Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

Loading
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
     
     
 
1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1841 Part I NEXT-1841 Part III    
 
 
     
1840 - 1849
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840-1849
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part I
Bebel August
Maximilian of Mexico
Carlota
Convention of London
British North America Act
Francia Jose Gaspar
Macdonald Jacques
William I of the Netherlands
William II of the Netherlands
Retour des cendres
Lambton John George
Vaillant Edouard-Marie
Sampson William
Smith William Sidney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part II
Ridpath John Clark
Sankey Ira David
James Fenimore Cooper: "The Pathfinder"
Blunt Wilfrid Scawen
Broughton Rhoda
Robert Browning: "Sordello"
Daudet Alphonse
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Dobson Austin
Hardy Thomas
Thomas Hardy 
"Tess of the d'Urbervilles"
Lemercier  Nepomucene
Lermontov: "A Hero of Our Times"
Modjeska Helena
Symonds John Addington
Verga Giovanni
Zola Emile
Emile Zola
"
J'accuse" (I accuse)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part III
Delacroix: "Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople"
Makart Hans
Hans Makart
Monet Claude
Claude Monet
Nasmyth Alexander
Alexander Nasmyth
Nast Thomas
Nelson's Column
Rodin Auguste
Auguste Rodin
Redon Odilon
Odilon Redon
Blechen Carl
Karl Blechen
Debain Alexandre-Francois
Donizetti: "La Fille du Regiment"
Haberl Franz Xaver
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich
Tchaikovsky - The Seasons
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky
Schneckenburger Max
Wilhelm Karl
"Die Wacht am Rhein"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part IV
Olbers Wilhelm
Blumenbach Johann Friedrich
Ball Robert
Kohlrausch Friedrich Wilhelm
Agassiz Louis
Basedow Carl Adolph
Graves disease
Maxim Hiram
Eyre Edward John
Brummell Beau
Father Damien
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Washington Temperance Society
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part I
Second Battle of Chuenpee
Barere Bertrand
Fisher John Arbuthnot
British Hong Kong
Luzzatti Luigi
Merriman John
Harrison William Henry
Tyler John
Espartero Baldomero
Hirobumi Ito
Clemenceau Georges
Edward VII
Creole case
Laurier Wilfrid
New Zealand
Lamb William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part II
Cheyne Thomas Kelly
Ludwig Feuerbach: "The Essence of Christianity"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Holst Hermann Eduard
Jebb Richard Claverhouse
Ward Lester Frank
Black William
Robert Browning: "Pippa Passes"
Buchanan Robert
Fenimore Cooper: "The Deerslayer"
Coquelin Benoit
Dickens: "The Old Curiosity Shop"
Ewing Juliana Horatia
Sill Edward Rowland
Frederick Marryat: "Masterman Ready"
Mendes Catulle
Mounet-Sully Jean
"Punch, or The London Charivari"
Sealsfield Charles
Scott Clement William
White Joseph Blanco
Ruskin: "The King of the Golden River"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part III
Chantrey Francis
Morisot Berthe
Berthe Morisot
Renoir Pierre-Auguste
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Wagner Otto
Wallot Paul
Olivier Ferdinand
Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier
Bazille Frederic
Frederic Bazille
Zandomeneghi Federico
Federico Zandomeneghi
Guillaumin Armand
Armand Guillaumin
Chabrier Emmanuel
Chabrier - Espana
Emmanuel Chabrier
Dibdin Thomas John
Dvorak Anton
Antonin Dvorak: Rusalka
Antonin Dvorak
Pedrell Felipe
Felip Pedrell: Els Pirineus
Felipe Pedrell
Rossini: "Stabat Mater"
Sax Antoine-Joseph
Schumann: Symphony No. 1
Sgambati Giovanni
Sgambati - Piano Concerto in G minor
Giovanni Sgambati
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part IV
Cooper Astley
Braid James
Hypnosis
Candolle Austin
Aniline
Kocher Emil Theodor
Kolliker Rudolf Albert
Petzval Joseph
Hudson William Henry
Warming Eugenius
Whitworth Joseph
Barnum's American Museum
Bradshaw George
Cook Thomas
Hyer Tom
"The New York Tribune"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part I
Pozzo di Borgo Charles-Andre
Las Cases Emmanuel
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Treaty of Nanking
General Strike of 1842
O’Higgins Bernardo
Giolitti Giovanni
Fiske John
Hartmann Eduard
Hyndman Henry Mayers
James William
Kropotkin Peter Alekseyevich
Anarchism
Anarchism
Lavisse Ernest
Robertson George Croom
Sorel Albert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part II
Banim John
Sue Eugene
Eugene Sue: "The Mysteries of Paris"
Bierce Ambrose
Brandes Georg
Bulwer-Lytton: "Zanoni"
Graham Maria
Coppee Francois
Cunningham Allan
Espronceda Jose
Gogol: "Dead Souls"
Howard Bronson
Lanier Sidney
Lover Samuel
MacKaye Steele
Maginn William
Mallarme Stephane
May Karl
Рое: "The Masque of the Red Death"
Quental Antero Tarquinio
Woodworth Samuel
Macaulay: "Lays of Ancient Rome"
Tupper Martin Farquhar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part III
Vereshchagin Vasily
Vasily Vereshchagin
Boldini Giovanni
Giovanni Boldini
Boito Arrigo
Arrigo Boito: Mefistofele Finale
Arrigo Boito
Glinka: "Russian and Ludmilla"
Hopkinson Joseph
"Hail, Columbia"
Lortzing: "Der Wildschiitz"
Massenet Jules
Massenet "Elegie"
Jules Massenet
Millocker Karl
Millocker: Gasparone
Karl Millocker
New York Philharmonic
Sullivan Arthur
Arthur Sullivan - The Mikado - Overture
Arthur Sullivan
Wagner: "Rienzi"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part IV
Dewar James
Doppler Christian Andreas
Flammarion Camille
Hansen Emile Christian
Long Crawford Williamson
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Charting the Ocean Depths
Mayer Julius Robert
Pelletier Pierre Joseph
Marshall Alfred
Strutt John William
Retzius Gustaf
Fremont John Charles
Darling Grace
Polka
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part I
McKinley William
Braga Teofilo
Wairau Affray
Dilke Charles
Avenarius Richard
Borrow George
Carlile Richard
Thomas Carlyle: "Past and Present"
Creighton Mandell
Liddell and Scott: "Greek-English Lexicon"
Liddell Henry
Scott Robert
Ward James
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part II
Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last of the Barons"
Elisabeth of Romania
Dickens: "Martin Chuzzlewit"
Doughty Charles Montagu
Dowden Edward
Emmett Daniel Decatur
Hood Thomas
Thomas Hood: "Song of the Shirt"
Horne Richard Hengist
James Henry
Rosegger Peter
Suttner Bertha
Harris George Washington
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part III
Allston Washington
Washington Allston
John Ruskin: "Modern Painters"
Trumbull John
John Trumbull
Werner Anton
Anton von Werner
Clairin Georges
Georges Clairin
Donizetti: "Don Pasquale"
Grieg Edward
Grieg - Solveig Song
Edward Grieg
Nilsson Christine
Patti Adelina
Richter Hans
Schumann: "Paradise and the Peri"
Wagner: "The Flying Dutchman"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part IV
British Archaeological Association
Chamberlin Thomas Chrowder
Ferrier David
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Joule James Prescott
Koch Robert
Erbium
Brunel Marc Isambard
Thames Tunnel
Dix Dorothea Lynde
Guy's, Kings and St. Thomas' Rugby Football Club
Sequoyah
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part I
Lowe Hudson
Drouet Jean-Baptiste
Oscar I of Sweden
Dole Sanford Ballard
Laffitte Jacques
Franco-Moroccan War
Polk James Knox
Herrera Jose Joaquin
Treaty of Wanghia
Breshkovsky Catherine
Comstock Anthony
Emerson: "Essays"
Grundtvig Nikolaj Frederik Severin
Hall Granville Stanley
Nietzsche Friedrich
Friedrich Nietzsche
Rice Edmund Ignatius
Riehl Alois
Stanley Arthur Penrhyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part II
Bernhardt Sarah
Sarah Bernhardt
Dumas, pere: "Le Comte de Monte Cristo"
Bridges Robert
Cable George Washington
Carte Richard
Cary Henry Francis
Disraeli: "Coningsby"
France Anatole
Hopkins Gerard Manley
Lang Andrew
Liliencron Detlev
O'Reilly John Boyle
O’Shaughnessy Arthur
Sterling John
William Thackeray: "Barry Lyndon"
Verlaine Paul
Paul Verlaine
"Poems"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part III
Eakins Thomas
Thomas Eakins
Ezekiel Moses Jacob
Moses Ezekiel
Luke Fildes Luke
Luke Fildes
Leibl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Leibl
Munkacsy Mihaly
Mihaly Munkacsy
Repin Ilya
Ilya Repin
Rousseau Henri
Henri Rousseau
Cassatt Mary
Mary Cassatt
Flotow: "Alessandro Stradella"
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E minor
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay
The Best of Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Sarasate Pablo
Pablo de Sarasate - Zigeunerweisen
Pablo de Sarasate
Verdi: "Ernani"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part IV
Grassmann Hermann Gunther
Baily Francis
Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard
DeLong George Washington
Golgi Camillo
Kielmeyer Carl Friedrich
Kinglake Alexander William
Strasburger Eduard Adolf
Huc Evariste Regis
Gabet Joseph
Sturt Charles Napier
Leichhardt Friedrich
Beckford William
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers
"Fliegende Blatter"
Hagenbeck Carl
Keller Friedrich Gottlob
Pasch Gustaf Erik
Young Men’s Christian Association
Williams George
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part I
Root Elihu
Texas
Florida
Flagstaff War
Ludwig II of Bavaria
First Anglo-Sikh War
Sonderbund
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part II
Friedrich Engels: "The Condition of the Working Class in England"
Stirner Max
Disraeli: "Sybil, or The Two Nations"
Hertz Henrik
Prosper Merimee: "Carmen"
Рое: "The Raven"
Spitteler Carl
Wergeland Henrik
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part III
Bode Wilhelm
Hill David Octavius
Ingres: The Comtesse d'Haussonville
Oberlander Adam Adolf
Crane Walter
Walter Crane
Faure Gabriel
Faure - Pavane
Gabriel Faure
Lortzing: "Undine"
Wagner: "Tannhauser"
Widor Charles-Marie
Widor - Piano Concerto No. 1
Charles Marie Widor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part IV
Armstrong William George
Bigelow Erastus Brigham
Cayley Arthur
Cornell Ezra
Submarine communications cable
Heilmann Joshua
Humboldt: "Cosmos"
Kolbe Hermann
Laveran Alphonse
McNaught William
Metchnikoff Elie
Charting the Northwest
Layard Austen Henry
Cartwright Alexander
United States Naval Academy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part I
Battle of Aliwal
Battle of Sobraon
Treaty of Lahore
Greater Poland Uprising
Krakow Uprising
Mexican-American War
Battle of Monterrey
First Battle of Tabasco
Iowa
Pasic Nikola
Evangelical Alliance
Eucken Rudolf Christoph
Pius IX
Whewell William
Young Brigham
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part II
Balzac: "La Cousine Bette"
De Amicis Edmondo
Dostoevsky: "Poor Folk"
Jokai Maurus
Lear Edward
Melville Herman
Herman Melville: "Typee"
Herman Melville
"Moby Dick or The Whale"
Sienkiewicz Henryk
George Watts: "Paolo and Francesca"
De Nittis Giuseppe
Giuseppe de Nittis
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part III
Berlioz: "Damnation de Faust"
Lortzing: "Der Waffenschmied"
Mendelssohn: "Elijah"
Deere John
Deere & Company
Henle Friedrich
Howe Elias
Waitz Theodor
Mohl Hugo
Green William Thomas
Sobrero Ascanio
Heaphy Charles
Brunner Thomas
Europeans in New Zealand
"The Daily News"
Horsley John Callcott
Smithsonian Institution
Zeiss Carl
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part I
Liberia
Second Battle of Tabasco
Battle of Churubusco
BATTLE OF MEXICO CITY
Hindenburg Paul
Sonderbund War
Beecher Henry Ward
Blanc Louis
Proudhon Pierre-Joseph
roudhon: "Philosophy of Poverty"P
Karl Marx: "The Poverty of Philosophy"
Salt Lake City
Charlotte Bronte: "Jane Eyre"
Bronte Emily
Marryat: "The Children of the New Forest"
Thackeray: "Vanity Fair"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part II
Hildebrand Adolf
Liebermann Max
Max Liebermann
Friedrich von Flotow: "Martha"
Verdi: "Macbeth"
Boole George
Edison Thomas Alva
Bell Alexander Graham
Semmelweis Ignaz Philipp
Colenso William
Factory Act of 1847
Fawcett Millicent
Siemens & Halske
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part I
Frederick VII
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Revolutions of 1848
French Revolution of 1848
June Days Uprising
Cavaignac Louis-Eugene
French Constitution of 1848
French Second Republic
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Slovak Uprising 1848-1849
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part I)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part II
First Italian War of Independence
Skirmish of Pastrengo
Battle of Goito
Battle of Custoza
Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
Revolution of 1848 in Luxembourg
Greater Poland Uprising
Moldavian Revolution of 1848
Pan-Slav Congress of 1848
Pan-Slavism
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part II)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part III
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Nasr-ed-Din
Ibrahim Pasha
Abbas I
Wisconsin
Balfour Arthur James
Seneca Falls Convention
Stanton Elizabeth Cady
Delbruck Hans
Macaulay: "History of England"
"The Communist Manifesto"
John Mill: "Principles of Political Economy"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part IV
Augier Emile
Chateaubriand: "Memoires d'Outre-Tombe"
Dumas fils: "La Dame aux Camelias"
Gaskell Elizabet
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
Murger Louis-Henri
Henri Murger: "Scenes de la vie de Boheme"
Terry Ellen
Surikov Vasily
Vasily Surikov
Uhde Fritz
Fritz von Uhde
Gauguin Paul
Paul Gauguin
Caillebotte Gustave
Gustave Caillebotte
Millais: "Ophelia"
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part V
Parry Hubert Hastings
Jerusalem by Hubert Parry
Hubert Parry
Duparc Henri
Duparc Henri: "L'invitation au voyage"
Henri Duparc
Bottger Rudolf Christian
Parsons William
Frege Gottlob
"New Prussian Newspaper"
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"
Grace William Gilbert
Kneipp Sebastian
Lilienthal Otto
Starr Belle
California Gold Rush
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part I
Battle of Chillianwala
Battle of Gujrat
Roman Republic on February 9, 1849
Battle of Novara
Victor Emmanuel II
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Peace of Milan
Taylor Zachary
Dresden Rebellion of 1849
Surrender at Vilagos
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part II
Kemble John Mitchell
Key Ellen
Arnold Matthew
Dickens: "David Copperfield"
Kingsley Charles
Scribe: "Adrienne Lecouvreur"
Strindberg August
Smith Horace
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part III
Waterhouse John William
John William Waterhouse
John Ruskin: "The Seven Lamps of Architecture"
Carriere Eugene
Eugene Carriere
Liszt: "Tasso"
Meyerbeer: "Le Prophete"
Otto Nicolai: "The Merry Wives of Windsor"
Schumann: "Manfred"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part IV
Fizeau Armand
Frankland Edward
Livingstone David
Explorations of David Livingstone
Baines Thomas
"Who's Who"
Bedford College
Bloomer Amelia
Bloomers (clothing)
Stead William Thomas
 
