Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1840-1849 NEXT-1840 Part II    
 
 
     
1840 - 1849
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840-1849
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part I
Bebel August
Maximilian of Mexico
Carlota
Convention of London
British North America Act
Francia Jose Gaspar
Macdonald Jacques
William I of the Netherlands
William II of the Netherlands
Retour des cendres
Lambton John George
Vaillant Edouard-Marie
Sampson William
Smith William Sidney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part II
Ridpath John Clark
Sankey Ira David
James Fenimore Cooper: "The Pathfinder"
Blunt Wilfrid Scawen
Broughton Rhoda
Robert Browning: "Sordello"
Daudet Alphonse
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Dobson Austin
Hardy Thomas
Thomas Hardy 
"Tess of the d'Urbervilles"
Lemercier  Nepomucene
Lermontov: "A Hero of Our Times"
Modjeska Helena
Symonds John Addington
Verga Giovanni
Zola Emile
Emile Zola
"
J'accuse" (I accuse)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part III
Delacroix: "Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople"
Makart Hans
Hans Makart
Monet Claude
Claude Monet
Nasmyth Alexander
Alexander Nasmyth
Nast Thomas
Nelson's Column
Rodin Auguste
Auguste Rodin
Redon Odilon
Odilon Redon
Blechen Carl
Karl Blechen
Debain Alexandre-Francois
Donizetti: "La Fille du Regiment"
Haberl Franz Xaver
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich
Tchaikovsky - The Seasons
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky
Schneckenburger Max
Wilhelm Karl
"Die Wacht am Rhein"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part IV
Olbers Wilhelm
Blumenbach Johann Friedrich
Ball Robert
Kohlrausch Friedrich Wilhelm
Agassiz Louis
Basedow Carl Adolph
Graves disease
Maxim Hiram
Eyre Edward John
Brummell Beau
Father Damien
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Washington Temperance Society
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part I
Second Battle of Chuenpee
Barere Bertrand
Fisher John Arbuthnot
British Hong Kong
Luzzatti Luigi
Merriman John
Harrison William Henry
Tyler John
Espartero Baldomero
Hirobumi Ito
Clemenceau Georges
Edward VII
Creole case
Laurier Wilfrid
New Zealand
Lamb William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part II
Cheyne Thomas Kelly
Ludwig Feuerbach: "The Essence of Christianity"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Holst Hermann Eduard
Jebb Richard Claverhouse
Ward Lester Frank
Black William
Robert Browning: "Pippa Passes"
Buchanan Robert
Fenimore Cooper: "The Deerslayer"
Coquelin Benoit
Dickens: "The Old Curiosity Shop"
Ewing Juliana Horatia
Sill Edward Rowland
Frederick Marryat: "Masterman Ready"
Mendes Catulle
Mounet-Sully Jean
"Punch, or The London Charivari"
Sealsfield Charles
Scott Clement William
White Joseph Blanco
Ruskin: "The King of the Golden River"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part III
Chantrey Francis
Morisot Berthe
Berthe Morisot
Renoir Pierre-Auguste
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Wagner Otto
Wallot Paul
Olivier Ferdinand
Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier
Bazille Frederic
Frederic Bazille
Zandomeneghi Federico
Federico Zandomeneghi
Guillaumin Armand
Armand Guillaumin
Chabrier Emmanuel
Chabrier - Espana
Emmanuel Chabrier
Dibdin Thomas John
Dvorak Anton
Antonin Dvorak: Rusalka
Antonin Dvorak
Pedrell Felipe
Felip Pedrell: Els Pirineus
Felipe Pedrell
Rossini: "Stabat Mater"
Sax Antoine-Joseph
Schumann: Symphony No. 1
Sgambati Giovanni
Sgambati - Piano Concerto in G minor
Giovanni Sgambati
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part IV
Cooper Astley
Braid James
Hypnosis
Candolle Austin
Aniline
Kocher Emil Theodor
Kolliker Rudolf Albert
Petzval Joseph
Hudson William Henry
Warming Eugenius
Whitworth Joseph
Barnum's American Museum
Bradshaw George
Cook Thomas
Hyer Tom
"The New York Tribune"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part I
Pozzo di Borgo Charles-Andre
Las Cases Emmanuel
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Treaty of Nanking
General Strike of 1842
O’Higgins Bernardo
Giolitti Giovanni
Fiske John
Hartmann Eduard
Hyndman Henry Mayers
James William
Kropotkin Peter Alekseyevich
Anarchism
Anarchism
Lavisse Ernest
Robertson George Croom
Sorel Albert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part II
Banim John
Sue Eugene
Eugene Sue: "The Mysteries of Paris"
Bierce Ambrose
Brandes Georg
Bulwer-Lytton: "Zanoni"
Graham Maria
Coppee Francois
Cunningham Allan
Espronceda Jose
Gogol: "Dead Souls"
Howard Bronson
Lanier Sidney
Lover Samuel
MacKaye Steele
Maginn William
Mallarme Stephane
May Karl
Рое: "The Masque of the Red Death"
Quental Antero Tarquinio
Woodworth Samuel
Macaulay: "Lays of Ancient Rome"
Tupper Martin Farquhar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part III
Vereshchagin Vasily
Vasily Vereshchagin
Boldini Giovanni
Giovanni Boldini
Boito Arrigo
Arrigo Boito: Mefistofele Finale
Arrigo Boito
Glinka: "Russian and Ludmilla"
Hopkinson Joseph
"Hail, Columbia"
Lortzing: "Der Wildschiitz"
Massenet Jules
Massenet "Elegie"
Jules Massenet
Millocker Karl
Millocker: Gasparone
Karl Millocker
New York Philharmonic
Sullivan Arthur
Arthur Sullivan - The Mikado - Overture
Arthur Sullivan
Wagner: "Rienzi"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part IV
Dewar James
Doppler Christian Andreas
Flammarion Camille
Hansen Emile Christian
Long Crawford Williamson
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Charting the Ocean Depths
Mayer Julius Robert
Pelletier Pierre Joseph
Marshall Alfred
Strutt John William
Retzius Gustaf
Fremont John Charles
Darling Grace
Polka
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part I
McKinley William
Braga Teofilo
Wairau Affray
Dilke Charles
Avenarius Richard
Borrow George
Carlile Richard
Thomas Carlyle: "Past and Present"
Creighton Mandell
Liddell and Scott: "Greek-English Lexicon"
Liddell Henry
Scott Robert
Ward James
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part II
Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last of the Barons"
Elisabeth of Romania
Dickens: "Martin Chuzzlewit"
Doughty Charles Montagu
Dowden Edward
Emmett Daniel Decatur
Hood Thomas
Thomas Hood: "Song of the Shirt"
Horne Richard Hengist
James Henry
Rosegger Peter
Suttner Bertha
Harris George Washington
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part III
Allston Washington
Washington Allston
John Ruskin: "Modern Painters"
Trumbull John
John Trumbull
Werner Anton
Anton von Werner
Clairin Georges
Georges Clairin
Donizetti: "Don Pasquale"
Grieg Edward
Grieg - Solveig Song
Edward Grieg
Nilsson Christine
Patti Adelina
Richter Hans
Schumann: "Paradise and the Peri"
Wagner: "The Flying Dutchman"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part IV
British Archaeological Association
Chamberlin Thomas Chrowder
Ferrier David
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Joule James Prescott
Koch Robert
Erbium
Brunel Marc Isambard
Thames Tunnel
Dix Dorothea Lynde
Guy's, Kings and St. Thomas' Rugby Football Club
Sequoyah
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part I
Lowe Hudson
Drouet Jean-Baptiste
Oscar I of Sweden
Dole Sanford Ballard
Laffitte Jacques
Franco-Moroccan War
Polk James Knox
Herrera Jose Joaquin
Treaty of Wanghia
Breshkovsky Catherine
Comstock Anthony
Emerson: "Essays"
Grundtvig Nikolaj Frederik Severin
Hall Granville Stanley
Nietzsche Friedrich
Friedrich Nietzsche
Rice Edmund Ignatius
Riehl Alois
Stanley Arthur Penrhyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part II
Bernhardt Sarah
Sarah Bernhardt
Dumas, pere: "Le Comte de Monte Cristo"
Bridges Robert
Cable George Washington
Carte Richard
Cary Henry Francis
Disraeli: "Coningsby"
France Anatole
Hopkins Gerard Manley
Lang Andrew
Liliencron Detlev
O'Reilly John Boyle
O’Shaughnessy Arthur
Sterling John
William Thackeray: "Barry Lyndon"
Verlaine Paul
Paul Verlaine
"Poems"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part III
Eakins Thomas
Thomas Eakins
Ezekiel Moses Jacob
Moses Ezekiel
Luke Fildes Luke
Luke Fildes
Leibl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Leibl
Munkacsy Mihaly
Mihaly Munkacsy
Repin Ilya
Ilya Repin
Rousseau Henri
Henri Rousseau
Cassatt Mary
Mary Cassatt
Flotow: "Alessandro Stradella"
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E minor
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay
The Best of Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Sarasate Pablo
Pablo de Sarasate - Zigeunerweisen
Pablo de Sarasate
Verdi: "Ernani"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part IV
Grassmann Hermann Gunther
Baily Francis
Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard
DeLong George Washington
Golgi Camillo
Kielmeyer Carl Friedrich
Kinglake Alexander William
Strasburger Eduard Adolf
Huc Evariste Regis
Gabet Joseph
Sturt Charles Napier
Leichhardt Friedrich
Beckford William
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers
"Fliegende Blatter"
Hagenbeck Carl
Keller Friedrich Gottlob
Pasch Gustaf Erik
Young Men’s Christian Association
Williams George
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part I
Root Elihu
Texas
Florida
Flagstaff War
Ludwig II of Bavaria
First Anglo-Sikh War
Sonderbund
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part II
Friedrich Engels: "The Condition of the Working Class in England"
Stirner Max
Disraeli: "Sybil, or The Two Nations"
Hertz Henrik
Prosper Merimee: "Carmen"
Рое: "The Raven"
Spitteler Carl
Wergeland Henrik
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part III
Bode Wilhelm
Hill David Octavius
Ingres: The Comtesse d'Haussonville
Oberlander Adam Adolf
Crane Walter
Walter Crane
Faure Gabriel
Faure - Pavane
Gabriel Faure
Lortzing: "Undine"
Wagner: "Tannhauser"
Widor Charles-Marie
Widor - Piano Concerto No. 1
Charles Marie Widor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part IV
Armstrong William George
Bigelow Erastus Brigham
Cayley Arthur
Cornell Ezra
Submarine communications cable
Heilmann Joshua
Humboldt: "Cosmos"
Kolbe Hermann
Laveran Alphonse
McNaught William
Metchnikoff Elie
Charting the Northwest
Layard Austen Henry
Cartwright Alexander
United States Naval Academy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part I
Battle of Aliwal
Battle of Sobraon
Treaty of Lahore
Greater Poland Uprising
Krakow Uprising
Mexican-American War
Battle of Monterrey
First Battle of Tabasco
Iowa
Pasic Nikola
Evangelical Alliance
Eucken Rudolf Christoph
Pius IX
Whewell William
Young Brigham
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part II
Balzac: "La Cousine Bette"
De Amicis Edmondo
Dostoevsky: "Poor Folk"
Jokai Maurus
Lear Edward
Melville Herman
Herman Melville: "Typee"
Herman Melville
"Moby Dick or The Whale"
Sienkiewicz Henryk
George Watts: "Paolo and Francesca"
De Nittis Giuseppe
Giuseppe de Nittis
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part III
Berlioz: "Damnation de Faust"
Lortzing: "Der Waffenschmied"
Mendelssohn: "Elijah"
Deere John
Deere & Company
Henle Friedrich
Howe Elias
Waitz Theodor
Mohl Hugo
Green William Thomas
Sobrero Ascanio
Heaphy Charles
Brunner Thomas
Europeans in New Zealand
"The Daily News"
Horsley John Callcott
Smithsonian Institution
Zeiss Carl
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part I
Liberia
Second Battle of Tabasco
Battle of Churubusco
BATTLE OF MEXICO CITY
Hindenburg Paul
Sonderbund War
Beecher Henry Ward
Blanc Louis
Proudhon Pierre-Joseph
roudhon: "Philosophy of Poverty"P
Karl Marx: "The Poverty of Philosophy"
Salt Lake City
Charlotte Bronte: "Jane Eyre"
Bronte Emily
Marryat: "The Children of the New Forest"
Thackeray: "Vanity Fair"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part II
Hildebrand Adolf
Liebermann Max
Max Liebermann
Friedrich von Flotow: "Martha"
Verdi: "Macbeth"
Boole George
Edison Thomas Alva
Bell Alexander Graham
Semmelweis Ignaz Philipp
Colenso William
Factory Act of 1847
Fawcett Millicent
Siemens & Halske
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part I
Frederick VII
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Revolutions of 1848
French Revolution of 1848
June Days Uprising
Cavaignac Louis-Eugene
French Constitution of 1848
French Second Republic
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Slovak Uprising 1848-1849
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part I)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part II
First Italian War of Independence
Skirmish of Pastrengo
Battle of Goito
Battle of Custoza
Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
Revolution of 1848 in Luxembourg
Greater Poland Uprising
Moldavian Revolution of 1848
Pan-Slav Congress of 1848
Pan-Slavism
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part II)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part III
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Nasr-ed-Din
Ibrahim Pasha
Abbas I
Wisconsin
Balfour Arthur James
Seneca Falls Convention
Stanton Elizabeth Cady
Delbruck Hans
Macaulay: "History of England"
"The Communist Manifesto"
John Mill: "Principles of Political Economy"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part IV
Augier Emile
Chateaubriand: "Memoires d'Outre-Tombe"
Dumas fils: "La Dame aux Camelias"
Gaskell Elizabet
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
Murger Louis-Henri
Henri Murger: "Scenes de la vie de Boheme"
Terry Ellen
Surikov Vasily
Vasily Surikov
Uhde Fritz
Fritz von Uhde
Gauguin Paul
Paul Gauguin
Caillebotte Gustave
Gustave Caillebotte
Millais: "Ophelia"
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part V
Parry Hubert Hastings
Jerusalem by Hubert Parry
Hubert Parry
Duparc Henri
Duparc Henri: "L'invitation au voyage"
Henri Duparc
Bottger Rudolf Christian
Parsons William
Frege Gottlob
"New Prussian Newspaper"
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"
Grace William Gilbert
Kneipp Sebastian
Lilienthal Otto
Starr Belle
California Gold Rush
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part I
Battle of Chillianwala
Battle of Gujrat
Roman Republic on February 9, 1849
Battle of Novara
Victor Emmanuel II
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Peace of Milan
Taylor Zachary
Dresden Rebellion of 1849
Surrender at Vilagos
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part II
Kemble John Mitchell
Key Ellen
Arnold Matthew
Dickens: "David Copperfield"
Kingsley Charles
Scribe: "Adrienne Lecouvreur"
Strindberg August
Smith Horace
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part III
Waterhouse John William
John William Waterhouse
John Ruskin: "The Seven Lamps of Architecture"
Carriere Eugene
Eugene Carriere
Liszt: "Tasso"
Meyerbeer: "Le Prophete"
Otto Nicolai: "The Merry Wives of Windsor"
Schumann: "Manfred"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part IV
Fizeau Armand
Frankland Edward
Livingstone David
Explorations of David Livingstone
Baines Thomas
"Who's Who"
Bedford College
Bloomer Amelia
Bloomers (clothing)
Stead William Thomas
 
