Leg(g)att Chantrey (7 April 1781 – 25 November 1841) was
an English sculptor. He became the leading portrait
sculptor in Regency era Britain, producing busts and
statues of many notable figures of the time. He left the
Chantrey Bequest or Chantrey Fund for the purchase of
works of art for the nation, which was available from
1878 after the death of his widow.
Self portrait of
Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey, c. 1810.
Sir Francis Legatt
Chantrey, (born April 7, 1781, Norton, Derbyshire,
Eng.—died Nov. 25, 1841, London), prolific early
19th-century English sculptor whose work is noted
for its naturalism and psychological vitality.
Though his work was Classical in format, like that
of his contemporaries, these unusual qualities
inspired the next generation of English sculptors in
their approach to a modern perspective. Of his many
works, he considered his sculpture Lady Frederica
Stanhope at Chevening Church (1824) to be the best.
Chantrey began his
career as a wood-carver, receiving his first
sculpture commission in 1805. In 1811, after his
bust of the radical reformer John Horne Tooke was
exhibited at the Royal Academy, Chantrey’s success
was assured. Numerous commissions followed: statues
of George IV in Windsor Castle and at Brighton;
George Washington in the state house, Boston;
William Pitt in Hanover Square, London; and
equestrian statues of George IV in Trafalgar Square,
London, and of the Duke of Wellington outside the
Royal Exchange, London. Chantrey also produced a
large number of busts, including two of Sir Walter
Scott. He was knighted in 1835.
Marble bust of King
George IV by Chantrey, 1827.
Bust of Revd. John HorneTooke.
The Sleeping Children
(1817) in Lichfield Cathedral, portrays two young sisters,
Ellen-Jane and Marianne Robinson, who died in tragic
circumstances in 1812.
Berthe Morisot, (born Jan. 14, 1841, Bourges, Fr.—died March 2,
1895, Paris), French painter and printmaker who exhibited regularly
with the Impressionists and, despite the protests of friends and
family, continued to participate in their struggle for recognition.
The daughter of a high government official (and a granddaughter
of the important Rococo painter Jean-Honoré Fragonard), Morisot
decided early to be an artist and pursued her goal with seriousness
and dedication. From 1862 to 1868 she worked under the guidance of
Camille Corot. She first exhibited paintings at the Salon in 1864.
Her work was exhibited there regularly through 1874, when she vowed
never to show her paintings in the officially sanctioned forum
again. In 1868 she met Édouard Manet, who was to exert a tremendous
influence over her work. He did several portraits of her (e.g.,
“Repose,” c. 1870). Manet had a liberating effect on her work, and
she in turn aroused his interest in outdoor painting.
Morisot’s work never lost its Manet-like quality—an insistence on
design—nor did she become as involved in colour-optical
experimentation as her fellow Impressionists. Her paintings
frequently included members of her family, particularly her sister,
Edma (e.g., “The Artist’s Sister, Mme Pontillon, Seated on the
Grass,” 1873; and “The Artist’s Sister Edma and Their Mother,”
1870). Delicate and subtle, exquisite in colour—often with a subdued
emerald glow—they won her the admiration of her Impressionist
colleagues. Like that of the other Impressionists, her work was
ridiculed by many critics. Never commercially successful during her
lifetime, she nevertheless outsold Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste
Renoir, and Alfred Sisley.
She was a woman of great culture
and charm and counted among her close friends Stéphane Mallarmé, Edgar
Degas, Charles Baudelaire, Émile Zola, Emmanuel Chabrier, Renoir,
and Monet. She married Édouard Manet’s younger brother Eugène.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, (born February 25, 1841, Limoges, France—died
December 3, 1919, Cagnes), French painter originally associated with
the Impressionist movement. His early works were typically
Impressionist snapshots of real life, full of sparkling colour and
light. By the mid-1880s, however, he had broken with the movement to
apply a more disciplined, formal technique to portraits and figure
paintings, particularly of women.
Renoir was born into a family of artisans. His father, a tailor who
had seven children, moved with his family to Paris about 1845.
Renoir demonstrated his gift at an early age. Quickly recognizing
his talent, his parents apprenticed him, at age 13, to work in a
porcelain factory, where he learned to decorate plates with bouquets
Shortly after that, he was painting fans and then cloth
panels representing religious themes for missionaries to hang in
their churches. His skill and the great pleasure he took in his work
soon convinced him he should study painting in earnest.
a little money, he decided, in 1862, to take evening courses in
drawing and anatomy at the École des Beaux-Arts as well as painting
lessons at the studio of Charles Gleyre, a Swiss painter who had
been a student of the 19th-century Neoclassical painter J.-A.-D.
Ingres. Although the academic style of his teacher did not suit
Renoir, he nevertheless accepted its discipline in order to acquire
the elementary skills needed to become a painter.
Renoir felt a much greater affinity with three students who
entered the studio a few months later: Alfred Sisley, Claude Monet,
and Frédéric Bazille. All four students dreamed of an art that was
closer to life and free from past traditions. The shared ideals of
the four young men quickly led to a strong friendship, and Renoir’s
early works include Portrait of the Painter Bazille (1867), The
Painter Sisley and His Wife (1868), and Monet Painting in His Garden
(1873). At the same time in another workshop at the Académie Suisse,
the young artists Paul Cézanne and Camille Pissarro were preoccupied
with the same problems as Renoir and his friends. With Bazille as
the intermediary, the two groups met frequently.
