Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
     
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1839 Part IV NEXT-1840 Part I    
 
 
     
1840 - 1849
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840-1849
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part I
Bebel August
Maximilian of Mexico
Carlota
Convention of London
British North America Act
Francia Jose Gaspar
Macdonald Jacques
William I of the Netherlands
William II of the Netherlands
Retour des cendres
Lambton John George
Vaillant Edouard-Marie
Sampson William
Smith William Sidney
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part II
Ridpath John Clark
Sankey Ira David
James Fenimore Cooper: "The Pathfinder"
Blunt Wilfrid Scawen
Broughton Rhoda
Robert Browning: "Sordello"
Daudet Alphonse
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Dobson Austin
Hardy Thomas
Thomas Hardy 
"Tess of the d'Urbervilles"
Lemercier  Nepomucene
Lermontov: "A Hero of Our Times"
Modjeska Helena
Symonds John Addington
Verga Giovanni
Zola Emile
Emile Zola
"
J'accuse" (I accuse)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part III
Delacroix: "Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople"
Makart Hans
Hans Makart
Monet Claude
Claude Monet
Nasmyth Alexander
Alexander Nasmyth
Nast Thomas
Nelson's Column
Rodin Auguste
Auguste Rodin
Redon Odilon
Odilon Redon
Blechen Carl
Karl Blechen
Debain Alexandre-Francois
Donizetti: "La Fille du Regiment"
Haberl Franz Xaver
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich
Tchaikovsky - The Seasons
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky
Schneckenburger Max
Wilhelm Karl
"Die Wacht am Rhein"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1840 Part IV
Olbers Wilhelm
Blumenbach Johann Friedrich
Ball Robert
Kohlrausch Friedrich Wilhelm
Agassiz Louis
Basedow Carl Adolph
Graves disease
Maxim Hiram
Eyre Edward John
Brummell Beau
Father Damien
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Washington Temperance Society
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part I
Second Battle of Chuenpee
Barere Bertrand
Fisher John Arbuthnot
British Hong Kong
Luzzatti Luigi
Merriman John
Harrison William Henry
Tyler John
Espartero Baldomero
Hirobumi Ito
Clemenceau Georges
Edward VII
Creole case
Laurier Wilfrid
New Zealand
Lamb William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part II
Cheyne Thomas Kelly
Ludwig Feuerbach: "The Essence of Christianity"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Holst Hermann Eduard
Jebb Richard Claverhouse
Ward Lester Frank
Black William
Robert Browning: "Pippa Passes"
Buchanan Robert
Fenimore Cooper: "The Deerslayer"
Coquelin Benoit
Dickens: "The Old Curiosity Shop"
Ewing Juliana Horatia
Sill Edward Rowland
Frederick Marryat: "Masterman Ready"
Mendes Catulle
Mounet-Sully Jean
"Punch, or The London Charivari"
Sealsfield Charles
Scott Clement William
White Joseph Blanco
Ruskin: "The King of the Golden River"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part III
Chantrey Francis
Morisot Berthe
Berthe Morisot
Renoir Pierre-Auguste
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Wagner Otto
Wallot Paul
Olivier Ferdinand
Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier
Bazille Frederic
Frederic Bazille
Zandomeneghi Federico
Federico Zandomeneghi
Guillaumin Armand
Armand Guillaumin
Chabrier Emmanuel
Chabrier - Espana
Emmanuel Chabrier
Dibdin Thomas John
Dvorak Anton
Antonin Dvorak: Rusalka
Antonin Dvorak
Pedrell Felipe
Felip Pedrell: Els Pirineus
Felipe Pedrell
Rossini: "Stabat Mater"
Sax Antoine-Joseph
Schumann: Symphony No. 1
Sgambati Giovanni
Sgambati - Piano Concerto in G minor
Giovanni Sgambati
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1841 Part IV
Cooper Astley
Braid James
Hypnosis
Candolle Austin
Aniline
Kocher Emil Theodor
Kolliker Rudolf Albert
Petzval Joseph
Hudson William Henry
Warming Eugenius
Whitworth Joseph
Barnum's American Museum
Bradshaw George
Cook Thomas
Hyer Tom
"The New York Tribune"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part I
Pozzo di Borgo Charles-Andre
Las Cases Emmanuel
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Treaty of Nanking
General Strike of 1842
O’Higgins Bernardo
Giolitti Giovanni
Fiske John
Hartmann Eduard
Hyndman Henry Mayers
James William
Kropotkin Peter Alekseyevich
Anarchism
Anarchism
Lavisse Ernest
Robertson George Croom
Sorel Albert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part II
Banim John
Sue Eugene
Eugene Sue: "The Mysteries of Paris"
Bierce Ambrose
Brandes Georg
Bulwer-Lytton: "Zanoni"
Graham Maria
Coppee Francois
Cunningham Allan
Espronceda Jose
Gogol: "Dead Souls"
Howard Bronson
Lanier Sidney
Lover Samuel
MacKaye Steele
Maginn William
Mallarme Stephane
May Karl
Рое: "The Masque of the Red Death"
Quental Antero Tarquinio
Woodworth Samuel
Macaulay: "Lays of Ancient Rome"
Tupper Martin Farquhar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part III
Vereshchagin Vasily
Vasily Vereshchagin
Boldini Giovanni
Giovanni Boldini
Boito Arrigo
Arrigo Boito: Mefistofele Finale
Arrigo Boito
Glinka: "Russian and Ludmilla"
Hopkinson Joseph
"Hail, Columbia"
Lortzing: "Der Wildschiitz"
Massenet Jules
Massenet "Elegie"
Jules Massenet
Millocker Karl
Millocker: Gasparone
Karl Millocker
New York Philharmonic
Sullivan Arthur
Arthur Sullivan - The Mikado - Overture
Arthur Sullivan
Wagner: "Rienzi"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1842 Part IV
Dewar James
Doppler Christian Andreas
Flammarion Camille
Hansen Emile Christian
Long Crawford Williamson
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Charting the Ocean Depths
Mayer Julius Robert
Pelletier Pierre Joseph
Marshall Alfred
Strutt John William
Retzius Gustaf
Fremont John Charles
Darling Grace
Polka
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part I
McKinley William
Braga Teofilo
Wairau Affray
Dilke Charles
Avenarius Richard
Borrow George
Carlile Richard
Thomas Carlyle: "Past and Present"
Creighton Mandell
Liddell and Scott: "Greek-English Lexicon"
Liddell Henry
Scott Robert
Ward James
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part II
Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last of the Barons"
Elisabeth of Romania
Dickens: "Martin Chuzzlewit"
Doughty Charles Montagu
Dowden Edward
Emmett Daniel Decatur
Hood Thomas
Thomas Hood: "Song of the Shirt"
Horne Richard Hengist
James Henry
Rosegger Peter
Suttner Bertha
Harris George Washington
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part III
Allston Washington
Washington Allston
John Ruskin: "Modern Painters"
Trumbull John
John Trumbull
Werner Anton
Anton von Werner
Clairin Georges
Georges Clairin
Donizetti: "Don Pasquale"
Grieg Edward
Grieg - Solveig Song
Edward Grieg
Nilsson Christine
Patti Adelina
Richter Hans
Schumann: "Paradise and the Peri"
Wagner: "The Flying Dutchman"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1843 Part IV
British Archaeological Association
Chamberlin Thomas Chrowder
Ferrier David
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever"
Holmes Oliver Wendell
Joule James Prescott
Koch Robert
Erbium
Brunel Marc Isambard
Thames Tunnel
Dix Dorothea Lynde
Guy's, Kings and St. Thomas' Rugby Football Club
Sequoyah
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part I
Lowe Hudson
Drouet Jean-Baptiste
Oscar I of Sweden
Dole Sanford Ballard
Laffitte Jacques
Franco-Moroccan War
Polk James Knox
Herrera Jose Joaquin
Treaty of Wanghia
Breshkovsky Catherine
Comstock Anthony
Emerson: "Essays"
Grundtvig Nikolaj Frederik Severin
Hall Granville Stanley