 
 

"Arrival of la Dorade at Courbevoie on 14 December 1840." Painting by Félix Philippoteaux.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1840 Part I
 
 
 
1840
 
 
Queen Victoria of Great Britain marries Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (Albert, Prince Consort )
 
 

Marriage of Victoria and Albert
Painting by George Hayter
 
 
 
     
 
Queen Victoria

Victorian era
     
 
 
 
1840
 
 
Bebel August
 

August Bebel, (born February 22, 1840, Deutz, near Cologne, Germany—died August 13, 1913, Passugg, Switzerland), German Socialist, cofounder of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) of Germany and its most influential and popular leader for more than 40 years. He is one of the leading figures in the history of western European socialism.

 

August Bebel
  Bebel was the son of a Prussian noncommissioned officer. Growing up in extreme poverty at Wetzlar, where he learned the turner’s craft, he began to travel as a journeyman through southern Germany and Austria and in the spring of 1860 settled in Leipzig, where he began his political career. In 1861 Bebel joined the Leipzig Workers’ Educational Association, which, like many others of its kind, was formed through the initiative of members of the liberal bourgeoisie; in 1865 he became its chairman. Political and economic circumstances, however, gave the workers’ education movement an increasingly political orientation, which was to be significantly reflected in the development of Bebel’s own political views. Like the other young workers in the new associations, Bebel had not yet heard anything of The Communist Manifesto (1848) or of its authors, Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx. If in 1863 Bebel believed that the working classes were not ready for the vote, he was already changing his mind when he began his friendship with Wilhelm Liebknecht, who came to Leipzig from Berlin in 1865. Liebknecht, older than Bebel and university-trained, became in many respects Bebel’s mentor, but the more open-minded Bebel always maintained his independence. The Seven Weeks’ War (1866) between Austria and Prussia divided German opinion between the advocates of a Kleindeutschland (Small Germany) and those of a Grossdeutschland (Large Germany), advocated by the Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck; it also drove the Saxon workers’ associations into an alliance with the radical anti-Prussian democrats, for Bebel and Liebknecht, the workers’ leaders, were implacable opponents of Bismarck.
 
 
The Sächsische Volkspartei (Saxon People’s Party) was thus brought into being, and in 1867 Bebel entered the constituent Reichstag of the North German confederation as a member for this party. Eventually, this and other like-minded parties united in 1869 in the Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei (Social Democratic Labour Party) of Germany.

As a member of the North German Reichstag, in 1867 Bebel had protested against the Bismarckian “greater Prussia,” believing that it meant “turning Germany into one great barracks.” In parliament he continued this protest both before and after the founding of the German Empire. He and Liebknecht were the only voices to speak against the war loan voted in the Reichstag on July 21, 1870; as a result, they were brought to trial on a charge of high treason at Leipzig in March 1872. Sentenced to two years’ imprisonment, Bebel recovered from tuberculosis during this period of enforced idleness. He also was able to give himself a systematic education.

Beginning with an earlier sentence in 1869, Bebel spent a total of nearly five years in prison within less than 20 years, though he never faced any graver charge than that of “spreading doctrines dangerous to the state,” “lese majesty,” “libel of Bismarck,” or “libel of the Bundesrat.” These sentences were a serious threat to his livelihood. As the party itself could afford only the most essential expenditure and as a member of the Reichstag he received no allowances, Bebel continued to rely on his income as a craftsman. He had established himself in Leipzig as a master turner and had married the daughter of a railway worker in 1864. Not until the end of the 1880s was he able to live by his writing.

 
 
As a writer Bebel had most success with Die Frau und der Sozialismus (1883; Woman and Socialism), which went through many editions and translations. This book was the most powerful piece of SPD propaganda for decades. Above all, by its combination of science and prophecy, it served as a blueprint for German social democracy in the conditions produced by Bismarck’s Anti-Socialist Law (1878–90). Bebel himself never doubted that this period of repression under the emergency laws was anything more than an episode, declaring to his opponents in the Reichstag: “Your lances will be shattered in this struggle like glass on granite.” His unshakable confidence gave his colleagues the courage to stand firmly together, but he opposed all tendencies toward retaliation by force, since terrorism or attempts at subversion might have endangered the very existence of the party. These tactics were proved right when the emergency laws were allowed to lapse and when, in the elections of 1890, the SPD received nearly 20 percent of the vote. Bebel’s position at the head of the party was now uncontested, and in the Reichstag he was the most prominent opponent of the government. Within the party itself he opposed all the “opportunist” tendencies, which had come out into the open since the ending of the anti-Socialist laws. According to these, features of the existing social and political structure might be developed gradually until social democracy was attained. At the Erfurt congress of 1891 he reproached the leader of the Bavarian SPD, Georg von Vollmar, with belying the “inspiration” of social democracy, without which “a party such as ours cannot exist.”  
Köpfe der frühen deutschen Arbeiterbewegung: August Bebel, Wilhelm Liebknecht (oben),
Karl Marx (Mitte), Carl Wilhelm Tölcke,
Ferdinand Lassalle (unten)
 
 
The struggle against open reformism and the theoretical revisionism advocated by Eduard Bernstein at the end of the 1890s reached its climax at the Dresden congress of 1903. Just as he condemned all deviations from the party’s official radical creed, so too was Bebel unwilling to yield to left-wing pressure to indulge in extraparliamentary experiments and thus perhaps to bring repression of the party again. His stand was justified, for in election after election the party gained new adherents, and Bebel lived to see the day when, in 1912, the SPD became, with 110 seats, the strongest group in the Reichstag.
 
