Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1839 Part III NEXT-1840-1849    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

Catherwood's lithograph
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1839 Part IV
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Two Brit. ships, the "Erebus" and the "Terror," set out on their Antarctic voyage commanded by Ross James Clark and F. R. M. Crozier
 
 
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
 

Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier (16 August 1796 – after 1848?) was born in Ireland at Banbridge, County Down and was a British naval officer who participated in six exploratory expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic. He was named after Francis Rawdon, the 2nd Earl of Moira, who was a friend of his father.

 
Early life
Francis Crozier was born at Avonmore House which still stands today opposite his large memorial in Church Square Banbridge, County Down, Ireland. He was the eleventh of thirteen children, and the fifth son, of attorney-at-law George Crozier, Esq. Francis attended school locally in Banbridge, with his brothers William and Thomas and lived with his family in Avonmore House in the centre of Banbridge which his father had built in 1792.
 
 

Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier
  Ancestry
His ancestors were of Norman descent and first emerged when they joined the armies of William the Conqueror to invade England in 1066. A certain man called William was in the service of the Church as the crozier carrier for Bishop Odo (half brother of William the Conqueror) and hence took the surname Crozier. Before this date surnames did not exist. He was the founder of the family. He was well known at that time and after Bishop Odo's departure to France, he continued to live in Canterbury and is buried there.[citation needed] William Crozier is mentioned in the cartulary of Gloucester in 1258.
Robert Crozier obtained a grant of land from the abbot of St Bees in Cumberland in 1262. In the family arms which is used to this day are four bees and a cross indicating where they obtained their first grant.

The early family consisted of Simon Crozier who lived at Swanick and was Clerk of the market of Marshalsey of the Royal Household and his son Sir William Crozier (1368), who was household steward to John of Gaunt and held the office of Justice in the Eyre for Pleas of the Forest, his son Sir John Crozier (1402) who held many manors, including Hinwick, Aldenham, Maidencroft, Wrestingworth, Stoke D'Abernon, Fetcham, Swanick and Pavenham in England and lived with his family at Stoke D'Abernon in Surrey and at the Savoy Palace, London.

 
 
Sir William was High Sheriff of Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire for the years 1346 and 1347. He was also an Ensheator for the counties of Buckinghamshire and Bedfordshire. Sir William was also Clerk of the Market of the Marshalsey of the Royal Household. He had two sons one Sir John Crozier and another William Crozier. In 1393 200 Oaks were cut from their land Stoke Park, they were used in the construction of the new roof which is still in existence on Westminster Hall.Some of that Oak is in the Carved Coat of Arms in the old Speakers Chair in Canberra, Australia.

Also of the family was another William Crozier who in the 15th century was Canon of Glasgow, Archdeacon of Teviotdale, and held many prebends, as well as being a Papal Legate, one of the founding fathers of St Andrews University and a Professor of Logic. He is well recorded in history and was a kinsman of James, Earl of Douglas.

John Crozier came to Ireland as a cavalry officer in 1630 with Lord Strafford. Prior to that he came from Redworth Hall (which still stands in the village of Heighington), County Durham; his family had been there since 1407. Before that time they were in Heversham, Westmorland.

John Crozier had two sons. The younger son, John, had lands in Fermanagh at Coa, Cavantillycormack, Ardvarny and in County Tyrone at Moorfields and founded the Fermanagh branch of the family. William, the elder son, went to County Down and had lands in Stramore, Lower Stramore and the Parke, all in Gilford near to Banbridge, Co. Down. William went on to be the founder of the Banbridge line.

 
 
Naval service
At the age of 13, Crozier volunteered for the Royal Navy and joined HMS Hamadryad in June 1810. In 1812 he served on HMS Briton and in 1814 visited Pitcairn Island, where he met the last surviving mutineers from HMS Bounty.

In 1817 he received his certificate as mate and in 1818 he served on the sloop Dotterel during a trip to the Cape of Good Hope. In 1821 Crozier volunteered to join Captain William Edward Parry's second expedition (1821–23) to find the Northwest Passage in the vessels HMS Fury and her sister ship HMS Hecla.

He returned to the Arctic with Parry in 1824, which resulted in the loss of Fury off Somerset Island. Crozier was promoted to the rank of lieutenant in 1826 and in 1827 joined Parry's failed attempt to reach the North Pole. During his voyages Crozier became a close friend and confidante of the explorer James Clark Ross.

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1827 after conducting valuable astronomical and magnetic studies on his three expeditions with Parry. He was appointed to the frigate HMS Stag in 1831 and served off the coast of Portugal during that country's civil war.

Crozier joined James Clark Ross as second-in-command of Cove in 1835 to help search for 12 British whaleships lost in the Arctic. Crozier was appointed to the rank of commander in 1837.

  Antarctic exploration
In 1839, Crozier again joined James Clark Ross, as second-in-command of a four-year voyage to explore the Antarctic continent in the ships HMS Erebus and HMS Terror. Crozier commanded Terror, and in 1841 was appointed to the rank of captain. Erebus and Terror returned in 1843, having made the most significant penetration of the Antarctic pack ice and discovered large parts of the continent which became synonymous with the 20th century's Heroic Age of Exploration under Roald Amundsen, Robert Falcon Scott and Ernest Shackleton – including the Ross Sea and Ross Island, Mount Erebus and the Ross Ice Shelf.

Crozier was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1843 in recognition of his outstanding work on magnetism.

Northwest Passage expedition
In 1845, he joined Sir John Franklin on the Northwest Passage expedition as captain of HMS Terror. After Franklin's death in June 1847, he took command of the expedition, and his fate and that of the other expedition members remained a mystery until a note from him and James Fitzjames, captain of Erebus, the other ship on the expedition, was discovered on King William Island in 1859 during an expedition led by Captain F. L. McClintock. Dated 25 April 1848, the note said that the ships, stuck in ice, had been abandoned. Nine officers, including John Franklin, and 15 crewmen had died, and the survivors were setting out on 26 April for Back's Fish River on the Canadian mainland.

 
 
There were later, unverified Inuit reports that between 1852 and 1858 Crozier and one other expedition member were seen in the Baker Lake area, about 400 km (250 mi) to the south, where in 1948 Farley Mowat found "a very ancient cairn, not of normal Eskimo construction" inside which were shreds of a hardwood box with dovetail joints. McClintock and later searchers found relics, graves, and human remains of the Franklin crew on Beechey Island, King William Island, and the northern coast of the Canadian mainland, but none found any of the men alive.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 

The narrow escape of HMS
Erebus and HMS Terror, in March 1842, was sketched by J. E. Davis, cartographer on the Terror. The Erebus, turning suddenly to avoid hitting an iceberg, crossed the bows of the Terror and a collision was unavoidable. The two ships, their rigging entangled, were dashed against each other. Ross described how the Terror "rose high above us, almost exposing her keel to view, and again descended as we in our turn rose to the top of the wave, threatening to bury her beneath us." Eventually the ships parted and, through a mixture of skill and luck, narrowly missed the iceberg and made for open sea.
 
 
 
see also: British Admiralty Expeditions (Ross James Clark 1829-1833)
 
 
 
 
 
see also: Charting the Coastline (Ross James Clark 1839-1843)
 
 
 
 
 
Grey George
 

Sir George Grey, (born April 14, 1812, Lisbon—died Sept. 19, 1898, London), British colonial administrator who was called upon to govern in periods of crisis, most notably in New Zealand, South Australia, and the Cape Colony (South Africa).

 

Sir George Grey
  After military service (1829–37) and two explorations in Western Australia (1837–39), Grey was made governor of South Australia in 1840.

His advocacy of rapid assimilation of natives impressed the British Colonial Office, and when war broke out in New Zealand between the Maoris and British settlers over land rights, he was named governor there.

In his first term he established peace and became a pioneer scholar of the Maori culture, writing a study of their mythology and oral history in 1854. He was knighted in 1848.

In 1854 Grey was appointed governor of Cape Colony, where his resolution of hostilities between the natives and European settlers was praised by both sides.

He was sent to New Zealand again in 1861, where war had broken out between settlers and the Maoris.

Although Maori resistance was quelled by the mid-1860s after a decade of fighting, Grey was caught between competing authorities and was unable to carry out much of his legislative program.

Grey was a member of the New Zealand legislature from 1874 to 1894 and served as premier (1877–79).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Into the Interior
 
By the end of the 1830s much of the southeast of Australia was settled. But the bulk of the continent, not only the interior, was still a mystery. Future exploration was devoted to two main objectives. In the first place, it was desirable to establish overland routes to the settlements which had arisen around the coasts as a result of coastal exploration. In the second, it was necessary to learn the nature of the interior and to find a route across the continent.
The northwest coast was explored between 1837 and 1839 by George Grey (later a notable colonial governor) partly from the sea, partly on land. However, the first substantial colony in Western Australia was established in the southwest corner of the country. Pressure began to grow to establish a land connection between the new colony and New South Wales, and in 1840 the job was offered to Edward Eyre.
 
 
Edward Eyre

Eyre had already traveled about the country, driving cattle from Sydney to remote settlements, and declared that the proposed route, along the Great Australian Bight, would be impossible for stock. Eyre undertook an expedition into the interior, instead, discovering Lake Torrens and Lake Eyre (though he thought they were one) before his horse sank up to its belly through the salt crust and he gave up.

The following year, however, not put off by his experience, he decided to attempt the journey overland around the Bight, from Adelaide to Albany, if only to prove that it was useless. All went well as far as Fowler's Bay, because a boat accompanied them that far, carrying their stores. Thereafter there were no more anchorages, and the stores had to be carried on horseback. He reduced his part}" to four — one European, John Baxter, and three Aborigines — and, in the height of summer, set out.
Sometimes they marched through the scrub, sometimes along the cliffs, sometimes on the beach. By the time they were halfway to their destination they were discarding coats, weapons and cooking pots, and eating their horses. Baxter wanted to turn back before they had passed the point of no return; Eyre dissuaded him.
 
 

The Aborigines received little understanding from most Europeans, explorers and settlers alike. Edward Eyre, however, deplored their persecution: "It is a most lamentable thing to think that the progress and
prosperity of one race should conduce to the downfall and decay of another... and still more so to observe the apathy and indifference with which this result is contemplated by mankind in general."
 
