Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1838 Part III NEXT-1839 Part I    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

"Boulevard du Temple", taken by Daguerre in 1838 in Paris, includes the earliest known candid photograph of a person.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1838 Part IV
 
 
 
1838
 
 
Abbe Cleveland
 

Cleveland Abbe (December 3, 1838 – October 28, 1916) was an American meteorologist and advocate of time zones.

While director of the Cincinnati Observatory in Cincinnati, Ohio, he developed a system of telegraphic weather reports, daily weather maps, and weather forecasts. In 1870, Congress established the U.S. Weather Bureau and inaugurated the use of daily weather forecasts. In recognition of his work, Abbe, who was often referred to as "Old Probability" for the reliability of his forecasts, was appointed the first head of the new service.

He was one of the 33 founders of the National Geographic Society.

 

Cleveland Abbe
  Early life
Cleveland Abbe was born in New York City and grew up in the prosperous merchant family of George Waldo and Charlotte Colgate Abbe. One of his younger brothers, Robert, became a prominent surgeon and radiologist. In school, Cleveland excelled in mathematics and chemistry, graduating in 1857 from the Free Academy. He then taught engineering for two years at the University of Michigan, while at the same time studying astronomy under Franz Brünnow. When the Civil War broke out, he tried to join the Union Army; however, he failed the vision test and spent the war years in Cambridge, Massachusetts, working as an assistant to Benjamin Gould, astronomer and head of the Longitude Department of the United States Coast Survey. He then studied abroad in Russia at the Observatory of Pulkovo and returned to the U.S. eager to study astronomy. In 1868 he was hired by the Cincinnati Astronomical Society, but the organization lacked funding and he lost his job less than a year later. He then made the decision that would change his career path. Remembering that meteorological conditions directly affected the work of astronomers, he began working in the field of meteorology. He won approval to report on and predict the weather, working on the premise that forecasts could and should be generated at minimal expense and in such a way as to perhaps even produce income.
 
 
Meteorological career
Abbe was appointed chief meteorologist at the National Weather Service in 1871, which at the time was part of the Signal Corps. One of the first things that he addressed was the forecasting dimension of meteorology. He recognized that predicting the weather required a widespread, yet coordinated team. And so with short-term funding granted from the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce, he enlisted twenty volunteer weather observers to help report conditions. Western Union agreed to permit the observers to communicate without charge, and Abbe and his team went to work. He selected data-collecting instruments that would be critical to the success of weather predicting, and he trained Army observer sergeants in their use. Field data was transmitted using code designed to minimize word count, and at the designated times, information flooded the transmission stations. Clerks would then decode and record the messages and manually enter data onto weather maps, which were then used to predict the weather.
 
 

Cleveland Abbe
  On February 19, 1871, Abbe personally gave the first official weather report. He continued to forecast alone for the next six months, while simultaneously training others. He was joined in mid-1871 by two Army lieutenants and a civilian professor in giving reports, and the team was then able to rotate the heavy workload.

Abbe demanded precise language in the forecasts and ensured that every forecast covered four key meteorological elements: weather (clouds and precipitation), temperature, wind direction, and barometric pressure. By the end of the first year of reporting, over 60 copies of weather charts had been sent to Congress, the press, and various scientific institutions. By 1872, Abbe regularly sent over 500 sets of daily maps and bulletins overseas in exchange for European meteorological data. Abbe also insisted on verifying predictions. During the first year of operation, in 1871, Abbe and his staff verified 69 percent of their predications; the annual report apologized for the other 31 percent, citing the time constraints as the cause.

In order to compile his information, Abbe required a time-keeping system that was consistent among the stations. To accomplish this he divided the United States into four standard time zones. In 1883, he convinced North American railroad companies to adopt his time-zone system. In 1884, Britain, which had already adopted its own standard time system for England, Scotland, and Wales, helped gather international consent for global time.

Abbe required that the weather service stay at the forefront of technology.