Association with the Impressionists
Circumstances encouraged Renoir to attempt a new freedom and
experimentation in his style. The convention of the time was that a
painting—even a landscape—had to be executed in the studio. In the
spring of 1864, however, Gleyre’s four students moved temporarily to
the forest of Fontainebleau, where they devoted themselves to
painting directly from nature. The Fontainebleau forest had earlier
attracted other artists, among them Théodore Rousseau and
Jean-François Millet, who insisted that art represent the reality of
everyday life, even though they had not yet completely renounced the
constraints imposed by traditional training. In 1863 Édouard Manet
took a much bolder step: his picture Déjeuner sur l’herbe (“Luncheon
on the Grass”) provoked a violent scandal because its subject and
technique stressed the observation of modern reality over the
repetition of a traditional ideal. Manet’s daring made him, in the
eyes of these young artists, the leader of a new movement.
Conditions were ripe for the birth of a new pictorial language,
and Impressionism, bursting upon the scene, attracted notoriety with
the first Impressionist exposition of 1874, held independently of
the official Salon. It took 10 years for the movement to acquire its
definitive form, its independent vision, and its unique
perceptiveness. But one can point to 1874 as the year of departure
for the movement that subsequently spawned modern art.
Renoir’s work is a perfect illustration of this new approach in
thought and technique. By using small, multicoloured strokes, he
evoked the vibration of the atmosphere, the sparkling effect of
foliage, and especially the luminosity of a young woman’s skin in
the outdoors. Renoir and his companions stubbornly strove to produce
light-suffused paintings from which black was excluded, but their
pursuits led to many disappointments: their paintings, so divergent
from traditional formulas, were frequently rejected by the juries of
the Salon and were extremely difficult to sell. Despite the
continuing criticism, some of the Impressionists were making
themselves known, as much among art critics as among the lay public.
Renoir, because of his fascination with the human figure, was
distinctive among the others, who were more interested in landscape.
Thus, he obtained several orders for portraits and was introduced,
thanks to the publisher Georges Charpentier, to upper-middle-class
society, from whom he obtained commissions for portraits, most
notably of women and children.
Renoir mastered the ability to convey his immediate visual
impressions, and his paintings showed great vitality, emphasizing
the pleasures of life despite the financial worries that troubled
him. Several of his masterpieces date from this period: La Loge
(1874; “The Theatre Box”), Le Moulin de la galette (1876), The
Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881), and Mme Charpentier and Her
Children (1878). Charpentier organized a personal exposition for the
works of Renoir in 1879 in the gallery La Vie Moderne.
Rejection of Impressionism
In 1881 and 1882 Renoir made several trips to Algeria, Italy, and
Provence, and these eventually had a considerable effect on his art
and on his life. He became convinced that the systematic use of the
Impressionistic technique was no longer sufficient for him and that
small brushstrokes of contrasting colours placed side by side did
not allow him to convey the satiny effects of the skin. He also
discovered that black did not deserve the opprobrium given to it by
his comrades and that, in certain cases, it had a striking effect
and gave a great intensity to the other colours.
During his journey
to Italy, he discovered Raphael and the hallmarks of classicism: the
beauty of drawing, the purity of a clear line to define a form, and
the expressive force of smooth painting when used to enhance the
suppleness and modeling of a body. At this same time, he happened to
read Il libro dell’arte (1437; A Treatise on Painting) by Cennino
Cennini, which reinforced his new ideas.
All of these revelations were so
powerful and unexpected that they provoked a crisis, and he was
tempted to break with Impressionism, which he had already begun to
doubt. He felt that until now he had been mistaken in pursuing the
ephemeral in art.
Most of his works executed from 1883 to 1884 on are so marked by
a new discipline that art historians have grouped them under the
title the “Ingres” period (to signify their vague similarity to the
technique of J.-A.-D. Ingres) or the “harsh,” or “dry,” period.
Renoir’s experiments with Impressionism were not wasted, however,
because he retained a luminous palette. Nevertheless, in paintings
from this period, such as The Umbrellas (c. 1883) and many
depictions of bathers, Renoir emphasized volume, form, contours, and
line rather than colour and brushstroke.
His strong reaction against Impressionism continued until about
1890. During these years he made several trips to southern France:
Aix-en-Provence, Marseille, and Martigues. The nature of this sunlit
region gave greater encouragement to his separation from
Impressionism, which to him was associated with the landscapes of
the valley of the Seine. Southern France offered him scenes bursting
with colour and sensuality.
At the same time, the seemingly joyous
spontaneity of nature gave him the desire to depart from his
newfound adherence to the dictates of classicism. While in southern
France, he recovered the instinctive freshness of his art; he
painted women at their bath with the same healthful bloom he would
give to bouquets of flowers.
His financial situation was appreciably improved; he was married
in 1890 to Aline Charigot (some sources give the year as 1881), and
the exposition that was organized for him in 1892 by the dealer Paul
Durand-Ruel was a great success. Renoir’s future was assured, and
his work of that period reflected his new security and also his
confidence in the future.
Renoir had his first attack of rheumatism in 1894, and, as the
attacks became more and more frequent, he spent more and more time
in southern France, where the climate was better for his health.
About 1899 he sought refuge in the small village of Cagnes; in 1907
he settled there permanently, buying the estate of Les Collettes,
where he spent the rest of his life. In 1910 he was no
longer able to walk.
Although his infirmity became more and more constraining,
Renoir never ceased to paint; when his fingers were no longer
supple, he continued by binding his paintbrush to his hand.
In spite of his misfortune, Renoir’s paintings during this period
still embodied a cheerful attitude toward life. His themes became
more personal and intimate, focusing on portraits of his wife, his
children, and Gabrielle, his maid, who often also posed for his nude
paintings. His still lifes were composed of flowers and fruits from
his own garden, and the landscapes were those that surrounded him.