 
 

Dickens "The Old Curiosity Shop"  Illustration by George Cattermole
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1841 Part II
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Carlyle Thomas : "On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History"
 
 

Watercolor sketch of Thomas Carlyle, age 46, by Samuel Laurence.
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Cheyne Thomas Kelly
 

Thomas Kelly Cheyne (18 September 1841 – 1915) was an English divine and Biblical critic.

 

Thomas Kelly Cheyne
  Biography
He was born in London and educated at Merchant Taylors' School, London, and Oxford University. Subsequently he studied German theological methods at Göttingen. He was ordained in 1864 and held a fellowship at Balliol College, Oxford, 1868–1882. During the earlier part of this period he stood alone in the university as a teacher of the main conclusions of Old Testament criticism at that time.
In 1881 he was presented to the rectory of Tendring, in Essex, and in 1884 he was made a member of the Old Testament revision company. He resigned the living of Tendring in 1885 on his appointment to be Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture, which carried with it a canonry at Rochester. In 1889 he delivered the Bampton lectures at Oxford. In 1908 he resigned his professorship.

In June 1901, he received an honorary doctorate of Divinity from the University of Glasgow, and in March 1902 he was awarded the degree Doctor of Letters (D.Litt.) from the University of Oxford.

He consistently urged in his writings the necessity of a broad and comprehensive study of the Scriptures in the light of literary, historical and scientific considerations. His publications include commentaries on the Prophets and Hagiographa, as well as lectures and addresses on theological subjects. He was a joint editor of the Encyclopaedia Biblica (London, 1899–1903), a work embodying the more advanced conclusions of English biblical criticism.

 
 
In the introduction to his Origin of the Psalter (London, 1891) he gave an account of his development as a critical scholar. His publications include translations, commentaries, and supplemental research.

He became a member of the Bahá'í Faith by 1912.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1841
 
 
Emerson Ralph Waldo : "Essays, First Series"
 
 

Emerson: "Essays, First Series"
 
 
see also: Ralph Emerson
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Ludwig Feuerbach: "The Essence of Christianity"
 

The Essence of Christianity (German: Das Wesen des Christentums; historical orthography: Das Wesen des Christenthums) is a book by Feuerbach Ludwig first published in 1841. It explains Feuerbach's philosophy and critique of religion.

 
Influence
The book is often considered a classic of humanism and the author's magnum opus. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were strongly influenced by the book, although they criticised Feuerbach for his inconsistent espousal of materialism. Feuerbach's theory of alienation would later be used by Marx in his theory of alienation. Max Stirner directed his The Ego And Its Own against it. Rather than simply a polemic, Stirner's work uses Feuerbach's idea of God as a human abstraction as the basis of his critique of Feuerbach.
 
 
In the consciousness of the infinite
Feuerbach's theme was a derivation of Hegel's speculative theology in which the Creation remains a part of the Creator, while the Creator remains greater than the Creation. When the student Feuerbach presented his own theory to professor Hegel, Hegel refused to reply positively to it.

In Part I of his book, Feuerbach developed what he calls the "true or anthropological essence of religion." Treating of God in his various aspects "as a being of the understanding," "as a moral being or law," "as love" and so on. Feuerbach talks of how man is equally a conscious being, more so than God because man has placed upon God the ability of understanding. Man contemplates many things and in doing so he becomes acquainted with himself. Feuerbach shows that in every aspect God corresponds to some feature or need of human nature. "If man is to find contentment in God," he claims, "he must find himself in God." Thus God is nothing else than man: he is, so to speak, the outward projection of man's inward nature. This projection is dubbed as a chimera by Feuerbach, that God and the idea of a higher being is dependent upon the aspect of benevolence. Feuerbach states that, "a God who is not benevolent, not just, not wise, is no God", and continues to say that qualities are not suddenly denoted as divine because of their godly association. The qualities themselves are divine therefore making God divine, indicating that man is capable of understanding and applying meanings of divinity to religion and not that religion makes a man divine. The force of this attraction to religion though, giving divinity to a figure like God, is explained by Feuerbach as God is a being that acts throughout man in all forms. God, "is the principle of [man's] salvation, of [man's] good dispositions and actions, consequently [man's] own good principle and nature".

 
Title page, second edition (1848).
 
 
It appeals to man to give qualities to the idol of their religion because without these qualities a figure such as God would become merely an object, its importance would become obsolete, there would no longer be a feeling of an existence for God. Therefore, Feuerbach says, when man removes all qualities from God, "God is no longer anything more to him than a negative being". Additionally, because man is imaginative, God is given traits and there holds the appeal. God is a part of man through the invention of a God. Equally though, man is repulsed by God because, "God alone is the being who acts of himself".

In part 2 he discusses the "false or theological essence of religion," i.e. the view which regards God as having a separate existence over against man. Hence arise various mistaken beliefs, such as the belief in revelation which he believes not only injures the moral sense, but also "poisons, nay destroys, the divinest feeling in man, the sense of truth," and the belief in sacraments such as the Lord's Supper, which is to him a piece of religious materialism of which "the necessary consequences are superstition and immorality."

Part 2 comes to a crux though by seemingly retracting previous statements. Feuerbach claims that God's only action is, “the moral and eternal salvation of man: thus man has in fact no other aim than himself,” because man's actions are placed upon God. Feuerbach also contradicts himself by claiming that man gives up his personality and places it upon God who in turn is a selfish being. This selfishness turns onto man and projects man to be wicked and corrupt, that they are, “incapable of good,” and it is only God that is good, “the Good Being.” In this way Feuerbach detracts from many of his earlier assertions while showing the alienation that takes place in man by worshipping God. Feuerbach affirms that goodness is, “personified as God,” turning God into an object because if God was anything but an object nothing would need to be personified on him. The aspect of objects having previously been discussed; in that man contemplates objects and that objects themselves give conception of what externalizes man. Therefore if God is good so then should be man because God is merely an externalization of man because God is an object. However religion would show that man is inherently corrupt. Feuerbach tries to lessen his inconsistency by asking if it were possible if, “I could perceive the beauty of a fine picture if my mind were aesthetically an absolute piece of perversion?” Through Feuerbach’s reasoning it would not be possible, but it is possible, and he later states that man is capable of finding beauty.

A caustic criticism of Feuerbach was delivered in 1844 by Max Stirner. In his book Der Einzige und sein Eigentum (The Ego and Its Own) he attacked Feuerbach as inconsistent in his atheism. The pertinent portions of the books, Feuerbach's reply, and Stirner's counter-reply form an instructive polemics.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1841
 
 
Herbart Johann Friedrich, German philosopher and educator, d. (b. 1776)
 
 

Johann Friedrich Herbart
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Holmes Oliver Wendell
 

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., byname The Great Dissenter (born March 8, 1841, Boston—died March 6, 1935, Washington, D.C.), justice of the United States Supreme Court, U.S. legal historian and philosopher who advocated judicial restraint. He stated the concept of “clear and present danger” as the only basis for limiting free speech.

 

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
  Early life and Civil War experience.
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., was the first child of the celebrated writer and physician Oliver Wendell Holmes. The family background on both sides represented the New England “aristocracy” of character and accomplishment. His father was descended from the Puritan poet Anne Bradstreet; he married Amelia Lee Jackson, whose father, Charles, was a justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of the State of Massachusetts, a bench on which Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., was to sit for 20 years. He was proud of this heritage and spoke of it often. It helped shape his mind and character.

Young Holmes went to a private school and then to Harvard College. He was graduated in the class of 1861 and like his father before him was class poet. At the outbreak of the U.S. Civil War he enlisted as a private in the 4th Battalion of Infantry and began training at Boston’s Fort Independence, not expecting to finish the academic year or take his degree.
The battalion was not called up, and after graduation the young man applied for and received, in July, a commission as first lieutenant in the 20th Massachusetts Regiment of Volunteers. He was 20 years old at that time.

His letters and diary give vivid pictures of his war experiences. He was seriously wounded three times, at the battles of Ball’s Bluff, Antietam, and Chancellorsville.

 
 
He left the army after three years, having been commissioned lieutenant colonel although mustered out with the rank of captain.

Holmes described war as “an organized bore.” He said, “I trust I did my duty as a soldier respectably, but I was not born for it and did nothing remarkable in that way.” In a Memorial Day address to fellow veterans, in 1884, he attributed a certain value to the war experience: “Through our great good fortune, in our youth our hearts were touched with fire. It was given to us to learn at the outset that life is a profound and passionate thing.” This is an aspect of his conviction that “. . . it is required of a man that he should share the passion and action of his time at peril of being judged never to have lived.”
 
 
Legal studies.
In the autumn of 1864 he entered Harvard Law School, ironically without any clear sense of vocation. He had even contemplated medicine, to which his father objected. On different occasions, he said that his “Governor” “put on the screws to have me go to the Law School” or “kicked” him into it. There is a story that, when young Holmes announced to his father the decision to enter the law school, the doctor said, “What’s the use of that, Wendell? A lawyer can’t be a great man.” There was not a deep affinity between father and son. The little doctor’s puns and quips, his easy display of emotion, and a somewhat patronizing attitude chafed the tall, less talkative, inherently shy law student. The philosopher William James, perhaps the closest friend of Wendell in the immediate postwar years, once remarked that “no love is lost” between father and son.

Holmes experienced a certain restlessness in law school, finding the tradition of the law as presented in an uninspired curriculum to be stagnant and narrowly precedent-centred. The science, philosophy, or history of law were slighted, and these, rather than what he later called “the small change of legal thought,” were what captured Holmes’s mind and drew him into the depths of a profession toward which at first he had not felt a powerful incentive.

After finishing law school in 1866 he made the conventional “pilgrimage” abroad, visiting England, France, and Switzerland and meeting a variety of distinguished men. He was admitted to the bar in 1867 and for 15 years practiced law as a member of several firms. From 1870 to 1873 he was an editor of the American Law Review. He edited the 12th edition of the classic survey of early American law, Chancellor James Kent’s (1763–1847) Commentaries on American Law (1873). He also lectured at Harvard on law.

During this busy time he was engaged in courtship. Always something of a ladies’ man, he had maintained a long friendship with Fanny Bowditch Dixwell, daughter of his onetime schoolmaster. She had waited patiently through wartime, his law studies, travel, and apprenticeship. Holmes and Dixwell were married at last on June 17, 1872. The marriage, happy and long lasting, was childless.

  The Common Law.
In 1880–81 Holmes was invited to lecture on the common law at the Lowell Institute in Boston, and from these addresses developed his book The Common Law (1881). Here the genius of Holmes was first clearly revealed and the consistent direction of his thought made evident.