 
 
Over time, the instrument division at the headquarters tested and calibrated thousands of devices and even began to design and build their own instruments. By the end of the century, self-registering equipment came into use, and the United States led the meteorological world with 114 Class I (automatic recording) observation stations. Anticipating an increase in international cooperation, Abbe began to seek quality instruments calibrated to international standards. He enlisted Oliver Wolcott Gibbs of Harvard and Arthur Wright of Yale to design improved equipment. For comparison purposes, Abbe ordered a barometer from Heinrich Wild (director of the Nicholas Central Observatory in Russia), as well as an anemometer and several types of hygrometers from Germany. Abbe then invented an anemobarometer to test the effect of chimney and window drafts on barometers in enclosed spaces.

Abbe was elected Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1884. In 1912 the Royal Meteorological Society presented him with the Symons Memorial Gold Medal, citing his contribution "to instrumental, statistical, dynamical, and thermo dynamical meteorology and forecasting." In 1916 he was awarded the Public Welfare Medal from the National Academy of Sciences.

Abbe died the same year after more than 45 years of outstanding scientific achievement. He was buried in Rock Creek Cemetery in Washington, DC.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1838
 
 
Fourth and last volume of series by John James Audubon (Audubon John James): "The Birds of America"
 
 

Book cover shows Louisiana Heron, Egretta tricolor
 
 
 
1838
 
 
German astronomer Bessel Friedrich Wilhelm makes the first definite parallax measurement for a fixed star
 
 
 
1838
 
 
Clark William, American explorer (from upper Mississippi to Pacific), d. (b. 1770)
 
 

William Clark
 
 
see also: Surveying the West
 
 
 
1838
 
 
French economist A. A. Cournot: "Researches into the Mathematical Principles of the Theory of Wealth"
 
 
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
 

Antoine-Augustin Cournot, (born August 28, 1801, Gray, France—died March 31, 1877, Paris), French economist and mathematician.

 

Antoine-Augustin Cournot
  Cournot was the first economist who, with competent knowledge of both subjects, endeavoured to apply mathematics to the treatment of economics. His main work in economics is Recherches sur les principes mathématiques de la théorie des richesses (1838; Researches into the Mathematical Principles of the Theory of Wealth). His primary concern was the analysis of partial market equilibrium, which he based on the assumption that participants in the process of exchange are either producers or merchants whose goal is the maximization of profit.

He therefore ignored the concept of utility. His most important contributions were his discussions of supply-and-demand functions and of the establishment of equilibrium under conditions of monopoly, duopoly, and perfect competition; his analysis of the shifting of taxes, which he treated as changes in the cost of production; and his discussion of problems of international trade.

Cournot was the first economist to define and draw a demand curve to illustrate the relationship between price of and demand for a given item. He proceeded to show that the profit-maximizing output for a producer is reached when the marginal cost (the cost of producing one additional unit) equals the marginal revenue (the revenue realized from selling one additional unit). This work was lost until its rediscovery by Joan Robinson almost a century later. Moreover, Cournot introduced the idea of elasticity of demand, though he did not use that phrase.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1838
 
 
The Daguerre-Niepce method of photography presented by the physicist Francois Arago to the Academie des Sciences and the Academie des Beaux Arts, Paris
 
 
see also: Daguerre Louis - Niepce Nicephore - Arago Francois
 
 
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
 
 
General considerations
As a means of visual communication and expression, photography has distinct aesthetic capabilities. In order to understand them, one must first understand the characteristics of the process itself. One of the most important characteristics is immediacy. Usually, but not necessarily, the image that is recorded is formed by a lens in a camera. Upon exposure to the light forming the image, the sensitive material undergoes changes in its structure, a latent (but reversed) image usually called a negative is formed, and the image becomes visible by development and permanent by fixing with sodium thiosulfate, called “hypo.” With modern materials, the processing may take place immediately or may be delayed for weeks or months.

The essential elements of the image are usually established immediately at the time of exposure. This characteristic is unique to photography and sets it apart from other ways of picture making. The seemingly automatic recording of an image by photography has given the process a sense of authenticity shared by no other picture-making technique. The photograph possesses, in the popular mind, such apparent accuracy that the adage “the camera does not lie” has become an accepted, if erroneous, cliché.
 