The nudes, especially, reflect the serenity that he found in his
work. Examples of this period include The Artist’s Family (1896) and
Sleeping Bather (1897).
He attempted to embody his admiration for
the female form in sculpture, with the assistance of young Richard Guino. Since Renoir was no longer able to do sculpture himself,
Guino became, about 1913, the skillful instrument who willingly
followed his directions. He yielded before the personality of Renoir
and succeeded so well that the works have all the qualities of
Renoir’s wife died in 1915 after having returned from Gérardmer,
where she had gone to see their son Jean, who had been seriously
wounded in the war, and who would go on to become an important
filmmaker. Renoir survived his wife by four years.
Several months before his death, he
was able to go to Paris to see his Portrait of Mme Georges Charpentier (1876–77), which had been recently acquired
by the state. On that occasion, several friends wheeled him for the
last time through the Louvre to view the masterpieces that he had
venerated throughout his life.
The Ball at the Moulin de la Galette
Otto Koloman Wagner (13
July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect and
urban planner, known for his lasting impact on the
appearance of his home town Vienna, to which he
contributed many landmarks.
Life and career
Wagner was born in Penzing, a district in Vienna. He
was the son of Suzanne (née von
Helffenstorffer-Hueber) and Rudolf Simeon Wagner, a
notary to the Royal Hungarian Court. He studied in
Berlin and Vienna. In 1864, he started designing his
first buildings in the historicist style. In the
mid- and late-1880s, like many of his contemporaries
in Germany (such as Constantin Lipsius, Richard
Streiter and Georg Heuser), Switzerland (Hans Auer
and Alfred Friedrich Bluntschli) and France (Paul
Sédille), Wagner became a proponent of Architectural
Realism. It was a theoretical position that enabled
him to mitigate the reliance on historical forms. In
1894, when he became Professor of Architecture at
the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, he was well
advanced on his path toward a more radical
opposition to the prevailing currents of historicist
architecture. By the mid-1890s, he had already
designed several Jugendstil buildings. Wagner was
very interested in urban planning — in 1890 he
designed a new city plan for Vienna, but only his
urban rail network, the Stadtbahn, was built.
In 1896 he published a
textbook entitled Modern Architecture in which he expressed
his ideas about the role of the architect; it was based on
the text of his 1894 inaugural lecture to the Academy. His
style incorporated the use of new materials and new forms to
reflect the fact that society itself was changing. In his
textbook, he stated that "new human tasks and views called
for a change or reconstitution of existing forms". In
pursuit of this ideal, he designed and built structures that
reflected their intended function, such as the austere
Neustiftgasse apartment block in Vienna.
In 1897, he joined Gustav
Klimt, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Josef Hoffmann and Koloman
Moser shortly after they founded the "Vienna Secession"
artistic group. From the ideas of this group he developed a
style that included quasi-symbolic references to the new
forms of modernity.
Paul Wallot (26 June
1841 Oppenheim am Rhein - 10 August 1912 Bad Schwalbach)
was a German architect of Huguenot descent, best known
for designing the Reichstag building in Berlin, erected
between 1884 and 1894.
He also built the
adjacent Palace of the President of the Reichstag,
finished in 1904, and the former Saxon Ständehaus
state diet building of 1906 at Brühl's Terrace in
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Reichstag, by Paul
Wallot, Norman Foster, at Berlin, Germany, 1884 to 1894,
1957 to 1972, 1995 to 1999.
Ferdinand von Olivier (b Dessau, 1 April 1785; d Munich
11 Feb 1841).
Julius Schnorr von
and lithographer, brother of Heinrich Olivier. The
brothers’ mother was a court opera singer in Dessau,
and Ferdinand’s later interest in the German
medieval and Nazarene styles owed much to the
intellectual climate at the Anhalt-Dessau court,
where Leopold III Frederick Francis, Prince of
Anhalt-Dessau, had been the first German prince to
introduce the Gothic Revival style. Olivier took up
drawing in 1801–2 under the tuition of Carl Wilhelm
Kolbe and the engraver Johann Christian Haldenwang
(1777–1831). In 1802–3 he accompanied his father to
Berlin, where he studied woodcut techniques under
Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Unger (1755–1804) and may
have attended August Wilhelm Schlegel’s lectures on
belles-lettres and art. It was here, at the latest,
that he discovered Herzensergiessungen eines
kunstliebenden Klosterbruders (Berlin, 1797) by
Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder and Ludwig Tieck, and
the latter’s Franz Sternbalds Wanderungen (Berlin,
1798), two books of vital significance for the
painting of the Romantic era. Having decided to make
art their career, Ferdinand and his brother Heinrich
spent two years (1804–6) in Dresden, where they
copied the works of Ruisdael and Claude Lorrain in
the art gallery during the summer months. Ferdinand
also took lessons from Jacob Wilhelm Mechau
(1745–1808) and Carl Ludwig Kaaz, both painters of
idealized landscapes, and he was probably introduced
to the work of Philipp Otto Runge and Caspar David
Friedrich by Friedrich August von Klinkowström
(1778–1835), a friend of Runge.
In June 1807 Ferdinand’s
excellent knowledge of French led to his appointment as
embassy secretary in Paris, where Heinrich soon joined him.
However, after just a few weeks he gave up his diplomatic
career in order to devote himself to a study of the Musée
Napoléon, which at that time housed art treasures pillaged
from all parts of Europe. Ferdinand and Heinrich jointly
produced three paintings for Leopold III Frederick Francis
of Anhalt-Dessau: a portrait of Napoleon on Horseback
(c.1809; Wörlitz, Schloss), and a Last Supper and Baptism
(1809–10; Wörlitz, Evangel. Ch.) for the Gothic Revival
church in Wörlitz. Although these last two were supposed to
be copies after the ‘old German school’, the Olivier
brothers in fact used 15th- and 16th-century Dutch and
Flemish models to create original compositions. At the end
of 1809 they returned to Dessau. In 1810, on a tour of the
Harz with his younger brother Friedrich Olivier, Ferdinand
produced a number of markedly naturalistic sketches that
testify to the break with his schooling in Dresden, for
example Cliffs on the Brocken (1810; Dessau, Anhalt.
