before his death. Although the novel ends in mid-sentence (like Sterne's Sentimental Journey), it is usually regarded as complete in the extant form.

 
Title
The original title, as shown on the illustration (cover page), was "The Wanderings of Chichikov, or Dead Souls. Poema", which contracted to merely "Dead Souls". In the Russian Empire, before the emancipation of the serfs in 1861, landowners had the right to own serfs to farm their land. Serfs were for most purposes considered the property of the landowner, who could buy, sell or mortgage them, as any other chattel. To count serfs (and people in general), the measure word "soul" was used: e.g., "six souls of serfs". The plot of the novel relies on "dead souls" (i.e., "dead serfs") which are still accounted for in property registers. On another level, the title refers to the "dead souls" of Gogol's characters, all of which represent different aspects of poshlost (a Russian noun rendered as "commonplace, vulgarity", moral and spiritual, with overtones of middle-class pretentiousness, fake significance and philistinism).

Background
The first part of the novel was intended to represent a modern-day Inferno of the Divine Comedy.[citation needed] Gogol reveals to his readers an encompassing picture of the ailing social system in Russia after the war of 1812. As in many of Gogol's short stories, the social criticism of Dead Souls is communicated primarily through absurd and hilarious satire. Unlike the short stories, however, Dead Souls was meant to offer solutions rather than simply point out problems. This grander scheme was largely unrealized at Gogol's death; the work was never completed, and it is primarily the earlier, darker part of the novel that is remembered.

 
Cover page of the first edition of Dead Souls. Moscow, 1842.
 
In their studies of Gogol, Andrey Bely, D. S. Mirsky, Vladimir Nabokov, and other modernist critics rejected the commonly held view of Dead Souls as a reformist or satirical work. For instance, Nabokov regarded the plot of Dead Souls as unimportant and Gogol as a great writer whose works skirted the irrational and whose prose style combined superb descriptive power with a disregard for novelistic clichés. True, Chichikov displays a most extraordinary moral rot, but the whole idea of buying and selling dead souls is, to Nabokov, ridiculous on its face; therefore, the provincial setting of the novel is a most unsuitable backdrop for any of the progressive, reformist or Christian readings of the work.
 
 

Chichikov in the house of M-me Korobochka.
 
 
Structure
The novel has a circular structure, following Chichikov as he visits the estates of landowners living around the capital of a guberniya. Although Gogol aspired to emulate the Odyssey, many critics derive the structure of Dead Souls from the picaresque novels of the 16th and 17th centuries in that it is divided into a series of somewhat disjointed episodes, and the plot concerns a gentrified version of the rascal protagonist of the original picaresques.

Konstantin Aksakov was the first to bring out a detailed juxtaposition of Gogol's and Homer's works: "Gogol's epic revives the ancient Homeric epic; you recognize its character of importance, its artistic merits and the widest scope.

When comparing one thing to another, Gogol completely loses himself in the subject, leaving for a time the occasion that gave rise to his comparison; he will talk about it, until the subject is exhausted. Every reader of The Iliad was struck by this device, too."

Nabokov also pointed out the Homeric roots of the complicated absurdist technique of Gogol's comparisons and digressions.

  Characters
Of all Gogol's creations, Chichikov stands out as the incarnation of poshlost. His psychological leitmotiv is complacency, and his geometrical expression roundness. The other characters — the squires Chichikov visits on his shady business — are typical "humors" (for Gogol's method of comic character drawing, with its exaggerations and geometrical simplification, is strongly reminiscent of Ben Jonson's). Sobakevich, the strong, silent, economical man, square and bearlike; Manilov, the silly sentimentalist with pursed lips; Mme Korobochka, the stupid widow; Nozdryov, the cheat and bully, with the manners of a hearty good fellow — are all types of eternal solidity. Plyushkin, the miser, stands apart, for in him Gogol sounds a note of tragedy — he is the man ruined by his "humor"; he transcends poshlost, for in the depth of his degradation he is not complacent but miserable; he has a tragic greatness. The lamentful description of Plyushkin's garden was hailed by Nabokov as the pinnacle of Gogol's art. Chichikov is revealed by the author to be a former mid-level government official fired for corruption and narrowly avoiding jail. His macabre mission to acquire "dead souls" is actually just another one of his "get rich quick" schemes. Once he acquires enough dead souls, he will take out an enormous loan against them, and pocket the money.
 
 
In the novel's second section, Chichikov flees to another part of Russia and attempts to continue his venture. He tries to help the idle landowner Tentetnikov gain favor with General Betrishchev so that Tentetnikov may marry the general's daughter, Ulinka. To do this, Chichikov agrees to visit many of Betrishchev's relatives, beginning with Colonel Koshkaryov. From there Chichikov begins again to go from estate to estate, encountering eccentric and absurd characters all along the way. Eventually he purchases an estate from the destitute Khlobuyev but is arrested when he attempts to forge the will of Khlobuyev's rich aunt. He is pardoned thanks to the intervention of the kindly Mourazov but is forced to flee the village. The novel ends mid-sentence with the prince who arranged Chichikov's arrest giving a grand speech that rails against corruption in the Russian government.
 
 

Chichikov and Nozdryov.
 