A fresh voice was speaking in his words:

The life of the law has not been logic: it has been experience. The felt necessities of the time, the prevalent moral and political theories, intuitions of public policy, avowed or unconscious, even the prejudices which judges share with their fellow-men, have had a good deal more to do than the syllogism in determining the rules by which men should be governed. The law embodies the story of a nation’s development through many centuries, and it cannot be dealt with as if it contained only the axioms and corollaries of a book of mathematics. In order to know what it is, we must know what it has been, and what it tends to become. We must alternately consult history and existing theories of legislation. But the most difficult labor will be to understand the combination of the two into new products at every stage. The substance of the law at any given time pretty nearly corresponds, so far as it goes, with what is then understood to be convenient; but its form and machinery, and the degree to which it is able to work out desired results, depend very much upon its past.

In January 1882 Holmes was made Weld Professor of Law, a chair established for him at Harvard Law School. In December of the same year he accepted appointment to the Supreme Judicial Court of the State of Massachusetts, knowing the judgeship was his destiny and the function through which he could most influence the development of law.

He was to sit on that bench for 20 years, becoming its chief justice in 1899. In 1902 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt appointed him associate justice of the United States Supreme Court. He sat on that court to a more advanced age than did any other man, retiring on Jan. 12, 1932, soon before his 91st birthday.

 
 
Fanny Holmes, devoted, witty, wise, tactful, and perceptive, died on April 30, 1929. Holmes wrote to his intimate friend, the English jurist Sir Frederick Pollock, “For sixty years she made life poetry for me and at 88 one must be ready for the end. I shall keep at work and interested while it lasts—though not caring very much for how long.” He died two days before his 94th birthday.
 
 

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
  Justice of the Supreme Court.
In that long span of years on the Supreme Court he became acknowledged as one of the most notable jurists of the age—in the opinion of many the foremost. Often he has been called The Great Dissenter because of the brilliance of his dissenting opinions, but the phrase gives a falsely negative emphasis, and his penetration and originality are seen as fully in the opinions in which he expressed or concurred in the majority view of the court as in those in which he was in dissent.

Holmes believed that the making of laws is the business of legislative bodies, not of courts, and that within constitutional bounds the people have a right to whatever laws they choose to make, good or bad, through their elected representatives.
He stated the concept of “clear and present danger” as the only basis for curtailing the right of freedom of speech, illustrating it with the homely example: “The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theatre and causing a panic.”

He wrote that “the best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market. . . . That at any rate is the theory of our Constitution.” Again: “If there is any principle of the Constitution that more imperatively calls for attachment than any other it is the principle of free thought—not free thought for those who agree with us but freedom for the thought that we hate.”

A man austerely dedicated to his work, he also enjoyed the earthy and the droll. He loved Rabelais.

 
 
Sometimes in Washington he attended burlesque shows and was said to have remarked, “I thank God I am a man of low tastes.” The newly inaugurated President Franklin D. Roosevelt called upon the retired justice and found him reading Plato. “Why do you read Plato, Mr. Justice?” “To improve my mind, Mr. President,” replied the 92-year-old man.

Holmes won the love and admiration of generations of lawyers and judges in his long career. When he resigned from the Supreme Court, his “brethren,” as he always addressed his fellow justices, wrote him a letter signed by all, saying in part:

Your profound learning and philosophic outlook have found expression in opinions which have become classic, enriching the literature of the law as well as its substance. . . . While we are losing the privilege of daily companionship, the most precious memories of your unfailing kindliness and generous nature abide with us, and these memories will ever be one of the choicest traditions of the Court.

Edmund Fuller

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1841
 
 
Holst Hermann Eduard
 

Hermann Eduard von Holst (June 19, 1841 – January 20, 1904) was a German-American historian.

 

Hermann Eduard von Holst
  Biography
Holst was a Baltic German born at Fellin (Viljandi) in Russian Livonia. He was the seventh of ten children of a Lutheran minister. His father died while he was in the gymnasium and von Holst only managed to stay in school by teaching and frugal living.

He studied history at the universities of Dorpat (Tartu) and Heidelberg, receiving his doctor's degree from the latter in 1865. In 1866, he settled in St. Petersburg, but in consequence of a pamphlet on an attempt on the life of the emperor, which he published at Leipzig while travelling abroad, his return to Russia was forbidden.

He decided to emigrate to the United States in July of the same year, 1867. He settled in New York City, where he taught modern languages for a time in a small private school and made a number of political speeches in the Presidential campaign of 1868.

In the autumn of 1869, he became assistant editor, under Alexander J. Schem, of the Deutsch-Amerikanisches Conversations-Lexicon. His German work on Louis XIV, Federzeichnung aus der Geschichte des Despotismus, appeared in Leipzig soon after he arrived in the United States. He subsequently became a contributor to several American journals.

On April 23, 1872 in Manhattan, New York, he married Annie Isabelle Hatt, the daughter of the Rev. Josiah Hatt (1821–1857), pastor of the Baptist Church in Hoboken, New Jersey, and his wife, Mary Thomas. Their son Hermann V. von Holst, the future architect, was born in Freiburg in 1874.

 
 
A call to a professorship of history in the newly reorganized University of Strasbourg brought him back to Germany in 1872. In 1874, he was given the chair of modern history at University of Freiburg in Baden where he stayed until 1892. For ten years he was a member of the Baden Herrenhaus, and vice-president for four. He revisited the United States in 1878-79 and in 1884, and in 1892 he became head of the department of history at the University of Chicago. Retiring on account of ill-health in 1900, he returned to Germany and died at Freiburg in January 1904.

Von Holst's works are almost all on American topics. Both through his books and through his lectures at the University of Chicago, he exerted a powerful influence in encouraging American students to follow more closely the German methods of historical research.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Jebb Richard Claverhouse
 
Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, OM, MP, FBA (27 August 1841 – 9 December 1905) was a British classical scholar and politician. He was a Member of the Cambridge Apostles, the intellectual secret society, from 1859.
 

Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb
  He was born in Dundee, Scotland. His father was a well-known barrister, and his grandfather a judge. His sister was the social reformer Eglantyne Louisa Jebb, founder of the Home Arts and Industries Association; his niece, Eglantyne's daughter Eglantyne Jebb, co-founded the Save the Children Fund and wrote the Declaration of the Rights of the Child. He was educated at Charterhouse School and at Trinity College, Cambridge. He won the Porson and Craven scholarships, was senior classic in 1862, and became fellow and tutor of his college in 1863. From 1869 to 1875, he was public orator of Cambridge University; Professor of Greek at Glasgow from 1875 to 1889, and Regius Professor of Greek at Cambridge from 1889 until his death. His successor was Henry Jackson. He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1902.
In 1891 he was elected Member of Parliament for Cambridge University; he was knighted in 1900. Jebb was acknowledged to be one of the most brilliant classical scholars of his time, a humanist[citation needed] and an unsurpassed translator from and into the classical languages. A collected volume, Translations into Greek and Latin, appeared in 1873 (ed. 1909). He received many honorary degrees from European and American universities, including when in May 1902 he was at Carnavon to receive the honorary degree D.Litt. (Doctor of Letters) from the University of Wales during the ceremony to install the Prince of Wales (later King George V) as Chancellor of that university. In 1905 he was made a member of the Order of Merit.
 
 

The most important of Jebb's publications are:

-The Characters of Theophrastus (1870), text, introduction, English translation and commentary (re-edited by JE Sandys, 1909)
-The Attic Orators from Antiphon to Isaeus (2nd ed., I893), with companion volume, Selections from the Attic Orators (2nd ed, 1888)
-Bentley (1882)
-Sophocles (3rd ed., 1893) the seven plays, text, English translation and notes, the promised edition of the fragments being prevented by his death
-Bacchylides (1905), text, translation, and notes
-Homer (3rd ed., 1888), an introduction to the Iliad and Odyssey
-Modern Greece (1901)
-The Growth and Influence of Classical Greek Poetry (1893).

 
His translation of the Rhetoric of Aristotle was published posthumously under the editorship of J. E. Sandys (1909). A selection from his Essays and Addresses, and a subsequent volume, Life and Letters of Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb (with critical introduction by A. W. Verrall) were published by his widow in 1907; see also an appreciative notice by J. E. Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, iii. (1908).

He married Caroline Lane Reynolds, daughter of Reverend John Reynolds, on 18 August 1874; Caroline Lane Reynolds was born in 1840 in Evansburg, Pennsylvania. She was married in 1856 to US Army Lieutenant Adam J. Slemmer and the couple lived at military outposts in South Carolina, Florida, and Wyoming Territory. After his death in 1868 she lived briefly in Cambridge, England, and was visiting Paris at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. In 1874 she married Richard Claverhouse Jebb and joined social circles embracing George Eliot, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Charles Darwin, Mark Twain, and Bret Harte. His wife was a member of the Ladies Dining Society in Cambridge, with 11 other members.

He was buried at the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge.;

His wife died and was cremated in America, but her ashes were interred in his Cambridge grave.

The Archives and Special Collections at Amherst College holds a collection of his papers.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Ward Lester Frank
 

Lester Frank Ward, (born June 18, 1841, Joliet, Illinois, U.S.—died April 18, 1913, Washington, D.C.), American sociologist who was instrumental in establishing sociology as an academic discipline in the United States.

 

Lester Frank Ward
  An optimist who believed that the social sciences had already given mankind the information basic to happiness, Ward advocated a planned, or “telic,” society (“sociocracy”) in which nationally organized education would be the dynamic factor. In his system social scientists, assembled into a legislative advisory academy in Washington, D.C., would occupy much the same role as did the sociologist-priests in the utopian plan of French sociologist Auguste Comte.

After fighting for the Union in the American Civil War, Ward obtained degrees in botany and law. For most of his life he worked for the federal government, mainly in the fields of geology, paleontology, botany, and paleobotany; he made some significant contributions to botanical theory.

By 1876 Ward had shifted the focus of the work, which was begun in 1869, to sociology, and in 1906, when he was 65 years old, he was appointed professor of sociology at Brown University.

Ward followed Comte in conceiving of sociology as the fundamental social science, the primary responsibility of which is to teach methods of improving society. Ward’s emphasis on social function and planning, rather than social structure, had considerable effect on Thorstein Veblen and the institutional economists.

 
 
The original subject of Ward’s most important book, Dynamic Sociology, 2 vol. (1883), was education. Among his other writings are Pure Sociology (1903), A Textbook of Sociology (1905; with James Quayle Dealey), and Applied Sociology (1906), which concerns his ideas of “social telesis,” sociocracy, and social planning.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1841
 
 
Black William
 

William Black (13 November 1841 – 10 December 1898) was a novelist born in Glasgow, Scotland. During his own lifetime Black's novels were immensely popular, and were compared favourably with those of Anthony Trollope. However, his fame and popularity did not survive long into the twentieth century.

 

William Black
  Biography
William was born to James Black and his second wife Caroline Conning. He was educated to be a landscape painter, a training that influenced his literary life, and as a writer he became celebrated for the detailed and atmospheric descriptions of landscapes and seascapes in novels such as White Wings: A Yachting Romance (1880).

At the age of twenty-three he went to London, after some experience with Glasgow journalism, and joined the staff of The Morning Star, and, later, the Daily News, of which journal he became assistant-editor. He wrote a weekly serial in "The Graphic". During the Austro-Prussian War he acted as a war correspondent. His first novel, James Merle, appeared in 1864, and had little success. Black later disowned the novel and reputedly bought copies to destroy them. Two further early novels Love or Marriage (1868) and The Monarch of Mincing Lane (1871) did little to advance his career, and all three were omitted from the collected edition of Black's works issued by the publishing firm Sampson Low from 1892.

It was the publication of A Daughter of Heth in 1871 that at once established his popularity. It is the story of a young girl brought up in Catholic France, who comes to live with her more austere Protestant relatives in southern Scotland, and ends with personal tragedy.

 
 
The travel story The Strange Adventures of a Phaeton followed in 1872, and in 1874 A Princess of Thule was another big success and was later adapted into a musical play, The Maid of Arran, by a young L. Frank Baum.

Retiring from journalism the next year he devoted himself entirely to fiction. Several collections of short stories and a further 22 novels followed; the last – Wild Eelin – in 1898, just before his death on 10 December of that year.

During his own lifetime Black's novels were immensely popular, and were compared favourably with those of Anthony Trollope, though some critics complained that his writings revealed too much his interest in hunting and fishing. However, his fame and popularity did not survive long into the twentieth century. His works were bootlegged in the United States, not being protected by copyright laws. He teamed with such well-known authors as Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, and Walter Besant to abolish this procedure, resulting in the passing of new laws in 1891, but unlike the others, he held no grudge against those who sold unauthorised copies of his books while it was legal to do so, which made relations easier and friendlier between him and his American publishers.

 
 

William Black, c. 1890s
  Baum's play was written without regard to copyright courtesy when such was legal: it is uncertain if Black was even aware of its existence, as Reid never mentions it in his biography.