 

August Bebel und Friedrich Wilhelm Fritzsche während
der Rede Otto von Bismarcks zum Sozialistengesetz im Deutschen Reichstag
 
 
Bebel, as no other, embodied the tradition of the German SPD. Already in 1882 Engels had described him as “a unique manifestation of the German, indeed of the European working class.” A member of the Reichstag from 1867 almost continuously until his death, he achieved his most celebrated triumphs as a parliamentarian. Even his opponents could not withhold their respect in the face of his passionate honesty. A shrewd contemporary, Hellmut von Gerlach, suggested that in politics Bebel lived from hand to mouth: “His political aims were for the most distant future or for the immediate present”; he did not concern himself with what might lie between. This is an accurate description of Bebel’s aims; for him and for the leading body of social democratic thought he represented, political activity essentially consisted in promoting as effectively as possible the politico-social interests of the working classes. His contradictory combination of futuristic revolutionary sentiment and a social policy rooted in the present reflects the equivocal position of his party under the conditions of the new German Empire. This explains to a great extent both the strength of Bebel’s position within the party and the political passivity of German social democracy, already noticeable before his death and fully revealed when, on the fall of the empire, the party had to face its first great political test.

Erich Matthias

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1840
 
 
Frederick William III, King of Prussia since 1797, d. (b. 1770)
 
 

Frederick William III
 
 
 
1840
 
 
Frederick William IV (b. 1795) succeeds to the throne of Prussia (d. 1861)
 
 

Frederick William IV
 
 
 
1840
 
 
Carlotta, wife of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, b. (d. 1927)
 
 
Maximilian of Mexico
 

Maximilian, in full Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph (born July 6, 1832, Vienna, Austria—died June 19, 1867, near Querétaro, Mex.), archduke of Austria and the emperor of Mexico, a man whose naive liberalism proved unequal to the international intrigues that had put him on the throne and to the brutal struggles within Mexico that led to his execution.

 

Emperor of Mexico, Franz Xaver Winterhalter, 1864
  The younger brother of Emperor Francis Joseph, he served as a rear admiral in the Austrian navy and as governor-general of the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom.

In 1863 he accepted the offer of the Mexican throne, falsely believing that the Mexican people had voted him their king; in fact, the offer was the result of a scheme between conservative Mexicans, who wished to overturn the liberal government of President Benito Juárez, and the French emperor Napoleon III, who wanted to collect a debt from Mexico and further his imperialistic ambitions there.

Backed by a pledge of support from the French army, Maximilian sailed for Mexico with his wife Carlota, daughter of Leopold I, king of the Belgians.

Crowned emperor on June 10, 1864, Maximilian intended to rule with paternal benevolence, viewing himself as the protector of the Indian peasants.

He upheld Juárez’ sweeping reforms (to the indignation of the landed proprietors) and was determined to abolish peonage, and he antagonized the Roman Catholic hierarchy by refusing to restore vast church holdings confiscated by Juárez. The treasury was so bare, however, that he had to use his own inherited income for daily expenses.

By April 1865 the French army had successfully supported Maximilian by driving Juárez northward almost into Texas.

 
 
But that month the American Civil War ended, and the United States demanded the withdrawal of French troops from Mexico on the grounds that their presence was a violation of the Monroe Doctrine.
 
 

Archduke Maximilian and Archduchess Charlotte
  Carlota rushed to Europe to seek aid for her husband from Napoleon III and Pope Pius IX, only to suffer a profound emotional collapse when her efforts failed.

The French forces withdrew in March 1867, and Juárez and his army moved back into Mexico City.

Refusing to abdicate, feeling that he could not honorably desert “his people,” Maximilian was made supreme commander of the imperial army by his conservative Mexican backers.

At Querétaro, Maximilian’s small force was surrounded, starved, and finally betrayed into capitulation (May 15, 1867).

Even though Victor Hugo, Giuseppe Garibaldi, and many of the crowned heads of Europe petitioned Juárez to save Maximilian’s life, the Mexican president refused to grant clemency, given that thousands of Mexican lives had been lost in this latest struggle for independence from foreign domination.

On June 19, 1867, Maximilian was executed on a hill outside Querétaro.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Edouard Manet's Execution of Emperor Maximilian (1868–1869), is one of five versions of his representation of the execution of the Austrian-born Emperor of Mexico, which took place on June 19, 1867. Manet borrowed heavily, thematically and technically, from Goya's The Third of May 1808.
 
 
 
Carlota
 

Carlota, French in full Marie-Charlotte-Amélie-Augustine-Victoire-Clémentine Léopoldine (born June 7, 1840, Laeken, Belg.—died Jan. 19, 1927, near Brussels), wife of the emperor Maximilian of Mexico.

 

Empress Carlota
  The only daughter of Leopold I, king of the Belgians, and Princess Louise of Orléans, Carlota married at age 17 the archduke Maximilian, brother of the emperor Francis Joseph of Austria.

They lived as the Austrian regents in Milan until 1859, when Austria lost control of Lombardy.

In May of 1864 she accompanied Maximilian to Mexico to accept the Mexican crown offered him by Napoleon III of France.

The ambitious Carlota welcomed her authority in Mexico, learned Spanish, and became genuinely interested in Mexican history, art, and culture.

When in 1866 Napoleon withdrew his troops in the face of Mexican resistance and U.S. opposition, she sought assistance for her husband’s regime in Paris and Vienna and finally in Rome from the pope.

Upon the failure of her efforts, she exhibited paranoia and other signs of mental illness. She never returned to Mexico.

After the Mexicans executed her husband the following year, her mental illness worsened, and she spent the rest of her life in seclusion in castles at Laeken, Belg., and near Trieste, Italy.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Empress Carlota
 
Empress Charlotte by Franz Xaver Winterhalter.
 
 

Visit of Empress Elisabeth at the Castello di Miramare 1861; Charlotte of Belgium (in white dress) welcomes Elisabeth while her husband Ferdinand Maximilian and his brother Emperor Franz Joseph I. wait on the boat. Source Historical Museum of Castello di Miramare.
 
 
 
1840
 
 
Convention of London
 

The Convention of London of 1840 was a treaty with the title of Convention for the Pacification of the Levant, signed on 15 July 1840 between the Great Powers of United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, Russia on the one hand, and the Ottoman Empire on the other.

 
The treaty summarized recent agreements concerning the Ottoman Empire and its second war with Muhammad Ali's Egypt. It was brought about by the Great Powers' fear of the destabilizing effect an Ottoman collapse would have on Europe. The signatories offered to Muhammad Ali and his heirs permanent control over Egypt and the Eyalet of Acre, provided that these territories would remain part of the Ottoman Empire. If he did not accept withdrawal of his forces within ten days he should lose the offer in southern Syrian; if he delayed acceptance more than 20 days, he should forfeit everything offered. He also had to return, to Sultan Abdülmecid I, the Ottoman fleet which had defected to Alexandria. Muhammad Ali was also to immediately withdraw its forces from Arabia, the Holy Cities, Crete, the district of Adana, all within the Ottoman Empire.

The European powers agreed to use all possible means of persuasion to effect this agreement, but Muhammad Ali, backed by France, refused to accept its terms in the time given.

  This led to the Oriental Crisis of 1840 during which British and Austrian forces attacked Acre, defeating his troops late in 1840.

Muhammad Ali's forces faced increasing military pressure from Europe and the Ottoman Empire, fought a losing battle against insurgents in its captured territories, and saw the general deterioration of its military from the strain of the recent wars.

Muhammad Ali finally accepted the terms of the Convention and the firmans subsequently issued by the sultan, confirming his rule over Egypt and the Sudan. He withdrew from Syria and Crete and sent back the Ottoman fleet.
The London Convention and the firmans were the legal basis for Egypt's status as a privileged Ottoman province. Later Egyptian nationalists cited them to discredit claims for the British occupation.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1840
 
 
British North America Act
 

The British North America Act, 1840 (3 & 4 Victoria, c.35), commonly known as the Act of Union 1840, was enacted in July 1840 and proclaimed February 10, 1841. It abolished the legislatures of Lower Canada and Upper Canada and established a new political entity, the Province of Canada to replace them. This act effected the political union of the Province of Canada, and was similar in nature and in goals to the other Acts of Union enacted by the British Parliament.

 
History
The inspiration for the act is typically attributed to Lord Durham's Report on Canada. Lord Durham was sent to the colonies to examine the causes of the Rebellions of 1837 in both Upper and Lower Canada. Lord Durham wanted to re-instate peace throughout the colonies, and recommended a political union. It was under his belief that peace could best be achieved by ensuring a loyal English majority in British North America, as well as by anglicizing French Canadians, and by granting responsible government. 

The union was also proposed to solve pressing financial issues in Upper Canada, which had become increasingly indebted  under the previous regime dominated by the Family Compact. These debts stemmed mostly from poor investments in canals  connecting Upper Canada to the port of Montreal in Lower Canada via the Great Lakes and St-Lawrence river. Due to Upper Canada's considerable debt and chronic budget shortfalls, it was hoped that its finances could be salvaged by merging it with the then-solvent Lower Canada.
  Upper Canada, with its British and Protestant majority, was growing more rapidly than Lower Canada, with the French-Canadian and Catholic majority. It was hoped that by merging the two colonies, the French-Canadian cultural presence in North America would gradually disappear through assimilation. As such, the act also contained measures banning the French language from official use in the Legislative Assembly.

However, despite the amalgamation, the distinct legal systems of the two colonies was retained with Upper Canada becoming referred to as Canada West (with English common law) and Lower Canada as Canada East (with French civil law).

In Upper Canada, there was opposition to unionization from the Family Compact, while in Lower Canada political and religious leaders reacted against Upper Canada's anti-French measures.

The new, merged colony was named the Province of Canada and the seat of government was moved to Kingston by Lord Sydenham.

 
 

Political organization under the Union Act (1840)
 
 
Canada West, with its 450,000 inhabitants, was represented by 42 seats in the Legislative Assembly, the same number as the more-populated Canada East, with 650,000 inhabitants. The French-Canadian majority as well as numerous anglophones considered this an injustice. In Lower Canada, Louis-Joseph Papineau demanded representation by population and the recall of the union the minute he entered the new parliament of the united Canadas.
 
 

Political organization under the Union Act (1848)
 
 
The granting of responsible government to the colony is typically attributed to reforms in 1848 (principally the effective transfer of control over patronage from the governor to the elected ministry). These reforms resulted in the appointment of the second Baldwin-Lafontaine government that quickly removed many of the disabilities on French-Canadian political participation in the colony.