 
Adaptations
Mikhail Bulgakov adapted the novel for the stage for a production at the Moscow Art Theatre. The seminal theatre practitioner Constantin Stanislavski directed the play, which opened on 28 November 1932.

The extant sections of Dead Souls formed the basis for an opera in 1976 by Russian composer Rodion Shchedrin. In it Shchedrin captures the different townspeople with whom Chichikov deals in isolated musical episodes, each of which employs a different musical style to evoke the character's particular personality.

The novel was adapted for screen in 1984 by Mikhail Schweitzer as a television miniseries Dead Souls.

In 2006 the novel was dramatised for radio in two parts by the BBC and broadcast on Radio 4. It was played more for comic than satirical effect, the main comedy deriving from the performance of Mark Heap as Chichikov and from the original placing of the narrator. Michael Palin narrates the story, but is revealed actually to be following Chichikov, riding in his coach for example, or sleeping in the same bed, constantly irritating Chichikov with his running exposition.

The first UK theatre production was staged by Theatre Collection in London during November 2014, directed by Victor Sobchak and starring Garry Voss as Chichikov and Vera Horton as Korobochka.

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see also: Nikolay Gogol
 
 
     
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1842
 
 
Howard Bronson
 
Bronson Howard (October 7, 1842 – August 4, 1908) was a well-known American dramatist.
 

Howard's Shenandoah
  Bronson Howard, in full Bronson Crocker Howard (born Oct. 7, 1842, Detroit, Mich., U.S.—died Aug. 4, 1908, Avon, N.J.), American journalist, author of successful comedies and dramas about life in the United States and founder-president of the first society for playwrights in the United States.

A newspaper writer in Detroit and New York, Howard had his first success with Saratoga, produced in 1870 by Augustin Daly at a time when dramas of American life written by Americans were practically nonexistent; its success encouraged other native playwrights.

The Henrietta (1887), a satire on business, and Shenandoah (1889), which established Charles Frohman as a producer and made a fortune for both producer and author, were also great successes.

Howard’s other plays include The Banker’s Daughter (1878), first produced in 1873 as Lillian’s Last Love; Wives (1879); Young Mrs. Winthrop (1882); and One of Our Girls (1885). He described his craft in Autobiography of a Play (1914).

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1842
 
 
American author Irving Washington appointed U.S. ambassador to Spain
 
 
 
     
  Washington Irving

"The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"
"Rip Van Winkle"


Illustrations by Arthur Rackham
     
 
 
     
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1842
 
 
Lanier Sidney
 
Sidney Lanier, (born Feb. 3, 1842, Macon, Ga., U.S.—died Sept. 7, 1881, Lynn, N.C.), American musician and poet whose verse often suggests the rhythms and thematic development of music.
 

Sidney Lanier
  Lanier was reared by devoutly religious parents in the traditions of the Old South. As a child he wrote verses and was especially fond of music. After graduation in 1860 from Oglethorpe College (now University), Atlanta, Ga., he served in the Civil War until his capture and subsequent imprisonment at Point Lookout, Md., where he contracted tuberculosis. In 1867 he married Mary Day, also of Macon; and in the same year he published his first book, the novel Tiger-Lilies, a mixture of German philosophy, Southern traditional romance, and his own war experiences. After working in his father’s law office at Macon, teaching school at Prattville, Ala., and traveling for his health in Texas, he accepted in 1873 a position as first flutist in the Peabody Orchestra, Baltimore. With numerous poems already published in magazines, he wrote several potboilers and played private concerts and delivered lectures to small groups.

“Corn” (1875), a poem treating agricultural conditions in the South, and “The Symphony” (1875), treating industrial conditions in the North, brought Lanier national recognition. Adverse criticism of his “Centennial Meditation” in 1876 launched him on an investigation of verse technique that he continued until his death. The Song of the Chattahoochee, a volume of poems, was published in 1877. Appointed to Johns Hopkins University in 1879, he delivered a series of lectures on verse technique, the early English poets, and the English novel, later published as The Science of English Verse (1880), Shakspere and his Forerunners (1902), and The English Novel (1883; rev. ed. 1897).
 
 
In the spring of 1881, when advanced tuberculosis made further work impossible, he established camp quarters at Lynn, N.C., where he died. Three years later his wife published an enlarged edition of his poems. The complete edition of his works (10 volumes) appeared in 1945.

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1842
 
 
Longfellow: "Poems of Slavery"
 
 

Longfellow Henry Wadsworth :
"Poems of Slavery"
 
 
 
     
 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

"The Song of Hiawatha"
     
 
 
     
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1842
 
 
Samuel Lover: "Handy Andy"
 
 
Lover Samuel
 
Samuel Lover (24 February 1797 – 6 July 1868) was an Anglo-Irish songwriter, composer, novelist, and a painter of portraits, chiefly miniatures. He was the grandfather of Victor Herbert.
 

Samuel Lover
  Life
Lover was born at number 60 Grafton Street, Dublin and went to school at Samuel Whyte's at 79 Grafton Street, now home to Bewley's Café. By 1830 he was secretary of the Royal Hibernian Academy and lived at number 9 D'Olier Street. In 1835 he moved to London and began composing music for a series of comic stage works.