Gemäldegal.). In 1811 he travelled with Friedrich via
Dresden to Vienna where the Lukasbrüder had been formed
shortly before. Although the group had since moved to Rome,
the Olivier brothers soon became acquainted with its ideals
through Philipp Veit, Friedrich von Schlegel’s stepson,
whose home they frequented, and Joseph Sutter (1781–1866).
In 1817, with Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, they were
accepted—from afar—into the Lukasbrüder.
Jean Frédéric Bazille
(December 6, 1841 – November 28, 1870) was a French
Impressionist painter. Many of Bazille's major works are
examples of figure painting in which Bazille placed the
subject figure within a landscape painted en plein air.
Frederic Bazille. Self-Portrait
Frederic Bazille, in
full Jean-Frédéric Bazille (born December 6, 1841,
Montpellier, France—died November 28, 1870,
Beaune-la-Rolande), painter who, as a friend,
benefactor, and colleague of the Impressionists,
played an important role during the movement’s
Bazille was an
unenthusiastic medical student before his wealthy
parents permitted him to study painting.
While a student in Paris, he met Monet and Renoir,
with whom he worked, traveled, and shared his studio
when they could not afford their own.
He exhibited at the Salons of 1866 and 1868; in the
latter, his Family Reunion had some success.
As a painter he combined a certain naiveté with a
delicate feeling for nature and an exquisite sense
His landscape figures are strangely immobile and
have a sculptural, hard-edge quality.
Bazille, who seemed destined to occupy a prominent
place among the Impressionists, was killed in the
(June 2, 1841 – December 31, 1917) was an Italian
Federico Zandomeneghi was born in Venice. His father
Pietro and grandfather Luigi were neoclassic
sculptors. The latter completed the monument to
Titian found in the Frari of Venice. As a young man,
he preferred painting to sculpture, enrolling in
1856 first in the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice,
and then in the Academy of Fine Arts of Milan. In
1860, he tried to join with the forces of Giuseppe
Garibaldi (1807-1882) in his Expedition of the
Thousand. This made it uncomfortable for him to
reside in Venice, and in 1862, he moved to Florence
for 5 years where he frequented the Caffè
Michelangiolo. There he met a number of the artists
known as the Macchiaioli, including Telemaco
Signorini, Giovanni Fattori and Giuseppe Abbati, and
he joined them in painting landscapes outdoors.
Painting outside of the studio, "en plein air", was
at that time an innovative approach, allowing for a
new vividness and spontaneity in the rendering of
light. In 1871 Pompeo Molmenti wrote glowing
assessements of three young Venetian painters:
Guglielmo Ciardi, Alessandro Zezzos, and
In 1874, he went to
Paris, where he was to spend the rest of his life.
He quickly made the acquaintance of the
Impressionists, who had just had their first group
exhibition. Zandomeneghi, whose style of painting
was similar to theirs, would participate in four of
their later exhibitions, in 1879, 1880, 1881, and
1886. Like his close friend Edgar Degas he was
primarily a figure painter, although Zandomeneghi's
work was more sentimental in character than Degas'.
He also admired the work of Mary
Cassatt and Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and his many paintings of women
in their domestic routines follow their example. To supplement the
meager returns from the sale of his paintings, Zandomeneghi found
work drawing illustrations for fashion magazines.
He took up working in pastels in
the early 1890s, and became especially adept in this medium. At
about this same time his reputation and his fortunes were enhanced
when the art dealer Durand-Ruel showed Zandomeneghi's work in the
United States. From then on he enjoyed continuing modest success
until his death in Paris in 1917.
Armand Guillaumin, in
full Jean-Baptiste-Armand Guillaumin (born February 16,
1841, Paris, France—died June 26, 1927, Paris), French
landscape painter and lithographer who was a member of
the Impressionist group.
Armand Guillaumin. Self-Portrait, 1878
Guillaumin was a close
friend of the painter Camille Pissarro, whom he met
while studying at the Académie Suisse. Together they
found employment painting blinds, and Guillaumin
portrayed his friend at work—Pissarro Painting
Blinds (c. 1868).
Guillaumin exhibited in the Salon des Refusés in
1863 and in the first Impressionist exhibit in 1874.
One of the more impoverished members of his artistic
circle, Guillaumin was obliged in 1872 to take a
post with the department of bridges and causeways.
It was not until 1892, when he won 100,000 francs in
a city lottery, that he was able to give up his
government job and paint full-time.
views of Montmartre, Meudon, and the Seine—e.g., The
Bridge of Louis Philippe (1875) and The Port at
Charenton (1878). His passionate feeling toward
nature both impressed and influenced Vincent van
Gogh; they became friends during van Gogh’s
residence in Paris in 1887.
His execution is direct, bold, and sometimes
vehement, and his colour is harmonious. In his art
Guillaumin chronicled Impressionist
developments—from his early still lifes in the style
of Édouard Manet to brilliantly coloured late works
in the style of Claude Monet.