 
This understanding of photography’s supposed objectivity has dominated evaluations of its role in the arts. In the early part of its history, photography was sometimes belittled as a mechanical art because of its dependence on technology. In truth, however, photography is not the automatic process that is implied by the use of a camera. Although the camera usually limits the photographer to depicting existing objects rather than imaginary or interpretive views, the skilled photographer can introduce creativity into the mechanical reproduction process. The image can be modified by different lenses and filters. The type of sensitive material used to record the image is a further control, and the contrast between highlight and shadow can be changed by variations in development. In printing the negative, the photographer has a wide choice in the physical surface of the paper, the tonal contrast, and the image colour. The photographer also may set up a completely artificial scene to photograph.

The most important control is, of course, the creative photographer’s vision. He or she chooses the vantage point and the exact moment of exposure. The photographer perceives the essential qualities of the subject and interprets it according to his or her judgment, taste, and involvement. An effective photograph can disseminate information about humanity and nature, record the visible world, and extend human knowledge and understanding. For all these reasons, photography has aptly been called the most important invention since the printing press.

  Inventing the medium

Antecedents

The forerunner of the camera was the camera obscura, a dark chamber or room with a hole (later a lens) in one wall, through which images of objects outside the room were projected on the opposite wall. The principle was probably known to the Chinese and to ancient Greeks such as Aristotle more than 2,000 years ago.

Late in the 16th century, the Italian scientist and writer Giambattista della Porta demonstrated and described in detail the use of a camera obscura with a lens. While artists in subsequent centuries commonly used variations on the camera obscura to create images they could trace, the results from these devices depended on the artist’s drawing skills, and so scientists continued to search for a method to reproduce images completely mechanically.

In 1727 the German professor of anatomy Johann Heinrich Schulze proved that the darkening of silver salts, a phenomenon known since the 16th century and possibly earlier, was caused by light and not heat. He demonstrated the fact by using sunlight to record words on the salts, but he made no attempt to preserve the images permanently.

His discovery, in combination with the camera obscura, provided the basic technology necessary for photography. It was not until the early 19th century, however, that photography actually came into being.

 
 

Louis Jacques Daguerre's first surviving daguerreotype image, of a collection of plaster casts on a window ledge, which he produced on a silver plate, in 1837
 
 
Early experiments

HELIOGRAPHY

Nicéphore Niépce, an amateur inventor living near Chalon-sur-Saône, a city 189 miles (304 km) southeast of Paris, was interested in lithography, a process in which drawings are copied or drawn by hand onto lithographic stone and then printed in ink. Not artistically trained, Niépce devised a method by which light could draw the pictures he needed. He oiled an engraving to make it transparent and then placed it on a plate coated with a light-sensitive solution of bitumen of Judea (a type of asphalt) and lavender oil and exposed the setup to sunlight. After a few hours, the solution under the light areas of the engraving hardened, while that under the dark areas remained soft and could be washed away, leaving a permanent, accurate copy of the engraving. Calling the process heliography (“sun drawing”), Niépce succeeded from 1822 onward in copying oiled engravings onto lithographic stone, glass, and zinc and from 1826 onto pewter plates.

In 1826/27, using a camera obscura fitted with a pewter plate, Niépce produced the first successful photograph from nature, a view of the courtyard of his country estate, Gras, from an upper window of the house. The exposure time was about eight hours, during which the sun moved from east to west so that it appears to shine on both sides of the building.

Niépce produced his most successful copy of an engraving, a portrait of Cardinal d’Amboise, in 1826. It was exposed in about three hours, and in February 1827 he had the pewter plate etched to form a printing plate and had two prints pulled. Paper prints were the final aim of Niépce’s heliographic process, yet all his other attempts, whether made by using a camera or by means of engravings, were underexposed and too weak to be etched. Nevertheless, Niépce’s discoveries showed the path that others were to follow with more success.