To some of them, like the operetta IL Paddy Whack in Italia (1841), he contributed both words and music, for others he merely contributed a few songs. Lover produced a number of Irish songs, of which several – including The Angel's Whisper, Molly Bawn, and The Four-leaved Shamrock – attained great popularity.

He also wrote novels, of which Rory O'Moore (in its first form a ballad), and Handy Andy are the best known, and short Irish sketches which, with his songs, he combined into a popular entertainment called Irish Nights or Irish Evenings. With the latter, he toured North America during 1846-8. He joined with Charles Dickens in founding Bentley's Magazine.

"When once the itch of literature comes over a man, nothing can cure it but the scratching of a pen." — Samuel Lover

Lover's grandson was composer Victor Herbert whose mother was Lover's daughter Fanny. Irish-born and German-raised, Herbert is best known for his many successful musicals and operettas that premiered on Broadway.

 
 
As a child he stayed with the Lovers in a musical environment following the death of his father.

Lover died on 6 July 1868 on Jersey.

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1842
 
 
MacKaye Steele
 

Steele MacKaye, (born June 6, 1842, Buffalo—died February 25, 1894, Timpas, Colo., U.S.), U.S. playwright, actor, theatre manager, and inventor who has been called the closest approximation to a Renaissance man produced by the United States in the 19th century.

 

Steele MacKaye
  In his youth he studied painting with Hunt, Inness, and Troyon. A pupil of Delsarte and Régnier, he was the first American to act Hamlet in London (1873). At Harvard, Cornell, and elsewhere he lectured on the philosophy of aesthetics. In New York City he founded the St. James, Madison Square, and Lyceum theatres.

MacKaye wrote 30 plays, including Hazel Kirke, performed many thousands of times, Paul Kauvar, and Money Mad, acting in them in 17 different roles.

He organized the first school of acting in the U.S, which later became the American Academy of Dramatic Art; initiated overhead lighting (1874); invented the first moving “double stage” (1879); and invented folding theatre seats. In all, he patented over 100 theatrical inventions.

For the Chicago World’s Fair of 1893, MacKaye projected the world’s largest theatre, his Spectatorium (seating 12,000, with 25 moving stages), revolutionizing stage production and anticipating motion pictures. Financial difficulties prevented completion of the theatre, but a scale model was later successfully demonstrated.

 
 
His two-volume biography, Epoch: The Life of Steele MacKaye (1927), written by his son Percy, was reprinted in 1968.

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1842
 
 
Maginn William
 

William Maginn (10 July 1794 - 21 August 1842), journalist and miscellaneous writer, born at Cork, became a contributor to Blackwood's Magazine, and after moving to London in 1824 became for a few months in 1826 the Paris correspondent to The Representative, a paper started by John Murray, the publisher.

 

William Maginn
  When its short career was run, he helped to found in 1827 the ultra Tory Standard, a newspaper that he edited along with a fellow graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, Stanley Lees Giffard; he also wrote for the more scandalous Sunday paper, The Age. In 1830 he instigated and became one of the leading supporters of Fraser's Magazine. His Homeric Ballads, much praised by contemporary critics, were published in Fraser's between 1839 and 1842.

In 1837, Bentley's Miscellany was launched, with Charles Dickens as editor, and Maginn wrote the prologue and contributed over the next several years a series of "Shakespeare Papers" that examined characters in counter-intuitive fashion (e.g., the key to Falstaff is his melancholy). From "The Man in the Bell" (Blackwood's, 1821) through "Welch Rabbits" (Bentley's, 1842) he was an occasional though skillful writer of short fiction and tales. His only novel, "Whitehall" (1827) pretends to be an historical novel set in 1820s England written in the year 2227; it is a droll spoof of the vogue for historical novels as well as the contemporary political scene.

In 1836, he fought a duel with Grantley Berkeley, a member of Parliament. Three rounds of shots were fired, but no one was struck. Berkeley had brutally assaulted magazine publisher James Fraser over a review Maginn wrote of Berkeley's novel Berkeley Castle, and Maginn had called him out.

One of the most brilliant periodical writers of his time, Maginn left little permanent work behind him.

 
 
In his later years, 1842, his intemperate habits landed him in debtor's prison, and when he emerged through the grace of the Insolvent Debtor's Act he was in an advanced stage of tuberculosis. He wrote until the end, including in the first volume of Punch, but he died in extreme poverty in Walton-on-Thames in August 1842, survived by his wife Ellen, and daughters Annie and Ellen, and son John.

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1842
 
 
Mallarme Stephane
 

Stephane Mallarme, (born March 18, 1842, Paris—died Sept. 9, 1898, Valvins, near Fontainebleau, Fr.), French poet, an originator (with Paul Verlaine) and a leader of the Symbolist movement in poetry.

 

Portrait of Mallarmé, by Nadar, 1896
  Mallarmé enjoyed the sheltered security of family life for only five brief years, until the early death of his mother in August 1847. This traumatic experience was echoed 10 years later by the death of his younger sister Maria, in August 1857, and by that of his father in 1863. These tragic events would seem to explain much of the longing Mallarmé expressed, from the very beginning of his poetic career, to turn away from the harsh world of reality in search of another world; and the fact that this remained the enduring theme of his poetry may be explained by the comparative harshness with which adult life continued to treat him. After spending the latter part of 1862 and the early months of 1863 in London so as to acquire a knowledge of English, he began a lifelong career as a schoolteacher, first in provincial schools (Tournon, Besançon, and Avignon) and later in Paris.