Among his later novels may be mentioned two further "tragic" tales: Madcap Violet (1876) and Macleod of Dare (1879); Sunrise (1881) a novel of international political intrigue; Shandon Bells (1883) largely set in Ireland; Yolande (1883) which in part deals with drug addiction; Judith Shakespeare (1884) a historical novel featuring the playwright's daughter; and The New Prince Fortunatus (1890) a novel of London theatrical life. Friendship with actor Mary Anderson resulted in him stage acting twice, with mute roles known as "thinkers" (in Romeo and Juliet and The Winter's Tale), but his nervousness interrupted the performance.

Black also produced the volume Goldsmith (1878) for Morley's English Men of Letters series. Black is remembered by a lighthouse built in the form of a Gothic tower "on a spot that he knew and loved, by his friends and admirers from all over the world," as recorded on a carved plaque over the door. The building was erected in 1901 and is still in use as a lighthouse. It stands a mile or so south of Duart Castle, at the eastern extremity of the Isle of Mull.

A collection of sketch-stories, including portions of the suppressed James Merle were published posthumously as With the Eyes of Youth, and Other Sketches (1903).

 
 
Family
Black's first wife, Augustus Wenzel, died on 14 May 1866 of a fever contracted not long after the birth of their son, Martin. They had only been married since 8 April 1865. Martin would die on 29 March 1871.

He first met his second wife, Eva Simpson, daughter of Wharton Simpson, a fellow journalist and fellow member of Whitefriars Club, in 1869. He saw her again in 1872 and used her as the basis for Bell in The Phaeton. They were married in April 1874 and she was still alive when Wemyss Reid, who had offered Black a contributor's role on the Leeds Mercury, published his biography.

From 1879 until his death he lived at 1 Paston Place, Brighton.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Robert Browning: "Pippa Passes"
 

Pippa Passes is a verse drama by Browning Robert. It was published in 1841 as the first volume of his Bells and Pomegranates series, in a very inexpensive two-column edition for sixpence and next republished in Poems in 1848, which received much more critical attention. It was dedicated to Thomas Noon Talfourd, who had recently attained fame as the author of the tragedy Ion.

 
Origins
The author described the work as "the first of a series of dramatic pieces." A young, blameless silk-winding girl is wandering innocently through the environs of Asolo, in her mind attributing kindness and virtue to the people she passes.
 
 
She sings as she goes, her song influencing others to act for the good – or, at the least, reminding them of the existence of a moral order.

Alexandra Leighton (Mrs Sutherland Orr) described the moment of inspiration:

Mr Browning was walking alone, in a wood near Dulwich, when the image flashed upon him of some one walking thus alone through life; one apparently too obscure to leave a trace of his or her passage, yet exercising a lasting though unconscious influence at every step of it; and the image shaped itself into the little silk-winder of Asolo, Felippa, or Pippa.

This theme followed with great naturalness from Sordello (1840), in which the role in life of poets was analysed. The work caused some controversy when it was first published, due to the matter-of-fact portrayals of many of the area's more disreputable characters – notably the adulterous Ottima – and for its frankness on sexual matters.

In 1849, a writer in The English Review complained:

We have already referred to the two drawbacks, of which we have to complain in particular: the one is the virtual encouragement of regicide, which we trust to see removed from the next edition, being as unnatural as it is immoral: the other is a careless audacity in treating of licentiousness, which in our eyes is highly reprehensible, though it may, no doubt, have been exhibited with a moral intention, and though Mr. Browning may plead the authority of Shakespeare, Goethe, and other great men, in his favour.

 
Robert Browning "Pippa Passes"
 

Despite this, the most famous passage in the poem is charming in its innocence:

The year’s at the spring,
And day’s at the morn;
Morning’s at seven;
The hill-side’s dew-pearled;
The lark’s on the wing;
The snail’s on the thorn;
God’s in His heaven—
All’s right with the world!


although the timing of this song renders it deeply ironic.

 
Structure

Introduction

The silk-winding girl Pippa rises on New Year's Day, her only day off for the whole year. Her thoughts concern the people she dubs "Asolo's Four Happiest Ones":
Ottima, the wife of the rich silk-mill owner Luca Gaddi (and the lover of Sebald, a German)
Jules, a French art student, who is today marrying Phene, a beautiful woman he knows only through her fan letters
Luigi, an Italian patriot who lives with his mother in the turret on the hill
Monsignor, a cleric
I.—Morning
Pippa passes a shrubhouse on the hillside, where Sebald and Ottima are trying to justify to each other the murder of Ottima's elderly husband, Luca.
A group of art students, led by Lutwyche, discuss a cruel practical joke they are hoping to play on Jules, of whom they are envious.
II.—Noon
Pippa enters Orcana valley, and passes the house of Jules and Phene, who have been tricked into marriage. (The song they overhear refers to Caterina Cornaro, the Queen of Cyprus.)
The English vagabond Bluphocks watches Luigi's turret in the company of Austrian policemen. The Austrians' suspicions hinge on whether Luigi stays for the night or leaves.
III.—Evening
Pippa passes the turret on the hill. Luigi and his mother discuss his plan to assassinate an Austrian official. (The song they overhear, A king lived long ago (1835), was originally a separate poem by Browning.)
Four poor girls sit on the steps of the cathedral and chatter. At the behest of Bluphocks, they greet Pippa as she goes by.
IV.—Night
Pippa passes the cathedral and palace. Inside, Monsignor negotiates with the Intendant, an assassin named Uguccio. The conversation turns to Pippa, the niece of the cardinal and true owner of the ecclesiastic's property, and Ugo's offer to remove her from Asolo.
Pippa returns to her room.
 
 
Critical reaction
 
Critical reaction
Ambiguities

Pippa's song influences Luigi to leave that night for Vienna, preserving him from the police. But does he give up his plan to assassinate the Austrian official? In 1848, a reviewer for Sharpe's London Magazine chid Browning for failing to clarify:

We trust that he may be supposed to have abandoned his execrable design. Indeed, we cannot conceive it possible that an author, animated in general by such Christian feelings as Robert Browning, should recommend regicide, in cold blood, as a deed praiseworthy and heroic. But he has erred greatly in leaving the slightest doubt upon such a subject; unless, indeed, our lack of comprehension be alone responsible for the error. But we do not like playing with edged tools.

However, textual evidence points to a confirmation of his purpose, and Browning's republican sympathies may have leaned in that direction.
Percy Bysshe Shelley had written verses in praise of Charlotte Corday (a figure who was also admired by other Early Romantics, even Jean Paul), and a few lines in the poem "De Gustibus——" (1855) are suggestive:

A girl bare-footed brings, and tumbles
Down on the pavement, green-flesh melons,
And says there's news to-day—the king
Was shot at, touched in the liver-wing,
Goes with his Bourbon arm in a sling:
—She hopes they have not caught the felons.
Italy, my Italy!


The play is a closet drama and many of its actions are told through the characters' speech rather than through stage directions. One consequence of this is the actions of Sebald and Ottima after they hear Pippa's song has been the subject of disagreement. Most critics have seen it simply as a parting on hostile terms, but others have given their last lines a more sinister interpretation.

  Who will read Browning?
Charmed by the character of Pippa, Alfred Noyes pronounced Pippa Passes to be Browning's best,[1] but even the sentimental passages of the work had not been able to win over all Victorian critics. In Chapter XVII of the novel With Harp and Crown (1875), Walter Besant mentioned the poem, singling out The hill-side's dew-pearled! ("Was there ever such a stuttering collocation of syllables to confound the reader and utterly destroy a sweet little lyric?") and took the opportunity to deny Browning's future appeal:

She had taken a scene from Browning's "Pippa passes," a poem which—if its author had only for once been able to wed melodious verse to the sweetest poetical thought; if he had only tried, just for once, to write lines which should not make the cheeks of those that read them to ache, the front teeth of those who declaim them to splinter and fly, the ears of those that hear them to crack—would have been a thing to rest himself upon for ever, and receive the applause of the world. To the gods it seemed otherwise. Browning, who might have led us like Hamelin the piper, has chosen the worse part. He will be so deeply wise that he cannot express his thought; he will be so full of profundities that he requires a million of lines to express them in; he will leave music and melody to Swinburne; he will leave grace and sweetness to Tennyson; and in fifty years' time, who will read Browning?

"A distressing blunder"

Besides the oft-quoted line "God's in his Heaven/All's right with the world!" above, the poem contains an error rooted in Robert Browning's unfamiliarity with vulgar slang. Right at the end of the poem, in her closing song, Pippa calls out the following:

But at night, brother Howlet, far over the woods,
Toll the world to thy chantry;
Sing to the bats’ sleek sisterhoods
Full complines with gallantry:
Then, owls and bats, cowls and twats,
Monks and nuns, in a cloister’s moods,
Adjourn to the oak-stump pantry!

 
 
"Twat" both then and now is vulgar slang for a woman's external genitals. It has become a relatively mild epithet in parts of the UK, but vulgar elsewhere. When the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary enquired decades later where Browning had picked up the word, he directed them to a rhyme from 1660 that went thus: "They talk’t of his having a Cardinall’s Hat/They’d send him as soon an Old Nun’s Twat." Browning apparently missed the vulgar joke and took "twat" to mean part of a nun's habit, pairing it in his poem with a priest's cowl. The mistake was pointed out by H. W. Fay in 1888.
 
 

Pippa Passing the Loose Women
Elizabeth Siddal
1854
 
 
Adaptations and influences
Theatrical productions and films

In 1899 the Boston Browning Society staged an adapted version by Helen Archibald Clarke (1860–1926). An abridgment of Pippa Passes by Henry Miller was premiered at the Majestic Theatre on Broadway on 12 November 1906. It inspired a silent film adaptation starring Gertrude Robinson (and including Mary Pickford in a minor role) which was made in 1909. The film omitted the scenes involving Luigi and the Monsignor, and included a new episode involving a repentant drunkard. It was directed by D. W. Griffith (with cinematography by Arthur Marvin), whose experiments with naturalistic lighting were deemed a great success; he later named it as his greatest film. An adaptation of A Blot in the 'Scutcheon was to follow in 1912, and another Griffith film, The Wanderer (1913) reproduces the theme of Pippa Passes with a flutist instead of a singer. Pippa Passes was revived at the Neighborhood Playhouse by Alice Lewisohn on 17 November 1918, and was a great success.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
     
  Robert Browning 

"Dramatic Romances"

"The Pied Piper of Hamelin"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Buchanan Robert
 

Robert Williams Buchanan, (born Aug. 18, 1841, Caverswall, Staffordshire, Eng.—died June 10, 1901, London), English poet, novelist, and playwright, chiefly remembered for his attacks on the Pre-Raphaelites.

 

Robert Williams Buchanan
  London Poems (1866) established Buchanan as a poet. He followed his first novel, The Shadow of the Sword (1876), with a continuous stream of poems, novels, and melodramas, of which Alone in London (produced 1884) may be taken as typical.

Buchanan’s own forcefulness and moral fervour roused his contempt for Algernon Charles Swinburne, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and other of the Pre-Raphaelite poets.

His attacks culminated in an article entitled “The Fleshly School of Poetry,” published pseudonymously in the Contemporary Review.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Fenimore Cooper: "The Deerslayer"
 

The Deerslayer, or The First Warpath (1841) was the last of James Fenimore Cooper's (Cooper James Fenimore) Leatherstocking tales to be written. Its 1740-1745 time period makes it the first installment chronologically and in the lifetime of the hero of the Leatherstocking tales, Natty Bumppo. The novel's setting on Otsego Lake in central, upstate New York, is the same as that of The Pioneers, the first of the Leatherstocking tales to be published (1823). The Deerslayer is considered to be the prequel to the rest of the Leatherstocking tales. Fenimore Cooper begins his work by relating the astonishing advance of civilization in New York State, which is the setting of four of his five Leatherstocking tales.

 
Plot
This novel introduces Natty Bumppo as "Deerslayer", a young frontiersman in early 18th-century New York. He is contrasted to other frontiersmen and settlers in the novel who have no compunctions in taking scalps in that his natural philosophy is that every living thing should follow "the gifts" of its nature—which would keep European Americans from taking scalps. Two such characters in the work who actually seek to take scalps are Henry March ("Hurry Harry") and floating Tom Hutter. In the dead of night Hutter and March sneak into the camp of the besieging members of the Huron tribe in order to kill and scalp as many as they can. Their plan fails, and Hutter and March are captured. They are later ransomed by Bumppo, his lifelong friend Chingachgook (the Delaware word for 'Great Serpent'), and Hutter's daughters, Judith and Hetty. Bumppo and Chingachgook come up with a plan to rescue Chingachgook's kidnapped betrothed Wah-ta-Wah from the Hurons; but, in rescuing her, Bumppo is captured. In his absence, the Hurons invade Hutter's home, and Hutter is mortally wounded by being scalped. After the death of Hutter his supposed daughters find out that they were not his natural daughters and he had been a notorious pirate. Bumppo's remaining allies and friends plan how to aid his escape from his Huron captors.