Guillaumin. Madame Guillaumin and Her Children
Emmanuel Chabrier, in
full Alexis-Emmanuel Chabrier (born January 18, 1841,
Ambert, Puy-de-Dôme, France—died September 13, 1894,
Paris), French composer whose best works reflect the
verve and wit of the Paris scene of the 1880s and who
was a musical counterpart of the early Impressionist
Chabrier, 1880, painting by Édouard Manet,
In his youth Chabrier
was attracted to both music and painting. While
studying law in Paris from 1858 to 1862, he also
studied the piano, harmony, and counterpoint. His
technical training, however, was limited, and in the
art of composition he was self-taught. From 1862 to
1880, while he was employed as a lawyer at the
Ministry of the Interior, he composed the operas
L’Étoile (1877; “The Star”) and Une Éducation
manquée (“A Deficient Education”), first performed
with piano accompaniment in 1879 and with orchestra
Between 1863 and 1865, working with the
poet Paul Verlaine, he sketched out but never
finished two operettas. Chabrier was closely
associated with the Impressionist painters, and he
was the first owner of the celebrated A Bar at the
Folies-Bergère (1882) by his friend Édouard Manet.
Richard Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde at Munich in
1879, Chabrier left the Ministry of the Interior to
devote himself exclusively to music.
master at the Concerts Lamoureux he helped to
produce a concert performance of Tristan and became
associated with Vincent d’Indy, Henri Duparc, and
Gabriel Fauré as one of the group known as Le Petit
Chabrier’s best music was written between
1881 and 1891 when, after visiting Spain (where he
was inspired by the folk music), he settled in
His works during this period include the
piano pieces Dix pièces pittoresques (1880), Trois
valses romantiques for piano duet (1883), and
Bourrée fantasque (1891); the orchestral works
España (1883) and Joyeuse marche (1888); the opera
Le Roi malgré lui (1887; “The King in Spite of
Himself”); and six songs (1890).
The last three years of his life were marked by both mental
and physical collapse.
frequently based on irregular rhythmic patterns or
on rapidly repeated figures derived from the bourrée
(a dance of his native Auvergne), was inspired by
broad humour and a sense of caricature.
His melodic gifts were honed
by performances of popular songs in Paris cafés-concerts. In
his piano and orchestral works he developed a sophisticated
Parisian style that was a model for the 20th-century
composers Francis Poulenc and Georges Auric. His
orchestration was remarkable for novel instrumental
combinations. In España, for example, his use of brass and
percussion anticipated effects in Igor Stravinsky’s
Chabrier was also a notable
letter writer. Correspondance (1994), a collection of his
letters, was valued for its literary as well as its musical
interest and for its streak of spontaneous, Rabelaisian
Thomas John Dibdin
(21 March 1771 – 16 September 1841) was an English
dramatist and song-writer.
Dibdin was the son of Charles Dibdin, a song-writer and
theatre manager, and of "Mrs Davenet", an actress whose real
name was Harriett Pitt. He was apprenticed to his maternal
uncle, a London upholsterer, and later to William Rawlins,
afterwards sheriff of London. He summoned his second master
unsuccessfully for rough treatment; and after a few years of
service he ran away to join a company of country players.
From 1789 to 1795 he played all sorts of parts; he worked as
a scene painter at Liverpool in 1791; and during this period
he composed more than 1,000 songs.
His first work as a
dramatist was Something New, followed by The Mad Guardian in
1795. He returned to London in 1795, having married two
years before; and in the winter of 1798-99 The Jew and the
Doctor was produced at Theatre Royal, Covent Garden. From
this time he contributed a very large number of comedies,
operas, farces, etc., to the public entertainment. Some of
these brought immense popularity to the writer and immense
profits to the theatres. It is stated that the pantomime of
Mother Goose (1807) produced more than £20,000 for the
management at Covent Garden theatre, and the High-mettled
Racer, adapted as a pantomime from his father's play,
£18,000 at Astley's.
Dibdin was prompter and
pantomime writer at Theatre Royal, Drury Lane until 1816,
when he took over the Surrey Theatre. This venture proved
disastrous, and he became bankrupt. After this, he was
manager of the Haymarket Theatre, but without his old
success, and his last years were passed in comparative
poverty. In 1827 he published two volumes of Reminiscences;
and at the time of his death he was preparing an edition of
his father's sea songs, for which a small sum was allowed
him weekly by the Lords of the Admiralty. Of his own songs,
"The Oak Table" and "The Snug Little Island" were popular at
Antonin Dvorak, in full Antonín Leopold Dvořák (born September 8,
1841, Nelahozeves, Bohemia, Austrian Empire [now in Czech
Republic]—died May 1, 1904, Prague), first Bohemian composer to
achieve worldwide recognition, noted for turning folk material into
the language of 19th-century Romantic music.
Dvořák was born, the first of nine children, in Nelahozeves, a
Bohemian (now Czech) village on the Vltava River north of Prague. He
came to know music early, in and about his father’s inn, and became
an accomplished violinist as a youngster, contributing to the
amateur music-making that accompanied the dances of the local
couples. Though it was assumed that he would become a butcher and
innkeeper like his father (who also played the zither), the boy had
an unmistakable talent for music that was recognized and encouraged.
When he was about 12 years old, he moved to Zlonice to live with an
aunt and uncle and began studying harmony, piano, and organ. He
wrote his earliest works, polkas, during the three years he spent in
Zlonice. In 1857 a perceptive music teacher, understanding that
young Antonín had gone beyond his own modest abilities to teach him,
persuaded his father to enroll him at the Institute for Church Music
in Prague. There Dvořák completed a two-year course and played the
viola in various inns and with theatre bands, augmenting his small
salary with a few private pupils.
The 1860s were trying years for Dvořák, who was hard-pressed for
both time and the means, even paper and a piano, to compose. In
later years he said he had little recollection of what he wrote in
those days, but about 1864 two symphonies, an opera, chamber music,
and numerous songs lay unheard in his desk. The varied works of this
period show that his earlier leanings toward the music of Ludwig van
Beethoven and Franz Schubert were becoming increasingly tinged with
the influence of Richard Wagner and Franz Liszt.