By the late 1850s, massive immigration from the British Isles to Canada West changed the previous demographic imbalance between the English and French sections of the colony. Many politicians in Canada West began to lobby for representation by population as they no longer considered the equal representation mandated by the Act of Union to be just.

In the end, the Act of Union failed at shutting down French-Canadian political influence, especially after responsible government was granted to the colony. By voting en bloc while the anglophones of Canada West were highly factionalized, the francophones of Canada East guaranteed a strong, unified presence in the legislative assembly.

  As a result, bills proposed by one of the anglophone Canada West factions required the support of the francophone Canada East votes to be passed. This was known as the double majority principle.

However, the francophone presence remained inferior to their demographic weight in the executive and legislative councils.

The government of Lafontaine-Baldwin succeeded in repealing the measure against the French language in the assembly, in the courts, and in the civil administration. With the double majority principle, both Canadas were so to speak "reseparated" and for a short while, both sides were managed independently.

Joint premierships shared by an anglophone from Canada West and a francophone from Canada East became the convention, but continual legislative deadlock resulting from the conflicting aspirations of the two Canadas, remained. Dissatisfaction resulting from this deadlock was one of the main factors for Canadian Confederation in 1867.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1840
 
 
New conspiracy of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon III) followed by his imprisonment at the fortress of Ham (1840-1846)
 
 

Louis Napoleon's 1840 attempt to lead an uprising against Louis-Philippe ended in fiasco and ridicule. He was sentenced to prison for life in the Fortress of Ham in Northern France.
 
 
 
1840
 
 
Francia Jose Gaspar
 

Dr. José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco (January 6, 1766 – September 20, 1840) was a Paraguayan lawyer and politician, and one of the first leaders of Paraguay following its independence from Spain.

He is considered to be the ideologue and main political leader who brought forward the independence of Paraguay from the Spanish Empire, the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata and the Empire of Brazil.

 

Lithograph of José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia with a gourd of maté and its respective bombilla
  José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, (born Jan. 6, 1766, Asunción, Río de la Plata—died Sept. 20, 1840, Asunción, Paraguay), dictator of Paraguay whose intensely personal rule and policy of self-sufficiency left the nation both isolated and without alternative political institutions.

Francia was trained in theology but turned to the practice of law.

In 1811 he became secretary to the junta that had overthrown Spanish rule and in 1813 served as co-ruler.

The next year he was elected dictator, and in 1816 he obtained the dictatorship for life.

Not content with freedom from Spain, Francia in 1813 declared independence from Argentina, though Paraguay’s only tie to the outer world lay on the river route through Buenos Aires.

Determined to keep his country independent, Francia forbade all river traffic to Argentina and banned all foreign commerce.

Paraguay thus became a hermit nation; few people were permitted to enter or leave.

Francia, or “El Supremo,” controlled the national revenues; fostered internal industries to make the nation self-sufficient; introduced modern methods of farming and livestock raising; and organized and equipped the army.

He abolished the Inquisition, suppressed the college of theology, swept away tithes, and deprived the aristocracy of their privileges.

Francia was a frugal and honest ruler but unspeakably cruel. The nation survived at a primitive level of self-sufficiency but at a terrible cost in political liberty.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1840
 
 
Macdonald Jacques
 

Jacques Macdonald, duke de Tarente, in full Macdonald, Jacques-Étienne-Joseph-Alexandre, duc de Tarente (born November 17, 1765, Sedan, France—died September 25, 1840, Courcelles), French general who was appointed marshal of the empire by Napoleon.

 

Jacques Macdonald, duke de Tarente
  The son of a Scottish adherent of the exiled British Stuart dynasty, who had served in a Scots regiment in France, he joined the French army and was a colonel when the wars of the French Revolution broke out. He was promoted to general in 1793 and to general of division in 1796.

In May 1798 Macdonald was sent to Italy, where he became governor of Rome and occupied Naples in March 1799; however, his forces were decisively routed by the Russian general Aleksandr Vasilyevich Suvorov at Trebbia, Italy, on June 17–19, 1799, while he was marching north to relieve General Victor Moreau at Genoa. After the coup d’état of 18 Brumaire, year VIII (November 9, 1799), in which Napoleon became first consul, Macdonald commanded the right wing of the Army of the Rhine. In 1800 he won Napoleon’s admiration and praise for his winter crossing of the Splügen Pass from Switzerland into Lombardy, an operation that has been compared to Napoleon’s own Alpine crossing of the Great Saint Bernard Pass that year and one that contributed to the Treaty of Lunéville between France and Austria (1801).
Macdonald’s involvement in the anti-Bonapartist intrigues of General Moreau in 1804 led to his discharge, and he was not recalled to active duty until 1809, when Napoleon judged his military talents indispensable.
After contributing to the Austrian defeat at Wagram in July 1809, he was made marshal of the empire and duc de Tarente.

 
 
He served in Austria in 1809–10 and in Catalonia in 1810–11, but he played no active part in the Russian campaign, being posted in Courland (Latvia). He was defeated by the Prussian marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher in Silesia at the Battle of Katzbach (1813) and barely escaped with his life at the decisive French defeat at Leipzig (October 1813).

Although he was reluctant to recognize the abdication of Napoleon in 1814, Macdonald served Louis XVIII loyally and did not rejoin Napoleon during the Hundred Days. After the Second Restoration of the Bourbons, he was appointed major general of the Royal Guard and named to the Legion of Honour.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1840
 
 
William II ascends the throne of the Netherlands after abdication of his father William I
 
 
William I of the Netherlands
 

William I, Dutch in full Willem Frederik (born Aug. 24, 1772, The Hague, Neth.—died Dec. 12, 1843, Berlin [Germany]), king of the Netherlands and grand duke of Luxembourg (1815–40) who sparked a commercial and industrial revival following the period of French rule (1795–1813), but provoked the Belgian revolt of 1830 through his autocratic methods.

 

King William I of the Netherlands in Coronation Robes by Joseph Paelinck, ca. 1818–1819
  The son of William V, prince of Orange, William married Wilhelmina, daughter of his uncle, Frederick William II of Prussia, in 1791 and emigrated with his family to England in 1795 after the French invasion of the Dutch Republic.

He gained title to the bishopric of Fulda and other smaller areas in Germany in negotiations with the French emperor Napoleon I in 1802 but lost all his German titles in 1806, when he sided with Prussia against Napoleon.

Except for some service with the Austrians against Napoleon in 1809, he lived in exile at the Prussian court until 1812.

After the French withdrawal from the Netherlands in 1813, William accepted the provisional government’s offer to become sovereign prince of the Dutch Republic, and in 1815 he became king of the United Netherlands, which included the southern Netherlands and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. He soon undertook an economic recovery program for the kingdom, founding a bank in 1822 to finance industrial expansion in Belgium and forming the Netherlands Trading Society in 1824 to facilitate long-distance commerce in the north.

Many of the inhabitants of the southern (Belgian) provinces, however, objected to the union with the northern Netherlanders because the two groups were given equal representation in the Parliament and charged equal taxes, although the Dutch had a far greater accumulated debt and a far smaller population.

The southern Roman Catholic clergy were alienated by William’s policy of state supremacy in ecclesiastical matters.

 
 
He placed the universities of Ghent, Louvain, and Liège under state control and required seminary students to attend a new “philosophical college” at Louvain.
 
 

Portrait of William I (1833)
  The southerners were further antagonized by the decision to make Dutch the administrative language throughout the kingdom and by the Dutch insistence on free trade when protection was needed by southern industries.

The southern liberal and Catholic factions opposed to William’s rule joined in 1828 (the “union of parties”) and petitioned the King for political and religious reforms.

Inspired by the revolution in Paris in July 1830, a rebellion broke out in Brussels the following month.

After initial rebel military successes, a conference of the leading European powers decided in January 1831 that Belgium should be an independent state.

William refused to accept the Belgian separation and anticipated renewed warfare.

The resistance lasted until 1839, when he finally bowed to the demands of the great powers and conceded Belgian independence.

Aware that the Dutch people were increasingly opposed to his autocratic methods, he abdicated in October 1840 and spent the rest of his life in Berlin.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
William II of the Netherlands
 

William II, Dutch in full Willem Frederik George Lodewijk (born Dec. 6, 1792, The Hague—died March 17, 1849, Tilburg, Neth.), king of The Netherlands and grand duke of Luxembourg (1840–49) whose reign saw the reestablishment of fiscal stability and the transformation of The Netherlands to a more liberal monarchy through the constitution of 1848.

 

William II, by Jan Baptist van der Hulst, 1849.
  Exiled to England with his family in 1795, William served in the British Army (1811–12) as the Duke of Wellington’s aide-de-camp in the Peninsular War (1808–14); he also commanded the Netherlands troops in the Battle of Waterloo (1815).

In 1816 he married the grand duchess Anna Pavlovna, sister of the Russian emperor Alexander I.

Popular in the southern or Belgian part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, he was sent to Brussels by his father, William I, after the outbreak of the Belgian Revolution of 1830.

His concessions to the rebels failed to quell the revolt, and he retired to England until August 1831, when he returned to Belgium, leading a Dutch army to victory over the forces of the new king of the Belgians, Leopold I, before French intervention stopped his advance. William II became king of The Netherlands in October 1840 on his father’s abdication.

Although he lacked William I’s abilities as a statesman and financier, he was fortunate in his choice of F.A. van Hall as finance minister.

Van Hall stabilized the public finances and, helped by profits from Dutch colonial ventures in the East Indies, achieved the country’s first surplus in 70 years in 1847. William was tolerant toward Roman Catholics and Separatists (dissident orthodox Calvinists), but was opposed by the liberals who wanted a more representative form of government.
 
 

The inauguration of William II on 28 November 1840 by Nicolaas Pieneman
 
 
Afraid that the European revolutionary movements of 1848 would sweep across The Netherlands also, he authorized the leading liberal statesman, Johan Thorbecke, and his associates to draft a new constitution, approved in November 1848. The constitution expanded the power of the ministers and the States General (parliament), established the principle of direct elections, and secured basic civil liberties. William died a few months later.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

King William II and his family (1832) by Jan Baptist van der Hulst
 
 
 
1840
 
 
Afghan forces surrender to British Army
 
 
see also: Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
see also: First Anglo-Afghan War
 
 
 
1840
 
 
Retour des cendres
 
The retour des cendres ("return of the ashes") was the return of the mortal remains of Napoleon I of France from the island of St Helena to France and their burial in the Hôtel des Invalides in Paris in 1840, on the initiative of Adolphe Thiers and King Louis-Philippe.
 