  DAGUERREOTYPE
Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre was a professional scene painter for the theatre. Between 1822 and 1839 he was coproprietor of the Diorama in Paris, an auditorium in which he and his partner Charles-Marie Bouton displayed immense paintings, 45.5 by 71.5 feet (14 by 22 metres) in size, of famous places and historical events. The partners painted the scenes on translucent paper or muslin and, by the careful use of changing lighting effects, were able to present vividly realistic tableaux. The views provided grand, illusionistic entertainment, and the amazing trompe l’oeil effect was purposely heightened by the accompaniment of appropriate music and the positioning of real objects, animals, or people in front of the painted scenery.

Like many other artists of his time, Daguerre made preliminary sketches by tracing the images produced by both the camera obscura and the camera lucida, a prism-fitted instrument that was invented in 1807. His attempt to retain the duplication of nature he perceived in the camera obscura’s ground glass led in 1829 to a partnership with Niépce, with whom he worked in person and by correspondence for the next four years. However, Daguerre’s interest was in shortening the exposure time necessary to obtain an image of the real world, while Niépce remained interested in producing reproducible plates. It appears that by 1835, three years after Niépce’s death, Daguerre had discovered that a latent image forms on a plate of iodized silver and that it can be “developed” and made visible by exposure to mercury vapour, which settles on the exposed parts of the image. Exposure times could thus be reduced from eight hours to 30 minutes. The results were not permanent, however; when the developed picture was exposed to light, the unexposed areas of silver darkened until the image was no longer visible. By 1837 Daguerre was able to fix the image permanently by using a solution of table salt to dissolve the unexposed silver iodide. That year he produced a photograph of his studio on a silvered copper plate, a photograph that was remarkable for its fidelity and detail.

 
 
Also that year, Niépce’s son Isidore signed an agreement with Daguerre affirming Daguerre as the inventor of a new process, “the daguerreotype.”

In 1839 Niépce’s son and Daguerre sold full rights to the daguerreotype and the heliograph to the French government, in return for annuities for life. On August 19 full working details were published. Daguerre wrote a booklet describing the process, An Historical and Descriptive Account of the Various Processes of the Daguerreotype and the Diorama, which at once became a best seller; 29 editions and translations appeared before the end of 1839.

 
 

"Boulevard du Temple", taken by Daguerre in 1838 in Paris, includes the earliest known candid photograph of a person. The image shows a street, but because of the over ten-minute exposure time the moving traffic does not appear. At the lower left, however, a man apparently having his boots polished, and the bootblack polishing them, were motionless enough for their images to be captured.
 
 
PHOTOGENIC DRAWING
The antecedents of photogenic drawing can be traced back to 1802, when Thomas Wedgwood, son of the famous potter Josiah Wedgwood, reported his experiments in recording images on paper or leather sensitized with silver nitrate. He could record silhouettes of objects placed on the paper, but he was not able to make them permanent. Sir Humphry Davy published a paper in the Journal of the Royal Institution, London, in June 1802, on the experiments of his friend Wedgwood; this was the first account of an attempt to produce photographs.

In 1833 the French-born photographer Hercules Florence worked with paper sensitized with silver salts to produce prints of drawings; he called this process “photography.” However, since he conducted his experiments in Brazil, apart from the major scientific centres of the time, his contributions were lost to history until 1973, when they were rediscovered. Others in Europe, including one woman, claimed to have discovered similar photographic processes, but no verifiable proof has come to light.

William Henry Fox Talbot, trained as a scientist at the University of Cambridge, could not draw his scientific observations, even with the aid of a camera lucida; this deficiency inspired him to invent a photographic process.

  He decided to try to record by chemical means the images he observed, and by 1835 he had a workable technique.

He made paper light-sensitive by soaking it alternately in solutions of common salt (sodium chloride) and silver nitrate. Silver chloride was thus produced in the fibres of the paper. Upon exposure to light, the silver chloride became finely divided silver, dark in tone. Theoretically, the resulting negative, in which tonal and spatial values were reversed, could be used to make any number of positives simply by putting fresh sensitized paper in contact with the negative and exposing it to light. Talbot’s method of fixing the print by washing it in a strong solution of sodium chloride was inadequate, however, and the process was not successful until February 1839, when his astronomer friend Sir John Herschel suggested fixing the negatives with sodium hyposulphite (now called sodium thiosulfate) and waxing them before printing, which reduced the grain of the paper.