Criticism
The brunt of Mark Twain's satire and criticism of Cooper's writing, Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses (1895), fell on The Deerslayer and The Pathfinder. Twain wrote at the beginning of the essay: "In one place in Deerslayer, and in the restricted space of two-thirds of a page, Cooper has scored 114 offenses against literary art out of a possible 115. It breaks the record." He then lists 18 out of 19 rules "governing literary art in domain of romantic fiction" that Cooper violates in The Deerslayer.

 
First edition title page
 
 
In Carl Van Doren's view the book is essentially a romance, at the same time considerably realistic. The dialect is careful, the woodcraft generally sound. The movement is rapid, the incidents varied, and the piece as a whole absorbing. The reality of the piece comes chiefly from the reasoned presentation of the central issue: the conflict in Leather-Stocking between the forces which draw him to the woods and those which seek to attach him to his human kind. Van Doren calls Judith Hutter one of the few convincing young women in Cooper's works; of the minor characters only the ardent young Chingachgook and the silly Hetty Hutter call for his notice.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
see also: James Fenimore Cooper
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Coquelin Benoit
 

Benoît-Constant Coquelin, (born Jan. 23, 1841, Boulogne, France—died Jan. 27, 1909), French actor of unusual range and versatility.

 

Benoît Coquelin dressed as Cyrano de Bergerac
  Coquelin studied acting at the Conservatoire in 1859 and in 1860 made his debut at the Comédie-Française.

At the age of 23 he was a full member of the company.

Mascarille in Molière’s Étourdi and Figaro, comic valets of brilliant exuberancy, were his greatest parts in the classical repertory, but he was also successful as a romantic lover or an old schoolmaster.

In 1886 he resigned his position to tour in Europe and the United States, rejoining the Comédie-Française in 1890. Two years later he left it for good and toured the European capitals with a company of his own.

He was a member of the Renaissance Theatre in Paris from 1895 until 1897, becoming in the latter year director of the Théâtre de la Porte-Saint-Martin, where he created Rostand’s Cyrano (1897).

In 1900 he toured in America with Sarah Bernhardt. During his last years he acted at the Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt. He died while rehearsing for Rostand’s Chantecler.

Coquelin was the author of three treatises on the craft of the actor: L’Art et le comédien (1880), Les Comédiens par un comédien (1882), and L’Art du comédien (1894). His son Jean (1865–1944) also became an actor.

His brother, Ernest-Alexandre-Honoré Coquelin (1848–1909), called Coquelin cadet, was a member of the Comédie-Française from 1879 until his death. He specialized in supporting comedy parts.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1841
 
 
Dickens: "The Old Curiosity Shop"
 

The Old Curiosity Shop is a novel by Dickens Charles. The plot follows the life of Nell Trent and her grandfather, both residents of The Old Curiosity Shop in London.

The Old Curiosity Shop was one of two novels (the other being Barnaby Rudge) which Dickens published along with short stories in his weekly serial Master Humphrey's Clock, which lasted from 1840 to 1841. It was so popular that New York readers stormed the wharf when the ship bearing the final instalment arrived in 1841. The Old Curiosity Shop was printed in book form in 1841.

Queen Victoria read the novel in 1841, finding it "very interesting and cleverly written."

 
Plot summary
The Old Curiosity Shop tells the story of Nell Trent, a beautiful and virtuous young girl of "not quite fourteen." An orphan, she lives with her maternal grandfather (whose name is never revealed) in his shop of odds and ends. Her grandfather loves her dearly, and Nell does not complain, but she lives a lonely existence with almost no friends her own age. Her only friend is Kit, an honest boy employed at the shop, whom she is teaching to write. Secretly obsessed with ensuring that Nell does not die in poverty as her parents did, her grandfather attempts to provide Nell with a good inheritance through gambling at cards. He keeps his nocturnal games a secret, but borrows heavily from the evil Daniel Quilp, a malicious, grotesquely deformed, hunchbacked dwarf moneylender. In the end, he gambles away what little money they have, and Quilp seizes the opportunity to take possession of the shop and evict Nell and her grandfather. Her grandfather suffers a breakdown that leaves him bereft of his wits, and Nell takes him away to the Midlands of England, to live as beggars.

Convinced that the old man has stored up a large and prosperous fortune for Nell, her wastrel older brother, Frederick, convinces the good-natured but easily led Dick Swiveller to help him track Nell down, so that Swiveller can marry Nell and share her supposed inheritance with Frederick. To this end, they join forces with Quilp, who knows full well that there is no fortune, but sadistically chooses to 'help' them to enjoy the misery it will inflict on all concerned.

 
Cover, serial of Master Humphrey's Clock,
1840
 
 
Quilp begins to try to track Nell down, but the fugitives are not easily discovered. To keep Dick Swiveller under his eye, Quilp arranges for him to be taken as a clerk by Quilp's lawyer, Mr. Brass. At the Brass firm, Dick befriends the mistreated maidservant and nicknames her 'the Marchioness'. Nell, having fallen in with a number of characters, some villainous and some kind, succeeds in leading her grandfather to safety in a far-off village (identified by Dickens as Tong, Shropshire), but this comes at a considerable cost to Nell's health.

Meanwhile, Kit, having lost his job at the curiosity shop, has found new employment with the kind Mr and Mrs Garland. Here he is contacted by a mysterious 'single gentleman' who is looking for news of Nell and her grandfather. The 'single gentleman' and Kit's mother go after them unsuccessfully, and encounter Quilp, who is also hunting for the runaways. Quilp forms a grudge against Kit and has him framed as a thief. Kit is sentenced to transportation. However, Dick Swiveller proves Kit's innocence with the help of his friend the Marchioness. Quilp is hunted down and dies trying to escape his pursuers. At the same time, a coincidence leads Mr Garland to knowledge of Nell's whereabouts, and he, Kit, and the single gentleman (who turns out to be the younger brother of Nell's grandfather) go to find her. Sadly, by the time they arrive, Nell has died as a result of her arduous journey. Her grandfather, already mentally infirm, refuses to admit she is dead and sits every day by her grave waiting for her to come back until, a few months later, he dies himself.

 
 

"The Old Curiosity Shop"  Illustration by George Cattermole
 
 
Background
The events of the book seem to take place around 1825. In Chapter 29 Miss Monflathers refers to the death of Lord Byron, who died on 19 April 1824. When the inquest rules (incorrectly) that Quilp committed suicide, his corpse is ordered to be buried at a crossroads with a stake through its heart, a practice banned in 1826. Nell's grandfather, after his breakdown, fears that he shall be sent to a madhouse, and there chained to a wall and whipped; these practices went out of use after about 1830. In Chapter 13, the lawyer Mr. Brass is described as "one of Her Majesty's attornies" [sic], putting him in the reign of Queen Victoria, which began in 1837, but given all the other evidence, and the fact that Kit, at his trial, is charged with acting "against the peace of our Sovereign Lord the King" (referring to George IV), this must be a slip of the pen.




"The Old Curiosity Shop"  Illustration by George Cattermole
 

Framing device
Master Humphrey's Clock was a weekly serial that contained both short stories and two novels (The Old Curiosity Shop and Barnaby Rudge). Some of the short stories act as frame stories to the novels.

Originally the conceit of the story was that Master Humphrey was reading it aloud to a group of his friends, gathered at his house around the grandfather clock in which he eccentrically kept his manuscripts. Consequently, when the novel begins, it is told in the first person, with Master Humphrey as the narrator. However, Dickens soon changed his mind about how best to tell the story, and abandoned the first-person narrator after chapter three. Once the novel was ended, Master Humphrey's Clock added a concluding scene, where Master Humphrey's friends (after he has finished reading the novel to them) complain that the 'single gentleman' is never given a name; Master Humphrey tells them that the novel was a true story, that the 'single gentleman' was in fact Master Humphrey himself, and that the events of the first three chapters were fictitious, intended only to introduce the characters. This was Dickens' after-the-fact explanation of why the narrator disappeared and why (if he was their near relation) he gave no sign in the first three chapters of knowing who they were. It is a clumsy device, and at least one editor thinks "it need not be taken seriously."



"The Old Curiosity Shop"  Illustration by George Cattermole

Dickens's original artistic intent was to keep the short stories and the novels together, and the short stories and the novels were published in 1840 in three bound volumes under the title Master Humphrey's Clock, which retains the original full and correct ordering of texts. However, Dickens himself cancelled Master Humphrey's Clock before 1848, and describes in a preface to The Old Curiosity Shop that he wishes the story to not be tied down to the miscellany within which it began. Most later anthologies published the short stories and the novels separately.



"The Old Curiosity Shop"  Illustration by George Cattermole

 

Characters in The Old Curiosity Shop
Major characters

Nell Trent, the novel's main character. Portrayed as infallibly good and angelic, she leads her grandfather on their journey to save them from misery. She gradually becomes weaker throughout the journey, and although she finds a home with the help of the schoolmaster, she sickens and dies before her friends in London find her.
Nell's grandfather, Nell's guardian. After losing both his wife and daughter, he sees Nell as the embodiment of their good spirits. His grandson Fred is seen as the successor to his son-in-law, who he felt unworthy of his daughter. As such, he shows him no affection. He is paranoid about falling into poverty and gambles to try to stave that off; as his money runs out, he turns to Quilp for loans to continue to furnish for Nell the life he feels she deserves. After believing Kit has revealed his secret addiction he falls ill, and is mentally unstable afterwards. Nell then protects him as he had done for her. Although he knows Nell is dead he refuses to acknowledge it, and does not recognise his brother whom he had protected in their childhood. He dies soon after Nell, and is buried beside her.



"The Old Curiosity Shop"  Illustration by George Cattermole


Christopher 'Kit' Nubbles, Nell's friend and servant. He watches out for Nell when she is left in the shop alone at night (although she doesn't know he's there) and will 'never come home to his bed until he thinks she's safe in hers'. After Quilp takes over the shop, he offers her a place in his house. His mother is concerned about his attachment to Nell, and at one point jokes, 'some people would say that you'd fallen in love with her', at which Kit becomes very bashful and tries to change the subject. He is later given a position at the Garland's house, and becomes an important member of their household. His dedication to his family earns him the respect of many characters, and the resentment of Quilp. He is framed for robbery, but is later released and joins the party travelling to recover Nell.
Daniel Quilp, the novel's primary villain. He mistreats his wife, Betsy, and manipulates others to his own ends through a false charm he has developed over the years. He lends money to Nell's grandfather, and takes possession of the curiosity shop during the old man's illness (which he had caused by revealing his knowledge of Trent's bad gambling habit). He uses sarcasm to belittle those he wishes to control, most notably his wife, and takes a sadistic delight in the suffering of others. He eavesdrops so as to know all of 'the old man's' most private thoughts, and teases him, saying 'you have no secrets from me now'. He also drives a wedge between Kit and the old man (and as a result between Kit and Nell) by pretending it was Kit who told him about the gambling.



"The Old Curiosity Shop"  Illustration by George Cattermole


Richard 'Dick' Swiveller, in turn, Frederick Trent's manipulated friend; Sampson Brass's clerk; and the Marchioness's guardian and eventual husband. He delights in quoting and adapting literature to describe his experiences. He is very laid-back and doesn't seem to worry about anything, despite the fact that he owes money to just about everybody. Following Fred's departure from the story, he becomes more independent and eventually is seen as a strong force for good, securing Kit's release from prison and the Marchioness's future.
The single gentleman, who is never named, is the estranged younger brother of Nell's grandfather. He leads the search for the travellers after taking lodging in Sampson Brass's rooms and befriending Dick, Kit and the Garlands.



"The Old Curiosity Shop"  Illustration by George Cattermole


Other characters

Mrs. Betsy Quilp, Quilp's mistreated wife. She is mortally afraid of her husband, but appears to love him in spite of everything, as she was genuinely worried when he disappeared for a long period.
Mr. Sampson Brass, an attorney (what would now be called a solicitor) of the Court of the King's Bench. A grovelling, obsequious man, he is an employee of Mr. Quilp, at whose urging he frames Kit for robbery.
Miss Sarah ('Sally') Brass, Mr. Brass's obnoxious sister and clerk. She is the real authority in the Brass firm. She is occasionally referred to as a "dragon", and she mistreats the Marchioness. Quilp makes amorous advances towards her, but is rebuffed.



"The Old Curiosity Shop"  Illustration by George Cattermole


Mrs. Jarley, proprietor of a travelling waxworks show, who takes in Nell and her grandfather out of kindness. However, she only appears briefly.
Frederick Trent, Nell's worthless older brother, who is convinced that his grandfather is secretly wealthy (when in actuality he was the primary cause of the old man's poverty, according to the single gentleman). Initially a major character in the novel and highly influential over Richard Swiveller, he is dropped from the narrative after chapter 23. Briefly mentioned as travelling to Great Britain and the wider world following his disappearance from the story, before being found injured and drowned in the River Seine after the story's conclusion. The character was named after the novelist's younger brother, Frederick Dickens.