Previous attempts
In a codicil to his will, written in exile at Longwood House on St Helena on 16 April 1821, Napoleon had expressed a wish to be buried "on the banks of the Seine, in the midst of the French people [whom I] loved so much". On the Emperor's death, Comte Bertrand unsuccessfully petitioned the British government to let Napoleon's wish be granted. He then petitioned the ministers of the newly restored Louis XVIII of France, from whom he did not receive an absolute refusal, instead the explanation that the arrival of the remains in France would undoubtedly be the cause or pretext for political unrest that the government would be wise to prevent or avoid, but that his request would be granted as soon as the situation had calmed and it was safe enough to do so.
 
 

Napoleon's tomb at Les Invalides
 
 

Course
Political discussions
Initiation

After the July Revolution a petition demanding the remains' reburial in the base of the Colonne Vendôme (on the model of Trajan's ashes, buried in the base of his column in Rome) was refused by the Chambre des Députés on 2 October 1830. However, ten years later, Adolphe Thiers, the new Président du Conseil under Louis-Philippe and a historian of the French Consulate and First French Empire, dreamed of the return of the remains as a grand political coup de théâtre which would definitively achieve the rehabilitation of the Revolutionary and Imperial periods on which he was engaged in his Histoire de la Révolution française and Histoire du Consulat et de l'Empire). He also hoped to flatter the left's dreams of glory and restore the reputation of the July Monarchy (whose diplomatic relations with the rest of Europe were then under threat from its problems in Egypt, arising from its support for Muhammad Ali).

It was, nonetheless, Louis-Philippe's policy to try to regain "all the glories of France", to which he had dedicated the Château de Versailles, turning it into a museum of French history. Yet he was still reluctant and had to be convinced to support the project against his own doubts. On 10 May 1840 François Guizot, then French ambassador in London, against his own will submitted an official request to the British government, which was immediately approved according to the promise made in 1822.

12 May
On 12 May, during discussion of a bill on sugars, the French Interior Minister Charles de Rémusat mounted the rostrum at the Chambre des Députés and said:

 
Gentlemen, the King has commanded His Royal Highness the Prince de Joinville [at which point there was a hubbub of attention and curiosity] to take a frigate to the island of Saint Helena [new hubbub] to receive the mortal remains of the Emperor Napoleon [explosion of applause on all sides of the Assembly]. We come to ask you for the means to receive them onto French soil in a dignified fashion and to raise a final resting place for Napoleon [acclamations, applause]. [...] The frigate charged with [bringing] the mortal remains is ready to return to the mouth of the Seine, another ship to bring them as far as Paris. They will be deposited at Les Invalides. A solemn ceremony, a major religious and military procession will inaugurate the tomb which must hold him forever. [...] He was Emperor and King, he was our country's legitimate sovereign. Thus he could be buried at Saint-Denis, but Napoleon must not receive the ordinary burial of Kings. He must still reign and command in the fortress where soldiers of the fatherland will always rest, and where they will always be inspired by those who have been called to defend her. [...] Art shall elevate a worthy tomb under the dome, in the middle of the temple consecrated to the God of armies, if any tomb can be worthy of the name that will be engraved thereon. [...] We do not doubt, Gentlemen, that the Chambre shares with patriotic emotion the royal idea that we have now expressed before it. Henceforth France, and France alone, shall possess all that remains of Napoleon. His tomb, like his memory, shall belong to no one but his country. The monarchy of 1830 is, indeed, the sole and legitimate heir of all the sovereigns of which France can be proud. Without doubt, it belonged to this monarchy to first rally all the powers and reconcile all the vows of the French Revolution, to fearlessly elevate and honour the statue and the tomb of a hero of the people, for there is one thing, and one only, which does not fear comparison with glory - and that is liberty! [triple round of applause, acclamations from the left and centre, long hubbub]
The minister then introduced a bill to authorise "funding of 1 million [francs] for translation of the Emperor Napoleon's mortal remains to the Église des Invalides and for construction of his tomb". This announcement caused a sensation. A heated discussion began in the press, raising all sorts of objections as to the theory and to the practicalities. The town of Saint-Denis petitioned on 17 May that he instead be buried at their basilica, the traditional burial place of French kings.
 
 
25–26 May
On 25 and 26 May the bill was discussed in the Chambre. It was proposed by Bertrand Clauzel, an old soldier of the First French Empire who had been recalled by the July Monarchy and promoted to Marshal of France. In the commission's name he approved the choice of Les Invalides as the burial site, not without discussing the other suggested solutions (besides Saint-Denis, the Arc de Triomphe, the Colonne Vendôme, the Panthéon de Paris and even the Madeleine had been suggested to him). He proposed that the funding be raised to 2 million, that the ship bringing the remains back be escorted by a whole naval squadron and that Napoleon would be the last person to be buried in the Invalides. Speeches were made by the republican critic of the Empire Glais-Bizoin, who stated that "Bonapartist ideas are one of the open wounds of our time; they represent that which is most disastrous for the emancipation of peoples, the most contrary to the independence of the human spirit." The proposal was defended by Odilon Barrot (the future president of Napoleon III's council in 1848), whilst the hottest opponent of it was Lamartine, who found the measure dangerous. Lamartine stated before the debate that "Napoleon's ashes are not yet extinguished, and we're breathing in their sparks". Before the sitting, Thiers tried to dissuade Lamartine from intervening but received the reply "No, Napoleon's imitators must be discouraged." Thiers replied "Oh! But who could think to imitate him today?", only to receive Lamartine's reply that then spread right round Paris - "I do beg your pardon, I meant to say Napoleon's parodists." During the debate Lamartine stated:
 
Although I am an admirer of this great man, I am not enthusiastic about him with neither recollection nor foresight. I do not prostrate myself before this memory; I am not a follower of this Napoleonic religion, of the cult of force that for a time some have wished to substitute in the Nation's spirit for the serious religion of liberty. I also do not think it will be good ceaselessly to deify war, to encourage these over-impetuous bubblings in the French blood, that make us appear impatient to wreck ourselves after a truce of 25 years - as if peace, which is the good fortune and glory of the world, could be the shame of nations. [...] Let us, who take liberty seriously, make our views known in a measured way. Let us not appeal to the opinion of a people who better understand what dazzles them than what serves them. Let us not wholly efface, or so much decrease, our monarchy of reason, our new, representative and peace-loving monarchy. It would end up disappearing from the people's eyes. [...] it is good, Gentlemen; I do not oppose this, I applaud it: but pay attention to these encouragements to genius at any price. I am doubtful for the future. I do not like these men who have liberty, legality and progress as their official doctrine, and as their symbol a sabre and despotism.
In conclusion Lamartine invited France to show that "she [did not wish] to create out of this ash war, tyranny, legitimate monarchs, pretenders, or even imitators". Hearing this peroration, which was implicitly directed against him, Thiers looked devastated on his bench. Even so, the Chambre was largely favourable and voted through the measures requested, although by 280 votes to 65 it did refuse to raise the funding from 1 to 2 million. The Napoleonic myth was already fully developed and only needed to be crowned. The July Monarchy's official poet Casimir Delavigne wrote:
 
 
France, you have seen him again! Your cry of joy, O France,
Drowns out the noise of your cannon;
Your people, a whole people reaching out from your riverbanks,
Holds out its arms to Napoleon.
 
4–6 June
On 4 or 6 June General Bertrand was received by Louis-Philippe, who gave him the Emperor's arms, which were placed in the treasury. Bertrand stated on this occasion:
 

It is to Your Majesty, to Your solemn and patriotic outlook, that we owe the fulfilment of the Emperor's last wishes, wishes that he particularly expressed to me on his deathbed in circumstances that can never fade from my memory.

Sire, paying homage to the memorable act of national justice which you have generously undertaken, animated by a sense of gratitude and confidence, I come to deposit in Your Majesty's hands these glorious arms, which for long I have been reduced to hiding from the light, and which I hope soon to place upon the coffin of the great Captain, on the illustrious tomb destined to hold the gaze of the Universe.

May the hero's sword become the palladium of the fatherland.

 
Louis-Philippe replied, with studied formality:
 

In the name of France, I receive the arms of the Emperor Napoleon, which his last wishes gave to you in precious trust; they shall be guarded faithfully until the moment when I can place them on the mausoleum that national munificence is preparing for him.

I count myself happy that it has been reserved for me to return to the soil of France the mortal remains of him who added so much glory to our pomp and to pay the debt of our common Fatherland by surrounding his coffin with all the honours due to him.

I am very touched by all the sentiments you have just expressed to me.

 
This ceremony angered Joseph and Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, the latter writing in The Times:
 

The sword of Austerlitz must never be found in enemy hands; it must remain where she can be taken up in the day of danger for the glory of France. [...] To deprive the Emperor's heirs of the sole inheritance he has left them; to give the conqueror's arms to a beneficiary of Waterloo, is to betray the most sacred duties, to force the oppressed one day to say to their oppressors "Give us that which you have usurped".

 
After the arms ceremony Bertrand went to the Hôtel de ville and offered to the president of the Conseil Municipal the council chair that Napoleon had left to the capital - this is now in the Musée Carnavalet.
 
 
Arrival at St Helena
At 7pm on 7 July 1840 the frigate la Belle Poule left Toulon, escorted by the corvette la Favorite. The Prince de Joinville, the king's third son and a career naval officer, was in command of the frigate and the expedition as a whole. Also on board the frigate were: Philippe de Rohan-Chabot, an attaché to the French ambassador to the United Kingdom and commissioned by Thiers (wishing to gain reflected glory from any possible part of the expedition) to superintend the exhumation operations; generals Bertrand and Gourgaud; Count Emmanuel de Las Cases (député for Finistère and son of Emmanuel de Las Cases, the author of Le Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène); and five people who had been domestic servants to Napoleon on Saint Helena (Saint-Denis - better known by the name Ali Le Mameluck - Noverraz, Pierron, Archambault and Coursot). Captain Guyet was in command of the corvette, which transported Louis Marchand, Napoleon's chief valet de chambre, who had been with him on Saint Helena. Others on the expedition included Abbé Félix Coquereau (fleet almoner); Charner (Joinville's lieutenant and second in command), Hernoux (Joinville's aide-de-camp), Lieutenant Touchard (Joinville's orderly), General Bertrand's young son Arthur, and ship's doctor Rémy Guillard.