He was not naturally gifted in this profession, however, and found the work decidedly uncongenial. Furthermore, his financial situation was by no means comfortable, particularly after his marriage in 1863 and after the birth of his children, Geneviève (in 1864) and Anatole (in 1871). To try to improve matters he engaged in part-time activities, such as editing a magazine for a few months at the end of 1874, writing a school textbook in 1877, and translating another textbook in 1880. In October 1879, after a six-month illness, his son Anatole died.

Despite these trials and tribulations, Mallarmé made steady progress with his parallel career as a poet.
 
 
His early poems, which he began contributing to magazines in 1862, were influenced by Charles Baudelaire, whose recently published collection Les Fleurs du mal (“The Flowers of Evil”) was largely concerned with the theme of escape from reality, a theme by which Mallarmé was already becoming obsessed. But Baudelaire’s escapism had been of an essentially emotional and sensual kind—a vague dream of tropical islands and peaceful landscapes where all would be “luxe, calme et volupté” (“luxury, calm, and voluptuousness”).
 
 
Mallarmé was of a much more intellectual bent, and his determination to analyze the nature of the ideal world and its relationship with reality is reflected in the two dramatic poems he began to write in 1864 and 1865, respectively, Hérodiade (“Herodias”) and L’Après-midi d’un faune (“The Afternoon of a Faun”), the latter being the work that inspired Claude Debussy to compose his celebrated Prélude a quarter of a century later.

By 1868 Mallarmé had come to the conclusion that, although nothing lies beyond reality, within this nothingness lie the essences of perfect forms.

The poet’s task is to perceive and crystallize these essences. In so doing, the poet becomes more than a mere descriptive versifier, transposing into poetic form an already existent reality; he becomes a veritable God, creating something from nothing, conjuring up for the reader, as Mallarmé himself put it, “l’absente de tous bouquets”—the ideal flower that is absent from all real bouquets.

But to crystallize essences in this way, to create the notion of floweriness, rather than to describe an actual flower, demands an extremely subtle and complex use of all the resources of language, and Mallarmé devoted himself during the rest of his life to putting his theories into practice in what he called his Grand Oeuvre (“Great Work”), or Le Livre (“The Book”).

He never came near to completing this work, however, and the few preparatory notes that have survived give little or no idea of what the end result might have been.

 
Stephane Mallarmé as a faun, cover of the literary magazine Les hommes d'aujourd'hui, 1887.
 
 
On the other hand, Mallarmé did complete a number of poems related to his projected Grand Oeuvre, both in their themes and in their extremely evocative use of language. Among these are several elegies—the principal ones being to Charles Baudelaire, Edgar Allan Poe, Richard Wagner, Théophile Gautier, and Paul Verlaine—that Mallarmé was commissioned to write at various times in his career.
 
 

Édouard Manet, Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé, 1876
 
 
He no doubt agreed to do them because the traditional theme of the elegy—the man is dead but he lives on in his work—is clearly linked to the poet’s own belief that, although beyond reality there is nothing, poetry has the power to transcend this annihilation. In a second group of poems, Mallarmé wrote about poetry itself, reflecting evocatively on his aims and achievements.
 
 

Stephane Mallarme
  In addition to these two categories of poems, he also wrote some poems that run counter to his obsession with the ideal world, though they, too, display that magical use of language of which Mallarmé had made himself such a master. These are the dozen or so sonnets he addressed to his mistress, Méry Laurent, between 1884 and 1890, in which he expressed his supreme satisfaction with reality. At that time, life was becoming much happier for him, not only because his liaison was agreeable but also because a review of him in the series of articles entitled Les Poètes maudits (“The Accursed Poets”) published by Verlaine in 1883 and the praise lavished on him by J.-K. Huysmans in his novel À rebours (“The Wrong Way”) in 1884 led to his wide recognition as the most eminent French poet of the day. A series of celebrated Tuesday evening meetings at his tiny flat in Paris were attended by well-known writers, painters, and musicians of the time. All this perhaps decreased his need to seek refuge in an ideal world, and in Un Coup de dés jamais n’abolira le hasard, poème (“A Throw of Dice Will Never Abolish the Hazard, Poem”), the work that appeared in 1897, the year before his death, he found consolation in the thought that he had met with some measure of success in giving poetry a truly creative function.

Mallarmé died in 1898, at his cottage at Valvins, a village on the Seine near Fontainebleau, his main residence after retirement.

Charles Chadwick

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Stéphane Mallarmé
 
 
     
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1842
 
 
May Karl
 

Karl Friedrich May (25 February 1842 – 30 March 1912) was a popular German writer, noted mainly for adventure novels set in the American Old West (best known for the characters of Winnetou and Old Shatterhand) and similar books set in the Orient and Middle East (with Kara Ben Nemsi and Hadschi Halef Omar). In addition, he wrote stories set in his native Germany, in China and in South America. May also wrote poetry, a play, and composed music; he was a proficient player of several musical instruments.