 
The two younger Aborigines disappeared for a couple of days but were driven back by starvation. A few days later, while Eyre was away from camp rounding up the horses, they shot Baxter — possibly by mistake or in panic at being caught stealing — and made off with his and Eyre's guns, as well as much of the food and water. Eyre and Wylie. the remaining Aborigine, continued. Fortunately, Eyre still had a rifle, without which they could scarcely have survived because they were now largely forced to live off the land. One marvelous day he managed to shoot a kangaroo. Wylie, with his remarkable digestive powers, consumed innards, hind legs, and even the hide. By the end of May the weather had changed; it became cold and wet, a welcome change. The horses recovered sufficiently to be ridden, and they began to encounter green grass.

Early in June they spotted a boat, the Mississippi, which they hailed, and within an hour. Eyre noted, "I had the inexpressible pleasure of being again among civilized beings, and of shaking hands with a fellow-countryman." That night he lay in a comfortable bunk but could not sleep. For nearly two weeks they lived in what seemed like utter luxury on the Mississippi. When they left, they carried as much tood and supplies as they could possibly need, including a gift of six bottles of wine.

The weather became dreadful, wet and stormy, and they had to wade through seemingly endless swamps. Nevertheless, within three weeks they reached the little settlement of Albany on King George Sound. The expedition had discovered nothing of importance and had merely established what was known, certainly to Eyre, already: that the route was unviable as a trail for livestock. But that docs not diminish Eyre's achievement. And it was, after all, the first overland link between east and west.
 
 
 
 
Ludwig Leichhardt

In 1844 Ludwig Leichhardt, a German who had arrived in Australia at the age of 30 only the year before, set out with a party of nine to establish an overland route from Brisbane to a military outpost on the Cobourg Peninsula, Arnhcm Land. The party, which included two Aborigines and two youths, covered 2500 miles (4000 kilometers) in its remarkable journey, arriving in Port Essmgton in December 1845.

Leichhardt achieved his objective in spite of severe difficulties. However, he was a most inefficient explorer, with almost no ability to calculate his position accurately. Unlike Sturt and Eyre, he had little sympathy with the Aborigines, for whom he expressed some contempt - an extraordinary attitude when traveling in the bush. He also failed to ration his supplies, so that before long his men had to depend largely on what wildlife they could kill. In 1848 he set out to cross the continent from east to west. He crossed the Warrego River but soon after disappeared and was never seen again.
 
 
Sturt's expedition
 
In 1844 Charles Sturt made an attempt to cross the continent. Hoping to avoid the problem of the salt lakes encountered by Буге, he went up the Darling River to Menindee, then walked north to Milparinka before turning northwest. It was a particularly hot summer, all the water holes were dry, and Sturt and his companions were compelled to remain near Milparinka for six months, living part of the time in an underground chamber which they dug to escape the ferocious sun. Writing was extremely difficult because, in the intense heat, ink evaporated from the pen almost immediately.

It was July 1845 before enough rain fell to risk an advance. They covered about 400 miles (650 kilometers) when Sturt decided to turn back. He was in fact on the edge of the Simpson Desert and to have gone further would probably have been fatal. He made another attempt the following summer, taking a more easterly route. At Cooper Creek a thermometer which registered up to 127°F (53°C) was shattered.

Returning across the Stony Desert nearly killed the whole party. When Sturt eventually arrived in Adelaide he was almost blind, burnt black, sick with scum', and unable to walk (he was carried on a cart). Nevertheless, he lived to the age of 74, dying at Cheltenham, England, in 1869.

In the late 1840s Australia was entering a period of rapid change. The principle of self-government was conceded, the colony of Victoria was founded, and deportation to the eastern colonies was abolished. But no less important than these political advances was the discovery of gold. The population increased rapidly, as did roads and railroads. Yet still no one had succeeded in crossing the continent. After the fever of the gold rush had died down, this became an urgent ambition.
 
Charles Sturt was one of the most intrepid of the Australian explorers, enduring, with his companions, the extreme heat of the Stony Desert.
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Garnier Frangois
 

Francis Garnier, French in full Marie-Joseph-François Garnier (born July 25, 1839, Saint-Étienne, France—died Dec. 21, 1873, outside Hanoi, Vietnam), French naval officer, colonial administrator, and explorer.

 

Francis Garnier, as an "Enseigne de vaisseau".
  Garnier, the son of an army officer, overcame parental opposition to enter the naval school at Brest in 1856. Upon completion of his training he was posted as an ensign aboard a ship forming part of the French expeditionary force sent to China in 1860. He accompanied Adm. Léonard Charner to Saigon in 1861 and took part in the Battle of Chi Hoa that marked the end of effective Vietnamese resistance to the French advance into southern Vietnam (Cochinchina). In 1863 Garnier joined the newly formed colonial administration in Cochinchina, while still retaining his naval rank, and was appointed prefect of Cho Lon, the twin city to Saigon.

An enthusiastic believer in France’s imperial destiny, Garnier vigorously advocated the expansion of French power in Vietnam and the commercial benefits he believed would flow from the exploration of the Mekong River. Largely as the result of his advocacy, a French expedition led by Doudart de Lagrée, with Garnier as second in command, left Saigon to explore the Mekong in June 1866. The mission was a failure in commercial terms, and the river was found to be unnavigable by boats of any size. But the explorers, despite great hardships and frequent sickness that finally took Lagrée’s life, accomplished a major task in mapping unknown territory, and they were the first Europeans to enter Yunnan province by a southern route.

Garnier, who assumed command of the expedition after Lagrée’s death three months before its completion in June 1868, was honoured by the award of several medals.

Garnier was in France supervising the publication of an account of the Mekong River expedition when the Franco-German War broke out. He served with distinction during the siege of Paris but was passed over for promotion because of his public criticism of the peace terms imposed on France.

 
 
Disappointed by this development and resentful of suggestions that he had denigrated Doudart de Lagrée’s role in the exploration of the Mekong, Garnier travelled to China in the hope of combining exploration with commercial success.

He was called to Saigon from Shanghai in August 1873, when the French governor of Cochinchina, Adm. Marie-Jules Dupré, sought to take advantage of an unauthorized attempt by a French trader, Jean Dupuis, to open the Red River for commerce with China. Although Garnier’s formal orders instructed him to extricate Dupuis from the Hanoi region of northern Vietnam, he appears to have received secret instructions from Dupré to establish a French position in the area. Such a plan was contrary to French government policy, but both Dupré and Garnier seem to have believed that a successful seizure of territory would result in approval from Paris.

Garnier reached Hanoi on Nov. 5, 1873, and forced a confrontation with Vietnamese officials. On November 20 he led an attack against the Hanoi citadel and was able, with his small band of well-equipped troops, to overcome a numerically superior Vietnamese force. This action was followed by Garnier’s troops seizing other positions in the Red River Delta. By mid-December, however, the Vietnamese authorities had enlisted the aid of the Chinese Black Flag bandits led by Liu Yung-fu. In attempting to repel the Black Flag forces that attacked the Hanoi citadel on Dec. 21, 1873, Garnier was killed. His actions were disavowed by Governor Dupré, and, despite the opposition of Dupuis and others, a French envoy, Paul-Louis-Félix Philastre, negotiated a withdrawal from northern Vietnam in early 1874.

Garnier, impetuous and headstrong, held a chauvinist vision of France’s role in Asia that appealed to many of his contemporaries. He was at the same time a man of wide accomplishments in history, languages, and general science, in addition to his skills as a navigator and cartographer. The account he prepared of the Mekong River expedition, Voyage d’exploration en Indo-Chine, 1866–68 (1873; “Voyage of Exploration in Indochina, 1866–68”), is a most valuable record of the political and economic situation of the countries through which the explorers passed in the 1860s.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Charles Goodyear, American inventor, makes possible the commercial use of rubber by
his discovery of the process of "vulcanization"
 
 
Goodyear Charles
 

Charles Goodyear, (born Dec. 29, 1800, New Haven, Conn., U.S.—died July 1, 1860, New York), American inventor of the vulcanization process that made possible the commercial use of rubber.

 

Charles Goodyear
  Goodyear began his career as a partner in his father’s hardware business, which went bankrupt in 1830. He then became interested in discovering a method of treating india rubber so that it would lose its adhesiveness and susceptibility to extremes of heat and cold. He developed a nitric acid treatment and in 1837 contracted for the manufacture by this process of mailbags for the U.S. government, but the rubber fabric proved useless at high temperatures.

For the next few years he worked with Nathaniel M. Hayward (1808–65), a former employee of a rubber factory in Roxbury, Mass., who had discovered that rubber treated with sulfur was not sticky. Goodyear bought Hayward’s process. In 1839 he accidentally dropped some India rubber mixed with sulfur on a hot stove and so discovered vulcanization. He was granted his first patent in 1844 but had to fight numerous infringements in court; the decisive victory did not come until 1852. That year he went to England, where articles made under his patents had been displayed at the International Exhibition of 1851; while there he unsuccessfully attempted to establish factories.

 
 
He also lost his patent rights there and in France because of technical and legal problems. In France a company that manufactured vulcanized rubber by his process failed, and in December 1855 Goodyear was imprisoned for debt in Paris. Meanwhile, in the United States, his patents continued to be infringed upon. Although his invention made millions for others, at his death he left debts of some $200,000. He wrote an account of his discovery entitled Gum-Elastic and Its Varieties (2 vol.; 1853–55).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Vulcanization
 

Vulcanization, chemical process by which the physical properties of natural or synthetic rubber are improved; finished rubber has higher tensile strength and resistance to swelling and abrasion, and is elastic over a greater range of temperatures. In its simplest form, vulcanization is brought about by heating rubber with sulfur.

 
The process was discovered in 1839 by the U.S. inventor Charles Goodyear, who also noted the important function of certain additional substances in the process. Such a material, called an accelerator, causes vulcanization to proceed more rapidly or at lower temperatures. The reactions between rubber and sulfur are not fully understood, but in the product, the sulfur is not simply dissolved or dispersed in the rubber; it is chemically combined, mostly in the form of cross-links, or bridges, between the long-chain molecules.