When news of Daguerre’s process reached England in January 1839, Talbot rushed publication of his “photogenic drawing” process and subsequently explained his technique in complete detail to the members of the Royal Society—six months before the French government divulged working directions for the daguerreotype.

 
 
Early views of the medium’s potential
Photography’s remarkable ability to record a seemingly inexhaustible amount of detail was marveled at again and again. Still, from its beginnings, photography was compared—often unfavourably—with painting and drawing, largely because no other standards of picture making existed. Many were disappointed by the inability of the first processes to record colours and by the harshness of the tonal scale. Critics also pointed out that moving objects were not recorded or were rendered blurry and indistinct because of the great length of time required for an exposure.

Despite these deficiencies, many saw the technique of photography as a shortcut to art. No longer was it necessary to spend years in art school drawing from sculpture and from life, mastering the laws of linear perspective and chiaroscuro. Others saw these realizations as threatening. For example, upon first seeing the daguerreotype process demonstrated, the academic painter Paul Delaroche declared, “From today, painting is dead”; although he would later realize that the invention could actually aid artists, Delaroche’s initial reaction was indicative of that of many of his contemporaries. Such artists at first feared what Daguerre boasted in a 1838 broadsheet: “With this technique, without any knowledge of chemistry or physics, one will be able to make in a few minutes the most detailed views.”

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1838
 
 
Dulong Pierre-Louis
 

Pierre-Louis Dulong, (born Feb. 12, 1785, Rouen, Fr.—died July 18, 1838, Paris), chemist and physicist who helped formulate the Dulong–Petit law of specific heats (1819), which proved useful in determining atomic weights.

 

Pierre-Louis Dulong
  He was an assistant to Claude-Louis Berthollet, eventually became a professor of physics at the Polytechnical School, Paris (1820), and was appointed its director (1830).

While working in chemistry he impoverished himself purchasing equipment. During investigations of the highly explosive nitrogen trichloride, which he discovered in 1813, he lost the sight in one eye and nearly lost a hand.

His important research in physics was carried out with Alexis-Thérèse Petit. In 1817 they showed that Newton’s law of cooling was true only for small differences in temperature. Their work on the measurement of temperature and the transfer of heat (1818) was honoured by the French Academy.

A paper with Jöns Berzelius (1820) was concerned with fluid densities and water. With Louis-Jacques Thenard he explored the property of certain metals to facilitate combinations of gases. He also studied the refracting power of gases (1826) and the specific heat of gases (1829).

He published a study with François Arago of the elasticity of steam at high temperatures (1830). His last paper (1838) described experiments determining the heat evolved in a chemical reaction.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1838
 
 
Hyatt Alpheus
 

Alpheus Hyatt, (born April 5, 1838, Washington, D.C.—died Jan. 15, 1902, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.), U.S. zoologist and paleontologist who achieved eminence in the study of invertebrate fossil records, contributing to the understanding of the evolution of the cephalopods (a class of mollusks including squids and octopuses) and of the development of primitive organisms.

 

Alpheus Hyatt
  He studied at Harvard (1858–62) under the Swiss–U.S. naturalist Louis Agassiz and in 1867 was appointed curator of the Essex Institute at Salem, Mass.
He was professor of zoology and paleontology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1870 to 1888 and was curator of the Boston Society of Natural History from 1881 to 1902.

In 1886 he was appointed assistant for paleontology in the Cambridge Museum of Comparative Zoology and in 1889 was attached to the United States Geological Survey as paleontologist.
He rose to foremost rank among U.S. investigators in the field of invertebrate paleontology.

He was a founder and editor (1867–71) of The American Naturalist, the first American journal devoted to biological sciences, and was the chief founder of the American Society of Naturalists, acting as first president in 1883.