Many of his works were filmed, adapted for the stage, turned into audio dramas or into comics. A highly imaginative and fanciful writer, May never visited the exotic places featured in his stories until late in life, at which point the clash between his fiction and reality led to a complete change in his work.

 

Karl May
  Karl May, in full Karl Friedrich May (born Feb. 25, 1842, Hohenstein-Ernstthal, Saxony [Germany]—died March 30, 1912, Radebeul, Ger.), German author of travel and adventure stories for young people, dealing with desert Arabs or with American Indians in the wild West, remarkable for the realistic detail that the author was able to achieve.

May, a weaver’s son, was an elementary school teacher until arrested for petty theft. He later was twice arrested for fraud and spent several years in prison, where he is said to have read voraciously.

After his release in 1874 May wrote short stories that were serialized in various periodicals.

His popularity soared upon the appearance of his short-story collections and novels in the early 1890s.

Some of the best known of his more than 60 works are Der Schatz im Silbersee (1894; “The Treasure in the Silver Lake”), Durch die Wüste (1892; In the Desert), Winnetou, 3 vol. (1893; Eng. trans., 1977); Ardistan und Dschinnistan (1909; Ardistan and Djinnistan), and the autobiography Mein Leben und Streben (1910; “My Life and Struggle”).

In his memory were established a publishing house, the Karl May Verlag in Bamberg, Ger. (originally in Radebeul), and the Karl May Museum in Bamberg, containing North American Indian collections.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 

Cover for Waldröschen
 
Cover of Orangen und Datteln by Fritz Bergen
     
     

Cover of Der blaurote Methusalem by Oskar Herrfurth
 
Ardistan und Dschinnistan, 1909, cover by Sascha Schneider showing Marah Durimeh
 
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1842
 
 
"Einen Jux will er sich machen" ("He Wants to Have a Lark"), a Viennese farce by Nestroy Johann
first performed; used by Thornton Wilder as basis for his comedy "The Matchmaker" (1956)
 
 
 
1842
 
 
Рое: "The Masque of the Red Death"
 

"The Masque of the Red Death", originally published as "The Mask of the Red Death: A Fantasy" (1842), is a short story by Рое Edgar Allan . The story follows Prince Prospero's attempts to avoid a dangerous plague known as the Red Death by hiding in his abbey. He, along with many other wealthy nobles, has a masquerade ball within seven rooms of his abbey, each decorated with a different color. In the midst of their revelry, a mysterious figure disguised as a Red Death victim enters and makes his way through each of the rooms. Prospero dies after confronting this stranger, whose "costume" proves to have nothing tangible inside it; the guests also die in turn.

 
The story follows many traditions of Gothic fiction and is often analyzed as an allegory about the inevitability of death, though some critics advise against an allegorical reading. Many different interpretations have been presented, as well as attempts to identify the true nature of the titular disease. The story was first published in May 1842 in Graham's Magazine. It has since been adapted in many different forms, including the 1964 film starring Vincent Price. It has been alluded to by other works in many types of media.
 
 
Plot summary
The story takes place at the castellated abbey of the "happy and dauntless and sagacious" Prince Prospero. Prospero and one thousand other nobles have taken refuge in this walled abbey to escape the Red Death, a terrible plague with gruesome symptoms that has swept over the land. Victims are overcome by "sharp pains," "sudden dizziness," and sweat blood. The plague is said to kill within half an hour. Prospero and his court are indifferent to the sufferings of the population at large. They intend to await the end of the plague in luxury and safety behind the walls of their secure refuge, having welded the doors shut.

One night, Prospero holds a masquerade ball to entertain his guests in six colored rooms of the abbey. Each of the first six rooms is decorated and illuminated in a specific color: blue, purple, green, orange, white, and violet. The last room is decorated in black and is illuminated by a scarlet light, "a deep blood color". Because of this chilling pairing of colors, very few guests are brave enough to venture into the seventh room. The same room is the location of a large ebony clock that ominously clangs at each hour, upon which everyone stops talking or dancing and the orchestra stops playing. Once the chiming stops, everyone immediately resumes the masquerade.
At the chiming of midnight, the revelers and Prospero notice a figure in a dark, blood-splattered robe resembling a funeral shroud. The figure's face resembles a mask that looks much like the rigid face of a corpse, and exhibits the traits of the Red Death.

 
Illustration for "The Masque of the Red Death" by Harry Clarke, 1919
 
 
Gravely insulted, Prospero demands to know the identity of the mysterious guest so that they can hang him. The guests are too afraid to approach the figure, instead letting him pass through the six chambers. The Prince pursues him with a drawn dagger until he is cornered in the seventh room. When the figure turns to face him, the Prince lets out a sharp cry and falls dead. The enraged and terrified revelers surge into the black room and forcibly remove the mask and robe, only to find to their horror that there is no solid form underneath. Only then do they realize that the figure is the Red Death itself, and all of the guests contract and succumb to the disease. The final line of the story sums up, "And Darkness and Decay and the Red Death held illimitable dominion over all."
 
 
Analysis
In "The Masque of the Red Death", Poe adopts many conventions of traditional Gothic fiction, including the setting of a castle. The multiple single-toned rooms may be representative of the human mind, showing different personality types. The imagery of blood and time throughout also indicate corporeality.