Once the bill had been passed, the frigate was adapted to receive Napoleon's coffin: a candlelit chapel was built in the steerage, draped in black velvet embroidered with the Napoleonic symbol of silver bees, with a catafalque at the centre guarded by four gilded wooden eagles.

The voyage lasted 93 days and, due to the youth of some of its crews, turned into a tourist trip, with the Prince dropping anchor at Cadiz for four days, Madeira for two days and Tenerife for four days, while 15 days of balls and festivities were held at Bahia. The two ships finally reached Saint Helena on 8 October and in the roadstead found the French brig l'Oreste, commanded by Doret, who had been one of the ensigns who had come up with a daring plan at île d'Aix to get Napoleon away on a lugger after Waterloo and who would later become a capitaine de corvette.

  Doret had arrived at Saint Helena to pay his last respects to Napoleon but he also brought worrying news - the Egyptian incident, combined with Thiers' aggressive policy, were very close to causing a diplomatic rupture between France and the United Kingdom. Joinville knew that the ceremony would be respected but began to fear he would be intercepted by British ships on the return trip.

The mission disembarked the following day and went to Plantation House, where the island's governor, Major-General George Middlemore was waiting for them. After a long interview with Joinville (with the rest of the mission waiting impatiently in the lounge), Middlemore appeared before the rest of the mission and announced "Gentlemen, the Emperor's mortal remains will be handed over to you on Thursday 15 October". The mission then set off for Longwood, via the Valley of the Tomb (or Geranium Valley). Napoleon's tomb was in a solitary spot, covered by three slabs placed level with the soil. This very simple monument was surrounded by an iron grille, solidly fixed on a base and shaded by a weeping willow, with another such tree lying dead by its side. All this was surrounded by a wooden fence and very close by was a spring whose fresh and clear water Napoleon had enjoyed. At the gate to the enclosure, Joinville dismounted, bared his head and approached the iron grille, followed by the rest of the mission. In a deep silence they contemplated the severe and bare tomb. After half an hour Joinville remounted and the expedition continued on its way. Lady Torbet, owner of the land where the tomb was sited, had set up a booth to sell refreshments for the few pilgrims to the tomb and was unhappy about the exhumation since it would eliminate her already small profits from it. They then went in pilgrimage to Longwood, which was in a very ruinous state - the furniture had disappeared, many walls were covered with graffiti, Napoleon's bedroom had become a stable where a farmer pastured his beasts and got a little extra income by guiding visitors around it. The sailors from l’Oreste grabbed the billiard table, which had been spared by the goats and sheep, and carried off the tapestry and anything else they could carry, all the while being loudly shouted at by the farmer with demands for compensation.

 
 

Opening of Napoleon's casket, Valley of the Tomb, 14 October 1840.
 
 
Exhumation
The party returned to the Valley of the Tomb at midnight on 14 October, though Joinville remained on board ship since all the operations up until the coffin's arrival at the embarkation point would be carried out by British soldiers rather than French sailors, and so he felt he could not be present at work that he could not direct. The French section of the party was led by the Count of Rohan-Chabot and included generals Bertrand and Gourgaud, Emmanuel de Las Cases, the Emperor's old servants, Abbé Coquereau, two choirboys, captains Guyet, Charner and Doret, doctor Guillard (chief surgeon of the Belle-Poule) and a lead-worker, Monsieur Leroux. The British section was made up of William Wilde, Colonel Hodson and Mr Scale (members of the island's colonial council), Mr Thomas, Mr Brooke, Colonel Trelawney (the island's artillery commander), naval lieutenant Littlehales, Captain Alexander (representing Governor Middlemore, who was indisposed, although he eventually arrived accompanied by his son and an aide) and Mr Darling (interior decorator at Longwood during Napoleon's captivity).

By the light of torches, the British soldiers set to work. They removed the grille, then the stones that formed a border to the tomb. The topsoil had already been removed and the French shared among themselves the flowers that had been growing in it. The soldiers then pulled up the three slabs that were closing the pit over. Long efforts were needed to break through the masonry enclosing the coffin. At 9.30 the last slab was raised and the coffin could be seen. Coquereau took some water from the nearby spring, blessed it and sprinkled it over the coffin, before reciting the psalm De profundis. The coffin was raised and transported into a large blue and white striped tent that had been put up the previous day. Then they proceeded to open the bier, in complete silence. The first coffin, of mahogany, had to be sawn off at both ends to get out the second coffin, made of lead, which was then placed within the neo-classical, ebony coffin that had been brought for it from France. General Middlemore and Lieutenant Touchard then arrived and presented themselves, before the party proceeded to unsolder the lead coffin. The coffin inside this, again of mahogany, was remarkably well-preserved. Its screws were removed with difficulty. It was then possible to open, with infinite care, the final coffin, made of tin.

  When the lid of this coffin was removed, a white form appeared - of uncertain shape, seeming to float as in a dream. The white satin padding from the coffin lid had become detached and was covering the body like a shroud. Doctor Guillard delicately rolled it back, from the feet to the head, to reveal the body. Napoleon's green uniform with red facings, that of a colonel of chasseurs, was perfectly preserved. The chest was still crossed by the red ribbon of the Légion d’honneur, although the decorations and buttons on the uniform were slightly tarnished. The body remained in a comfortable position, the head resting on a cushion and the left forearm and hand on the thigh. The facial expression was serene, the eyes were fully closed (with some eyelashes showing) and only the sides of the nose had changed.

A slightly receding gum allowed to shine, as at the moment of death, three very white incisors. The chin was stippled with the beginnings of a blueish beard which had emerged due to the dryness of the skin. The hands were perfectly preserved, with long and very white fingernails still attached. Only the seams of the boots had cracked, showing the four smaller toes on each foot. Napoleon's small hat was placed sideways across his thighs.

All the spectators were in a state of shock. Gourgaud, Las Cases, Philippe de Rohan, Marchand and all the servants wept; Bertrand seemed to be overcome with emotion. After two minutes' examination, Guillard proposed that he continue examining the body and open the jars containing the heart and the stomach. Gourgaud, however, suppressing his tears, became angry and ordered that the coffin be closed at once. The doctor complied and replaced the satin padding, spraying it with a little creosote before putting back on the tin lid (though without re-soldering it) and the mahogany lid. Then the lead coffin was re-soldered and finally the combination lock on the ebony coffin that had been brought from France was closed.

This ebony coffin, made in Paris, was 2.56m long, 1.05m wide and 0.7m deep. Its design imitated classical Roman coffins. The lid bore the sole inscription "Napoléon" in gold letters. Each of the four sides was decorated with the letter N in gilded bronze and there were six strong bronze rings for handles. On the coffin were also inscribed the words "Napoléon Empereur mort à Sainte-Hélène le 05 Mai 1821 (Napoleon, Emperor, died at St Helena on 05 May 1821)".

 
 
The ebony coffin and its contents were then placed in a sixth coffin, made of oak and designed to protect that of ebony. Then this mass, totalling 1,200 kilos, was hoisted by 43 gunners onto a solid hearse, draped in black with four plumes of black feathers at each corner and drawn with great difficulty by four horses caparisoned in black. The coffin was covered with a large (4.3m by 2.8m) black pall made of single piece of velvet sown with golden bees and bearing eagles surmounted by imperial crowns at its corners as well as a large silver cross. The ladies of Saint Helena offered to the French commissioner the tricolour flags that would be used in the ceremony and which they had made with their own hands, and the imperial flag that would be flown by la Belle Poule.
 
 

"Loading the remains of Napoleon onto La Belle Poule, 15 October 1840" Painting by Eugène Isabey.
 
 
Transfer to La Belle Poule
At 3.30, in driving rain, with the citadel and la Belle Poule firing alternate gun salutes, the cortège slowly moved along under the command of Middlemore. Count Bertrand, Baron Gourgaud, Baron Las Cases the younger and Marchand walked holding the corners of the pall. A detachment of militia brought up the rear, followed by a crowd of people, while the forts fired their cannon on every minute. Reaching Jamestown, the procession marched between two ranks of garrison soldiers with arms reversed. The French ships lowered their launches, with that of la Belle Poule, ornamented with gilded eagles, carrying Joinville.

At 5.30 the funeral procession stopped at the end of the jetty. Middlemore, old and ill, walked painfully over to Joinville. Their brief conversation, more or less in French, marked the point at which the remains were officially handed over to France.

  With infinite caution, the heavy coffin was placed in the launch. The French ships (up until then showing signs of mourning) hoisted their colours and all the ships present fired their guns. On la Belle Poule 60 men were paraded, drums beat a salute and funeral airs were played.

The coffin was hoisted onto the deck and its oak envelope was taken off. Coquereau gave absolution and Napoleon had returned to French territory. At 6.30 the coffin was placed in a candlelit chapel, ornamented with military trophies, on the stern of the ship.

At 10 the following day mass was said on deck, then the coffin was lowered into the candlelit chapel in the steerage, while the frigate's band played. Once this had been done, each officer received a commemorative medal. The sailors divided up among themselves the oak coffin and the dead willow that had been taken away from the Valley of the Tomb.

 
 

"The coffin transshipped from la Belle Poule to the steamship Normandie in the roadstead of Cherbourg on 8 December 1840." Painting by Léon Morel-Fatio, 1841. Château de Versailles.
 
 
Return from St Helena
At 8am on Sunday 18 October la Belle Poule, la Favorite and l’Oreste set sail. L’Oreste rejoined the Levant division, whilst the two other ships sailed towards France at full speed, fearful of being attacked. No notable setback occurred to la Belle Poule and la Favorite during the first 13 days of this voyage, though on 31 October they met the merchantman le Hambourg, whose captain gave Joinville news of Europe, confirming the news he had received from Doret. The threat of war was confirmed by the Dutch ship Egmont, en route for Batavia. Joinville was sufficiently worried to summon the officers of both his ships to a council of war, to plan precautions to keep the remains out of harm's way should they meet British warships. He had la Belle Poule prepared for possible battle. So that all the ship's guns could be mounted, the temporary cabins set up to house the commission to Saint Helena were demolished and the dividers between them, as well as their furniture, were thrown into the sea - earning the area the nickname "Lacédêmone".
  The crew were frequently drilled and called to action stations. Most importantly, he ordered la Favorite to sail away immediately and make for the nearest French port. Joinville was aware that no British warship would attack the ship carrying the body, but also that they would be unlikely to extend the same generosity to la Favorite.

He doubted, with good reason, that he would be able to save the corvette if she got within range of an enemy ship, without risking his frigate and its precious cargo. Another hypothesis is that la Favorite was the slower ship and would only have held la Belle Poule back if they had been attacked.