In modern practice, temperatures of about 140°–180° C are employed, and in addition to sulfur and accelerators, carbon black or zinc oxide is usually added, not merely as an extender, but to improve further the qualities of the rubber. Anti-oxidants are also commonly included to retard deterioration caused by oxygen and ozone. Certain synthetic rubbers are not vulcanized by sulfur but give satisfactory products upon similar treatment with metal oxides or organic peroxides.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Moritz Jacobi of St. Petersburg, Russia, announces his process of electrotyping: making duplicate
plates for relief printing
 
 
Jacobi Moritz
 

Moritz Hermann (Boris Semyonovich) von Jacobi (Russian: Борис Семёнович (Морис-Герман) Якоби) (September 21, 1801 – March 10, 1874) was a German Jewish engineer and physicist born in Potsdam. Jacobi worked mainly in Russia. He furthered progress in galvanoplastics, electric motors, and wire telegraphy.

 

Moritz Hermann (Boris Semyonovich) von Jacobi
  Motors
In 1834 he began to study magnetic motors. In 1835 moved to Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia) to lecture at Dorpat University. He moved to Saint Petersburg in 1837 to research usage of electromagnetic forces for moving machines for Russian Academy of Sciences. He investigated the power of an electromagnet in motors and generators. While studying the transfer of power from a battery to an electric motor, he deduced the maximum power theorem.
Jacobi tested motors output by determining the amount of zinc consumed by the battery. With financial assistance of Czar Nicholas, Jacobi constructed in 1839 a 28 foot electric motor boat powered by battery cells. The boat carried 14 passengers on Neva river against the current. The boat fared at the speed of three miles for hour.

Jacobi's Law

The law known as the maximum power theorem states:

"Maximum power is transferred when the internal resistance of the source equals the resistance of the load, when the external resistance can be varied, and the internal resistance is constant."

The transfer of maximum power from a source with a fixed internal resistance to a load, the resistance of the load must be the same as that of the source. This law is of use when driving a load such as an electric motor from a battery. Jacobi obtained his theorem by common sense.

 
 
Electrotyping and telegraphy
In 1838, he discovered galvanoplastics, or electrotyping, a method of making printing plates by electroplating. The way in which this works is analogous to a battery acting in reverse. The stereotype was an impression taken from a form of movable lead type and used for printing instead of the original type. This technique is used in relief printing.

He also worked on the development of the electric telegraph. In 1842-1845 he built a telegraph line between Saint Petersburg and Tsarskoe Selo using an underground cable. In 1867 he was a Russian delegate to the Commission on measurement units at the Paris World's Fair. He was a strong proponent of the metric system.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Metallic element lanthanum discovered by Carl Gustaf Mosander
 
 
Mosander Carl Gustaf
 

Carl Gustaf Mosander (Kalmar 10 September 1797 – Lovön, Stockholm County 15 October 1858) was a Swedish chemist. He discovered the elements lanthanum, erbium and terbium.

 


Carl Gustaf Mosander

  Carl Gustaf  Mosander, (born Sept. 10, 1797, Kalmar, Swed.—died Oct. 15, 1858, Angsholmen), Swedish chemist whose work revealed the existence of numerous rare-earth elements with closely similar chemical properties.

In 1826 Mosander was placed in charge of the chemical laboratory of the Caroline Medical Institute, Stockholm, and in 1832 became professor of chemistry and mineralogy.

While studying a compound of cerium, he discovered the element lanthanum in 1839.

He pursued his investigations of the rare earths and in 1843 reported discovery of the elements erbium, terbium, and didymium.

In 1885 the Austrian chemist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach found that didymium was in reality a mixture of two elements: neodymium and praseodymium.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Przhevalsky Nikolay
 

Nikolay Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky, (born March 31 [April 6, New Style], 1839, Smolensk, Russia—died October 20 [November 1], 1888, Karakol, Russian Empire [now in Kyrgyzstan]), Russian traveler, who, by the extent of his explorations, route surveys, and plant and animal collections, added vastly to geographic knowledge of east-central Asia.

 

Nikolay Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky
  About 1869 Przhevalsky went to Irkutsk in central Siberia and in 1870 set out from the region around Lake Baikal, traveled through to Urga (now Ulaanbaatar), Mongolia, and crossed the Gobi to reach Kalgan (Zhangjiakou), China, 100 miles (160 km) from Beijing. His second journey began in 1876 at Kuldja in westernmost Xinjiang province, China, and took him southeastward across the peaks of the Tien Shan and the drifting sands of the Takla Makan to the foot of the Altun Mountains. His third journey brought him within 170 miles (270 km) of his goal, Lhasa, Tibet, but he was forbidden to enter the area. On his fourth and last trip, begun at Urga in 1883, he crossed the Gobi into Russian Turkistan and visited one of the largest mountain lakes in the world, Ysyk-Köl. He died on the shores of the lake, at Karakol, which for a time was renamed Przhevalsk after him. His natural history discoveries include the wild camel and the wild horse, known as Przewalski’s horse. His accounts of his first two journeys were both published in English translations: Mongolia, the Tangut Country, and the Solitudes of Northern Tibet (1876) and From Kulja, Across the Tian Shan to Lop Nor (1879).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Expeditions:
1870-1873
1876-1877
1879-1880
1883-1885
 
 
see also: Przhevalsky Nikolai
 
see also: Peaks and Plateaus
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Smith William
 

William Smith, (born March 23, 1769, Churchill, Oxfordshire, Eng.—died Aug. 28, 1839, Northampton, Northamptonshire), English engineer and geologist who is best known for his development of the science of stratigraphy. Smith’s great geologic map of England and Wales (1815) set the style for modern geologic maps, and many of the colourful names he applied to the strata are still in use today.

 

William Smith
  Smith was the son of an Oxfordshire blacksmith of farming stock. Only seven when his father died, Smith was cared for by a farming uncle. He attended a village school, learned the basic methods of surveying from books he bought himself, and collected the abundant fossils of his native Cotswold hills. In 1787 he became an assistant to Edward Webb, a surveyor in nearby Stow-on-the-Wold, who in 1791 helped Smith become established in the Somersetshire coal district southwest of Bath. The steam locomotive had not yet been invented, and canal-building was at its height, particularly for the transportation of coal. There was also abundant work in the enclosure and drainage of fields.

During preliminary surveys for a proposed Somersetshire Coal Canal in 1793, Smith discovered that the strata outcropping in the northern part of the region dip regularly eastward, like so many “slices of bread and butter.” On a long trip in 1794 to examine canals and collieries, he had an opportunity to extend his observations.
His suspicion that the strata of Somerset could be traced far northward across England was brilliantly confirmed as the familiar beds were encountered again and again during this journey.
Excavation of the new canal began in 1795, and Smith, studying the fresh cuts, found that each stratum contained “fossils peculiar to itself.”

 
 

His work on the canal continued until 1799, when he was abruptly dismissed, probably over an engineering dispute. But Smith had a good reputation in Bath, at that time a major intellectual and social centre, and quickly built a far-flung business as a geological engineer. In 1804 he moved his business headquarters to a house in London, where his fossil collection and geologic maps were always on display.

In 1799 Smith dictated to an amateur geologist in Bath his now-famous table of strata in the vicinity of Bath, which became a principal means for circulating his revolutionary discoveries. He also exhibited his maps and stratigraphic sections at agricultural fairs, such as the Holkham “Sheepshearings,” which he regularly attended.
Much of his professional work was for the gentleman farmers who supported these shows, but he also supervised major reclamation projects in Norfolk and Wales, restoration of the hot springs at Bath, and a multitude of canal and colliery projects, sometimes travelling 10,000 miles a year (an incredible total made possible by the inauguration of fast mail coaches in 1784).

 
 
Smith’s intelligence and practical knowledge of geology and groundwater took him to the front rank of his profession, but he never became wealthy because of his personal objective: mapping the geology of England. He always made copious notes of what he saw on the job and spent all his extra time and money on side trips to fill in blank spaces on his map, often sleeping in the coach on the way to his next appointment. Where exposures were few, he used soil, topography, and vegetation to identify underlying rock. His epochal geologic map of England and Wales appeared in 1815 under the title A Delineation of the Strata of England and Wales, with Part of Scotland. This was followed by an excellent series of county maps between 1819 and 1824.

During these years, Smith was in financial straits, undoubtedly exacerbated by the agricultural depression that followed the Napoleonic Wars. Failure of a quarry in Somerset lost him the property and forced the sale of his fossil collection to the British Museum in London. When creditors seized his London property after he had spent 10 weeks in debtor’s prison in 1819, he sold out and left for Yorkshire. For some years he had no permanent home but finally settled in Scarborough among a small band of geological enthusiasts, one of whom retained him as a consultant on his nearby estate. Recognition of his achievements came from other sources. In 1822 his work was praised by William D. Conybeare and William Phillips in their textbook on English stratigraphy, Outlines of the Geology of England and Wales. In 1831 he received from the Geological Society of London the first Wollaston Medal and in 1832 a yearly pension from the crown. He died in 1839 on his way to a scientific meeting in Birmingham.

 
Smith's famous 1815 geological map of part of Great Britain
 
 

Engraving from William Smith's 1815 monograph on identifying strata by fossils
 
 

Smith was not only exceptionally observant but possessed the power to integrate his observations. He saw that different rock layers contained different fossils and used this fact to trace strata over hundreds of miles. So great was his ability that geologists still use all of the techniques he introduced, and current geologic maps of England differ from his primarily in detail. Between 1815 and 1817 he published a few thin volumes on his work, but in a sense they were too late. Smith had always talked freely to anyone interested, and his knowledge was already public property being applied by geologists in every part of Britain. The fame Smith achieved in his lifetime remains undimmed to this day, and he is universally admired as the “Founder of Stratigraphy.”

Richard W. Macomber

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1839
 
 
Mond Ludwig
 
Ludwig Mond, (born March 7, 1839, Kassel, Hesse-Kassel [Germany]—died Dec. 11, 1909, London, Eng.), German-born British chemist and industrialist who improved the Solvay alkali process and devised a process for the extraction of nickel.
 

Ludwig Mond
  The son of a wealthy Jewish family, Mond studied chemistry at Marburg and Heidelberg, entered the chemical industry, and went to England in 1862. There his method for recovering sulfur from the by-products of the Leblanc alkali process was a commercial success.