The plague may, in fact, represent typical attributes of human life and mortality. This would imply the entire story is an allegory about man's futile attempts to stave off death; this interpretation is commonly accepted. However, there is much dispute over how to interpret "The Masque of the Red Death"; some suggest it is not allegorical, especially due to Poe's admission of a distaste for didacticism in literature. If the story really does have a moral, Poe does not explicitly state that moral in the text.

Blood, emphasized throughout the tale along with the color red, serves as a dual symbol, representing both death and life. This is emphasized by the masked figure – never explicitly stated to be the Red Death, but only a reveler in a costume of the Red Death – making his initial appearance in the easternmost room, which is colored blue, a color most often associated with birth.

Though Prospero's castle is meant to keep the sickness out, it is ultimately an oppressive structure. Its maze-like design and tall and narrow windows become almost burlesque in the final black room, so oppressive that "there were few of the company bold enough to set foot within its precincts at all." Additionally, the castle is meant to be an enclosed space, but the stranger is still able to sneak inside, suggesting that control is an illusion.

 
Illustration by Aubrey Beardsley, 1894–1895.
 
 
Like many of Poe's tales, "The Masque of the Red Death" has also been interpreted autobiographically. In this point of view, Prince Prospero is Poe as a wealthy young man, part of a distinguished family much like Poe's foster parents, the Allans. Under this interpretation, Poe is seeking refuge from the dangers of the outside world, and his portrayal of himself as the only person willing to confront the stranger is emblematic of Poe's rush towards inescapable dangers in his own life.
 
 
The "Red Death"
The disease called the Red Death is fictitious. Poe describes it as causing "sharp pains, and sudden dizziness, and then profuse bleeding at the pores" leading to death within half an hour.

It is likely that the disease was inspired by tuberculosis (or consumption, as it was known then), since Poe's wife Virginia was suffering from the disease at the time the story was written.

Like the character of Prince Prospero, Poe tried to ignore the fatality of the disease. Poe's mother Eliza, brother William, and foster mother Frances Allan had also died of tuberculosis. Alternatively, the Red Death may refer to cholera; Poe would have witnessed an epidemic of cholera in Baltimore, Maryland in 1831.

Others have suggested that the plague is actually Bubonic plague or the Black death, emphasized by the climax of the story featuring the "Red" Death in the "black" room.

One writer likens the description to that of a viral hemorrhagic fever or necrotizing fasciitis. It has been suggested that the Red Death is not a disease or sickness at all but a weakness (like "original sin") that is shared by all of humankind inherently.

Publication history
Poe first published the story in the May 1842 edition of Graham's Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine as "The Mask of the Red Death", with the tagline "A Fantasy".

 
"The Masque of the Red Death"
 
 
This first publication earned him $12. A revised version was published in the July 19, 1845 edition of the Broadway Journal under the now-standard title "The Masque of the Red Death." The original title emphasized the figure at the end of the story; the new title puts emphasis on the masquerade ball.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
     
  Edgar Allan Poe

1. "Ligeia"
2. "The Raven"
3.
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1842
 
 
Quental Antero Tarquinio
 
Antero Tarquínio de Quental, (born April 18, 1842, Ponta Delgada, Azores, Port.—died Sept. 11, 1891, Ponta Delgada), Portuguese poet who was a leader of the Generation of Coimbra, a group of young poets associated with the University of Coimbra in the 1860s who revolted against Romanticism and struggled to create a new outlook in literature and society.
 

Antero Tarquínio de Quental
  He came from an aristocratic family that included writers and mystics, and Quental himself had mystical leanings that pervaded his poetry. Between 1858 and 1864, while studying law at Coimbra, he wrote his Romantic early poems, Raios de Extincta Luz (“Rays of Vanishing Light”) and the delicate lyrics published in 1872 as Primaveras Românticas (“Romantic Springtimes”). These were soon followed by Odes Modernas (1865), a volume of socially critical poetry that won him an intellectual and moral ascendancy among his fellow students. His pamphlet Bom-senso e Bom-gosto (1865; “Good Sense and Good Taste”), attacking the hidebound formalism of Portuguese literature, marked the opening of a war against the older literary generation that was waged until 1871, when a series of “democratic lectures,” organized by Quental and held in the Lisbon Casino, dealt the deathblow to Romanticism.

After leaving Coimbra, Quental tried a job as a typographer, first in Lisbon and then (1867) in Paris. Six months of working-class life disillusioned him of his dream of becoming a modern apostle of social change, however, and eventually ill health forced him to return to Portugal. After a trip in a sailboat to the United States and Canada (1869), he went back to Lisbon, where he engaged in propaganda activities on behalf of the workers and collaborated in the attempt to organize the First International (first international federation of working-class parties) in Portugal.

 
 
He was influenced by the socialist theories of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and edited a socialist journal.

Amid all this activity, Quental was troubled by increasing discontent. He abandoned many cherished projects and tore up his early poems. He developed a spinal disease for which treatment gave only temporary relief. During a period of renewed calm he wrote some of his last and finest sonnets.

In 1881 he retired to Vila do Conde, near Porto, to supervise the upbringing of two orphan girls he had adopted. On a visit to his family in Ponta Delgada, suffering from physical pain, insomnia, and acute depression, he killed himself.