He also took a leading part in establishing the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Mass. (1888), and its predecessor at Annisquam, Mass.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1838
 
 
Muir John
 

John Muir, (born April 21, 1838, Dunbar, East Lothian, Scot.—died Dec. 24, 1914, Los Angeles, Calif., U.S.), Scottish-born American naturalist, writer, and advocate of U.S. forest conservation, who was largely responsible for the establishment of Sequoia National Park and Yosemite National Park, which are located in California.

 

John Muir, 1912
  Early life and travels
Muir emigrated from Scotland with his family to a farm near Portage, Wis., in 1849. In 1860 he traveled the short distance south to Madison, where he subsequently attended the University of Wisconsin until 1863.
After leaving Madison, Muir worked on mechanical inventions, but in 1867, when an industrial accident nearly cost him an eye, he abandoned that career and devoted himself to nature. He walked from the Midwest to the Gulf of Mexico, keeping a journal, A Thousand-Mile Walk to the Gulf (published posthumously in 1916), as he went. In 1868 he went to the Yosemite Valley in California.

From there he took many trips into Nevada, Utah, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska, inspired by his interest in glaciers and forests. In a series of articles published in 1874–75 in the magazine Overland Monthly, Muir attributed the spectacular Yosemite formations to glacial erosion; he was the first to present this theory, which is now generally accepted.

Role in conservation and preservation
As early as 1876, Muir urged the federal government to adopt a forest conservation policy. He became a central figure in the debate over land use, advocating on behalf of land preservation primarily through articles published in popular periodicals, such as Atlantic Monthly, The Century Magazine, and Harper’s New Monthly Magazine (now Harper’s Magazine).

 
 
Although initially finding common ground in the ideas of forest protection put forth by Gifford Pinchot, a pioneer of U.S. forestry and conservation, Muir’s views ultimately diverged. Whereas Pinchot supported the sustainable use of resources within national forests, Muir believed that national parks and forests should be preserved in their entirety, meaning that their resources should be rendered off-limits to industrial interests. Although Sequoia and Yosemite national parks were established in 1890, representing a victory for environmental protection, the debate between Pinchot’s utilitarian approach to forestry and Muir’s preservationist approach was far from over.
 
 

John Muir, 1875
  On May 28, 1892, Muir founded the Sierra Club, an organization devoted to protecting the environment. He served as its first president, a position he held until his death in 1914. The Sierra Club Bulletin, a publication for the organization’s members, provided a vital outlet for Muir, enabling him through his writing to raise awareness of environmental issues.

Early in 1897, Pres. Grover Cleveland designated 13 national forests to be preserved from commercial exploitation. However, business interests induced Congress to postpone the effect of that measure. Muir’s writings ultimately proved influential in swinging public opinion as well as congressional opinion in favour of national forest reservations. Muir influenced the large-scale conservation program that was initiated by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, who in 1903 accompanied Muir on a camping trip to the Yosemite region. In 1908 the government established Muir Woods National Monument in Marin county, Calif. Muir’s work was also influential in the establishment of Mount Rainier National Park (1899) in Washington state and Grand Canyon National Park (1919) in Arizona.

Lasting contributions
Muir’s enduring contributions to the conservation and preservation of America’s wilderness have been far-reaching. His conviction that wilderness areas should be federally protected as national parks has given generations of U.S. citizens an opportunity to appreciate America’s landscapes as they exist naturally, in the absence of human industrial influence. Muir’s writings continue to serve as sources of inspiration for naturalists and conservationists in the United States and worldwide.

 
 
The Mountains of California (1894), Our National Parks (1901), and The Yosemite (1912), as well as books published posthumously, including Travels in Alaska (1915), A Thousand-Mile Walk (1916), and The Cruise of the Corwin: Journal of the Arctic Expedition of 1881 in Search of De Long and the Jeannette (1917), remain important works in the body of literature on America’s natural history.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

John Muir, 1907
 
Mount Muir located one mile south of Mount Whitney in the High Sierra of California.
 