Nietzsche Friedrich
Friedrich Nietzsche
Rice Edmund Ignatius
Riehl Alois
Stanley Arthur Penrhyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part II
Bernhardt Sarah
Sarah Bernhardt
Dumas, pere: "Le Comte de Monte Cristo"
Bridges Robert
Cable George Washington
Carte Richard
Cary Henry Francis
Disraeli: "Coningsby"
France Anatole
Hopkins Gerard Manley
Lang Andrew
Liliencron Detlev
O'Reilly John Boyle
O’Shaughnessy Arthur
Sterling John
William Thackeray: "Barry Lyndon"
Verlaine Paul
Paul Verlaine
"Poems"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part III
Eakins Thomas
Thomas Eakins
Ezekiel Moses Jacob
Moses Ezekiel
Luke Fildes Luke
Luke Fildes
Leibl Wilhelm
Wilhelm Leibl
Munkacsy Mihaly
Mihaly Munkacsy
Repin Ilya
Ilya Repin
Rousseau Henri
Henri Rousseau
Cassatt Mary
Mary Cassatt
Flotow: "Alessandro Stradella"
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E minor
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay
The Best of Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Sarasate Pablo
Pablo de Sarasate - Zigeunerweisen
Pablo de Sarasate
Verdi: "Ernani"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1844 Part IV
Grassmann Hermann Gunther
Baily Francis
Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard
DeLong George Washington
Golgi Camillo
Kielmeyer Carl Friedrich
Kinglake Alexander William
Strasburger Eduard Adolf
Huc Evariste Regis
Gabet Joseph
Sturt Charles Napier
Leichhardt Friedrich
Beckford William
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers
"Fliegende Blatter"
Hagenbeck Carl
Keller Friedrich Gottlob
Pasch Gustaf Erik
Young Men’s Christian Association
Williams George
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part I
Root Elihu
Texas
Florida
Flagstaff War
Ludwig II of Bavaria
First Anglo-Sikh War
Sonderbund
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part II
Friedrich Engels: "The Condition of the Working Class in England"
Stirner Max
Disraeli: "Sybil, or The Two Nations"
Hertz Henrik
Prosper Merimee: "Carmen"
Рое: "The Raven"
Spitteler Carl
Wergeland Henrik
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part III
Bode Wilhelm
Hill David Octavius
Ingres: The Comtesse d'Haussonville
Oberlander Adam Adolf
Crane Walter
Walter Crane
Faure Gabriel
Faure - Pavane
Gabriel Faure
Lortzing: "Undine"
Wagner: "Tannhauser"
Widor Charles-Marie
Widor - Piano Concerto No. 1
Charles Marie Widor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1845 Part IV
Armstrong William George
Bigelow Erastus Brigham
Cayley Arthur
Cornell Ezra
Submarine communications cable
Heilmann Joshua
Humboldt: "Cosmos"
Kolbe Hermann
Laveran Alphonse
McNaught William
Metchnikoff Elie
Charting the Northwest
Layard Austen Henry
Cartwright Alexander
United States Naval Academy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part I
Battle of Aliwal
Battle of Sobraon
Treaty of Lahore
Greater Poland Uprising
Krakow Uprising
Mexican-American War
Battle of Monterrey
First Battle of Tabasco
Iowa
Pasic Nikola
Evangelical Alliance
Eucken Rudolf Christoph
Pius IX
Whewell William
Young Brigham
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part II
Balzac: "La Cousine Bette"
De Amicis Edmondo
Dostoevsky: "Poor Folk"
Jokai Maurus
Lear Edward
Melville Herman
Herman Melville: "Typee"
Herman Melville
"Moby Dick or The Whale"
Sienkiewicz Henryk
George Watts: "Paolo and Francesca"
De Nittis Giuseppe
Giuseppe de Nittis
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1846 Part III
Berlioz: "Damnation de Faust"
Lortzing: "Der Waffenschmied"
Mendelssohn: "Elijah"
Deere John
Deere & Company
Henle Friedrich
Howe Elias
Waitz Theodor
Mohl Hugo
Green William Thomas
Sobrero Ascanio
Heaphy Charles
Brunner Thomas
Europeans in New Zealand
"The Daily News"
Horsley John Callcott
Smithsonian Institution
Zeiss Carl
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part I
Liberia
Second Battle of Tabasco
Battle of Churubusco
BATTLE OF MEXICO CITY
Hindenburg Paul
Sonderbund War
Beecher Henry Ward
Blanc Louis
Proudhon Pierre-Joseph
roudhon: "Philosophy of Poverty"P
Karl Marx: "The Poverty of Philosophy"
Salt Lake City
Charlotte Bronte: "Jane Eyre"
Bronte Emily
Marryat: "The Children of the New Forest"
Thackeray: "Vanity Fair"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1847 Part II
Hildebrand Adolf
Liebermann Max
Max Liebermann
Friedrich von Flotow: "Martha"
Verdi: "Macbeth"
Boole George
Edison Thomas Alva
Bell Alexander Graham
Semmelweis Ignaz Philipp
Colenso William
Factory Act of 1847
Fawcett Millicent
Siemens & Halske
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part I
Frederick VII
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Revolutions of 1848
French Revolution of 1848
June Days Uprising
Cavaignac Louis-Eugene
French Constitution of 1848
French Second Republic
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Slovak Uprising 1848-1849
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part I)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part II
First Italian War of Independence
Skirmish of Pastrengo
Battle of Goito
Battle of Custoza
Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
Revolution of 1848 in Luxembourg
Greater Poland Uprising
Moldavian Revolution of 1848
Pan-Slav Congress of 1848
Pan-Slavism
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-48 (part II)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part III
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Nasr-ed-Din
Ibrahim Pasha
Abbas I
Wisconsin
Balfour Arthur James
Seneca Falls Convention
Stanton Elizabeth Cady
Delbruck Hans
Macaulay: "History of England"
"The Communist Manifesto"
John Mill: "Principles of Political Economy"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part IV
Augier Emile
Chateaubriand: "Memoires d'Outre-Tombe"
Dumas fils: "La Dame aux Camelias"
Gaskell Elizabet
Elizabeth Gaskell: "Mary Barton"
Murger Louis-Henri
Henri Murger: "Scenes de la vie de Boheme"
Terry Ellen
Surikov Vasily
Vasily Surikov
Uhde Fritz
Fritz von Uhde
Gauguin Paul
Paul Gauguin
Caillebotte Gustave
Gustave Caillebotte
Millais: "Ophelia"
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1848 Part V
Parry Hubert Hastings
Jerusalem by Hubert Parry
Hubert Parry
Duparc Henri
Duparc Henri: "L'invitation au voyage"
Henri Duparc
Bottger Rudolf Christian
Parsons William
Frege Gottlob
"New Prussian Newspaper"
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"
Grace William Gilbert
Kneipp Sebastian
Lilienthal Otto
Starr Belle
California Gold Rush
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part I
Battle of Chillianwala
Battle of Gujrat
Roman Republic on February 9, 1849
Battle of Novara
Victor Emmanuel II
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione
Peace of Milan
Taylor Zachary
Dresden Rebellion of 1849
Surrender at Vilagos
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part II
Kemble John Mitchell
Key Ellen
Arnold Matthew
Dickens: "David Copperfield"
Kingsley Charles
Scribe: "Adrienne Lecouvreur"
Strindberg August
Smith Horace
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part III
Waterhouse John William
John William Waterhouse
John Ruskin: "The Seven Lamps of Architecture"
Carriere Eugene
Eugene Carriere
Liszt: "Tasso"
Meyerbeer: "Le Prophete"
Otto Nicolai: "The Merry Wives of Windsor"
Schumann: "Manfred"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1849 Part IV
Fizeau Armand
Frankland Edward
Livingstone David
Explorations of David Livingstone
Baines Thomas
"Who's Who"
Bedford College
Bloomer Amelia
Bloomers (clothing)
Stead William Thomas
 