In 1873 he and John Tomlinson Brunner founded the important chemical-manufacturing firm of Brunner, Mond and Company. They began on a large scale to make soda ash (sodium carbonate) by the newly developed Solvay process, a process that was significantly improved by Mond.
In attempting to find ways of obtaining ammonia from coal and coke, Mond also invented a system for making a cheap producer gas that became useful for industrial heating purposes.

His discovery of nickel carbonyl made possible a successful process for the extraction of nickel from its ores. Mond founded the Mond Nickel Company to link nickel mines in Canada with refining works in Wales that utilized his new discovery.

Mond became a naturalized British subject in 1880 and was elected to the Royal Society in 1891. A notable art collector, he bequeathed an important group of Italian paintings to the National Gallery, London.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Amer. traveler John Lloyd Stephens discovers and examines (with Frederick Catherwood) the
antiquities of the ancient Maya culture in Central America
 
 
Stephens John Lloyd
 
John Lloyd Stephens, (born Nov. 28, 1805, Shrewsbury, N.J., U.S.—died Oct. 12, 1852, New York City), American traveler and archaeologist whose exploration of Maya ruins in Central America and Mexico (1839–40 and 1841–42) generated the archaeology of Middle America.
 
 

John Lloyd Stephens
  Bored with the practice of law and advised to travel for reasons of health, in 1834 he set out on a journey that took him through eastern Europe and the Middle East, where he was particularly drawn to many of the archaeological sites. Two popular books resulted, Incidents of Travel in Egypt, Arabia Petraea, and the Holy Land, 2 vol. (1837), and Incidents of Travel in Greece, Turkey, Russia, and Poland, 2 vol. (1838), with drawings by the English illustrator and archaeologist Frederick Catherwood.

Reports of the existence of ancient ruins in Central America and Yucatán stirred Stephens’ curiosity to locate and explore them. He obtained an appointment as U.S. chargé d’affaires to Central America through the influence of President Martin Van Buren, and in 1839, accompanied by Catherwood, he went to Central America, then torn by political upheaval and civil war.

Their progress to Copán, Honduras, was imperiled first by local strife and then by the hazards and extreme hardships of travel through dense, dark jungle. At times they nearly despaired of finding what they sought, but their perseverance was vastly rewarded. After coming upon a wall of uncertain significance, they were stunned by the appearance of a magnificently carved stone stela (slab).

Other discoveries—more stelae, terraces, stairways, and walls with strange and fantastic ornamentation—came in quick succession.

 
 
Stephens “purchased” the extensive site for $50, and work progressed in clearing away the jungle overgrowth. There and elsewhere, including Uxmal and Palenque in Mexico, Catherwood set about drawing the Maya remains. The report of the first expedition, Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan, 2 vol. (1841), and the subsequent publication of Catherwood’s superb drawings caused a storm of popular and scholarly interest and precipitated much study of earlier, mostly forgotten accounts of the lands of the Maya by Spanish conquerors and explorers.

After their second expedition, Stephens and Catherwood published Incidents of Travel in Yucatan, 2 vol. (1843), containing accounts of visits to the remains of 44 ancient sites. Stephens’ last years were devoted to directing the first American transatlantic steamship company and to developing a railroad across the Isthmus of Panama.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
Catherwood Frederick
 

Frederick Catherwood (27 February 1799 – 27 September 1854) was an English artist and architect, best remembered for his meticulously detailed drawings of the ruins of the Maya civilization. He explored Mesoamerica in the mid 19th century with writer John Lloyd Stephens. Their books, Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatán and Incidents of Travel in Yucatán, were best sellers and introduced to the Western world the civilization of the ancient Maya. In 1837, Catherwood was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary member.

 

The figure depicted in this detail view of a lithograph made from one of Catherwood's drawings is presumed to be a possible representation of Catherwood himself. No other portraits of Catherwood are known.
  Mediterranean travels
Catherwood, having made many trips to the Mediterranean between 1824 and 1832 to draw the monuments made by the Egyptians, Carthaginians, and Phoenicians, stated that the monuments in the Americas bear no architectural similarity to those in the Old World. Thus, they must have been made by the native people of the area. Catherwood made visits to Greece, Turkey, Egypt, and Palestine and with Joseph Bonomi the Younger made drawings and watercolors of the ancient remains there. During a six-week period in 1833, Catherwood was probably the first Westerner to make a detailed survey of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.

Catherwood developed a sizeable reputation as a topographical artist, and perfected a drawing technique which used the camera lucida.

Central America
In 1836 he met travel writer John Lloyd Stephens in London. They read the account of the ruins of Copán published by Juan Galindo, and decided to try to visit Central America themselves and produce a more detailed and better illustrated account. The expedition came together in 1839 and continued through the following year, visiting and documenting dozens of ruins, many for the first time. Stephens and Catherwood are credited for the "rediscovery" of the Maya civilization, and through their publications brought the Maya back into the minds of the Western World.

The expedition resulted in the book Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan, published in 1841, with text by Stephens and engravings based on the drawings of Catherwood.

Stephens and Catherwood returned to Yucatan to make further explorations, resulting in Incidents of Travel in Yucatan in 1843.

The following year Catherwood published Views of Ancient Monuments in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan, with 25 color lithographs from watercolors he made at various ruins.

 
 
This folio was published in May 1844 simultaneously in London and New York in an edition of 300. Some 282 copies are known to survive, mostly held in private collections or libraries.

A large number of his original drawings and paintings were destroyed when the building where he was exhibiting them in New York City caught fire, but a number survive in museums and private collections, often showing more detail than the published engravings.

 
 
Last years
With the California Gold Rush Catherwood moved to San Francisco, California to open up a store to supply miners and prospectors, which he considered a more likely way to make money than chasing after the gold himself.

In 1854, Frederick Catherwood was a passenger aboard the steamship Arctic, making a crossing of the Atlantic Ocean from Liverpool to New York. On 27 September in conditions of poor visibility, the Arctic collided with the French steamer Vesta, and sank with much loss of life, including Catherwood. Mysteriously Catherwood's name was left off the official casualty lists for weeks until a concerted effort by his friends and colleagues resulted in a belated inclusion of a single line in the New York Herald Tribune, under the listing of "The Saved and the Lost: Mr Catherwood Also is Missing". He was 55 years old.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
Catherwood's lithograph
 

Plate 1, Idol, Copán




Plate 9, Ornament, Casa del Governador, Uxmal




Plate 10, Archway, Casa del Gobernador, Uxmal




Plate 11 Gateway, Great Teocallis, Uxmal





Plate 14, Portion of a Building, Las Monjas, Uxmal




Plate 15, La Casa de Las Monjas, Uxmal





Plate 21, Las Monjas, Chichén-Itzá
 
 
 
1839
 
 
George Henry
 

Henry George, (born Sept. 2, 1839, Philadelphia—died Oct. 29, 1897, New York City), land reformer and economist who in Progress and Poverty (1879) proposed the single tax: that the state tax away all economic rent—the income from the use of the bare land, but not from improvements—and abolish all other taxes.

 

Henry George
  Leaving school before his 14th birthday, George worked for two years as a clerk in an importing house and then went to sea. Back in Philadelphia in 1856, he learned typesetting and in 1857 signed up as a steward on another ship, quitting it in San Francisco to join the gold rush in Canada, where, however, he arrived too late. In 1858 he returned to California, where he worked for newspapers and took part in Democratic Party politics until 1880. In 1871 he and two partners started the San Francisco Daily Evening Post, but credit difficulties forced them to close it in 1875.

A political appointment as state gas-meter inspector enabled him to work on Progress and Poverty, which caught the spirit of discontent that had arisen from the economic depression of 1873–78. This popular book was translated into many languages. Its vogue was enhanced by George’s pamphlets, his frequent contributions to magazines, and his lecture tours in both the United States and the British Isles.

As a basis for his argument, George gave new meaning to the orthodox, or “Ricardian” (after English economist David Ricardo), doctrine of rent. He applied the law of diminishing returns and the concept of “margin of productivity” to land alone.

He argued that since economic progress entailed a growing scarcity of land, the idle landowner reaped ever greater returns at the expense of the productive factors of labour and capital.

 
 

This unearned economic rent, he held, should be taxed away by the state. George envisaged that the government’s annual income from this “single tax” would be so large that there would be a surplus for expansion of public works. His economic argument was reinforced and dominated by humanitarian and religious appeal.

George’s specific remedy had no significant practical result, and few economists of reputation supported it. Critics have observed that taxes on site values can reduce the incentive to make sites valuable, thereby weakening the intent of the tax. Nevertheless, George’s forceful emphasis on “privilege,” his demand for equality of opportunity, and his systematic economic analysis proved a stimulus to orderly reform.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1839
 
 
Kundt August
 
August Kundt, (born November 18, 1839, Schwerin, duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin [Germany]—died May 21, 1894, Israelsdorf, near Lübeck, Germany), German physicist who developed a method for determining the velocity of sound in gases and solids.
 

August Kundt
  Kundt studied at the University of Leipzig but afterward went to the University of Berlin. In 1867 he became an instructor at Berlin, and in the following year he became professor of physics at the Zürich Polytechnic.

In 1872 he was called to Strasbourg, where he was one of the founders of that city’s Physical Institute.

In 1888 he succeeded to the chair of experimental physics and the directorship of the Berlin Physical Institute.

In his experiments on sound, Kundt dusted the interior of a tube with a finely divided powder to show the position of the nodes of the sound waves, thereby determining their wavelength.

He also studied the anomalous dispersion of light in liquids, vapours, and metals.

In his work with magneto-optics, he showed the rotation, under magnetic influence, of the plane of polarization in certain gases and vapours.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1839
 
 
Ger.-Swiss chemist Christian F. Schonbein discovers and names ozone
 
 
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
 
Christian Friedrich Schonbein (18 October 1799 – 29 August 1868) was a German-Swiss chemist who is best known for inventing the fuel cell (1838) and his discoveries of guncotton and ozone.
 