Among the students Dvořák tutored throughout the 1860s were the
sisters Josefina and Anna Čermáková.
The musician fell in love with the
elder sister, Josefina, but she did not reciprocate his feelings.
The anguish of his unrequited love is said to be expressed in
Cypresses (1865), a number of songs set to texts by Gustav Pfleger-Moravský. In November 1873 he married the younger sister,
Anna, a pianist and singer. The first few years of the Dvořáks’
marriage were challenged by financial insecurity and marked by
tragedy. Anna had given birth to three children by 1876 but by 1877
had buried all of them. In 1878, however, she gave birth to the
first of the six healthy children the couple would raise together.
The Dvořáks maintained a close relationship with Josefina and the
man she eventually married, Count Václav Kounic. After several years
of regular visits, they bought a summer house in the small village
of Vysoká, where Josefina and the count had settled, and spent every
summer there from that point onward. Dvořák composed some of his
best-known works there.
In 1875 Dvořák was awarded a state grant by the Austrian
government, and this award brought him into contact with Johannes
Brahms, with whom he formed a close and fruitful friendship. Brahms
not only gave him valuable technical advice but also found him an
influential publisher in Fritz Simrock, and it was with his firm’s
publication of the Moravian Duets (composed 1876) for soprano and
contralto and the Slavonic Dances (1878) for piano duet that Dvořák
first attracted worldwide attention to himself and to his country’s
music. The admiration of the leading critics, instrumentalists, and
conductors of the day continued to spread his fame abroad, which led
naturally to even greater triumphs in his own country. In 1884 he
made the first of 10 visits to England, where the success of his
works, especially his choral works, was a source of constant pride
to him, although only the Stabat Mater (1877) and Te Deum (1892)
continue to hold a position among the finer works of their kind. In
1890 he enjoyed a personal triumph in Moscow, where two concerts
were arranged for him by his friend Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. The
following year he was made an honorary doctor of music of the
University of Cambridge.
Dvořák accepted the post of director of the newly established
National Conservatory of Music in New York in 1892, and, during his
years in the United States, he traveled as far west as Iowa. Though
he found much to interest and stimulate him in the New World
environment, he soon came to miss his own country, and he returned
to Bohemia in 1895. The final years of his life saw the composition
of several string quartets and symphonic poems and his last three
Bedřich Smetana, Dvořák’s senior by 17 years, had already laid the
foundations of the Czech nationalist movement in music, but it was
left to Dvořák to develop and extend this in an impressive series of
works that quickly came to rank in popularity with those of his
great German contemporaries. The reasons for Dvořák’s popularity lie
in his great talent for melody and in the delightfully fresh Czech
character of his music, which offered a welcome contrast to the
heavier fare of some of his contemporaries.
Dvořák’s technical fluency and abundant melodic inspiration
helped him to create a large and varied output. He composed in all
the musical genres and left works that are regarded as classics in
all of them, with the possible exception of opera. All Dvořák’s
mature symphonies are of high quality, though only the sombre
Symphony No. 7 in D Minor (1885) is as satisfactory in its symphonic
structure as it is musically. (It should be explained that Dvořák’s
mature symphonies were long known as No. 1 to 5, even though he had
written four earlier [and unnumbered] ones. All nine of his
symphonies have since been renumbered from the traditional order to
their actual order of composition.) Dvořák’s Symphony No. 9 in E
Minor (From the New World; 1893) remains his best-known work,
partly, no doubt, because it was thought to be based on African
American spirituals and other influences gained during his years in
the United States. Although this may be true to some extent, the
music is also characteristically Bohemian in its themes.
However, the Symphony No. 9 is in no
way superior to the Symphony No. 6 in D Major (1880) or the Symphony
No. 8 in G Major (1889) and is actually less characteristic of the
composer than these other works. Of the four concerti Dvořák wrote, only the Cello Concerto in B Minor
(1895) can safely be called a classic.
In spite of the fact that his work in the medium is sometimes
overstrained, Dvořák’s chamber music is also of high quality. The
Piano Quintet in A Major (1887) is one of the glories of chamber
music, and the string quartets, Opuses 51 (1879), 105 (1895), and
106 (1895), the String Sextet, Opus 48 (1878), and the Dumky Trio,
Opus 90 (1891), also rank high. The choral works, so popular when
they first appeared, have suffered the fate of most late
19th-century choral music, yet the Stabat Mater (1877) and Te Deum
(1892) are among the better examples of their kind. Opera remained
the one medium that proved recalcitrant to Dvořák’s genius, though
he wrote 10 of them, notably Rusalka (1900). Many of Dvořák’s most
attractive works are among his miscellaneous, less-ambitious
ones—the Slavonic Dances (1878, 1886) and other piano duets, the
Symphonic Variations (1877), the Bagatelles (1878), the Gypsy Songs
(1880), and the Scherzo Capriccioso (1883).
Some critics have considered Dvořák’s chief faults to be an
overly discursive and repetitive manner, occasional lapses in taste,
and a weakness of design in his larger works. Such shortcomings,
however, amount to little in the light of the astonishing fertility
of his melody and the simplicity and directness with which he
achieves his ends. As might be gathered from his music, Dvořák had
an attractive personality. He was a humble and deeply religious
family man of simple tastes and a great lover of nature.
(born Feb. 19, 1841, Tortosa, Spain—died Aug. 19, 1922,
Barcelona), Spanish composer and musical scholar who
devoted his life to the development of a Spanish school
of music founded on both national folk songs and Spanish
masterpieces of the past.