On 27 November la Belle-Poule was only 100 leagues from the coasts of France, without having encountered any British patrol.
Nonetheless, her commander and crew continued with their precautions - even though these were now unnecessary, because Anglo-French tension had ceased, after France had had to abandon its Egyptian ally and Thiers had been forced to resign.

 
 

"Arrival of la Dorade at Courbevoie on 14 December 1840." Painting by Félix Philippoteaux, 1867. Château de Malmaison.
 
 
Arrival in France
In the meantime, in October 1840, a new ministry nominally presided over by Marshal Nicolas Soult but in reality headed by François Guizot succeeded Thiers's cabinet in an attempt to resolve the crisis Thiers had provoked with the United Kingdom over the Middle East. This new arrangement gave rise to fresh hostile comment in the press as to the "retour des cendres":
 

He [Guizot] who will receive the Emperor's remains is a man of the Restoration, one of the salon conspirators who allied themselves to shake the king's hand at Ghent, behind the British lines, while our old soldiers were laying down their lives to defend our territory, on the plains of Waterloo. The ministers who will lead the cortège have been imposed on us by foreigners. The mourning will be led by the major-general of the French army at Waterloo [Soult], who was brought to power with the aid of Lord Palmerston and who shook the hand of the renegade of Ghent.

 
Fearful of being overthrown thanks to the "retour" initiative (the future Napoleon III had just attempted a coup d'État) yet unable to abandon it, the government decided to rush it to a conclusion - as Victor Hugo commented, "It was pressed into finishing it." The interior minister, Comte Duchâtel, affirmed that "Whether the preparations are ready or not, the funeral ceremony will take place on 15 December."

Everyone in Paris and its suburbs were conscripted to get the preparations done as quickly as possible, with the coffin's return voyage being faster than expected and internal political problems having caused considerable delays. From the Pont de Neuilly to Les Invalides, papier-mâché structures were set up which would line the funeral procession, though these were slapped together only late on the night before the ceremony.
 
Napoleon's funeral carriage passes under the Arc de Triomphe. 19th-century French school.
Château de Versailles.
 
 

The funeral carriage itself, resplendently gilded and richly draped, was 10m high, 5.8m wide, 13m long, weighed 13 tonnes and was drawn by four groups of four richly caparisoned horses. It had four massive gilded wheels, on whose axles rested a thick tabular base. This supported a second base, rounded at the front and forming a semi-circular platform on which were set a group of genii supporting Charlemagne's crown. At the back of this rose a dais, like an ordinary pedestal, on which stood a smaller pedestal in the shape of a quadrangle. Finally: 14 statues, larger than life and gilded all over, held up a vast shield on their heads, above which was placed a model of Napoleon's coffin; this whole ensemble was veiled in a long purple crêpe, sown with gold bees. The back of the car was made up of a trophy of flags, palms and laurels, with the names of Napoleon's main victories.

To avoid any revolutionary outbreak, the government (which had already insisted on the remains being buried with full military honours in Les Invalides) ordered that the ceremony would be strictly military, dismissing the civil cortège and thus infuriating the law and medical students who were to have formed it. The diplomatic corps gathered at the British embassy in Paris and decided to abstain from participating in the ceremony due to their antipathy to Napoleon as well as to Louis-Philippe.

On 30 November la Belle-Poule entered the roadstead of Cherbourg, and six days later the remains were transferred to the steamer la Normandie. Reaching Le Havre, the coffin was then transferred to la Dorade 3 at Val-de-la-Haye, near Rouen, to be carried up the Seine, on whose banks people had gathered to pay homage to Napoleon. On 14 December la Dorade 3 moored at Courbevoie in the northwest of Paris.

 
 
Reburial
The date for the reburial was set for 15 December. Victor Hugo evoked this day in his Les Rayons et les Ombres:
 

"O frozen sky! and sunlight pure! shining bright in history!

Funereal triumph, imperial torch!
Let the people's memory hold you forever,
Day beautiful as glory,
Cold as the tomb

 
Despite the temperature never rising above 10 degrees Celsius, the crowd of spectators stretching from the Pont de Neuilly to the Invalides was huge. Some houses' rooftops were covered with people. Respect and curiosity won out over irritation, and the biting cold cooled all restlessness in the crowd. Under pale sunlight after snow, the plaster statues and gilded-card ornaments produced an ambiguous effect upon Hugo: "the niggardly clothing the grandiose". Hugo also wrote:
 

Suddenly, cannon fire all at once from three different points on the horizon. This triple noise simultaneously encloses the ear in a tremendous and superb kind of triangle. Distant drums are beating in the fields. The emperor's carriage appears.

Veiled until then, at the same time the sun reappears. The effect is extraordinary.

In the distance could be seen slowly moving, amid steam and sunlight, upon the grey and red background of the trees of the Champs-Élysées, past tall white statues that resembled phantoms, a sort of golden mountain. One could not yet make out anything but a kind of shimmering light that made the whole surface of the carriage glitter sometimes with stars, sometimes with lightning. A vast murmur enveloped this apparition.

This carriage, one might say, draws after it the whole city's acclamation as a torch draws after it its smoke. [...]

The cortège continues its progress. The carriage advances slowly. We begin to be able to distinguish its shape. [...]

The whole possesses a grandeur. It is an enormous mass, gilded all over, whose stages rise in a pyramid atop the four huge gilded wheels that bear it. [...] The actual coffin is invisible. It has been placed in the base of the carriage, which diminishes the emotion. This is the carriage's grave defect. It hides what one wants to see: that which France has reclaimed, what the people are awaiting, what all eyes were looking for - the coffin of Napoleon.

 

Napoleon's funeral carriage passes along the Champs-Élysées.
Engraving by Louis-Julien Jacottet after a drawing by Louis Marchand.
 
 
The cortège arrived at the Invalides around 1:30, and at 2 pm it reached the gate of honour. The king and all France's leading statesmen were waiting in the royal chapel, the Église du Dôme. Joinville was to make a short speech, but nobody had remembered to forewarn him - he contented himself with a sabre salute and the king mumbled a few unintelligible words. Le Moniteur described the scene as best it could:
 

"Sire", said the Prince de Joinville, lowering his sword to the ground, "I present to you the body of the Emperor Napoleon." "I receive it in the name of France", the king replied in a strong voice.

 

Napoleon's funeral carriage crosses the Place de la Concorde.
Painting by Jacques Guiaud. Château de Versailles.
 
 

General Atthalin stepped forward, bearing on a cushion the sword that Napoleon had worn at Austerlitz and Marengo, which he presented to Louis-Philippe. The king made a strange, recoiling movement, then turned to Bertrand and said: "General, I charge you with placing the Emperor's glorious sword upon his coffin." Overcome with emotion, Bertrand was unable to complete this task, and Gourgaud rushed over and seized the weapon. The king turned to Gourgaud and said: "General Gourgaud, place the Emperor's sword upon the coffin."

In the course of the funeral ceremony, the Paris Opera's finest singers were conducted by Habeneck in a performance of Mozart's Requiem. The ceremony was more worldly than reverent - the deputies were particularly uncomfortable:

 
Upper-school boys would be thrashed if they behaved in a solemn place dressed and acting like these gentlemen. [...] This has meant that the Emperor has been received in three different ways. He has been received piously, in the Champs-Élysées by the people; coldly, from the platforms on the Esplanade [des Invalides] by the middle classes; and insolently, under the dome of the Invalides by the deputies.
 
The bearing of the old Marshal Moncey, the governor of the Invalides, somewhat redeemed the impertinence of the court and the politicians. For a fortnight he had been in agony, pressing his doctor to keep him alive at least to complete his role in the ceremony.

At the end of the religious ceremony he managed to walk to the catafalque, sprinkled holy water on it and pronounced as the closing words: "And now, let us go home to die".
 
 

Napoleon's funeral carriage heads towards les Invalides. Print after Adolphe Jean-Baptiste Bayot and Eugène Charles François Guérard. Paris, Musée de l'Armée.
 
 

From 16 to 24 December, the Église des Invalides, illuminated as on the day of the ceremony, remained open to the public. The people had long disbelieved in Napoleon's death and a rumour spread that the tomb was only a cenotaph. It was claimed that on St Helena the commission had found only an empty coffin and that the British had secretly sent the body to London for an autopsy. (This rumour has recently been revived.) Hugo wrote that, though the actual body was there, the people's good sense was not amiss:

All this ceremony had a curious mark of evasion. The government seemed to fear the phantom they were summoning up. They looked like they were both displaying Napoleon and at the same time hiding him. Everything that would have been too great or too touching was left in shadow. Whatever was real or grand was hidden away beneath more or less splendid shrouds; the imperial cortège was hidden within the military cortège, the army within the National Guard, the parliamentary chambers within the Invalides and the coffin within the cenotaph. Instead, Napoleon should have been considered boldly and openly - honouring him properly, treating him royally and popularly as an emperor; and then they would have found strength where they nearly stumbled.

 
 

Napoleon's tomb at Les Invalides
 
 
A political failure
The return of the remains had been intended to boost the image of the July Monarchy and to provide a tinge of glory to its organisers, Thiers and Louis-Philippe. Thiers had spotted the rise of the French infatuation with the First Empire that would go on to become the Napoleonic myth. He also thought that returning the remains would seal the new spirit of accord between France and the United Kingdom, even while the Egyptian affair was beginning to agitate Europe. As for Louis-Philippe, in the end he was disappointed in his hope to use the remains' return to give some small additional legitimacy to his monarchy, rickety and indifferent to the French people.
 
 

Médaille gravée en 1840 par Caqué pour le retour des cendres de l'Empereur, bronze 52mm
 
 
The great majority of the French, excited by the return of the remains of one whom they had come to see as a martyr, felt betrayed that they had been unable to render him the homage that they had wished. Hence the government began to fear rioting and took every possible measure to prevent the people from assembling.

Accordingly, the cortège had been mostly river-borne and had spent little time in towns outside Paris. In Paris, only important personages were present at the ceremony. Worse, the lack of respect shown by most of the politicians shocked public opinion and revealed a real rupture, a gulf, between the people and their government.

The "retour" also did not prevent France from losing its diplomatic war with the United Kingdom. France was forced to give up supporting its Egyptian ally. Thiers, losing his way in aggressive policies, was ridiculed and the king was compelled to dismiss him even before la Belle Poule arrived. Thiers had managed to push through the return of the remains, but was unable to profit from that success.

Instead of imparting a new glow to the July Monarchy, the reburial of Napoleon was the turning point in its decline.