 
 

Lamartine in front of the Town Hall of Paris rejects the red flag on 25 February 1848
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1840-1849  History at a Glance
 
 

 
 
1840
 
 
1840 New Zealand Becomes British

The implementation of the Treaty of Waitangi on February 6, 1840, made New Zealand a British colony and the native Maori subjects of Queen Victoria. The British promised that the Maori could maintain ownership of their land, fisheries, and forests as long as they wished, but difficulties arose. Debate over specific wording and provisions of the treaty led to large-scale conflict. The treaty is not considered part of New Zealand's domestic law, although the date of the signing is celebrated as a national holiday.
 
 

EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT OF New Zealand had gradually increased over the previous decade, and included the introduction of many missions. Settlers traded with the Maori, who were already living on the island—exchanging European muskets for Maori crops and livestock. This had led to an arms race between rival tribes in the Maori Musket Wars (1820-35).

 


Tamati Waka Nene
Nene was a warrior and chieftain of the
Maori Ngatihoa tribe in the early 19th century.
He spoke out in favor of the Treaty of Waitangi.

 
 

The British wanted to establish a colony and the New Zealand Company was set up, selling land for settlement. A ship of settlers left for New Zealand in 1839. All involved were aware of potential hostility from the Maori. In 1840, William Hobson (1792-1842), lieutenant-governor of New Zealand, approached Maori chiefs with the Treaty of Waitangi. This offered protection by the British in exchange for ceding sovereignty.

 
The Maori would keep their land on the basis that if they sold it only the British Crown could buy it. There was much opposition to the treaty but some Maori chiefs believed that the British presence would bring stability to the country. On May 21 sovereignty was proclaimed over the territory.
 
 
1840 First Adhesive Stamp

In 1840, the first adhesive stamp—called Penny Black and featuring a profile of young Queen Victoria—was issued in England, revolutionizing mail service around the world. Before Rowland Hill's suggestion of creating a prepaid postage stamp, postal charges were based on the weight of the letter and the distance it traveled. Postage was usually collected from the recipient upon delivery, and if that person refused the letter, it was returned unpaid. This meant that the post office had to assume the cost of the two-way trip. Hill suggested senders purchase a one-penny stamp for a half-ounce letter for delivery anywhere in Britain. He believed this lower rate would increase mail volume, thus increasing postal revenues. He was right. The system was immediately adopted by nations around the world as the best way to send mail.
 