"The Old Curiosity Shop"  Illustration by George Cattermole


Mr. Garland, a kind-hearted man, father of Abel Garland and employer of Kit.
The small servant, Miss Brass's maidservant. Dick Swiveller befriends her and, finding that she does not know her age or name (Sally Brass simply refers to her as "Little Devil") or parents, nicknames her The Marchioness and later gives her the name Sophronia Sphynx. In the original manuscript it is made explicit that the Marchioness is in fact the illegitimate daughter of Miss Brass, possibly by Quilp, but only a suggestion of this survived in the published edition.
Isaac List and Joe Jowl, professional gamblers. They are fellow guests at the public house where Nell and her Grandfather, unable to get home, pass a stormy night. Nell's grandfather is unable to resist gambling with them, and fleeces Nell of what little money she has to this end. That same night, he also robs her of even more money.
Mr. Chuckster, the dogsbody of the notary Mr. Witherden, who employs Mr. Abel Garland. He takes a strong dislike to Kit after Mr. Garland overpays Kit for a job and Kit returns to work off the difference; he shows his dislike at every opportunity, calling Kit 'Snobby'.



"The Old Curiosity Shop"  Illustration by George Cattermole


Mr. Marton, a poor schoolmaster. He befriends Nell and later inadvertently meets her and her Grandfather on the roads. Nell approaches him to beg for alms, not realising who he is. She faints from a combination of shock and exhaustion, and, realising she is ill, he takes her to an inn and pays for the doctor, and then takes her and her grandfather to live with him in the distant village where he has been appointed parish clerk.
Thomas Codlin, proprietor of a travelling Punch and Judy show.
Mr. Harris, called 'Short Trotters', the puppeteer of the Punch and Judy show.
Barbara, the maidservant of Mr. and Mrs. Garland and future wife of Kit.
The Bachelor, brother of Mr. Garland. Lives in the village where Nell and her Grandfather end their journey, and unknowingly alerts his brother to their presence through a letter.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
     
  Charles Dickens

"Great Expectations"
 
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Ewing Juliana Horatia
 

Juliana Horatia Ewing (née Gatty) (3 August 1841 – 13 May 1885) was an English writer of children's stories.

 

Juliana Horatia Ewing
  Youth and marriage
Known as Julie, she was the second of ten children of the Reverend Alfred Gatty, vicar of Ecclesfield in Yorkshire, and Margaret Gatty, who was herself a children's author. The children were educated mainly by her mother, but Julie was often the driving force behind their various activities: drama, botany etc. Later she was responsible for setting up a village library in Ecclesfield and helped out in the parish with her three sisters. Early stories appeared in Charlotte Yonge's magazine Monthly Packet.

On 1 June 1867, she was married to Major Alexander Ewing (1830–1895) of the army pay department, also a keen churchgoer, who shared his wife's interest in literature. Within a week of their marriage, Ewing left England for Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, where her husband had received a new posting. They remained there for two years, before returning to England in 1869 and spending eight years in the army town of Aldershot. Rudyard Kipling claimed to know her novel Jan of the Windmill (1872-3, 1876) almost by heart. Her story The Brownies (1865) gave the Baden-Powells the idea and the name for the junior level of the Girl Guides. Another admirer of her work was E. Nesbit.

Though her husband was sent overseas again, to Malta in 1879 and Sri Lanka in 1881, Ewing's poor health would not allow her to accompany him. They moved to Trull, Somerset, on his return in 1883, and in 1885, to Bath, in the hopes that the change of air would do her good. However, her health continued to deteriorate, and after two operations, she died there on 13 May 1885. She was given a military funeral at Trull three days later.

 
 
Her sister Horatia Katharine Frances Gatty (1846-?) published a memorial of Julie's life and works, Juliana Horatia Ewing and Her Books London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1885. It contains a useful publication history of her stories. Leaves from Juliana Horatia Ewing's "Canada Home.", edited by Elizabeth S. Tucker (Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1896) includes some of Julie's letters and drawings about Canada. A biography of her by Gillian Avery appeared in 1961 (London: Bodley Head).
 
 

Illustration by R Andre from A Soldier's Children by Juliana Horatia Ewing
 
 
'Child-novels'
Roger Lancelyn Green calls her works the "first outstanding child-novels" in English literature. Her works are notable for their sympathetic insight into child life, their admiration for things military, and their reflection of her strong Anglican faith. They include Mrs. Overtheway's Remembrances (1869), A Flat Iron for a Farthing (1872), Six to Sixteen (1875), Jackanapes (1884), Daddy Darwin's Dovecot (1884), and The Story of a Short Life (1885).

A talented artist herself, her works were frequently illustrated by such notables as George Cruikshank and Randolph Caldecott. She was also the editor of a number of magazines which published short stories for children, such as the Nursery Magazines from 1856 onwards, the Monthly Packet and the monthly Aunt Judy's Magazine from 1866.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Gotthelf Jeremias: "Uli der Knecht" ("Uli the Farmhand")
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Sill Edward Rowland
 

Edward Rowland Sill (April 29, 1841 – February 27, 1887) was an American poet and educator.

 

Edward Rowland Sill
  Biography
Born in Windsor, Connecticut, he graduated from Yale in 1861, where he was Class Poet and a member of Skull and Bones. He engaged in business in California, and entered the Harvard Divinity School in 1867 but soon left for a position on the staff of the New York Evening Mail.
After teaching at Wadsworth and Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio (1868-1871), he became principal of Oakland High School in Oakland, California.

From 1874 to 1882, Sill was professor of English literature at the University of California. His health failing, he returned to Cuyahoga Falls in 1883. He devoted himself to literary work, abundant and largely anonymous, until his death in 1887 in Cleveland, Ohio.

Works
Much of his poetry was contributed to The Atlantic Monthly, the Century Magazine, and the Overland Monthly. Many of his prose essays appeared in The Contributors Club, and others appeared in the main body of the Atlantic.

Among his works are:

A translation of Rau's Mozart (1868).
The Hermitage and Other Poems (1868).
The Venus of Milo and Other Poems (1883), a farewell tribute to his California friends.
Poems (1887).
The Hermitage and Later Poems (1889).
Hermione and Other Poems (1900).
The Prose of Edward Rowland Sill (1900).
Poems (1902).

 
 
A memorial volume was privately printed by his friends in 1887. A biographical sketch in The Poetical Works of Edward Rowland Sill, edited by William Belmont Parker with Mrs Sill's assistance was printed in 1906, and his poem "The Fool's Prayer" (1879) was selected for inclusion in the Yale Book of American Verse in 1912. In 1911 the Encyclopædia Britannica praised him, stating, "He was a modest and charming man, a graceful essayist, a sure critic. His contribution to American poetry is small but of fine quality. His best poems, such as "The Venus of Milo," "The Fool's Prayer" and "Opportunity," gave him a high place among the minor poets of America, which might have been higher but for his early death."

Sill was the subject of biographies by William Belmont Parker in 1915 and by Alfred Riggs Ferguson in 1955.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov (Lermontov Mikhail), Russian poet and novelist, d. (b. 1814)
 
 

The last portrait of Lermontov, by Kirill Gorbunov 1841
 
 
 
     
  Mikhail Lermontov

"Death of the Poet"
"Mtsyri"
"The Demon
"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
James Russell Lowell (Lowell James Russell ): "A Year's Life"
 
 
 
 
see also: James Russell Lowell
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Frederick Marryat: "Masterman Ready"
 

Masterman Ready, or the Wreck of the Pacific is a robinsonade children's novel published in 1841 by Marryat Frederick. The book follows the adventures of the Seagrave family who are shipwrecked at sea, and survive on a desert island with the assistance of veteran sailor Masterman Ready.

 
Plot
The Seagrave family are returning to New South Wales on board the Pacific when a storm strikes, wrecking the ship. The crew escape in a lifeboat leaving the passengers to their fate. The Seagrave family, together with their young black female servant Juno, and the veteran sailor Masterman Ready, are shipwrecked on a desert island. The family learn to survive many obstacles, helped by Ready's long experience of life as a seaman. The worse threat comes when a band of marauders attacks the party, resulting in the death of Ready. Rescue comes when the captain of the Pacific, whom the family thought had died in the storm, arrives in a schooner.

Themes
Masterman Ready was one of the first historical adventures written for young readers. It was written in response to the 1812 book The Swiss Family Robinson by Johann Wyss. As a sailor of long experience, Marryat was annoyed that Wyss had portrayed being shipwrecked as a romantic adventure and he disapproved of the ignorance regarding flora and fauna displayed by Wyss. The Seagrave family in Marryat's novel have to overcome many hazards, beginning with the initial storm which wrecks the ship and injures the passengers.

The book throughout has a strong moral and pious tone. It contains many long reminiscences of Ready's life at sea, in which thanks is given to God, and of the comfort to be found in the Bible. Likewise the family learn lessons on natural history and discover evidence for God's benevolence everywhere.

 
Frederick Marryat. "Masterman Ready"
 
 
Reception
For many years Masterman Ready was one of the most popular adventure stories for children. It was ranked alongside The Children of the New Forest as the best of Marryat's books for children and it was at one time thought Masterman Ready would "always be the more popular of the two, from the neverceasing attractiveness of its subject matter." The book is now less popular than it once was, partly because moral lessons constantly intrude on the action.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Mendes Catulle
 

Catulle Mendès, (born May 22, 1841, Bordeaux, France—died Feb. 9, 1909, Paris), prolific French poet, playwright, and novelist, most noted for his association with the Parnassians, a group of French poets who advocated a controlled, formal art for art’s sake in reaction to the formlessness of Romanticism.

 

Catulle Mendès
  A banker’s son, Mendès founded La Revue fantaisiste (1861), which became a vehicle for the late works of Théophile Gautier (whose daughter Mendès married in 1866 but left soon afterward) and such poets as Charles Baudelaire and Villiers de L’Isle-Adam.

Mendès edited Le Parnasse contemporain (1866, 1871, 1876; “The Contemporary Parnassians”), which named their movement, and he became their historian in La Légende du Parnasse contemporain.

He also encouraged members of a younger generation of poets who were to found the Symbolist movement.

Mendès’ Poésies (1892) and Poésies nouvelles (1893) imitate many other poets, and it is difficult to tell his verse from theirs.

His plays Les Mères ennemies (1882; “The Enemy Mothers”) and La Femme de Tabarin (1887; “The Woman of Tabarin”) were more successful.

He also wrote several novels and licentious tales, such as Pour lire au bain (“Readings for the Bath”).

Rapport sur le mouvement poétique français de 1867–1900 (1902; “Thoughts on the French Poetic Movement of 1867–1900”) is a critical work.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Mounet-Sully Jean
 
Mounet-Sully (February 28, 1841 – 1916), a French actor, was born at Bergerac. His birth name was Jean-Sully Mounet: "Mounet-Sully" (without the "Jean") was a stage name.
 

Mounet-Sully by Georges Lafosse
from Le Trombinoscope
  Life
He entered the Conservatoire at the age of twenty-one, where he took first prize for tragedy. In 1868 he made his debut at the Odéon without attracting much attention. His career was interrupted by the Franco-Prussian War, and his passion for his military career had almost convinced him to give up the stage, until he was offered the opportunity to play the part of Oreste in Racine's Andromaque at the Comédie Française in 1872.

His striking presence and voice and the passionate vigor of his acting made an immediate impression, which resulted in his election as sociétaire in 1874. He became one of the mainstays of the Comédie Française, and distinguished himself in a great variety of tragic and romantic parts.

Perhaps his most famous role was that of Oedipus in L'Oedipe roi, a French version by Jules Lacroix of Sophocles's drama. This was first performed in Paris at the Théâtre-Français in 1881 and later revived in the old Roman amphitheater at Orange in 1888. Fashion designer Paul Poiret commented in his autobiography King of Fashion, "I shall always see Mounet-Sully in Oedipus Rex, blind, coming down the steps of the temple, and saying in a suave voice: 'Children of ancient Cadmus, young successors. . .' Other prominent parts in Mounet-Sully's repertoire were Achilles in Racine's Iphigenie et Aulide, Hippolyte in Phèdre, the titular part of Hamlet, the title parts in Victor Hugo's Hernani and Ruy Blas, Francis I in Le roi s'amuse, and Didier in Marion Delorme.

 
 
He was made chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1889. He also wrote a play, La Buveuse de l'armes, and in 1906, in collaboration with Pierre Barbier, La Vieillesse de Don Juan in verse.

He was the brother of the actor Paul Mounet. His daughter was the actress Jeanne Sully. He was a good friend, co-performer, and one-time lover of famed actress Sarah Bernhardt.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Рое Edgar Allan: "The Murders in the Rue Morgue," his first detective story, appears in "Graham's Magazine"
 
 
 
     
  Edgar Allan Poe

1. "Ligeia"
2. "The Raven"
3.
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
     
 
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
"Punch, or The London Charivari"
 

Punch, or The London Charivari was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire established in 1841 by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells. Historically, it was most influential in the 1840s and 50s, when it helped to coin the term "cartoon" in its modern sense as a humorous illustration. It became a British institution, but in Ireland Punch is known for its racist depictions of the Irish, while in the 1850s it declared that the Irish people were 'the missing link between the gorilla and the Negro'.