Christian Friedrich Schonbein
  Life
Schönbein (Schoenbein) related to Michael Schoenbein was born at Metzingen in the Duchy of Württemberg. Around the age of 13 he was apprenticed to a chemical and pharmaceutical firm at Böblingen. Through his own efforts, he acquired sufficient scientific skills and knowledge to ask for, and receive, an examination by the professor of chemistry at Tübingen. Schönbein passed the exam and, after a series of moves and university studies, eventually acquired a position at the University of Basel in 1828, becoming a full professor in 1835. He remained there until his death in 1868, and was buried in Basel.

Ozone
It was while doing experiments on the electrolysis of water at the University of Basel that Schönbein first began to notice a distinctive odor in his laboratory. This smell gave Schönbein the clue to the presence of a new product from his experiments. Because of the pronounced smell, Schönbein coined the term "ozone" for the new gas, from the Greek word "ozein", meaning "to smell". Schönbein described his discoveries in publications in 1840. He later found that the smell of ozone was similar to that produced by the slow oxidation of white phosphorus.

 
 
The ozone smell Schönbein detected is the same as that occurring in the vicinity of a thunderstorm, an odor that indicates the presence of ozone in the atmosphere.
 
 
Explosives
Although his wife had forbidden him to do so, Schönbein occasionally experimented at home in the kitchen. One day in 1845, when his wife was away, he spilled a mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid. After using his wife's cotton apron to mop it up, he hung the apron over the stove to dry, only to find that the cloth spontaneously ignited and burned so quickly that it seemed to disappear. Schönbein, in fact, had converted the cellulose of the apron, with the nitro groups (added from the nitric acid) serving as an internal source of oxygen; when heated, the cellulose was completely and suddenly oxidized.

Schönbein recognized the possibilities of the new compound. Ordinary black gunpowder, which had reigned supreme in the battlefield for the past 500 years, exploded into thick smoke, blackening the gunners, fouling cannons and small arms, and obscuring the battlefield.

  Nitrocellulose was perceived as a possible "smokeless powder" and a propellant for artillery shells thus it received the name of guncotton.

Attempts to manufacture guncotton for military use failed at first because the factories were prone to explode and, above all else, the burning speed of straight guncotton was always too high.

It was not until 1884 that Paul Vieille tamed guncotton into a successful progressive smokeless gunpowder called Poudre B. Later on, in 1891, James Dewar and Frederick Augustus Abel also managed to transform gelatinized guncotton into a safe mixture, called cordite because it could be extruded into long thin cords before being dried.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

 
 
1839
 
 
Schwann Theodor: cell-growth theory
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Swiss physicist Carl August Steinheil builds the first electric clock
 
 
Steinheil Carl August
 

Carl August von Steinheil (12 October 1801 – 14 September 1870) was a German physicist, inventor, engineer and astronomer.

 

Carl August von Steinheil
  Biography
Steinheil was born in Ribeauvillé, Alsace. He studied law in Erlangen since 1821. He then studied astronomy in Göttingen and Königsberg. He continued his studies in astronomy and physics while living in his father's manor in Perlachseck near Munich. From 1832 to 1849, Steinheil was professor for mathematics and physics at the University of Munich.

In 1839, Steinheil used silver chloride and a cardboard camera to make pictures in negative from the Museum of Art and the Munich Frauenkirche, then taking another picture of the negative to get a positive, the actual black and white reproduction of a view on the object. The pictures produced were round with a diameter of 4 cm, the method was later named the “Steinheil method.” It was the first daguerreotype in Germany.
In 1846, Steinheil travelled to Naples to install a new system for weight and measure units. Three years later, he was appointed to the Board of Telegraphy of the Austrian Trade Ministry. Steinheil was tasked with designing a telegraph network for the entire empire, and helped to form the Deutsch-Österreichischer Telegraphenverein (German-Austrian Telegraph Society). In 1851, he started the Swiss telegraph network. Steinheil returned Munich as konservator (curator) of the mathematical-physical collections and ministerial secretary in the Trade Ministry of Bavaria.

 
 

Reading telescopes by C.A. Steinheil purchased in 1865 on display in the Teylers Instrument Room
 
 
In 1854, he founded C. A. Steinheil & Söhne, an optical-astronomical company. The company built telescopes, spectroscopes and photometers – one of Steinheil's inventions, used to measure brightness. C.A. Steinheil & Söhne produced large telescopes for observatories in Uppsala, Mannheim, Leipzig, Utrecht.[ The company also produced refractors and reflectors with silver-covered mirrors. The process for creating the silvering was developed by Steinheil's friend Justus Liebig. In 1862, Steinheil's sons starting managing the company.

Steinheil died in Munich in Bavaria on 14 September 1870. He was buried in the Alter Südfriedhof cemetery.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Amer. army officer Abner Doubleday lays out first baseball field and conducts first baseball game ever played
(Cooperstown, Otsego County, N.Y.)
 
 
Doubleday Abner
 

Abner Doubleday, (born June 26, 1819, Ballston Spa, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 26, 1893, Mendham, N.J.), U.S. Army officer, once thought to be the inventor of baseball.

 

Abner Doubleday
  Doubleday attended school in Auburn and Cooperstown, N.Y., and in 1838 he was appointed a cadet in the U.S. Military Academy (graduating in 1842). He was an artillery officer in the Mexican War and fought in the Seminole War in Florida (1856–58).

At Fort Sumter, S.C., he commanded the gunners that fired the first shots by the North in the American Civil War. He fought at Bull Run (second battle), Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg.

He held the temporary rank of major general of volunteers in 1862–63, received the permanent rank of colonel in 1867, and retired from the army in 1873.

In 1907 a commission appointed by Albert G. Spalding published its conclusion that Doubleday formulated the essential rules of baseball in the summer of 1839 at Cooperstown, N.Y., where he was an instructor in a military preparatory school.

Hence Cooperstown was chosen as the site of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, although it was later proved that Doubleday was not in Cooperstown in 1839.

The Spalding Commission’s finding that the national game was of purely American origin was discredited by subsequent inquiries confirming baseball’s evident connection with the older English game variously called rounders, feeder, or base ball.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1839
 
 
First bicycle constructed by Scot. inventor Kirkpatrick Macmillan
 
 
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
 

Kirkpatrick Macmillan (Born 2 September 1812 in Keir, Dumfries and Galloway; died 26 January 1878 in Keir) was a Scottish blacksmith. He is generally credited with inventing the rear-wheel driven bicycle.

 
Invention of pedal driven bicycle?
According to the research of his relative James Johnston in the 1890s, Macmillan was the first to invent the pedal-driven bicycle. Johnston, a corn trader and tricyclist, had the firm aim, in his own words "to prove that to my native country of Dumfries belongs the honour of being the birthplace of the invention of the bicycle".

Macmillan allegedly completed construction of a pedal driven bicycle of wood in 1839 that included iron-rimmed wooden wheels, a steerable wheel in the front and a larger wheel in the rear which was connected to pedals via connecting rods.

A Glasgow newspaper reported in 1842 an accident in which an anonymous "gentleman from Dumfries-shire... bestride a velocipede... of ingenious design" knocked over a pedestrian in the Gorbals and was fined five British shillings. Johnston identified Macmillan as that gentleman.

A 1939 plaque on the family smithy in Courthill reads "He builded better than he knew." Yet MacMillan lived in Glasgow and worked at the Vulcan Foundry during the relevant period around 1840, not in Courthill.

 
 
Scepticism
The Johnston doctrine of the bright, modest and industrious tradesman, achieving what others would only do decades later, captured the public imagination, especially in Scotland. It was also well accepted among historians, at least British ones, in the early 20th century.

Johnston did not present conclusive proofs, though he wrote that he had them. Sceptics allege that MacMillan design which he presented was a composite of two 1869 velocipedes by Thomas McCall.

At the behest of Johnston, Thomas McCall built a replica to be presented as MacMillan's at the 1896 Stanley show (and now at Dumfries Museum) perhaps for financial reasons.

The identification of MacMillan as recipient of an early speeding ticket for his bicycling is doubted by Alastair Dodds on grounds that its application would require an early Victorian newspaper to call a blacksmith a "gentleman".

However, that fails to explain what the velocipede of ingenious design was. Misgivings did not deter popular retelling with interesting details from sources unknown, including the detail that, after the accident, his niece, Mary Marchbank, had an illicit ride on the machine, thereby becoming the first female cyclist.

However, it is said that Gavin Dalzell of Lesmahagow copied the Macmillan machine in 1846 and passed on the details to so many people that for more than 50 years he was generally regarded as the inventor of the bicycle.

 
Thomas McCall's first (top) and improved velocipede from The English Mechanic of 1869 - the first rear-wheel pedalled bicycle according to some historians
 
 
Other claims to invention
Some historians who have studied the invention of the pedal-driven bicycle, including David V. Herlihy, state that Macmillan was not the first inventor. Herlihy states there is no contemporary documentary evidence that a pedal-crank design was applied to a 2-wheeled vehicle and that letters from customers in Scotland to the Michaux company in 1868 state that all of the human-powered vehicles there are tricycles and quadracycles. A similar claim is made by David Gordon Wilson.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1839
 
 
Cadbury George
 

George Cadbury (19 September 1839 – 24 October 1922) was the third son of John Cadbury, a Quaker who founded Cadbury's cocoa and chocolate company.

 

George Cadbury
  Background
He worked at the school for adults on Sundays for no pay, despite only going to school himself until he was sixteen. Together with his brother Richard he took over the family business in 1861. In 1878 they acquired 14 acres (57,000 m²) of land in open country, four miles (6 km) south of Birmingham, where they opened a new factory in 1879. He rented 'Woodbrooke' a Georgian style mansion built by Josiah Mason, which he eventually bought in 1881. In the early 20th century, he and John Wilhelm Rowntree established a Quaker study centre in the building, and it remains the only such centre in Europe today, offering short educational courses on spiritual and social matters to Quakers and others. He also created a hospital in Normandy called "l'hopital de Normandy".

The Cadbury brothers were concerned with the quality of life of their employees and provided an alternative to grimy city life. As more land was acquired and the brothers moved the factory to a new country location, they decided to build a factory town (designed by architect William Alexander Harvey), which was not exclusive to the employees of the factory. This village became known as Bournville after the nearby river and French word for "town". The houses were never privately owned, and their value stayed low and affordable. Bournville was a marked change from the poor living conditions of the urban environment. Here, families had houses with yards, gardens, and fresh air. To the present, the town offers affordable housing.