 

Horse and coach at a London station leaving to deliver mail. The development of stagecoaches meant post could be delivered all over Britain.
 
In Britain, the postal system was reformed. Improved transportation made it possible to deliver mail all over the country, but costs rose as postage was paid for on receipt, based on distance traveled. A "penny post" system was proposed, whereby any letter could be sent anywhere in the country for a penny, and postage would be prepaid using stamps. These measures came into force in 1840 and was the first system of its kind in the world.
 
 
1840 Proudhon Proposes Anarchy

In 1840, French socialist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon published What Is Property? which stated that "Property is theft!" Anarchism was an ancient term, but Proudhon helped make it a mass movement in the 19th century. Growing up in poverty, Proudhon believed in individual dignity and denounced ownership of property and exploitation of labor while criticizing communism for denying human independence. His later writings were attacked by German political theorist Karl Marx, creating a split between anarchists and Marxists.

FOOTNOTE Proudhon's argument with Marx, as well as with Mikhail Bakunin, a Russian thinker of the time, arose from his beliefs in individual workers over a workers' collective and the possibility of peaceful social change.
 
 
 
1841
 
 
AS CHINESE AND BRITISH TROOPS continued to fight in the Opium War, Britain's ships sailed up the Pearl River, capturing forts around Canton, followed by the ports of Amoy and Ningpo. The British also occupied the key port of Hong Kong. A preliminary agreement to end the war, drafted in January and known as the Convention of Chuenpee, ceded Hong Kong to the British, but the document was written amid continued hostilities and was never ratified.
 

The port of Hong Kong was key to Britain's trade in the East.
 
 
Egypt and the Turks, meanwhile, ended their second war over Syria, with Egyptian troops withdrawing from Syria.
 
 
1842
 
 
THE OPIUM WAR between Britain and China finally came to an end after British troops took further territory, reaching Nanking in August. Chinese officials sued for peace, resulting in the Treaty of Nanking on August 29. China was forced to pay an indemnity of $20 million to the British and officially cede Hong Kong. It was also made to open the ports of Canton, Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo, and Shanghai to British trade. These cities became known as "treaty ports."
 

Treaty of Nanking
This treaty ended the three-year Opium War, gave Britain control of Hong Kong,
and opened up five "treaty ports" to traders.
 
 
Industrialization and the mining industry resulted in many children being forced to work under dirty and dangerous conditions. In Britain, social reformer Anthony Ashley Cooper, seventh earl of Shaftesbury (1801-85), became a driving force for the Mines Act of 1842, prohibiting children under ten and women from working in mines. In the US, the state of Massachusetts passed legislation to limit a child's work day to ten hours. Belgium's King Leopold I also tried to regulate child and female labor conditions, but his plans were rejected.
 
 

An illustration depicting a caravan of African slaves. The slave trade remained prevalent in many parts of the world despite a growing effort to eradicate it.
 
 
The slave trade and the practice of slavery still persisted in many countries. France had brought slavery back to its colonies, and while Spain had signed a treaty over abolition in 1817 with the British, who had abolished the slave trade in 1807, it was not enforced for decades. Likewise, Portugal's 1818 treaty with Britain and subsequent treaties were not honored, nor was slavery abolished in its colonies. However, in 1842, a further treaty allowed British ships to attack Portuguese slave ships off East Africa. The Portuguese colony of Mozambique was a huge slave port, with 15,000 slaves a year taken from 1820 to 1830.
 
 
John G. Burnett

THE TRAIL OFT EARS, 1890


The removal of Cherokee Indians from their life long homes in the year of 1838 found me a young man in the prime of life and a private soldier in the American Army. Being acquainted with many of the Indians and able to fluently speak their language, I was sent as interpreter into the Smoky Mountain Country in May, 1838, and witnessed the execution of the most brutal order in the History of American Warfare. I saw the helpless Cherokees arrested and dragged from their homes, and driven at the bayonet point into the stockades.

And in the chill of a drizzling rain on an October morning I saw them loaded like cattle or sheep into six hundred and forty-five wagons and started toward the west. One can never forget the sadness and solemnity of that morning. Chief John Ross led in prayer and when the bugle sounded and the wagons started rolling many of the children rose to their feet and waved their little hands good-bye to their mountain homes, knowing they were leaving them forever. Many of these helpless people did not have blankets, and many of them had been driven from home barefooted.

On the morning of November the 17th we encountered a terrific sleet and snowstorm with freezing temperatures and from that day until we reached the end of the fateful journey on March the 26th, 1839, the sufferings of the Cherokees were awful. The trail of the exiles was a trail of death. They had to sleep in the wagons and on the ground without fire. And I have known as many as twenty-two of them to die in one night of pneumonia due to ill treatment, cold, and exposure. Among this number was the beautiful Christian wife of Chief John Ross.

This noble-hearted woman died a martyr to childhood, giving her only blanket for the protection of a sick child. She rode thinly clad through a blinding sleet and snowstorm, developed pneumonia, and died in the still hours of a bleak winter night, with her head resting on Lieutenant Gregg's saddle blanket.
 
 
 
1843
 
 
THE OTTOMAN DESTRUCTION OF the first Saudi state, established by the Wahhabi movement and Saud family, did not prevent the founding of a second Saudi state in 1824. After initial upheavals, Faisal al-Saud, second leader of the second state, resumed his rule in 1843, and led the state successfully until 1865.
 

A portrait of Abdul Rahman.
His father, Faisal, revived Saudi fortunes.
 
In South Africa, after a series of victories against the Zulu people, Boer settlers established the Republic of Natal in the southeast of the country. The territory was annexed by the British in 1843. Many Boers decided to move farther north to what later became the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, joining the emigration of Boers from the Cape Colony, in a move known as the Great Trek.
 
 
Despite the treaty between the Maori and the British in New Zealand, the issue of illegal land sales caused increased tensions, culminating in the Wairau Massacre on June 17, in which a chief's wife and 22 Europeans were killed.
 