 
 
1838
 
 
Perkin William Henry
 

Sir William Henry Perkin, (born March 12, 1838, London, England—died July 14, 1907, Sudbury, near Harrow, Middlesex), British chemist who discovered aniline dyes.

 

Sir William Henry Perkin
  In 1853 Perkin entered the Royal College of Chemistry, London, where he studied under August Wilhelm von Hofmann.

While Perkin was working as Hofmann’s laboratory assistant, he undertook the synthesis of quinine. He obtained instead a bluish substance with excellent dyeing properties that later became known as aniline purple, Tyrian purple, or mauve.

In 1856 he obtained a patent for manufacturing the dye, and the next year, with the aid of his father and his brother Thomas, he set up an aniline manufacturing plant near Harrow.

In 1858 he and B.F. Duppa synthesized glycine in the first laboratory preparation of an amino acid. They synthesized tartaric acid in 1860. After Graebe and Liebermann announced their synthesis of the red dye alizarin, Perkin developed a cheaper procedure, obtained a patent for his process, and held a monopoly on its manufacture for several years.

In 1867 he discovered a chemical process for preparing unsaturated acids. The following year he used this process, which became known as the Perkin reaction, to synthesize coumarin, the first artificial perfume. He also investigated other dyes, salicyl alcohol, and flavourings.

 
 
About 1874 he abandoned manufacturing and devoted himself to research, not only studying chemical processes but also investigating the optical rotation of various substances. He was knighted in 1906, the 50th anniversary of his discovery of mauve.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1838
 
 
Stevens John
 

John Stevens, (born 1749, New York City—died March 6, 1838, Hoboken, N.J., U.S.), American lawyer, inventor, and promoter of the development of steam power for transportation. His petition to the U.S. Congress resulted in the Patent Law of 1790, the foundation of the present U.S. patent system.

 

John Stevens
  In 1776 Stevens became a captain in the American Revolutionary army and later was promoted to colonel. Afterward, he became interested in the exploits of the American steamboat pioneers James Rumsey and John Fitch, and he developed a number of designs of his own for boilers and engines.

It was with the view of protecting his inventions that he submitted to Congress his outline for a patent law.

In 1802 he built a screw-driven steamboat, the first example of a powered screw applied to ship propulsion. His steamboat also incorporated a multitubular boiler, for which he was awarded a patent in 1803.

The following year, Stevens completed an improved twin-screw steamboat that was successful in navigating the Hudson River.

Because of the inherent danger in using the high-pressure steam engines in his previous vessels, he began the design of a low-pressure engine to be used in a paddle-wheeled boat. Although the American inventor Robert Fulton successfully launched his own paddle wheeler, the Clermont, in 1807 before Stevens could finish, he persisted and launched the 100-foot (30-metre) Phoenix in 1809.

Since Fulton had a monopoly grant of navigation rights on the Hudson, Stevens sent the Phoenix to Philadelphia by sea, the first time a steamship ever navigated ocean waters. In 1811, at Philadelphia, he inaugurated the world’s first steam-ferry service.

 
 
In 1812 Stevens submitted plans to Congress for an armoured warship, but they were ignored. In that same year he published a pamphlet entitled Documents Tending to Prove the Superior Advantages of Rail-Ways and Steam-Carriages over Canal Navigation, in which he outlined many phases of railway transportation.

To demonstrate the feasibility of railroads, in 1825 he built the first American steam locomotive. It was never put into commercial service, however, and was run only on a 0.5-mile (0.8-kilometre) circular track on his estate in Hoboken.

In 1815 Stevens obtained from the New Jersey legislature the first charter ever granted in the United States for a railroad, and the Camden and Amboy Railroad and Transportation Company was formed in 1830.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Replica of John Stevens' steam carriage
 
 
 
1838
 
 
Zeppelin Ferdinand
 

Ferdinand, Graf von Zeppelin, in full Ferdinand Adolf August Heinrich, Graf von Zeppelin (born July 8, 1838, Konstanz, Baden—died March 8, 1917, Charlottenburg, near Berlin), first notable builder of rigid dirigible airships, for which his surname is still a popular generic term.