 
 
The brothers cared for their employees; they both believed in the social rights of the workers and hence they installed canteens and sport grounds. Nineteen years after brother Richard died, George opened a works committee for each gender which discussed proposals for improving the firm. He also pressed ahead with other ideas, like an annuity, a deposit account and education facilities for every employee.

In 1901, disgusted by the imperialistic policy of the Balfour government and opposed to the Boer War, Cadbury bought the Daily News and used the paper to campaign for old age pensions and against the war and sweatshop labour.

George Cadbury was one of the prime movers in setting up The Birmingham Civic Society in 1918. Cadbury donated the Lickey Hills Country Park to the people of Birmingham. He also donated a large house in Northfield to the Birmingham Cripples Union that was used as a hospital from 1909. It is now called the Royal Orthopaedic Hospital. In 1890 he, along with a number of other leading Quakers, helped re-establish Grove House School as Leighton Park School in Reading as the leading Quaker school in Britain.

He died at his home, Northfield Manor House, on 24 October 1922, aged 83.

 
 
Family life
George Cadbury married twice. In 1872 he married Mary Tylor, daughter of Quaker author Charles Tylor, she died in 1887. She was the mother of George junior, Mary Isabel and Edward.

In 1888 he married Elizabeth Mary Taylor. They had six children together: Laurence John, George Norman, Elsie Dorothea, Egbert, Marion Janet and Ursula.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Samuel Cunard starts, with his partners, the British and North-American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company (later known as Cunard Line)
 
 
Cunard Samuel
 

Sir Samuel Cunard, 1st Baronet, (born Nov. 21, 1787, Halifax, Nova Scotia [Canada]—died April 28, 1865, Kensington, London, England), British merchant and shipowner who founded the first regular Atlantic steamship line.

 

Sir Samuel Cunard
  The son of a merchant, Cunard himself had amassed a sizable fortune by his early 40s from banking, lumber, coal, and iron. He had also built a merchant fleet of about 40 vessels.

From 1830 he laid plans to establish a mail service between England and North America, running steamers from Liverpool to Halifax, and thence to Boston.

Cunard went to England in 1838 when the British government opened the bidding on contracts for such a transatlantic line. The following year, in partnership with Sir George Burns of Glasgow and David MacIver of Liverpool, he established the British and North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, generally known as the Cunard Line.

Its first ship, the Unicorn, set out for America on May 15, 1840. The first mail steamer was the Britannia, which left Liverpool on July 4, 1840. Later Cunard ships included the famed Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, and Queen Elizabeth II. He was created a baronet in 1859.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Cunard Line
 

Cunard Line is a British/American owned cruise line based at Carnival House in Southampton, England. It has been a leading operator of passenger ships on the North Atlantic, celebrating 175 years of operation in 2015.

 
In 1839, Nova Scotian Samuel Cunard was awarded the first British trans-Atlantic steamship mail contract, and the next year formed the British and North American Royal Mail Steam-Packet Company together with Robert Napier, the famous Scottish steamship engine designer and builder, to operate the line's four pioneer paddle steamers on the Liverpool–Halifax–Boston route. For most of the next 30 years, Cunard held the Blue Riband for the fastest Atlantic voyage. However, in the 1870s Cunard fell behind its rivals, the White Star Line and the Inman Line. To meet this competition, in 1879 the firm was reorganised as Cunard Steamship Company, Ltd to raise capital. In 1902, White Star joined the American owned International Mercantile Marine Co. and the British Government provided Cunard with substantial loans and a subsidy to build two superliners needed to retain its competitive position.  
Britannia of 1840 (1150 GRT), the first Cunard liner built for the transAtlantic service.
 
 
 Mauretania held the Blue Riband from 1909 to 1929. The sinking of her running mate Lusitania in 1915 was one of the causes of the United States' entering the First World War. In the late 1920s, Cunard faced new competition when the Germans, Italians and French built large prestige liners. Cunard was forced to suspend construction on its own new superliner because of the Great Depression. In 1934 the British Government offered Cunard loans to finish Queen Mary and to build a second ship, Queen Elizabeth, on the condition that Cunard merged with the then ailing White Star line to form Cunard-White Star Ltd. Cunard owned two-thirds of the new company. Cunard purchased White Star's share in 1947; the name reverted to the Cunard Line in 1950.

Upon the end of World War II, Cunard regained its position as the largest Atlantic passenger line. By the mid-1950s, it operated 12 ships to the United States and Canada. After 1958, transAtlantic passenger ships became increasingly unprofitable because of the introduction of jet airliners. Cunard withdrew from its year round service in 1968 to concentrate on cruising and summer transatlantic voyages for vacationers. The Queens were replaced by Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2), which was designed for the dual role.

In 1998 Cunard was acquired by the Carnival Corporation, and accounted for 8.7% of that company's revenue in 2012.[3] Five years later, QE2 was replaced on the transAtlantic runs by Queen Mary 2 (QM2). The line also operates Queen Victoria (QV) and Queen Elizabeth (QE). At the moment, Cunard is the only shipping company to operate a scheduled passenger service between Europe and North America.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Grand National
 

Grand National, also called Grand National Handicap Steeplechase, British horse race held annually over the Aintree course, Liverpool, in late March or early April; it attracts more attention throughout the world than any other steeplechase. The race was instituted in 1839 by William Lynn, a Liverpool innkeeper, and its present name was adopted in 1847.

 
The Grand National poses difficulties and dangers to challenge the skill and spirit of the hardiest and most daring riders, professional and amateur. The course, an irregular triangle, must be covered twice for a distance of 4 miles 855 yards (about 7,200 metres) and a total of 30 jumps, among which the most spectacularly hazardous are those known as Becher’s Brook and Valentine’s Brook. Large numbers of horses are entered each year and are reduced at successive jumps until only a few are left at the finish. The Grand National is a handicap race, with weights ranging upward to 12 stone 7 pounds (175 pounds). The weights, the distance, and the big jumps demand horses of prodigious strength and stamina and usually of more than normal size. The winners frequently have cold blood (e.g., the heavier draught breeds) mixed with Thoroughbred ancestry, although pure Thoroughbreds have won the Grand National on occasion.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1839
 
 
Prussia restricts juvenile labor to a maximum of 10 hours a day
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Lowell Institute, Boston, founded by John Lowell, Jr., to provide free lectures by eminent scholars
 
 
Lowell John
 

John Lowell, Jr. (May 11, 1799 – March 4, 1836) was a U.S. businessman, early philanthropist, and through his will, founder of the Lowell Institute.

 

John Lowell, Jr.
  Family
Lowell was the son of pioneer industrialist Francis Cabot Lowell (1775–1817), one of the founders of the region's textile industry, and Hannah Jackson, sister of Patrick Tracy Jackson, another industrial pioneer. His grandfather and namesake, Judge John Lowell (1743–1802), referred to as The Old Judge, served in the Congress of the Confederation in 1782 and was appointed later to federal benches by Presidents George Washington and John Adams. After receiving his early education in the Boston public schools, young Lowell was taken by his father to Europe and placed at the high school of Edinburgh. In 1813, at the age of 14, he returned to America and entered Harvard College. Plagued with ill health, he left college after two years and entered his family’s mercantile firm, sailing before the mast to India, the East Indies, and England.

Career
Returning from his voyages with invigorated health, Lowell devoted himself to business and, in his leisure time, to book collecting, reading, and politics, serving on the Boston Common Council and in the Massachusetts State Senate. The 1820s and 1830s were a turbulent period in New England, marked by intense political and religious conflict between an insurgent popular democracy, which challenged economic and religious establishments, and an emergent capitalist elite which, though almost invariably defeated at the polls, was learning to use its wealth to advance its political agenda through non-political means.

 
 
Conflict between the Unitarian elite and the evangelical urban masses intensified in the 1820s, as followers of popular ministers like Lyman Beecher openly challenged elite-controlled institutions like Harvard and the Boston Athenaeum using a variety of voluntary associations – young men’s and mechanics societies, lyceums, debating clubs, and temperance groups. The continuing erosion of the elite’s cultural authority was deeply troubling to Lowell and his contemporaries.
Within a few short months in 1830 and 1831, tragedy struck Lowell's household, with the deaths of his wife and two children. Heartbroken, John Lowell retired from business and attempted to assuage his grief with travel, first to the western states and subsequently in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. Before departing for Europe in 1832, he wrote a will in which, according to his biographer, "he set aside a large portion of his ample property to be expended, forever, in the support of those courses of lectures in the city of Boston."

Over the course of the next four years, Lowell traveled through France, Holland, Belgium, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Armenia, Persia, and Egypt, down the Nile to Kartoum, through Ethiopia, and ultimately to India. Although the bequest providing for "the maintenance and support of public lectures, to be delivered in Boston, upon philosophy, natural history, the arts and sciences, or any of them, as the trustee shall, from time to time, deem expedient for the promotion of the moral, and intellectual, and physical instruction or education of the citizens of Boston" had been set forth before his departure from Boston, "— in a codicil to his will written "amidst the ruins of Thebes" and, subsequently, in letters written from Egypt, he further amplified his ideas about the trust. Although he expressed a preference for lectures on religion and on topics that would contribute to the material prosperity of the region, he ceded to his trustee discretion to "establish lectures on any subject that, in his opinion, the wants and taste of the age may demand".

Lowell became gravely ill during a camel trip across the Egyptian desert and died on March 4, 1836, shortly after arriving in Bombay, India.

 
 

Portrait of John Lowell, Jr., made during his travels in Egypt
  Lowell Institute
Although large-scale philanthropic gestures were a relative novelty in early nineteenth century America, the idea of an elite institution providing popular lectures by eminent scientists and scholars was not. Having spent much of his youth in England, Lowell was undoubtedly familiar with the Royal Institution – an entity that sponsored basic scientific research and popular lectures and demonstrations.

Lowell, a supporter of the Lyceum movement, first showed interest in providing education for the public as a founding member of the Boston Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in 1830. After becoming ill while traveling through Egypt in 1835, John Lowell, Jr. revised his will to create a trust to fund free public lectures in Boston on the subjects of philosophy, natural history, and the arts and sciences.