 
1843 McNaughton Found Insane

When Daniel McNaughton shot and killed the British prime minister's secretary, believing he was assassinating the prime minister himself, he became the first man in English law to be found not guilty by reason of insanity. His case became a precedent, the "Mc-Naughton rule," holding that if medical experts find a criminal not to have known the difference between right and wrong, he can be deemed not guilty by reason of insanity and excused from the harshest punishment for the crime.
 
 
1843 Mill Publishes System

In 1843, British writer, economist, and philosopher John Stuart Mill wrote A System of Logic, where he outlines five methods of experimental reasoning. Educated entirely by his father, James Mill, who instilled the ideas of social and political theorist Jeremy Bentham, the younger Mill believed in a world of equality and individual freedom, where people should be allowed to choose their own direction. He thought that individual determination was the path to personal happiness and that a fulfilled populace would contribute to the greater good of society. He therefore believed that one of the missions of public policy should be to promote the general happiness of people. In 1869, he wrote The Subjection of Women, where he discussed oppressive social patterns relative to women and made an analogy comparing marriage to slavery. Mill was the first man to speak in Parliament on behalf of women's rights. He was also a strong advocate for labor unions and farm cooperatives. He is considered one of the most important British thinkers of the 19th century, and his work and writings are still of keen interest today.
 
 
 
1844
 
 
FRIEDERICH ENGELS (1820-95) was the son of a prosperous businessman who owned textile milts in Prussia and a cotton mill in England. He went to work at the family firm in Manchester in 1841, but he lived a double life. In his spare time he met workers and studied the economic conditions of people in England, and the result of his work was a book, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, in which Engels described working-class life. Around this time he also began a lifelong friendship with fellow writer and philosopher, Karl Marx (1818-83), and the two went on to publish hugely influential works about capitalism and communism.
 

Friedrich Engels
The Prussian philosopher wrote about
the condition of the working classes in England.
His work with Karl Marx made him famous.
 
 
In the Caribbean, a group of conspirators known as La Trinitaria, led by Juan Pablo Duarte (1813-76), launched their fight for the independence of the Spanish-speaking side of the island of Hispaniola. With neighboring Haiti distracted by its own civil war, Duarte and his fellow rebels were able to eject the Haitians and declared the new Dominican Republic independent from Haiti on February 27.
 
 
1844 U.S. and China Agree

In 1844, under the Treaty of Wangxia, China opened five ports to the United States, beginning a formal trade relationship with China. Before then, China had remained relatively closed to the European industrial revolution and colonialism. European countries, heavily involved in overseas trade, coveted such China goods as silk and tea.

The Treaty of Wangxia was modeled after the Treaty of Nanjing, which marked the end of the First Opium War between China and Britain in 1842, but differed by allowing U.S. citizens to buy land in the five Chinese treaty ports and build churches and hospitals there to provide for Christian missionaries. It also gave Americans the right to learn Chinese, which was previously forbidden. Under the agreement, opium trade was illegal. China was soon flooded with an onslaught of foreign goods, which severely disrupted the old village economy, which had been the backbone to the Chinese systems for millennia.

FOOTNOTE Representing the U.S. in China was Caleb Cushing, a Massachusetts congressman who was later nominated (but not approved) as Chief Justice of the United States and who served as ambassador to Spain.
 
 
 
Meanwhile, Samuel Morse had managed to get funding from the US government to build the first telegraph line in the US from Baltimore to Washington. The line was completed in 1844. In his first public demonstration of the telegraph that year he sent a message that famously read "What hath God wrought?"
 


With the backing of the US Congress, Samuel Morse managed to have wires built that could transmit messages.

 

"WHAT HATH GOD WROUGHT?"

Samuel Morse, American artist and inventor, in his telegraph message
 
 
1844 Morse Sends Telegraph

When Samuel F. B. Morse, an accomplished American portrait artist, first heard about electromagnetism he immediately began studying how messages could be sent over a wire using electricity. In 1835, he developed prototypes of a telegraph but sought the help of colleagues with greater scientific knowledge to improve them. With this advice, he invented an electromagnetic relay system, which would make long-distance transmissions possible. In 1838, Morse created a system of dots and dashes to represent letters, numbers, and punctuation marks. Morse code, as this system came to be known, was how messages could be translated—a language of dots and dashes. Morse solicited Congress to make a transatlantic telegraph line and was rejected; however, in 1843 he received its support to create a line between Washington, D.C., and Baltimore. The first message, sent in 1844, said, "What hath God wrought!" And the American telegraph system was born.



Samuel E B. Morse, heavily medallionedfor
his inventions, most notably, the telegraph



The impact soon reached around the world. By the end of the decade, telegraph systems were in use throughout Great Britain as a way to standardize time. Standardized time did not reach around the world, however, until the 1880s, at which point the hourly time zones—anchored at the Greenwich Royal Observatory in England and continuing in a progression around the world by longitude—were set.

Telegraphs tapped out current events in record time to newspapers. Printing telegraphs were originally called "tickers," for the tapping sound that they made— hence the term "ticker tape," which was the long, narrow rolls of paper onto which telegraphed messages were printed by the early years of the 20th century.
 
 
 
1844 Railroads Now Big Business

In the 1840s, the United States' rapidly expanding railroad industry soon required professional mangers. In contrast to some parts of Europe, where dense railway networks could be state run or investor run, the expansive distances in the U.S. made for high operating, building, and maintenance costs. Large railroad companies, employing tens of thousands of workers, traded on the stock market and generated much needed revenue. But it quickly became clear that the method of managing a small company did not work for managing ones of this magnitude. Professional managers were brought in to organize what would become modern corporations. The managers adopted business models, such as organizational charts that created management hierarchy. This new form of corporation and business style led to the railways' success, and would be duplicated with equal success in other business beyond the railroads.
 
 

Glass and iron
The Palm House at the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, UK,
was built in 1844, constructed with plate glass and iron.
It was the first large-scale structure to be made using wrought iron.
 