When Pedrell was a
choirboy, his imagination was first fired by contact
with early Spanish church music. Largely
self-taught, he composed several operas, mostly on
national subjects. The first, El último Abencerraje,
founded on a text by Chateaubriand, was produced in
an Italian version in Barcelona in 1874.
In 1891 he published his manifesto Por nuestra
música, which attracted much attention;
misunderstood as favouring Wagnerian reforms, it
advocated a Spanish opera with musical roots in the
Spanish folk song. He published an invaluable
four-volume collection of folk songs, the Cancionero
musical popular español. In the eight-volume
Hispaniae schola musica sacra, Pedrell edited, for
the first time, a vast quantity of early Spanish
church, stage, and organ music, including the
keyboard works of Antonio de Cabezón and the
complete works of Tomás Luis de Victoria. At the
same time, he was working on an operatic trilogy,
the first part of which, Los Pirineos (“The
Pyrenees”; to a Catalan libretto), was produced in
an Italian version in 1902.
The second part, La Celestina, though it contained
some of his finest music, remained unperformed. As a
composer, Pedrell was to a certain extent hampered
by technical shortcomings.
His influence on later Spanish composers, however,
was incalculable, and his pupils included Manuel de
Falla, Isaac Albéniz, and Enrique Granados. His
editions of early Spanish music laid the foundations
of Spanish musicology.
Stabat Mater is a
work by Rossini Gioachino
based on the traditional structure of the Stabat Mater
for chorus and soloists. Initially he used his own
librettos and compositions for a portion of the work
and, eventually, the remainder by Giovanni Tadolini, who
composed six additional movements. Rossini presented the
completed work to Varela as his own. It was composed
late in his career after retiring from the composition
of opera. He began the work in 1831 but did not complete
it until 1841.
In 1831 Rossini was traveling in Spain in the
company of his friend the Spanish banker, Alexandre
Aguado, owner of Château Margaux. In the course of
the trip, Fernández Varela, a state councillor,
commissioned a setting of the traditional liturgical
text, the Stabat Mater. Rossini managed to complete
part of the setting of the sequence in 1832, but
ill-health made it impossible for him to complete
Having written only half the score (nos. 1 and 5-9),
he asked his friend Giovanni Tadolini to compose six
additional movements. Rossini presented the
completed work to Varela as his own. It was
premiered on Holy Saturday of 1833 in the Chapel of
San Felipe el Real in Madrid, but this version was
never again performed.
When Varela died, his
heirs sold the work for 2,000 francs to a Parisian
music publisher, Antoine Aulagnier, who printed it.
Rossini protested, claiming that he had reserved
publication rights for himself, and disowned
Aulagnier's version, since it included the music by
Although surprised by
this, Aulangier went ahead and arranged for a public
performance at the Salle Herz on October 31, 1841,
at which only the six pieces by Rossini were
performed. In fact, Rossini had already sold the
publication rights for 6,000 francs to another Paris
publisher, Eugène Troupenas. Lawsuits ensued, and
Troupenas emerged the victor.
Rossini finished the work, replacing the music by
Tadolini, before the end of 1841. The brothers Léon
and Marie Escudier, who had purchased the performing
rights of Rossini's final version of the score from
Troupenas for 8,000 francs, sold them to the
director of the Théâtre-Italien for 20,000 francs,
who began making preparations for its first
Rossini's extensive operatic career had divided the
public into admirers and critics. The announcement
of the premiere of Rossini's Stabat Mater provided
an occasion for a wide-ranging attack by Richard
Wagner, who was in Paris at the time, not only on
Rossini but more generally on the current European
fashion for religious music and the money to be made
A week before the scheduled
concert Robert Schumann's Neue Zeitschrift für Musik carried
the pseudonymous essay, penned by Wagner under the name of
"H. Valentino", in which he claimed to find Rossini's
"It is extraordinary! So
long as this man lives, he'll always be the mode." Wagner
concluded his polemic with the following observation: "That
dreadful word: Copyright—growls through the scarce laid
breezes. Action! Action! Once more, Action! And money is
fetched out, to pay the best of lawyers, to get documents
produced, to enter caveats.— — —O ye foolish people, have ye
lost your hiking for your gold? I know somebody who for five
francs will make you five waltzes, each of them better than
that misery of the wealthy master's!"
At the time when Wagner wrote this, he was still in his late
twenties and he had not yet had much success with the
acceptance of his own music in the French capital.
The Stabat Mater was performed complete for the
first time in Paris at the Théâtre-Italien's Salle
Ventadour on 7 January 1842, with Giulia Grisi
(soprano), Emma Albertazzi (mezzo-soprano), Mario
(tenor), and Antonio Tamburini (baritone) as the
soloists. The Escudiers reported that:
"Rossini's name was
shouted out amid the applause. The entire work
transported the audience; the triumph was complete.
Three numbers had to be repeated...and the audience
left the theater moved and seized by an admiration
that quickly won all Paris."
In March Gaetano Donizetti led the Italian premiere
in Bologna with great success. The soloists included
Clara Novello (soprano) and Nikolay Ivanov (tenor).
Donizetti reported the public's reaction:
"The enthusiasm is
impossible to describe. Even at the final rehearsal,
which Rossini attended, in the middle of the day, he
was accompanied to his home to the shouting of more
than 500 persons. The same thing the first night,
under his window, since he did not appear in the
Despite the fact that the work is markedly different
from his secular compositions, Northern German
critics, as reported by Heinrich Heine in an essay
on Rossini, criticised the work as "too worldly,
sensuous, too playful for the religious subject."