The trust – or Lowell Institute, as it came to be known – had an unusual mode of governance: a single trustee who was empowered to appoint his successor and who was, in the language of Lowell's will, "always choose in preference to all others some male descendant of my grandfather, John Lowell, provided there be one who is competent to hold the office of trustee, and of the name of Lowell."

Despite this odd restriction (or perhaps because of it), the Institute proved to be an extraordinarily innovative philanthropic force. The first lecture supported by the trust, by Yale geologist Benjamin Silliman, was offered in December 1839.

Under its first trustee, the founder's cousin, John Amory Lowell (1798–1881), the Institute flourished. Lowell was both a man of extraordinary financial acumen and a man of high intellect.

 
 
The list of Lowell Lecturers during his tenure was a veritable pantheon of the most internationally celebrated figures in science, literature, political economy, philosophy, and theology, including Britain’s most celebrated geologist, Sir Charles Lyell, Swiss naturalist Louis Agassiz, and novelists Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray.

The lectures were so immensely popular that crowds crushed the windows of the Old Corner Bookstore where the tickets were distributed and certain series had to be repeated by popular demand.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Lowell Institute
 

The Lowell Institute is a United States educational foundation located in Boston, Massachusetts, providing both free public lectures, and also advanced lectures. It was endowed by a bequest of $250,000 left by John Lowell, Jr., who died in 1836. The Institute began work in the winter of 1839/40, and an inaugural lecture was given on December 31, 1839, by Edward Everett.

 
Bequest
Under the terms of Lowell's will, 10% of the net income from the endowment was to be added to the principal, which in 1909 was over a million dollars.

None of the fund was to be invested in a building for the lectures.

The trustees of the Boston Athenaeum were made visitors of the fund, but the trustee of the fund is authorized to select his own successor.

In naming a successor, the Institute's trustee must always choose in preference to all others some male descendant of Lowell's grandfather, John Lowell, provided there is one who is competent to hold the office of trustee, and of the name of Lowell. The sole trustee so appointed is solely responsible for the entire selection of the lecturers and the subjects of lectures.

The first trustee was Lowell's cousin, John Amory Lowell, who administered the trust for more than forty years, and was succeeded in 1881 by his son, Augustus Lowell.

He in turn was succeeded in 1900 by his son Abbott Lawrence Lowell, who in 1909 also became president of Harvard University.

  Activities
Popular lectures

The founder provided for two kinds of lectures, one popular, and the other more advanced. The popular lectures have taken the form of courses usually ranging from half a dozen to a dozen lectures, and covering almost every subject. The payments to the lecturers have always been large, and lectures of many eminent people from America and Europe have been sponsored. A number of books have been published which consist of those lectures or have been based upon them.

During the mid-20th century, the Lowell Institute decided to enter the broadcasting business, which led to the creation of the WGBH-FM radio station in 1952, and the WGBH-TV television station in 1955. The WGBH Educational Foundation is now one of the largest producers of public television content and public radio programming in the United States.

As of 2013, the Lowell Institute sponsors an annual series of free public lectures on current scientific topics, under the aegis of the Museum of Science Boston. In addition, the Lowell Institute sponsors the Forum Network, a public media service of the WGBH Educational Foundation which distributes free public lectures over the Internet, from a large number of program partners in and beyond Boston.

 
 
Advanced lectures
As to the advanced lectures, the founder seems to have had in view what is now called university extension, and in this he was far ahead of his time. In pursuance of this provision, public instruction of various kinds has been given from time to time by the Institute. The first freehand drawing in Boston was taught there, but was given up when the public schools undertook it. In the same way, a school of practical design was carried on for many years, but finally in 1903 was transferred to the Museum of Fine Arts. Instruction for working men was given at the Wells Memorial Institute until 1908, when the Franklin Foundation took up the work, which resulted in the Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology (BFIT). A Teacher's School of Science was maintained in co-operation with the Boston Society of Natural History, later renamed the Museum of Science Boston, which still continues to sponsor professional development courses for secondary school science teachers.

For many years, advanced courses of lectures were given by professors of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and in 1903 these were superseded by an evening "School for Industrial Foremen" sharing classroom and laboratory facilities. Over time, this became known as the Lowell Institute School, remaining on the MIT campus until 1996, when it was transferred to the Northeastern University Engineering School. The Lowell Institute School now is a division of the School of Professional Studies at Northeastern, offering full- and part-time programs leading to certificates, and associate's or bachelor's degrees.

In 1907, under the title of "Collegiate Courses", a number of the elementary courses in Harvard University were offered free to the public under the same conditions of study and examination as in the university. This program eventually became the Harvard University Extension School, now offering hundreds of courses, and certificate and academic degree programs to residents of Greater Boston.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Rockefeller John
 

John D. Rockefeller, in full John Davison Rockefeller (born July 8, 1839, Richford, New York, U.S.—died May 23, 1937, Ormond Beach, Florida), American industrialist and philanthropist, founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust.

 

John D. Rockefeller
  Rockefeller moved with his family to Cleveland, Ohio, in 1853, and six years later he established his first enterprise—a commission business dealing in hay, grain, meats, and other goods.

Sensing the commercial potential of the expanding oil production in western Pennsylvania in the early 1860s, he built his first oil refinery, near Cleveland, in 1863.

Within two years it was the largest refinery in the area, and thereafter Rockefeller devoted himself exclusively to the oil business.

In 1870 Rockefeller and a few associates incorporated the Standard Oil Company (Ohio).

Because of Rockefeller’s emphasis on economical operations, Standard prospered and began to buy out its competitors until, by 1872, it controlled nearly all the refineries in Cleveland.

That fact enabled the company to negotiate with railroads for favoured rates on its shipments of oil.

It acquired pipelines and terminal facilities, purchased competing refineries in other cities, and vigorously sought to expand its markets in the United States and abroad.

 
 
By 1882 it had a near monopoly of the oil business in the United States. In 1881 Rockefeller and his associates placed the stock of Standard of Ohio and its affiliates in other states under the control of a board of nine trustees, with Rockefeller at the head. They thus established the first major U.S. “trust” and set a pattern of organization for other monopolies.
 
 

John D. Rockefeller's painting by John Singer Sargent in 1917
  The aggressive competitive practices of Standard Oil, which many regarded as ruthless, and the growing public hostility toward monopolies, of which Standard was the best-known, caused some industrialized states to enact antimonopoly laws and led to the passage by the U.S. Congress of the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890). In 1892 the Ohio Supreme Court held that the Standard Oil Trust was a monopoly in violation of an Ohio law prohibiting monopolies. Rockefeller evaded the decision by dissolving the trust and transferring its properties to companies in other states, with interlocking directorates so that the same nine men controlled the operations of the affiliated companies. In 1899 these companies were brought back together in a holding company, Standard Oil Company (New Jersey), which existed until 1911, when the U.S. Supreme Court declared it in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act and therefore illegal.

A devout Baptist, Rockefeller turned his attention increasingly during the 1890s to charities and benevolence; after 1897 he devoted himself completely to philanthropy. He made possible the founding of the University of Chicago in 1892, and by the time of his death he had given it more than $80 million. In association with his son, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., he created major philanthropic institutions, including the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (renamed Rockefeller University) in New York City (1901); the General Education Board (1902); and the Rockefeller Foundation (1913). Rockefeller’s benefactions during his lifetime totaled more than $500 million.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1839
 
 
Stanhope Hester Lucy
 

Lady Hester Lucy Stanhope (12 March 1776 – 23 June 1839) was a British socialite, adventurer and traveler. Her archaeological expedition to Ashkelon in 1815 is considered the first modern excavation in the history of Holy Land archeology. Her use of a medieval Italian document is described as "one of the earliest uses of textual sources by field archaeologists".

 

Lady Hester Lucy Stanhope
  Early life
Lady Hester Lucy Stanhope was the eldest child of Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl Stanhope, by his first wife, Lady Hester Pitt. She was born at her father's seat of Chevening and lived there until early in 1800, when she was sent to live with her grandmother, Hester Pitt, Countess of Chatham, at Burton Pynsent.

In August 1803, she became chief of the household of her uncle, William Pitt the Younger. In his position as British Prime Minister, Pitt, who was unmarried, needed a hostess. Lady Hester sat at the head of his table and assisted in welcoming his guests; she became known for her beauty and conversational skills. When Pitt was out of the office she served as his private secretary. She was also the prime initiator of the gardens at Walmer Castle during his tenure as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. Britain awarded her an annual pension of £1200 after Pitt's death in January 1806. After living for some time at Montagu Square in London, she moved to Wales and then left England for good in February 1810 after the death of her brother. A romantic disappointment is said to have prompted her decision to go to a long sea voyage. (Her niece suspected she and Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore might have considered marrying.)

 
 
Among her entourage were her physician and later biographer Charles Meryon, her maid, Anne Fry, and Michael Bruce, who became her lover. It is claimed that when they arrived in Athens, the poet, Lord Byron, dived into the sea to greet her. From Athens they traveled to Constantinople, capital of the Ottoman Empire, and intended to proceed to Cairo, only recently emerged from the chaos following Napoleon's invasion of Egypt and the international conflicts that followed.
 
 

Lady Hester Lucy Stanhope
  Journey to the Near and Middle East
En route to Cairo, the ship encountered a storm and was shipwrecked on Rhodes. With all their possessions gone, the party borrowed Turkish clothing.

Stanhope refused to wear a veil, choosing the garb of a Turkish male: robe, turban and slippers. When a British frigate took them to Cairo, she bought a purple velvet robe, embroidered trousers, waistcoat, jacket, saddle and saber. In this costume she went to greet the Pasha.

From Cairo she continued her travels in the Middle East. Over a period of two years she visited Gibraltar, Malta, the Ionian Islands, the Peloponnese, Athens, Constantinople, Rhodes, Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon and Syria. She refused to wear a veil even in Damascus. In Jerusalem, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was cleared of visitors and reopened in her honour.

Learning from fortune-tellers that her destiny was to become the bride of a new messiah, she made matrimonial overtures to Ibn Saud, chief of the Wahhabis Arabs (later leader of the First Saudi State).