 
1844 First Abstract Painting

In 1844, English Romantic landscape painter Joseph Mallord William Turner unveiled his "Rain, Steam, and Speed—the Great Western Railway" at the Royal Academy in London. The work was more abstract than Turner's earlier paintings, initiating new techniques that would be carried on by Impressionists at the end of the 19th and into the 20th century. Claude Monet is said to have carefully studied Turner's work. Besides its unique style, "Rain, Steam, and Speed—the Great Western Railway" also seemed to represent the time. Some equate it with the rapid changes that came with the industrial revolution, and its use of light and dark may represent past and present.

FOOTNOTE French Impressionists Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, and Auguste Renoir signed a declaration attributing to Turner the inspiration for the "fugitive phenomena of light" that characterized their paintings.
 
 
Joseph Mallord William Turner "Rain, Steam, and Speed—the Great Western Railway"
 
 
 
1845
 
 
SUCCESSIVE FAILURES OF THE potato crop in Ireland triggered a famine that lasted five years and left more than one million people dead. The crop failure, due to late blight, was particularly devastating because for millions of the rural poor, the potato was their staple food. The British government's response was limited. Rather than intervene directly, it directed landlords to shoulder the burden.



A painting depicts sufferers of the Irish famine. One million died when the potato crop
failed over successive years, while millions more left the island forever.



However, as many small tenant farmers had no crops to sell, rents went unpaid and landlords ran their tenants off the land. Landowners soon were unable or unwilling to provide local poor relief. To compound matters, many larger farms continued to export grain, meat, and other foods to Britain as there was no market for them in Ireland, given that there was little extra money available for the purchase of such goods. The fact that these foods were not given to the millions who were starving in Ireland, further strained relations between the Irish people and the British government. Many Irish decided to emigrate and more than two million people left for Britain, Canada, and the US, contributing to the decline in population from 8 million to 6.5 million between 1841 to 1851.
 

Potato Blight
The blight responsible for the failure of Ireland's
potato crop was Phytophthora infestans,
a mold that caused rot within two weeks.
Blight spreads quickly when humidity stays
above 75 percent and temperatures
above 50°F (10°C) for two full days;
both factors were present during the summer of 1845.
By autumn the crop was lost and people abandoned the land.
 
 
On the other side of the Atlantic, the Republic of Texas had been trying unsuccessfully to join the US since 1836. When it became clear that Britain had a stake in keeping Texas independent, to halt US westward expansion, the suit was finally approved in December.
 
 
1845 Hypodermic Syringe in Use

Irish physician Francis Rynd published an article in 1845 reporting that he had used an instrument to inject fluids underneath a patient's skin in Dublin's Meath Hospital. In the hopes of curing his patients of neuralgia, a painful attack on the nerves, Rynd injected morphine directly into his patient's bloodstream. Rynd did not describe the instrument he used for the injection, but it is considered a predecessor of the modern-day hypodermic syringe.
 
 
 
1845 Thoreau Moves to Walden Pond

In 1845, American writer and philosopher Henry David Thoreau began his two-year experiment of solitary living at Walden Pond in Concord, Massachusetts. His book Walden; or Life in the Woods (published in 1854), a series of 18 essays, was the outcome of his time spent there, which Thoreau said was an experiment in living life simply and self-sufficiently. Thoreau built his own cabin, gathered wild fruit, and harvested beans that he planted. He fished, swam, meditated, and observed the surrounding flora and fauna. In Walden, he said if people could live more simply, they would have the time and energy for deeper life. In 1849, Thoreau wrote "Civil Disobedience," an essay seen as a social protest. He urged people to disobey laws that they believed unjust because there is a higher law than the civil one. He believed that higher law should be adhered to even if it meant imprisonment.

Thoreau's writings influenced civil rights activists, including Martin Luther King, Jr., and leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi.
 
 
1845 Hoe Patents Press

In 1845, Richard Hoe, an American manufacturer, was developing the first high-speed printing press. His steam-driven rotary, or "lightning press," printed 8,000 sheets an hour—much faster than existing flatbed presses. Four cylinders fed large sheets of paper against one large cylinder laid with type. The Philadelphia Public Ledger was the first paper to be printed using the press. Hoe's invention, patented in 1847, would prove to be essential for the mid-19th-century development of newspapers.
 
 

Visitors tour the London Daily Telegraph printing room, with a ten-feed rotary press, in March 1860.
 
 
 
1846
 
 

The Battle of Palo Alto, the first battle of the Mexican War, fought near Brownsville, Texas. The war was triggered by a boundary dispute.
 
 
DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN MEXICO AND THE US became strained after Texas became the 28th state. The Mexican government did not want to accept this annexation and refuted the US claim that the new state's southern border was at the Rio Grande, stating it lay farther north, at the Nueces River. A diplomatic mission was sent to Mexico City in 1845 to settle the matter, as well as to attempt the purchase of the New Mexico and California territories, but these efforts were met with a snub. The following year, on April 25, Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked soldiers stationed there. The US President, James K. Polk (1795-1849) declared war, and fighting lasted until Mexico surrendered in 1847.
 
 
1846 U.S. Declares War on Mexico

A buildup of disagreements led the U.S. to declare war on Mexico on May 13,1846, starting the two-year Mexican-American War. In 1836, the Republic of Texas had won its freedom from Mexico. But Mexico did not
recognize Texas' independence, and when the U.S. annexed it as a state in 1845, Mexico ended U.S. relations. President James K. Polk was interested in expanding the U.S. westward, and a dispute began over the Texas-Mexico border. The U.S. believed the Texas border ended at the Rio Grande. Mexico said the border was the Nueces River. There was also growing interest to claim California as U.S. territory. Polk wanted to give Mexico more than $25 million for agreeing to the Rio Grande border and selling New Mexico and California to the U.S., but Mexico's president refused to see Polk's negotiators, prompting the war declaration. The war lasted nearly two years and ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, under which the U.S. paid $15 million for nearly all of present-day California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and western Colorado.
 
 
 
The US also faced boundary disputes with the British, over the Oregon Territory, which lay between 42° N and 54°40' N. The US claim for land as far north as 54°40" N gave rise to Polk's campaign slogan of "Fifty-four Forty or Fight!" However, under the 1846 Treaty of Oregon the boundary was set at 49°N.
 