As a poet Quental made few formal innovations. He was a master of the sonnet, however, and the 109 sonnets of Os Sonetos Completos (1886) are a history of his spiritual progress, giving expression both to his personal anxieties and to the larger ideological issues in Portugal as that country was exposed to late 19th-century European thought. Quental’s Sonnets and Poems (1922), translated by S. Griswold Morley, was reprinted in 1977.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1842
 
 
Scribe Eugene: "Le Verre d'eau" ("A Glass of Water")
 
 

Eugene Scribe: "A Glass of Water"
 
 
see also: Eugene Scribe
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
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1842
 
 
Stendhal, French novelist and essayist, d. (b. 1783)
 
 

Stendhal
 
 
see also: Stendhal
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1842
 
 
Woodworth Samuel
 

Samuel Woodworth (January 13, 1784 – December 9, 1842) was an American author, literary journalist, playwright, librettist, and poet.

 

Samuel Woodworth
  History
Woodworth was born in Scituate, Massachusetts to Revolutionary War veteran Benjamin Woodworth and his wife Abigail Bryant.

He was apprenticed to Benjamin Russell, editor of the Columbian Sentinel.

He then moved to New Haven, Connecticut, where he briefly published the Belles-Lettres Repository, a weekly.

He next moved to New York City, but recalled New Haven in his A Poem: New Haven.

Personal life
Woodworth married Lydia Reeder in New York City on September 23, 1810. They had ten children between 1811 and 1829.

Woodworth remained in New York for the rest of his life, dying there in 1842 at the age of 56.

Woodworth's son, Selim E. Woodworth, was a U.S. Navy officer who took part in the rescue of the snowbound Donner Party in California.
The USS Woodworth (DD-460) was named for him.

 
 

"The Old Oaken Bucket"
Woodworth is best known for the poem "The Old Oaken Bucket". The first stanza reads:

How dear to this heart are the scenes of my childhood,
When fond recollection presents them to view!
The orchard, the meadow, the deep-tangled wild-wood,
And every loved spot which my infancy knew!
The wide-spreading pond, and the mill that stood by it,
The bridge, and the rock where the cataract fell,
The cot of my father, the dairy-house nigh it,
And e'en the rude bucket that hung in the well-
The old oaken bucket, the iron-bound bucket,
The moss-covered bucket which hung in the well.


In 1826 the poem was set to music by George F Kiallmark (1804–1887) and has been sung by generations of American schoolchildren. It was recorded in 1899 by The Haydn Quartet, the most famous barbershop quartet of the time, and was released on Berliner Gramophone.

 
The Old Oaken Bucket House
The Old Oaken Bucket House in Scituate, Massachusetts is on the National Register of Historic Places. A sign on the house reads: 1630-1930 THE OLD OAKEN BUCKET Homestead and well made famous by Samuel Woodworth in his poem "The Old Oaken Bucket." Homestead erected by John Northey in 1675: Poet born in Scituate January 13, 1784. Massachusetts Bay Colony Tercentenary Commission.
  The Old Oaken Bucket trophy
The Old Oaken Bucket trophy has been awarded every year since 1925 to the winner of the Big Ten Conference college football game between Purdue University and Indiana University. Although Woodworth was not from Indiana, the trophy's name refers to the sentiment that Hoosiers have for their home state.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
  Western Literature

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1842
 
 
Macaulay: "Lays of Ancient Rome"
 

Lays of Ancient Rome is a collection of narrative poems, or lays, by Macaulay Thomas Babington. Four of these recount heroic episodes from early Roman history with strong dramatic and tragic themes, giving the collection its name. Macaulay also included two poems inspired by recent history: Ivry (1824) and The Armada (1832).

 
Overview
The Lays were composed by Lord Macaulay during his spare time, while he was the "legal member" of the Governor-General of India's Supreme Council from 1834 to 1838. He later wrote of them:

The plan occurred to me in the jungle at the foot of the Neilgherry hills; and most of the verses were made during a dreary sojourn at Ootacamund and a disagreeable voyage in the Bay of Bengal.

The Roman ballads are preceded by brief introductions, discussing the legends from a scholarly perspective. Macaulay explains that his intention was to write poems resembling those that might have been sung in ancient times.

The Lays were first published by Longman in 1842, at the beginning of the Victorian Era. They became immensely popular, and were a regular subject of recitation, then a common pastime. The Lays were standard reading in British public schools for more than a century. Winston Churchill memorised them while at Harrow School, in order to show that he was capable of mental prodigies, notwithstanding his lacklustre academic performance.

 
 
The poems
Horatius

The first poem, Horatius, describes how Publius Horatius and two companions, Spurius Lartius and Titus Herminius, held the Sublician bridge against the Etruscan army of Lars Porsena, King of Clusium.

The three heroes are willing to die in order to prevent the enemy from crossing the bridge, and sacking an otherwise ill-defended Rome. While the trio close with the front ranks of the Etruscans, the Romans hurriedly work to demolish the bridge, leaving their enemies on the wrong side of the swollen Tiber.

This poem contains the often-quoted lines:

Then out spake brave Horatius,
The Captain of the Gate:
"To every man upon this earth
Death cometh soon or late.
And how can man die better
Than facing fearful odds,
For the ashes of his fathers,
And the temples of his Gods."