She decided to visit the city of Palmyra, even though the route went through a desert with potentially hostile Bedouins. She dressed as a Bedouin and took with her a caravan of 22 camels to carry her baggage. Emir Mahannah el Fadel received her and she became known as "Queen Hester."

 
 
Archaeological expedition
According to Charles Meryon, she came into possession of a medieval Italian manuscript copied from the records of a monastery somewhere in Syria. According to this document, a great treasure was hidden under the ruins of a mosque at the port city of Ashkelon which had been lying in ruins for 600 years. In 1815, on the strength of this map, she traveled to the ruins of Ashkelon on the Mediterranean coast north of Gaza, and persuaded the Ottoman authorities to allow her to excavate the site. The governor of Jaffa, Abu Nabbut (Father of the Cudgel) was ordered to accompany her. This resulted in the first archaeological excavation in Palestine. While she did not find the hoard of three million gold coins reportedly buried there, the excavators unearthed a seven-foot headless marble statue. She ordered the statue to be smashed into "a thousand pieces" and thrown into the sea.
 
 
Life amongst the Arabs
Lady Hester settled near Sidon, a town on the Mediterranean coast in what is now Lebanon, about halfway between Tyre and Beirut.

She lived first in the disused Mar Elias monastery at the village of Abra, and then in another monastery, Deir Mashmousheh, southwest of the Casa of Jezzine. Her companion, Miss Williams, and medical attendant, Dr Charles Meryon, remained with her for some time; but Miss Williams died in 1828, and Meryon left in 1831, only returning for a final visit from July 1837 to August 1838. When Meryon left for England, Lady Hester moved to a remote abandoned monastery at Joun, a village eight miles from Sidon, where she lived until her death. Her residence, known by the villagers as Dahr El Sitt, was at the top of a hill. Meryon implied that she liked the house because of its strategic location, "the house on the summit of a conical hill, whence comers and goers might be seen on every side."

At first she was greeted by emir Bashir Shihab II, but over the years she gave sanctuary to hundreds of refugees of Druze inter-clan and inter-religious squabbles and earned his enmity.

  In her new setting, she wielded almost absolute authority over the surrounding districts. Her control over the natives was enough to cause Ibrahim Pasha, when about to invade Syria in 1832, to seek her neutrality, and this supremacy was maintained by her commanding character and by the belief that she possessed the gift of divination. She kept up a correspondence with important people and received curious visitors who went out of their way to visit her. Finding herself deeply in debt, her pension from England was used to pay off her creditors in Syria. She became a recluse and her servants began to steal with her possessions because she was becoming senile. She would not receive visitors until dark and then would only let them see her hands and face. She wore a turban over her shaven head.

Memoirs
In 1846, some years after her death, Dr Meryon published three volumes of Memoirs of the Lady Hester Stanhope as related by herself in Conversations with her Physician, and these were followed in the succeeding year by three volumes of Travels of Lady Hester Stanhope, forming the Completion of her Memoirs narrated by her Physician.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1839
 
 
W. H. Fox Talbot (Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox) claims that he obtained successes with his photographic experiments before Daguerre (Daguerre Louis ) and communicates the results to the Royal Society
 
 
 
1839
 
 
Weston Edward Payson
 
Edward Payson Weston (1839–1929) was a notable pedestrian, who was largely responsible for the rise in popularity of the sport in the 1860s and 1870s.
 

Edward Payson Weston
  Biography
Edward Payson Weston was born on March 15, 1839 in Providence, Rhode Island to Silas Weston, a teacher and publisher, and Maria Gaines, a writer. As a teenager, Weston published books about his father's trips to the California Gold Rush and to the Azores, and Edward also published a novel written by his mother in 1859. During childhood Weston moved frequently, and by his own account, spent some time travelling with the popular Hutchinson Family Singers.

He first received attention as a notable pedestrian in 1861, when he walked 478 miles (769 km) from Boston, Massachusetts to Washington, D.C. in 10 days and 10 hours, from February 22 to March 4. During the walk, he faced snow, rain, and mud, and he fell several times. His longest period of uninterrupted sleep was 6 hours, and he usually ate while walking. He arrived in Washington at 5:00 pm, and was strong enough to attend Abraham Lincoln's inaugural ball that evening.

The walk was part of the terms of a bet on the 1860 presidential election. The bettor whose candidate lost was to walk to Washington to see the inauguration of the new president. Weston lost when he bet against Lincoln, and received only a bag of peanuts for his trouble. However, he also received newspaper coverage and a congratulatory handshake from the new president, which inspired him to further pedestrian feats.

In 1867, Weston walked from Portland, Maine to Chicago, Illinois, covering over 1200 miles (1900 km) in 26 days, winning a prize of $10,000. He received several death threats from gamblers who had bet against him, and was attacked once. He gave lectures to crowds of spectators on the health benefits of walking, both during the walk and afterwards. Over the next few decades, Weston continued his professional walking career. While he was sometimes beaten in indoor multiday races, he held numerous records for long-distance endurance events. In 1869 he walked 1058 miles (1703 km) through snow-covered New England in 30 days. In 1871, he walked backwards for 200 miles around St. Louis, Missouri in 41 hours.

Weston spent 8 years touring Europe, starting in 1876 in England where he challenged England's racewalking champion to a 24-hour, 115 mile ultramarathon.

 
 
The Englishman quit 14 hours and 65.6 miles into the race, but Weston walked the full 24 hours and covered 109.5 miles. His performance caused a bit of a controversy when he later admitted to having been chewing coca leaf throughout much of the race.

In 1879 he defeated the British champion "Blower" Brown, in a 550 mile (890 km) match which he walked in 141 hours 44 minutes, winning him the prestigious Astley Belt.

In April 1906, Weston walked from Philadelphia to New York, a distance of over 100 miles, in less than 24 hours.

In 1907, at the age of 68, Weston repeated his Maine-to-Chicago walk of 1867, beating his own time by over 24 hours. In 1909, he walked 4,000 miles, from New York to San Francisco, in 100 days.

His last great journey was in 1913, when he walked 1546 miles (2488 km) from New York to Minneapolis in 51 days.

Weston spent most of the remainder of his life urging others to take up walking for exercise and competition. He warned that automobiles were making people lazy and sedentary.

 
 
Death
Weston was severely injured when he was struck by a New York City taxicab in 1927, and never walked again. He died in his sleep two years later.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1839
 
 
Willard Frances
 
Frances Willard, in full Frances Elizabeth Caroline Willard (born Sept. 28, 1839, Churchville, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 18, 1898, New York, N.Y.), American educator, reformer, and founder of the World Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (1883). An excellent speaker, a successful lobbyist, and an expert in pressure politics, she was a leader of the national Prohibition Party.
 

Frances Willard
  Willard grew up from the age of two in Oberlin, Ohio, and from six in Janesville, Wisconsin Territory. Known as Frank to her friends, she grew up a sturdy, independent, and strong-willed child of the frontier. In 1857 she enrolled at the Milwaukee Female College, where she remained for one term. She then transferred to the North Western Female College in Evanston, Illinois, from which she graduated in 1859. She taught school for several years before making an extended world tour with a friend in 1868–70. On her return she settled in Evanston. In 1871 she was named president of the new Evanston College for Ladies, a Methodist institution closely associated with Northwestern University. When the Evanston College for Ladies was absorbed by Northwestern in 1873, Willard became dean of women and professor of English and art. She remained there until her constant conflicts with the university’s president, Charles H. Fowler (to whom she had been engaged in 1861), led her to resign in 1874.

Just at that time the so-called “Woman’s Crusade,” a wave of antiliquor agitation among women, was swelling, and a group of Chicago women invited Willard to become president of their temperance organization. In October 1874 she was elected secretary of the newly organized state temperance society, and in November, at the Cleveland organizing convention, she was chosen corresponding secretary of the national Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU).

 
 
The latter post led to considerable demand for her services as a lecturer. In 1876 she also became head of the national WCTU’s publications committee.

She resigned as president of the Chicago WCTU in 1877 and worked briefly as director of women’s meetings for the evangelist Dwight L. Moody. Later in the year she left the national WCTU, in large part because of the resistance of President Annie Wittenmyer to her wish to link the issues of liquor prohibition and woman suffrage. Willard lectured widely on suffrage for a year before being elected president of the Illinois WCTU in 1878. Assisted by her secretary and companion, Anna A. Gordon, she secured more than 100,000 signatures on a “Home Protection” petition requesting the Illinois legislature to grant women the vote in matters pertaining to the liquor trade. Presented in March 1879, the petition ultimately died in committee. At the national WCTU’s 1879 convention, Willard succeeded Wittenmyer; she was president of the WCTU for the rest of her life.

 
 

Frances Willard
  Under her leadership the WCTU quickly evolved into a well-organized group able to mount campaigns of public education and political pressure on many fronts. Willard traveled constantly and spoke frequently—in 1883 she spoke in every state of the Union—and was a regular lecturer at the summer Lake Chautauqua meetings in New York. Lecture fees were her principal means of support until the WCTU voted her a salary in 1886.

Work on an international scale began in 1883 with the mission of Mary C. Leavitt and others and the circulation of the “Polyglot Petition” against the international drug trade. In 1888 she joined May Wright Sewall at the International Council of Women meeting in Washington, D.C., and laid the groundwork for a permanent National Council of Women, of which she was first president in 1888–90. She also helped organize the General Federation of Women’s Clubs in 1889, and in 1891 Willard was elected president of the World WCTU (founded 1883).

Willard’s attempt to induce the WCTU to take an active role in politics ultimately failed. A “Home Protection Party” organized in 1881 effected a short-lived merger with the Prohibition Party in 1882–84, but the rank and file of prohibitionists objected as much to a woman suffrage plank as did WCTU members to party politics. Her plan to strike a coalition with the new People’s Party in 1892 similarly failed.

 
 
Over the years Willard wrote frequently for periodicals and for WCTU publications. Her autobiography, Glimpses of Fifty Years, was published in 1889. In her later years she spent much time in England, where she came under the influence of the Fabian socialists. In 1905 a statue of her by Helen Farnsworth Mears became one of Illinois’s two submissions to Statuary Hall in the U.S. Capitol.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 

 
 
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