 
In Britain, the control of the import and export of grains-known as the Corn Laws—had been the source of controversy for decades. Poor harvests, blockades, and disruption to supplies during wartime had led to fluctuating wheat prices. Legislation to protect domestic agriculture by limiting the import of cheap grain and fix prices had proved unpopular and led to the establishment of the Anti-Corn Law League in 1839. The League argued that the laws impeded prosperity as restrictions on grain imports caused a price increase and a consequent rise in the cost of wages. The control of exports also limited the external market for British goods. A combination of pressure from the League and the failure of the potato crop in Ireland led to the repeal of the laws.
 
 
In Japan, there was international pressure for the isolationist nation to open up its ports to foreign trade. The Dutch, who were the only Europeans allowed limited access to trade in Japan, sent a mission in 1844 urging the country's rulers to open up trade. This was followed by the French and British requesting trading rights. In 1846, a US delegation arrived and was also sent away empty-handed, but the US would soon try again in its quest for access to Japanese ports.
 
 
1846 Howe Patents Sewing Machine

Elias Howe patented the first usable sewing machine in 1846, revolutionizing the garment and
shoemaking industries. It is said that as a young boy Howe was told that the person who invented a machine that could sew would be made rich. Determined, Howe worked for three years to meet the challenge. Using an eye-pointed needle and a double-thread stitch, his machine worked far faster than anyone could by hand. But it didn't immediately catch on in the U.S., and Howe moved to England, where he made improvements to his machine and used it to sew leather for shoes, but he did not become the wealthy man he had hoped. He returned to the United States and discovered countless patent infringements on his machine. After a long legal battle, he was given the right to all royalties on sewing machines that used his features, and eventually he found his fortune. In I860 alone more than 110,000 sewing machines were manufactured in the United
States, and ready-to-wear clothes and shoes became abundant in stores.

FOOTNOTE When Howe returned to the U.S., he discovered that one competitor in particular was successfully marketing sewing machines with needles that moved up and down, not sideways. His name: Isaac Singer.
 
 
 
1846 First Anesthesia

In 1846, American dentist and physician William Thomas Green Morton was the first person to publicly demonstrate the effectiveness of ether anesthesia during an operation at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. The search to find a better way to prevent and control pain had been ongoing throughout the ages. In the 19th century it was discovered that diethyl ether (commonly called ether) and chloroform caused unconsciousness, during which there was no pain. Morton experimented with ether on himself and animals and then successfully extracted a patient's infected tooth by having him inhale ether. While several others had used ether as an anesthetic a few years earlier, their surgeries weren't publicized. Newspapers immediately reported on Morton's surgery, and although Morton tried in vain to keep other people from using what he felt was his own ether anesthesia, it was immediately used in Europe for a variety of surgeries. The success of ether in surgery greatly improved pain management for patients
and opened the door for what could be done in operating rooms.

FOOTNOTE Morton administered ether through an inhaler he had designed and named "Letheon" after the River Lethe of ancient Greek mythology. Crossing the Lethe, according to myth, evoked a state of forgetfulness.
 
 

Dentist William Morton's first anesthesia patient was grateful for his invention.
 
 
 
1847
 
 
IN THE YEARS FOLLOWING FRANCE'S ATTACK and colonization of Algiers (see 1830), the French faced much resistance from Algerians, including emir Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri (1807-1883]. He gained the support of Algerian tribes who aided him in his fight against the French. After a series of defeats, he was forced to surrender in 1847. He was taken prisoner, but was later freed.
 
 
In Germany, a telegraph line connecting Frankfurt to Berlin was installed by a firm owned by Werner Siemens (1816-92), who had developed a technique for seamless insulation of copper wire.
 
 
Meanwhile, English author Emily Bronte (1818-48) published Wuthering Heights. Although not met with much critical acclaim, it later became one of the most influential literary examples of the Romanticism movement.
 
 
 
1848
 
 
FRIEDRICH ENGELS AND KARL MARX joined a revolutionary group of Germans known as the League of the Just who soon changed their name to the Communist League. Engels and Marx were charged with developing a program of action for the group, and the result was a pamphlet that became known as the Communist Manifesto. This called for the overthrow of the bourgeoisie, with the cry of "working men of all countries, unite." Marx believed the gulf between rich and poor in Europe meant conditions were ripe for a socialist revolution.
 
 
COMMUNISM
With the publication of the Communist Manifesto Marx and Engels laid the foundation of a political movement that sought to share the means of production, such as land or factories, equally among the public. Communists aimed to create a classless and stateless society, as well as abolish the capitalist trappings of private property and wage labor.
 
 
 
 
1848 "Communist Manifesto"

German philosopher Karl Marx and German economist Friedrich Engels wrote the "Communist Manifesto," a pamphlet which outlined their basic ideas on communism and became one of the most widely read documents over the next century, inspiring the revolutionary communist movement.

Marx studied history and the class struggles between the ruling class and the ruled, and believed that rulers who hold economic power will not willingly give up that power and force their will on the people. This, he said, inevitably leads to unrest. He related to the low pay and difficult, unhealthy conditions workers experienced over die past 150 years during the industrial revolution in Europe and concluded that the only way for society to be harmonious was to put workers in control. He called for the end of capitalism, where wealth is in the hands of a few, and the majority of the middle class turn into workers with a decrease in the quality of living conditions. This, he theorized, will lead to revolt, where the workers will be the ones to take over the government and set up a classless society. Eventually there would be no government or police and people would live in freedom with peace.

FOOTNOTE The first "Communist Manifesto" was a 23-page pamphlet printed in Liverpool with many typographical errors. It sped across Europe, reprinted over and over. Some say only the Bible has been reprinted in more versions.
 
 
 

A poster from 1848, showing the Parisian public facing the municipal guards during the February revolution against the government.
 
 
In February, only a couple of weeks after the manifesto's publication, the streets of Paris erupted into revolution. Although it was dramatic and violent, it was not a socialist insurrection. France had been suffering an economic depression and a minister named Francois Guizot had come to symbolize the government's inability to alleviate the situation. The monarchy fared little better as the king, Louis-Philippe, was also very unpopular with the public. Fighting broke out on February 22 and quickly became violent, with soldiers opening fire on the crowds.