After the 1940s, when its circulation peaked, it went into a long decline, closing in 1992. It was revived in 1996, but closed again in 2002.

 
History
Punch was founded on 17 July 1841 by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells, on an initial investment of £25. It was jointly edited by Mayhew and Mark Lemon. Initially it was subtitled The London Charivari in homage to Charles Philipon's earlier French satirical humour magazine Le Charivari. Reflecting their satiric and humorous intent, the two editors took for their name and masthead the anarchic glove puppet, Mr. Punch, of Punch and Judy; the name also referred to a joke made early on about one of the magazine's first editors, Lemon, that "punch is nothing without lemon". Mayhew ceased to be joint editor in 1842 and became "suggestor in chief" until he severed his connection in 1845. The magazine initially struggled for readers, except for an 1842 "Almanack" issue which shocked its creators by selling 90,000 copies. In December 1842 due to financial difficulties the magazine was sold to Bradbury and Evans, both printers and publishers. Bradbury and Evans capitalised on newly evolving mass printing technologies and also were the publishers for Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray.

The term "cartoon" to refer to comic drawings was first used in Punch in 1843; the Houses of Parliament were to be decorated with murals, and "cartoons" for the mural were displayed for the public; the term "cartoon" then meant a finished preliminary sketch on a large piece of cardboard, or cartone in Italian. Punch humorously appropriated the term to refer to its political cartoons, and the popularity of the Punch cartoons led to the term's widespread use.

 
Cover of the first Punch, or the London Charivari depicts Punch hanging a caricatured Devil, 1841
 
 
The illustrator Archibald Henning designed the cover of the magazine's first issues. The cover design varied in the early years, though Richard Doyle designed what became the magazine's masthead in 1849. Artists who published in Punch during the 1840s and 50s included John Leech, Richard Doyle, John Tenniel and Charles Keene. This group became known as "The Punch Brotherhood", which also included Charles Dickens who joined Bradbury and Evans after leaving Chapman and Hall in 1843. Punch authors and artists also contributed to another Bradbury and Evans literary magazine called Once A Week (est.1859), created in response to Dickens' departure from Household Words.

In the 1860s and 1870s, conservative Punch faced competition from upstart liberal journal Fun, but after about 1874, Fun's fortunes faded. At Evans's café in London, the two journals had "Round tables" in competition with each other.

After months of financial difficulty and lack of market success, Punch became a staple for British drawing rooms because of its sophisticated humour and absence of offensive material, especially when viewed against the satirical press of the time. The Times and the Sunday paper News of the World used small pieces from Punch as column fillers, giving the magazine free publicity and indirectly granting a degree of respectability, a privilege not enjoyed by any other comic publication. Punch would share a friendly relationship with not only The Times but journals aimed at intellectual audiences such as the Westminster Review, which published a fifty-three page illustrated article on Punch's first two volumes. Historian Richard Altick writes that "To judge from the number of references to it in the private letters and memoirs of the 1840s...Punch had become a household word within a year or two of its founding, beginning in the middle class and soon reaching the pinnacle of society, royalty itself".

Increasing in readership and popularity throughout the remainder of the 1840s and 1850s, Punch was the success story of a threepenny weekly paper that had become one of the most talked-about and enjoyed periodicals.

 
 
Punch enjoyed an audience including Elizabeth Barrett, Robert Browning, Thomas Carlyle, Edward FitzGerald, Charlotte Brontë, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Emily Dickinson, Herman Melville, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and James Russell Lowell. Punch gave several phrases to the English language, including The Crystal Palace, and the "Curate's egg" (first seen in an 1895 cartoon). Several British humour classics were first serialised in Punch, such as the Diary of a Nobody and 1066 and All That. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the artistic roster included Harry Furniss, Linley Sambourne, Francis Carruthers Gould, and Phil May. Among the outstanding cartoonists of the following century were Bernard Partridge, H. M. Bateman, Bernard Hollowood who also edited the magazine from 1957 to 1968, and Norman Thelwell.
Circulation broke the 100,000 mark around 1910, and peaked in 1947-48 at 175,000 to 184,000. Sales declined steadily thereafter; ultimately, the magazine was forced to close in 1992 after 150 years of publication.

Punch was widely emulated worldwide and popular in the colonies. However, the colonial experience, especially in India, also had an impact on Punch and its iconography. Tenniels' Punch cartoons of the 1857 Sepoy Munitny, also called India's First War of Independence, led to a surge in the magazine's popularity.
Colonial India was time and again caricatured in Punch and can be seen as a significant source for producing knowledge about India (Khanduri 2014).

 
1843: 1 July cover shows Punch straddling a trumpeter
 
 
Punch and depictions of the Irish
The magazine is most remembered in Ireland for its racist depictions of the Irish, as apes or monkeys. While Punch generally represented a widespread British view of the Irish, it also attracted criticism from other establishment media in Britain. The Spectator in 1870, for instance, had this to say about one such simian portrayal of the Irish: 'Punch,— which with its pictorial genius wields more power to hurt than any mere newspaper, — is always unscrupulous about Ireland. Its cartoon this week, painting the typical Irishman in the character of Caliban, makes the type hardly distinguishable from the gorilla. These are the kinds of insults which no race ever yet forgave."
 
 
Later years
Punch material was collected in book formats from the late nineteenth century, which included Pick of the Punch annuals with cartoons and text features, Punch and the War (a 1941 collection of WWII-related cartoons), and A Big Bowl of Punch – which was republished a number of times. Many Punch cartoonists of the late 20th century published collections of their own, partly based on Punch contributions.
Punch magazine ceased publishing in 1992.

In early 1996, the Egyptian businessman Mohamed Al-Fayed bought the rights to the name, and Punch was re-launched later that year. It was reported that the magazine was intended to be a spoiler aimed at Private Eye, which had published many items critical of Fayed. The magazine never became profitable in its new incarnation, and at the end of May 2002 it was announced that Punch would once more cease publication. Press reports quoted a loss of £16 million over the six years of publication, with only 6,000 subscribers at the end.

Whereas the earlier version of Punch prominently featured the clownish character Punchinello (Punch of Punch and Judy) performing antics on front covers, the resurrected Punch magazine did not use this character, but featured on its weekly covers a photograph of a boxing glove, thus informing its readers that the new magazine intended its name to mean "punch" in the sense of a punch in the eye.

 
1916: 26 April cover shows Richard Doyle's 1849 masthead with colour and advertisements
 
 
In 2004, much of the archive was acquired by the British Library, including the famous Punch table. The long oval Victorian table was used for staff meetings and other occasions, and was brought into the offices sometime around 1855. The wooden surface is scarred with the carved initials of the magazine's longtime writers, artists and editors, as well as six invited "strangers" including James Thurber and Prince Charles. Mark Twain declined the offer, saying that the already-carved initials of William Makepeace Thackeray included his own.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1841
 
 
Charles Sealsfield (K. A. Postl), Austrian writer: "Das Kajiitenbuch" ("The Cabin Book"), an adventure novel with a Texan background
 
 
Sealsfield Charles
 

Charles Sealsfield was the pseudonym of Austrian-American journalist Carl (or Karl) Anton Postl (3 March 1793 - 26 May 1864), an advocate for a German democracy. He lived in the United States from 1822 to 1826, and then again in 1828-1829. During a final stay from 1853 to 1858 he became a US citizen. Sealsfield is best known for his German-language Romantic novels with American backgrounds, and also wrote travelogues. He returned to Europe about 1829, living in Paris and London before settling in Switzerland in 1832, where he resided for most of the rest of his life.

 

Charles Sealsfield
  Biography
Carl Anton Postl was born at Popice u Znojma (Poppitz) near Znojmo in Moravia, then part of the Austria-Hungary Empire. His schooling completed, he entered the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star in Prague, where he became a priest. In the autumn of 1822, apparently fleeing the repressive government of Prince Klemens von Metternich, he fled to the United States, where he assumed the name of Charles Sealsfield.

In 1826 he returned to Germany and published a book on America (Die Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika). Next he published an outspoken criticism of Austria, first in German, then adapted by Postl into English (Austria as it is, or, sketches of continental courts, by an eye-witness, 1828.) It was published anonymously in London; this book offended the Austrian authorities. The author was a wanted man in that country, but his identity remained unknown.

Meanwhile Postl had returned to the United States, where he published his first novel, also in English, Tokeah, or the White Rose (1828; translated in German by Gustav Höcker). He became a journalist, first in New York City, where in 1829 he edited the Courier des États Unis. He traveled back to Europe, living first in Paris and then in London, making a living by his journalism and writing accounts of United States life as a correspondent for various journals.

In 1832 Postl settled in Switzerland. In 1860 he purchased a small estate in Solothurn. Here he died in May 1864. His will first revealed the fact that he was the former monk Postl.

 
 
He is best known as a German-language novelist. His Tokeah appeared in German under the title Der Legitime und die Republikaner (1838), and was followed by Der Virey und die Aristokraten oder Mexiko im Jahre 1812 (1835), Lebensbilder aus beiden Hemisphären (1835-1837), Sturm-, Land- und Seebilder (1838), Das Kajütenbuch, oder Nationale Charakteristiken (1842). Sealsfield occupies an important position in the development of the German historical novel at a period when the influence of the English author, Sir Walter Scott, was beginning to wane. Postl endeavoured to widen the scope of historical fiction, to describe great national and political movements, without forfeiting the sympathy of his readers for the individual characters of the story.

In 1844, Theodor Mundt declared Sealsfield (whose name he had misread as "Seatsfield") the greatest American author. The Boston Daily Advertiser and other newspapers commenced a search for the true identity of "Seatsfield," but many believed the whole story to be a hoax. The Knickerbocker ran an elaborate satire on the affair in its June 1844 issue.

Sealsfield's Gesammelte Werke (Collected Works) appeared in 18 vols. (1843-1846). A new edition of his complete works in German and English (Sämtliche Werke), chiefly in photographic facsimile, though with new introductions and editorial apparatus) was edited by Sealsfield scholar Karl J. R. Arndt and published by Olms beginning in 1972.

The Zentralbibliothek Solothurn has a large collection of editions and manuscripts.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
Scott Clement William
 

Clement William Scott (6 October 1841 – 25 June 1904) was an influential English theatre critic for the Daily Telegraph and other journals, and a playwright, lyricist, translator and travel writer, in the final decades of the 19th century. His style of criticism, acerbic, flowery and (perhaps most importantly) carried out on the first night of productions, set the standard for theatre reviewers through to today.

Scott accumulated enemies among theatre managers, actors and playwrights as years went on, picking quarrels with William Archer, Ibsen, George Bernard Shaw and others. After he gave a particularly ill-considered 1898 interview, in which he attacked the morals of theatre people, especially actresses, he was forced to retire as a theatre critic and his reputation and prospects suffered badly until, by the end of his life, he was impoverished.

 
Life and career
Born the son of William Scott, the vicar of Hoxton in north London, Scott converted to Roman Catholicism before his 21st birthday. Educated at Marlborough College, he became a civil servant, working in the War Office beginning in 1860.
 
 

Clement William Scott
  Early career
Encouraged to write by the humorist Tom Hood the younger, who also was a clerk in the War Office, Scott contributed to The Era, Weekly Dispatch, and to Hood's own paper, Fun, where Scott and W. S. Gilbert were colleagues. Scott's interest in writing and the theatre led him to brief dalliance with the failed Victoria Review.

He became the dramatic writer for The Sunday Times in 1863 but held the position for only two years because of the intemperance of his published opinions and his unpopular praise of the French theatre. In 1871, Scott began his nearly thirty years as a theatre critic with The Daily Telegraph. He also contributed regularly to The Theatre, a magazine that he founded, and wrote sentimental poetry and song lyrics (including "Oh Promise Me"), which were often published in the magazine Punch by his friend, the editor, F. C. Burnand. Scott continued to work at the War Office until 1879, when he finally decided to earn his living entirely by writing.

As well as criticism, Scott wrote plays, including The Vicarage, The Cape Mail, Anne Mié, Odette, and The Great Divorce Case.

 
 
He wrote several English adaptations of Victorien Sardou's plays, some of which were written in collaboration with B. C. Stephenson, such as Nos intimes (as Peril) and Dora (1878, as Diplomacy). The latter was described by the theatrical paper The Era as "the great dramatic hit of the season". It also played with success at Wallack's Theatre in New York. Scott and Stephenson also wrote an English version of Halévy and Meilhac's libretto for Lecocq's operetta Le Petit Duc (1878). Their adaptation so pleased the composer that he volunteered to write some new music for the English production. For all of these, Scott adopted the pen name "Saville Rowe" (after Savile Row) to match Stephenson's pseudonym, "Bolton Rowe", another Mayfair street. The pieces with Stephenson were produced by the Bancrofts, the producers of T. W. Robertson's plays, which Scott admired. He also wrote accounts of holiday tours around the British Isles and abroad, becoming known for his florid style. Scott's travels also inspired his creative writing. Some sources say that after a tour of New Zealand, he wrote the tune to the "Swiss Cradle Song", later adapted as "Now Is the Hour" and as "Haere Ra", the Māori farewell song, which white New Zealanders "mistakenly thought [to be] an old Maori folksong". It is also used for the hymn "Search Me, O God", with lyrics by J. Edwin Orr. However, the family of an Australian, Albert Saunders, has long claimed that the "Clement Scott" who wrote the tune is a pseudonym for Saunders.   Poppyland and later years
In 1883, the Daily Telegraph printed an article which Scott had written about a visit to the north Norfolk coast. He became enamoured of the district and gave it the name Poppyland. His writing was responsible for members of the London theatre set visiting and investing in homes in the area. Ironically, he was unhappy at the result of his popularisation of this previously pristine area.