  Monument
As planned, Napoleon's remains repose today in a magnificent monument beneath the middle of the dome in the Invalides. The monument was designed by architect Louis Visconti in 1842, but was not completed until 1861.

A circular hollow was cut beneath the dome as a kind of open crypt. In it was placed a large sarcophagus - said to be of "red porphyry", but in fact of aventurine quartzite, similar to porphyry, from quarries in Karelia, Northern Russia on the shore of the Onega lake. The sarcophagus rests upon a base of green granite from the Vosges. That green granite block rests, in turn, upon a slab of black marble, 5.5m x 1.2m x 0.65m, quarried at Sainte-Luce and transported to Paris with great difficulty.

On 2 April 1861, Napoleon's coffin was transferred from the chapel of Saint-Jérôme, where it had lain since 1840. The transfer was accompanied only by an intimate ceremony: present were the Emperor Napoleon III, Empress Eugénie, the Prince Imperial Napoléon Eugène, other related princes, government ministers and senior officials of the crown.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1840
 
 
Lambton John George
 
John George Lambton, 1st earl of Durham, also called (1828–33) Baron Durham (born April 12, 1792, London—died July 28, 1840, Cowes, Isle of Wight, Eng.), British reformist Whig statesman sometimes known as “Radical Jack,” governor-general and lord high commissioner of Canada, and nominal author of the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), which for many years served as a guide to British imperial policy. The “Durham Report” was largely written by his chief secretary in Canada, Charles Buller (1806–48).
 

John George Lambton
  The son of a great landowner in Durham County, Lambton sat in the House of Commons from 1813 to 1828, when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Durham. (He was created an earl in 1833.) By his second marriage he became the son-in-law of Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, a leading Whig and future prime minister (1830–32), but his proposals for wide extension of the franchise and other radical measures were distasteful to Grey and other orthodox Whigs.

In 1830 Durham entered Grey’s Cabinet as lord privy seal, and with Lord John Russell (afterward 1st Earl Russell and twice prime minister) and two others, he drafted the first parliamentary Reform Bill (1831; not enacted). After the passage of the third Reform Bill the following year, Durham was sent on diplomatic missions to Russia, Prussia, and Austria and then resigned as lord privy seal (1833). From July 1835 to June 1837 he was ambassador to Russia.

Appointed governor-general and lord high commissioner of Canada, Durham arrived at Quebec in May 1838 in the aftermath of political rebellion. Faced with French-Canadian hostility, virtual anarchy in Lower Canada (the modern province of Quebec), and possible expansion of the United States into Canada, he was given almost dictatorial powers.

Durham organized a new and more conciliatory executive council, and on June 28, 1838, the day of Queen Victoria’s coronation, he proclaimed an amnesty for all French-Canadian rebels except for 24 of their leaders.

 
 
For his moderation he was reviled in England. The prime minister, Lord Melbourne, disavowed Durham’s actions, whereupon the governor-general resigned and issued a self-justifying proclamation.

After returning to England, Durham submitted his memorable report to the colonial office on Jan. 31, 1839. He advocated the union of Lower Canada with Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), with a large measure of self-government in order to preserve Canadian loyalty to Great Britain and thereby to forestall the annexation of Canada by the United States. Accepting the theory of imperial government put forth by Buller and Edward Gibbon Wakefield, Durham prescribed “responsible government,” a Cabinet of colonists whose recommendations on internal affairs were to be executed by the governor-general. Foreign policy and international trade were to continue to be regulated from London. He also strongly recommended that the French-Canadians be harassed into abandoning their language and become completely assimilated to the Anglo-Canadians. The union of the two Canadas (by proclamation in 1841) was intended in part to perpetuate the minority status of the French.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1840
 
 
Vaillant Edouard-Marie
 

Édouard-Marie Vaillant, (born Jan. 28, 1840, Vierzon, Fr.—died Dec. 18, 1915, Paris), French revolutionary publicist and politician who was exiled for his role in the Paris Commune of 1871. After his return he became an important member of the Socialist Party.

 

Édouard-Marie Vaillant
  Educated as an engineer, Vaillant subsequently studied medicine, first in Paris and later in Heidelberg, Tübingen, and Vienna. He returned to France, and during the German siege of Paris (1870–71) he wrote revolutionary articles propagating the thought of Auguste Blanqui, French socialist theoretician, whose friend and disciple he had become.

Vaillant participated in the Paris insurrection of March 18, 1871, and was elected a member of the Commune, the revolutionary government of Paris. With the defeat of the Commune, he fled to England, where he met Karl Marx. He was a member of the General Council of the First International (September 1871). In 1872, with other Blanquists, Vaillant withdrew from the International, believing it to be insufficiently revolutionary.

Vaillant was condemned to death in absentia in July 1872 and returned to France only after the general amnesty of 1880. There he was active in Blanquist groups until 1904.

Vaillant was elected a municipal councillor (1884) and from 1893 until the end of his life represented a Paris district in the National Assembly. He was an ardent advocate of the eight-hour day and of comprehensive social security. In 1898 he became leader of the Blanquists in the Chamber.

 
 
In 1905, when the various socialist factions were united, he began his friendship and collaboration with Jean Jaurès, the leading socialist politician; together they were able to control all the socialist congresses until 1914. Though a lifelong pacifist, Vaillant regarded it as the duty of all socialists to defend France on the outbreak of World War I.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1840
 
 
Sampson William
 

William T. Sampson, (born Feb. 9, 1840, Palmyra, N.Y., U.S.—died May 6, 1902, Washington, D.C.), U.S. naval officer who, as head of the North Atlantic squadron, masterminded U.S. naval strategy during the Spanish-American War.

 

William T. Sampson
  A graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy (1861), Sampson served in the Union naval forces during the American Civil War, continued in the navy after 1865, was superintendent of the Naval Academy (1886–90), and chief of the Bureau of Ordnance (1893–97).

Following the outbreak of war with Spain in 1898, Sampson was named commander of the Atlantic squadron and was in command of the squadron when it blockaded the Spanish fleet in the harbour of Santiago de Cuba (May 29–July 3, 1898).

When the Spanish ships sought to escape Santiago (July 3) and were destroyed by the U.S. naval forces, Sampson was absent, conferring with Gen. William R. Shafter, commander of the U.S. land forces.

His absence became the cause of a celebrated controversy as to whether Adm. Winfield S. Schley, who was in command during the battle, or Sampson, who had outlined the general battle plans, should receive credit for the victory.

In 1899 Sampson was given the permanent rank of rear admiral.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1840
 
 
Smith William Sidney
 

Sir William Sidney Smith (1764-1840), English admiral, was the second son of Captain John Smith of the Guards, and was born at Westminster on the 21st of July 1764.

 

Sir William Sidney Smith
  He entered the navy, according to his own account, "at the beginning of the American War," being only about eleven years of age. For his bravery under Rodney in the action near Cape St Vincent. in January 1780, he was on the 25th of September appointed lieutenant of the "Alcide," 74. After serving in the actions against the French fought by Graves off Chesapeake in 1781 and by Rodney at the Leeward Islands in 1782, he was on the 6th of May of the latter year promoted to be commander of the "Fury" sloop, and on the 18th of October advanced to the rank of captain.. His ship having been paid off in the beginning of 1784, he spent two years in France and afterwards visited Spain. From 1790 to 1792 he advised the king of Sweden in the war with Russia, receiving for his services the honour of knighthood. After his return to England he was sent on a mission to Constantinople, and having joined Lord Hood at Toulon from Smyrna in December 1 793, he, though only on half pay, was actively employed in the attempt to burn the enemy's ships and arsenal. In the following years he was engaged in the Channel hunting French privateers; but, having with the boats of his squadron boarded in Havre-de Grace harbour a lugger which was driven by the tide above the French forts, he was on the 19th of April 1796 compelled to surrender and sent a prisoner to Paris. By means of forged orders for his removal to another prison he made his escape from the Temple, and, crossing the Channel in a small skiff picked up at Havre, arrived in London on the 8th of May 1798.
 
 
In October he was appointed to the command of the "Tigre," 80, and was sent to the Mediterranean. By a very curious decision of the government he was joined in commission with his brother Spencer Smith,. minister at Constantinople. Learning of Bonaparte's approach to St Jean d'Acre, he hastened to its relief, and on the 16th of March 1799 captured the enemy's flotilla, after which he successfully defended the town, compelling Napoleon on the 10th of May to raise the siege and retreat in disorder, leaving all his artillery behind. For this brilliant exploit he received the special thanks of the Houses of Parliament and was awarded an annuity of £1000. On the 24th of January 1800 he took upon himself to make the convention of El Arish, by which the French were to have been allowed to evacuate Egypt.

His action was disallowed by his superiors, who insisted that the French must surrender. Subsequently he co-operated with Abercromby, under whom he commanded the naval brigade at the battle of Aboukir, where he was wounded. On his return to England he was in 1802 elected M.P. for the city of Rochester. In March 1803 he was commissioned to watch the preparations of the French for an invasion of England. Having on the 9th of November 1805 been promoted to be rear-admiral of the blue, he was in the following January despatched on secret service for the protection of Sicily and Naples. His conduct was as usual brilliant, but, also as usual, his vanity and self-assertion led him into quarrels with the military officers. He relieved Gaeta and captured Capri, but on the 2 5th of January 1807 received orders to proceed to Malta, whence he joined Sir John Duckworth, who was sent to act against the Turks. On the 7th of February, with the rear division of the squadron, he destroyed the Turkish fleet and spiked the batteries off Abydos. In November following he was sent to blockade the Tagus, and was mainly instrumental in embarking the Portuguese prince regent and royal family for Rio de Janeiro, after which he was sent as commander-in-chief to the coast of S. America in February 1808. At Rio he was entangled in another quarrel with the British minister, Lord Strangford, and was summarily recalled in 1809.

On the 31st of July 1810 he was made vice-admiral of the blue, and on the 18th of July 1812 was despatched as second in command under Sir Edward Pellew (afterwards Viscount Exmouth) to the Mediterranean, but the expedition was uneventful. His term of active service practically closed in 1814. He was made K.C.B. in 1815 and in 1821 admiral. The later years of his life were spent at Paris, where he died on the 26th of May 1840. His restless selfassertion brought him into collision with many of his contemporaries, including Nelson and Sir John Moore. Colonel Bunbury's Narrative of some Passages in the Great War with France contains a most amusing account of his theatrical vanity. But though by nature a boaster he was both daring and ingenious.

1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
 
 
 

 
 
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