The following day, Guizot was forced out of office and Louis-Philippe abdicated from the throne. A provisional government was set up and the Second Republic established, eventually producing a constitution and extending the vote. However, internal power struggles led to a workers' rebellion in June. By the end of the year, another Bonaparte was in power—this time Napoleon's nephew, Prince Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-73), who had been elected president.
 
 
This unrest was not limited to France. The rebellions had started in Sicily in January, and spread from there. There were a number of factors involved: high food prices, economic depression, nationalist movements, desire for constitutional reforms, and frustration with monarchies. The revolutions varied in intensity and success. In some places, they amounted to large-scale protests, such as the Chartists' demonstrations for changes to the voting system in Britain, or the call for institutional reforms in Belgium and the Netherlands.
 
 

Europe in revolt
Republican uprisings in 1848 saw an end to the monarchy in France, although revolutionaries in other countries were less successful in their aims.
 
 

It was in France, the Austrian Empire, Germany, and the Italian states where the real agitation lay. In the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the king was forced to grant a constitution. Germany saw street fighting in Berlin in March, with the king of Prussia promising to grant Germany a constitution. Austria, too, saw fighting break out in Vienna, and a new government was appointed, while many of its territories, such as Hungary, called for more autonomy. In broad terms, however, the events of 1848 ended in failure and further social repression.

 


Germania, by Philipp Veit, 1848

 
 
"...DISGRACED BY THE STINK OF REVOLUTION,
BAKED OF DIRT AND MUD."

Frederick William IV of Prussia, on the Crown after the 1848 Revolution
 
 
 
1848 Woman Suffrage Launches

In 1848, Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Declaration of Sentiments—demanding more rights for women in education and jobs and the right to vote—was signed at the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York. Sixty-eight women and thirty-two men signed the document, modeled after the Declaration of Independence. "The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward women," it read, "having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her."

One of the document's motivations was an event that occurred eight years earlier at an international antislavery meeting in London. American Lucretia Mott had been denied access to speak although she was an official delegate. The frustrated Mott met Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and the two pledged to work for women's rights, going on to organize the Seneca Falls convention. Although women held their place in the reform movements of the 19th century, they were rarely allowed to take leadership roles or politically lobby for their causes and goals. The document did not immediately change the society's entrenched mind-set regarding women, but it defined the new women's rights movement and guided its efforts during the next 70 years before women were granted the right to vote. The places significant to this historic event, including the site of the Wesleyan Chapel where meetings were held and Elizabeth Cady Stanton's home, are now part of the Women's Rights National Historical Park in Seneca Falls, New York.
 
Elizabeth Cady Stanton believed "The heyday of woman's life is the shady side of fifty."
 
 
 
1849
 
 
WITH THE END OF THE WAR BETWEEN THE US AND MEXICO in 1847, the US gained—through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) —a vast area of land that included California. The following year, a carpenter named James Wilson Marshall noticed shiny metal nuggets in a river near present-day Sacramento, which he soon realized were gold. News of this discovery spread throughout the country—aided by President James K. Polk's announcement— and by 1849 the rush had begun. That year some 40,000 people arrived in San Francisco by boat and another 40,000 by wagon train from around the US and other countries. Most of the prospectors ended up empty-handed but many stayed in California, making the West Coast a booming region in the mid-19th century.
 

Merchant ships crowd the bay at San Francisco during the gold rush years, when tens of thousands of fortune-seekers arrived in California.
 
 
 
In southern Africa, a British explorer and missionary named David Livingstone (1813-73) had finally reached a lake in the interior that he had heard about—known today as Lake Ngami. He had been living in South Africa since 1841 and had been traveling extensively in the region. In order to find this body of water, Livingstone had to cross the Kalahari Desert, where he also encountered the Botletle River, which he thought could be "the key to the Interior."
 

Livingstone's compass
The magnetic compass used by David Livingstone,
who spent much of his time as a missionary
exploring Africa's interior.
 
 
In India, the previous four years had seen two wars between the British East India Company troops and the Sikhs in the northwest. The First Sikh War (1845-46) had been triggered by the death of their ruler Ranjit Singh (1781-1839). Previously, the Company considered Singh's force of 100,000 Khalsa warriors far too powerful to confront. But after his death, British troops moved in and took areas near the border, seizing the city of Lahore by 1845. A treaty between the two forced the Sikhs to give up even more territory. A revolt against the British in 1848 triggered the Second Sikh War, and by 1849 the Punjab region had been annexed by the British.
 
 
Yemen, at the foot of the Arabian Peninsula, was fighting against imperial advances from the Ottoman Empire, which was trying to reassert its authority in the Tihama region, on the Red Sea. In the south of the country, the British East India Company had already taken control of the port of Aden a decade earlier in order to set up a coaling station for British ships en route to India.
 
 
1849 Cholera Traced

In 1849, British doctor John Snow published an essay theorizing that cholera—which we now know is an acute infectious disease of the small intestine caused by bacteria—was not transmitted by disease-containing "clouds," but rather it enters the body through the mouth. Snow put his theory to the test in 1854 when Great Britain was suffering from a cholera pandemic that would ultimately take the lives of 23,000 people. Snow plotted cholera cases on a map, identifying a single water pump contaminated by a nearby sewer pipe as the source of the disease. He had the pump's handle removed, and the cholera cases immediately decreased. Though his work would not be accepted for several decades, it would eventually prove the important connection between improved hygiene and disease prevention.
 
 
 
PRE-RAPHAELITES
Three young artists frustrated with the state of British painting at the Royal Academy, where they were students, decided to create a movement to bring a moral seriousness into art—in contrast to the pomposity and frivolity they perceived in Victorian art. Known as the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Holman Hunt, and John Everett Millais painted religious and romantic subjects with realist clarity, although their work was also symbolic.
 
 

William Holman Hunt. The Hireling Shepherd
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1839 Part IV NEXT-1840 Part I