Scott married Isabel Busson du Maurier, the sister of George du Maurier, and the couple had four children. She died in 1890, and he remarried Constance Margarite Brandon, an American journalist and actress, in San Francisco. Scott's long-time wish to be elected a member of the famous literary gentlemen's club, the Garrick Club (to which Henry Irving, Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan, among many other notable men belonged), was finally realised in 1892.
After Scott's ill-considered 1898 interview in Great Thoughts, he was forced to retire as a theatre critic and moved to Biarritz to write The Drama of Yesterday and Today. He then worked for a couple of years at the end of the century for the New York Herald, later returning to London. In 1900, he founded The Free Lance, a Popular Society and Critical Journal, for writers who worked by the job, which he edited.

Scott fell into illness and poverty in his last years and died at his residence in Woburn Square at the age of 62.

 
 
Style, controversies and influence
Scott's position on the Daily Telegraph and the support of its proprietor, J. M. Levy, allowed him to pioneer the essay-style review of drama, which came to replace the earlier bare notices. His column of notes and reviews became very popular throughout Britain, and later his own magazine, The Theatre, achieved wide circulation. He wrote his theatre reviews immediately after he saw the opening night of a piece which, together with his short temper and his dislike of critic William Archer, the chief English supporter of Ibsen, tended to involve him often in controversies. Scott played an important part in encouraging a more attentive attitude by theatre audiences. In his early days, it was not uncommon for audiences to be very boisterous and noisy, frequently booing and talking during productions, especially through the overture. He also insisted on first night reviews. It had been common for reviewers to wait a few days before writing about a production. Scott insisted that the paying audience on the first night should expect to see a fully fledged production, and not one where the leading characters did not know all their lines. Theatre managers disliked the opening night reviews when they felt that a new piece had not had time to settle down yet. On the other hand, Scott supported actor-managers of his time by providing them with translations of popular French plays and with his own plays.

Early in his career, he wrote approvingly of the "cup and saucer" realism movement, led by T. W. Robertson, whose plays were notable for treating contemporary British subjects in realistic settings.

 
Cartoon of Scott in the Entr'acte, in 1898, when he accused Ibsen and Shaw of being harmful to society.
 
 
Later, he favoured the grand and spectacular type of London theatrical production which had developed with new types of theatre building, electric lighting and technologies allowed more and more adventurous staging. As time went on, he became strongly conservative and opposed to the new drama of Ibsen and Shaw, arguing that domestic intrigue, sexual situations and wordy philosophising were inappropriate for an evening at the theatre, and even harmful to society, especially young women. Scott especially became embroiled in legal claims through his outspoken criticism of various actors and actresses. His scathing attacks on Ibsen and Shaw became evident in their lack of journalistic neutrality.

Scott outraged the theatre community with an extraordinary attack on the morals of theatre people in general, and especially of actresses, in an interview that was published in the evangelical weekly Great Thoughts in 1898. He said that the theatre warps people's character and that it was impossible for a pure woman to be successful in a stage career, and that all leading actresses were immoral and could have achieved their success only by virtue of the extent of their "compliance". Even before the publication, the transcript of the interview was released to the press, and Scott immediately received a firestorm of condemnation. Although he apologised and recanted his remarks, he was barred from theatres, and the Daily Telegraph was forced to dismiss him. He soon retired and found his reputation and prospects much diminished. By the end of his life, however, he received a measure of forgiveness, and shortly before his death the theatre community held a generous benefit for him.

His papers are located in the library of Rochester University, New York State. Film maker John Madden (Shakespeare in Love, Mrs. Brown, Captain Corelli's Mandolin) made his first feature film for the BBC, Poppyland (1985), around the story of Scott's visit to Poppyland.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1841
 
 
White Joseph Blanco
 
Joseph Blanco White, original name José María Blanco y Crespo (born June 11, 1775, Sevilla, Spain—died May 20, 1841, Liverpool, Eng.), Spanish-born English poet, journalist, and writer of miscellaneous prose. He was a friend of the poets Robert Southey and Samuel Taylor Coleridge and of the young clerical intellectuals at Oriel College, Oxford, in the 1820s: John Henry Newman, E.B. Pusey, Richard Hurrell Froude, and Richard Whately, all associated with the Oxford movement.
 

Joseph Blanco White
  White was a Roman Catholic priest who became a freethinker. He began a journalistic career in 1808 as an advocate of Spanish independence during the French invasion of Spain. When, in 1810, the French entered Sevilla, he fled to England and became editor of El español (“The Spaniard”), a periodical that fomented Spanish opposition to the French. In 1815 he received a British government pension. He took Anglican orders, anglicized his name (his family, after having lived in Spain for two generations, had translated their name to Blanco), and became known as a writer of essays, poems, and popular polemical tracts on disputed points of dogma. His Practical and Internal Evidence Against Catholicism appeared in 1825. But doubt again disrupted his life: he left the church and, finally settling in Liverpool, spent his last years as an active Unitarian. White is best remembered for his sonnet “Night and Death” (1828), highly praised for its grandeur by Coleridge, and for his autobiography, The Life of the Rev. Joseph Blanco White, 3 vol. (1845), edited from his letters by John Hamilton Thom.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
1841
 
 
Ruskin: "The King of the Golden River"
 

The King of the Golden River or The Black Brothers: A Legend of Stiria by Ruskin John was originally written in 1841 for the twelve-year-old Effie (Euphemia) Gray, whom Ruskin later married. It was published in book form in 1851, and became an early Victorian classic which sold out three editions. In the "Advertisement to the First Edition," which prefaces it, it is called a fairy tale, one, it might be added, that illustrates the triumph of love, kindness, and goodness over evil; however, it could also be characterized as a fable, a fabricated aetiological myth or etiology, and a parable. It was illustrated with 22 illustrations by Richard Doyle (1824–83).

 
Plot summary
The richness of the Treasure Valley, high in the mountains of Stiria or Styria, southeastern Austria, is lost through the evil of the owners, the two elder, "Black Brothers," Hans and Schwartz, who in their foolishness mistreat Southwest Wind, Esquire, who in turn floods their valley, washing away their "liquid assets," and turning their valley into a dead valley of red sand.
This personified wind has the power to keep things this way through his influence with other winds that had caused the valley's unique fertility. Forced into a trade other than farming Hans and Schwartz become goldsmiths. They cruelly melt their younger brother Gluck's prize heirloom, a golden mug, which consists of the head of a golden bearded man. This action releases the King of the Golden River for Gluck to pour out of the crucible as a finely dressed little golden dwarf. The Golden River is one of the high mountain cataracts, that surround the Treasure Valley. Gluck fancies that it would be good if that high majestic river would actually be what it appears in the setting sun, a river of gold. The dwarfish king disagrees with Gluck, but offers a proposition: if someone were to climb up to the source of the river and throw into it at least three drops of "holy water," it would become for that person only a river of gold. That person must do it on his first and only attempt or be overwhelmed by the river to become a black stone.

Hans and Schwartz desire to take the challenge, duel each other with the result that Schwartz is thrown into jail for disturbing the peace. Hans, who had the good sense to hide from the constable, steals holy water from the church and climbs up the mountains to the Golden River.
 
Title page, designed by Richard Doyle
 
 
He has a hard time of it on a glacier and gets away without his provisions and only his flask of holy water. Overcome with thirst Hans is forced to drink from this flask, knowing that only three drops are all that's needed. Along the path, Hans comes across three prostrate individuals dying of thirst, a puppy, a fair child, and an old man. Hans satisfies his own thirst while denying the three needy individuals.

The "demeanor" of the surroundings of his journey turns bleak and inauspicious, climaxing in Hans being transformed into a black stone once he has hurled the holy water flask into the Golden River. Gluck secures the release of his brother Schwartz, who, buying his holy water from a "bad priest," eventually fares likewise, spurning in his turn the fair child, the old man, and his brother Hans lying prostrate in his path. The Golden River then acquires another black stone around which to rush and wail.

Gluck takes a turn at climbing the mountain. He encounters first an old man walking down the mountain trail who begs water from the flask. Gluck allows him to drink, leaving only a third of the holy water. He then encounters a fair child, lying by the road, whom he allows to drink all but a few drops. Following these unselfish acts, Gluck's path is made bright and pleasant making him feel better than he had in his whole life—no doubt, due to his kindness. He then comes across the prostrate puppy, whom he gives the final drops of the holy water. The puppy turns into the King of the Golden River, who tells Gluck the fate of his two brothers and, thereupon, shakes three drops of dew from a lily into Gluck's flask to throw into the river. Gluck does this, and the Golden River forms a whirlpool where it travels underground and emerges in the Treasure Valley, which then becomes lush and fertile once more. Gluck the new owner is a wealthy man, who never turns away the needy from his door. Ever afterward, though, the people show and tell travelers the tale of the two black stones in the Golden River, known as The Black Brothers.

 
 

Characters in "The King of the Golden River"
- Schwartz – (his name means "black" in German), one of the two "Black Brothers." He and his brother Hans are described as very ugly men with overhanging eybrows and small, "dull" eyes, which they kept half closed.
- Hans – (his name is the common "John" in German), the other of the two "Black Brothers." Both are cruel to both animals and people, and they enjoy nothing better than drinking out their last penny at the neighboring alehouse.
- Gluck – (should be Glück; his name means "luck" or "happiness" in German; the name is a wish of "good luck": "G' Luck!"), the twelve-year-old kid brother of the "Black Brothers." In striking contrast to his elder brothers, he is blond-haired and blue-eyed and kindly disposed to all living things.
- Southwest Wind, Esquire – a personified wind, who visits the three brothers in the Treasure Valley. He stands about four feet, six inches, has a brass colored nose and red cheeks that look like he had been blowing a refractory fire for 48 hours, silky eyelashes, and a moustache that curls twice around on each side of his face. He wears a conical hat that is almost as tall as he is, and a cloak that stretches about four times his height when blown by the wind.
- The King of the Golden River – a golden dwarf entrapped by "a stronger king" as a golden heirloom mug in Gluck's possession, freed through the melting of the mug, king of the river that cascades from the cataracts surrounding the Treasure Valley.

 
Structure and Forces of the Story
This fairy tale also has the character of an aetiological myth (cf. Etiology)—a story devised to explain why things are as they are in the world. It is structured like an epic saga with each of the chapters closing on one solitary curiosity: Chapter One, the card identifying Southwest Wind, Esquire; Chapter Two, the mug becoming a released King of the Golden River; Chapter Three, Hans becoming a black stone; Chapter Four, Schwartz becoming a companion black stone; and Chapter Five, the black stones being known as the "Black Brothers." Another view is that of Oliver Lodge, editor, of the Everyman's Library edition of the work: "The parable is in two halves, a sort of Paradise Lost and a Paradise Regained—lost by selfishness, regained by love." Water is the force that makes and unmakes things. The Treasure Valley never fails to have the proper watering to be perpetually lush. It is then destroyed by the water of a torrential flood. It is restored through the water of the Golden River becoming for the kindhearted Gluck a river of gold. Water's power appears in the treacherous glacier, which frightens those who traverse it with its sounds of rushing water and cracking ice. Water as "holy water" causes the miraculous transformation of the Golden River into a "river of gold" at the behest of the king. The King of the Golden River has himself disappear through the process of evaporation, a "water" phenomenon. In this fairy tale the environment responds positively or negatively to human good or evil. There is the interplay of personified forces of nature like winds and rivers. Lodge also enlightens us as to the lesson learned by the Black Brothers becoming goldsmiths and Gluck's wish that the Golden River become a literal river of gold: "And the restoration of wealth to Treasure Valley, by restoring the fertility of its soil instead of by metalliferous undertakings, is entirely in harmony with the author's consistent teaching that all true material increase must come from the soil". Note that the King of the Golden River was imprisoned through "metalliferous undertakings."
 
John Ruskin.
Gluck and the King of the Golden River,
illustration to a later edition
by John C. Johansen
 
 
Major themes
As stated above, this story could also be classed as a fable by which John Ruskin can impart to his readers that love, kindness, and philanthropy could transform the world as it did the Treasure Valley. No doubt, he speaks through the King of the Golden River when he tells Gluck: "the water which has been refused to the cry of the weary and dying is unholy, though it had been blessed by every saint in heaven; and the water which is found in the vessel of mercy is holy, though it had been defiled with corpses"[8]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
see also: John Ruskin  "The King of the Golden River"  Illustrations by Maria L. Kirk
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1841 Part I NEXT-1841 Part III