In response the French music historian Gustave
Chouquet has remarked that "it must not be forgotten
that religion in the South is a very different thing
from what it is in the North."
The Stabat Mater is scored for four vocal soloists (soprano,
mezzo-soprano, tenor, and bass), mixed chorus, and an
orchestra of 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4
horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, and strings.
Rossini divided the poem's
twenty 3-line verses into ten movements and used various
combinations of forces for each movement:
-Stabat Mater dolorosa
(verse 1) - Chorus and all four soloists
-Cujus animam (verses 2-4) - Tenor
-Quis est homo (verses 5-6) - Soprano and mezzo-soprano
-Pro peccatis (verses 7-8) - Bass
-Eja, Mater (verses 9-10) - Bass recitative and chorus
-Sancta Mater (verses 11-15) - All four soloists
-Fac ut portem (verses 16-17) - Mezzo-soprano
-Inflammatus (verses 18-19) - Soprano and chorus
-Quando corpus morietur (verse 20) - Chorus and all four
-In sempiterna saecula. Amen (not part of the standard text)
Written in 1841 for tenor solo, the andantino maestoso
section Cuius animam, with its rollicking and memorable
tune, is often performed apart from the work's other
movements as a demonstration of the singer's bravura
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rossini: Stabat Mater
Carlo Maria Giulini
Royal Albert Hall, London, 23 8/1981
also called Adolphe Sax (born Nov. 6, 1814, Dinant, Belg.—died
Feb. 7, 1894, Paris, France), Belgian-French maker of
musical instruments and inventor of the saxophone.
Sax was the son of
Charles Joseph Sax (1791–1865), a maker of wind and
brass instruments, as well as of pianos, harps, and
guitars. Adolphe studied the flute and clarinet at
the Brussels Conservatory and in 1842 went to Paris.
There he exhibited the saxophone, a single-reed
instrument made of metal, with a conical bore,
overblowing at the octave, which had resulted from
his efforts to improve the tone of the bass
clarinet. It was patented in 1846. With his father
he evolved the saxhorn (patented 1845), a
development on the bugle horn; the saxo-tromba,
producing a tone between that of the bugle and the
trumpet; and the saxtuba. Sax discovered that it is
the proportions given to a column of air vibrating
in a sonorous tube, and these alone, that determine
the timbre produced.
In 1857 Sax was
appointed instructor of the saxophone at the Paris
Conservatory. Later he improved several instruments
and invented others without, however, establishing a
basis for their commercial exploitation.
Many of his instruments were
accepted for the French army bands, and for 10 years Sax was
involved in lawsuits with competing instrument makers
seeking to have his patents revoked. In his 80th year he was
living in abject poverty; Emmanuel Chabrier, Jules Massenet,
and Camille Saint-Saëns were obliged to petition the
minister of fine arts to come to his aid.
The Symphony No. 1 in
B-flat major, Op. 38, also known as the Spring Symphony,
is the first symphonic work composed by
Although he had made some "symphonic attempts" in the
autumn of 1840 soon after he married Clara Wieck, he did
not compose his First Symphony until early 1841.
Schumann sketched the symphony in four days from 23 to
26 January and completed the orchestration by 20
February. The premiere took place under the baton of
Felix Mendelssohn on 31 March 1841 in Leipzig, where the
symphony was warmly received.
Until this symphony, Schumann
was largely known for his works for the piano and for voice.
Clara encouraged him to write symphonic music. The title of
"Spring Symphony" was bestowed upon it, according to Clara's
diary, because of the Spring poems of Adolph Boettger.
However, Schumann himself said he was merely inspired by his
Liebesfrühling (spring of love). The last movement of the
symphony also uses the final theme of Kreisleriana, and
therefore recalls the romantic and fantastic inspiration of
this piano composition.
The symphony has four
1. Andante un poco maestoso
– Allegro molto vivace (B flat major)
2. Larghetto (E flat major)
3. Scherzo: Molto vivace – Trio I: Molto piu vivace – Trio
II (G minor)
4. Allegro animato e grazioso (B flat major)
The orchestration is for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2
bassoons, 4 horns (2 in F, E-flat, and D, 2 in B-flat), 2
trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, triangle and strings.
Schumann especially expanded the use of timpani in this
revolutionary piece. Schumann made some revisions until the
definitive full-score of the symphony was published in 1853.
The playing time of the symphony is about 29–31 minutes,
depending upon the interpretation.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Schumann - Symphony No. 1 in B-flat
major, Op. 38 ("The Spring")
Symphony n°1 op.38
I. Andante un poco maestoso - Allegro molto vivace 0:00
II. Larghetto 9:51
III. Scherzo. Molto vivace 15:46
IV. Allegro animato e grazioso 21:21
The Cleveland Orchestra
Studio recording, Cleveland (24-25.X.1958)
Sgambati (May 28, 1841 – December 14, 1914) was
an Italian pianist and composer.
(born May 28, 1841, Rome—died Dec. 14, 1914, Rome),
pianist, conductor, and composer who promoted a
revival of instrumental and symphonic music in Italy
during the second half of the 19th century.
A piano student of
Liszt, Sgambati included in his recitals works by
German composers hitherto neglected in Italy.
1866 he formed an orchestra in Rome and conducted
the first Italian performances of Beethoven’s Eroica
Symphony and Liszt’s Dante Symphony.
introduced Beethoven’s Emperor Concerto, playing the
solo part himself. In 1867 he helped to establish
the Roman Society of the Quartet.
He devoted his
later years to teaching and in 1876 promoted the
foundation of the first public music school in Rome.
In addition to chamber music, songs, and piano
pieces, Sgambati composed a Requiem Mass, two
symphonies, and a piano concerto.