Lartius and Herminius regain the Roman side before the bridge falls, but Horatius is stranded, and jumps into the river still wearing his full armor. Macaulay writes,

And when above the surges
They saw his crest appear,
All Rome sent forth a rapturous cry,
And even the ranks of Tuscany
Could scarce forbear to cheer.

 
Lays of Ancient Rome, 1881
 
 
He reaches the Roman shore, is rewarded, and his act of bravery earns him mythic status:

With weeping and with laughter
Still is the story told,
How well Horatius kept the bridge
In the brave days of old.

 
 
The Battle of Lake Regillus
This poem celebrates the Roman victory over the Latin League, at the Battle of Lake Regillus. Several years after the retreat of Porsena, Rome was threatened by a Latin army led by the deposed Roman king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, together with his son, Titus Tarquinius, and his son-in-law, Octavius Mamilius, prince of Tusculum. The fighting described by Macaulay is fierce and bloody, and the outcome is only decided when the twin gods Castor and Pollux descend to the battlefield on the side of Rome.

This poem includes a number of finely described single-combats, in conscious imitation of Homer's Iliad.

 
 
Virginia
This poem describes the tragedy of Virginia, the only daughter of Virginius, a poor Roman farmer. The wicked Appius Claudius, a member of one of Rome's most noble patrician families, and head of the college of decemvirs, desires the beautiful and virtuous Virginia.

He initiates legal proceedings, claiming Virginia as his "runaway slave", knowing that his claim will be endorsed by the corrupt magistracy over which he and his cronies preside.
Driven to despair, Virginius resolves to save his daughter from Claudius' lust by any means—even her death is preferable.

Virginia's sacrifice stirs the plebeians to action: their violent outbursts lead to the overthrow of the decemvirs, and the establishment of the office of tribune of the plebs, to protect the plebeian interest from abuses by the established patrician aristocracy.

The Prophecy of Capys
When Romulus and Remus arrive in triumph at the house of their grandfather, Capys, the blind old man enters a prophetic trance.

He foretells the future greatness of Romulus' descendants, and their ultimate victory over their enemies in the Pyhrric and Punic wars.]

Ivry, A Song of the Huguenots
Originally composed in 1824, Ivry celebrates a battle won by Henry IV of France and his Huguenot forces over the Catholic League in 1590.

 
John Reinhard Weguelin, Horatius defending the Sublician bridge, from the 1881 edition.
 
 
Henry's succession to the French throne was contested by those who would not accept a Protestant king of France; his victory at Ivry against superior forces left him the only credible claimant for the crown, although he was unable to overcome all opposition until converting to Catholicism in 1593.

Henry went on to issue the Edict of Nantes in 1598, granting tolerance to the French Protestants, and ending the French Wars of Religion.
 
 

John Reinhard Weguelin, Castor and Pollux fighting at the Battle of Lake Regillus, from the 1881 edition.
 
 
The Armada: A Fragment
Written in 1832, this poem describes the news of the Spanish Armada's arrival at Plymouth in 1588, and the lighting of beacons to send the news to London and across England,

Till Skiddaw saw the fire that burnt on Gaunt's embattled pile,
And the red glare on Skiddaw roused the burghers of Carlisle
.

The Armada was sent by Philip II of Spain with the goal of conveying an army of invasion to England, and deposing the Protestant Queen Elizabeth. The supposedly invincible fleet was thwarted by a combination of vigilance, tactics taking advantage of the size and lack of maneuverability of the Armada and its ships, and a series of other misfortunes.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1842
 
 
Martin Tupper: "Proverbial Philosophy," second series
 
 
Tupper Martin Farquhar
 

Martin Farquhar Tupper (1810-1889), English writer, the author of Proverbial Philosophy, was born in London on the 17th of July 1810. He was the son of Martin Tupper, a doctor, who came of an old Huguenot family.

 

Martin Farquhar Tupper
  He was educated at Charterhouse and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he gained a prize for a theological essay, Gladstone being second to him. He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, but never practised.

He began a long career of authorship in 1832 with Sacra Poesis, and in 1838 he published Geraldine, and other Poems, and for fifty years was fertile in producing both verse and prose; but his name is indissolubly connected with his long series of didactic moralisings in blank verse, the Proverbial Philosophy (1838-1867), which for about twenty-five years enjoyed an extraordinary popularity that has ever since been the cause of persistent satire.

The first part was, however, a comparative failure, and N. P. Willis, the American author, took it to be a forgotten work of the 17th century.

The commonplace character of Tupper's reflections is indubitable, and his blank verse is only prose cut up into suitable lengths; but the Proverbial Philosophy was full of a perfectly genuine moral and religious feeling, and contained many apt and striking expressions. By these qualities it appealed to a large and uncritical section of the public.
 
 
A genial, warm-hearted man, Tupper's humane instincts prompted him to espouse many reforming movements; he was an early supporter of the Volunteer movement, and did much to promote good relations with America. He was also a mechanical inventor in a small way. In 1886 he published My Life as an Author; and on the 29th of November 1889 he died at Albury, Surrey.

1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
 
 
     
  Western Literature

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