 

Ferdinand, Graf von Zeppelin
  Zeppelin received a military commission in 1858. He made the first of several balloon ascensions at St. Paul, Minnesota, while acting as a military observer (1863) for the Union Army during the American Civil War. He saw military action in 1866 during the Seven Weeks’ War and in 1870–71 during the Franco-German War, serving successively in the armies of Württemberg, Prussia, and imperial Germany. He retired in 1890 and devoted the rest of his life to the creation of the rigid airship for which he is known.

Zeppelin struggled for 10 years to produce his lighter-than-air craft. The initial flight (July 2, 1900) of the LZ-1 from a floating hangar on Lake Constance, near Friedrichshafen, Germany, was not entirely successful, but it had the effect of promoting the airship to the degree that public subscriptions and donations thereafter funded the count’s work. The German government was quick to perceive the advantage of airships over the as yet poorly developed airplanes, and when Zeppelin achieved 24-hour flight in 1906, he received commissions for an entire fleet.
More than 100 zeppelins were used for military operations in World War I. A passenger service known as Delag (Deutsche-Luftschiffahrts AG) was established in 1910, but Zeppelin died before attaining his goal of transcontinental flight.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

First flight of the LZ 1
 
 
 
1838
 
 
Belleny John
 

John Balleny (died 1857) was the English captain of a whaling schooner, the Eliza Scott, who led an exploration cruise for the English whaling firm Samuel Enderby & Sons to the Antarctic in 1838-1839.

 
During this expedition, Balleny, sailing in company with Thomas Freeman and the Sabrina, sailed into the Southern Ocean along a corridor of longitude centering on the line of 175°E., south of New Zealand. The Balleny squadron logged a partial break in the pack ice surrounding the southern continent, discovered the Balleny Islands in February 1839, and caught a brief sight of Antarctica itself at 64°58'S., 121°08'E. This patch of icy land is today called the Sabrina Coast.

The Balleny corridor through the Southern Ocean would be used by future explorers such as Robert Scott, Ernest Shackleton, Roald Amundsen, and Richard Byrd, and is used today by surface vessels resupplying McMurdo and other scientific bases located in and around the Ross Sea sector of Antarctica.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 
see also: Charting the Coastline
 
 
 
1838
 
 
United States Exploring Expedition
 

The United States Exploring Expedition was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean and surrounding lands conducted by the United States from 1838 to 1842.

 
The original appointed commanding officer was Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones. Funding for the original expedition was requested by President John Quincy Adams in 1828, however, Congress would not implement funding until eight years later. In May 1836 the oceanic exploration voyage was finally authorized by Congress and created by President Andrew Jackson. The expedition is sometimes called the "U.S. Ex. Ex." for short, or the "Wilkes Expedition" in honor of its next appointed commanding officer, United States Navy Lieutenant Charles Wilkes. The expedition was of major importance to the growth of science in the United States, in particular the then-young field of oceanography. During the event, armed conflict between Pacific islanders and the expedition was not uncommon and dozens of natives were killed in action, as well as a few Americans.
 
 
Preparations
In May, 1828, the United States Congress, after prodding by President John Quincy Adams, voted to send an expedition around the world with the understanding that the country would derive great benefit. It was to promote commerce and to offer protection to the heavy investment in the whaling and seal hunting industries, chiefly in the Pacific Ocean. Congress also agreed that a public ship or ships should be used. At the time, the only ships owned by the government capable of such a circumnavigation were those of the navy. So, in fact, Congress had decided that a naval expedition be authorized. The veteran US Sloop-of-war Peacock (1813) was decommissioned and broken down in 1827 to rebuilt as USS Peacock (1828), intended as an exploration ship. There were to be many unforeseen impediments and it was not until May 18, 1836, that an act was passed, which authorized funding, and approved by President Andrew Jackson, Adams' political rival. Even with the burden of finance lifted, there were another two years of alteration of formation and command before six oddly assorted ships moved down from Norfolk to Hampton Roads on August 9, 1838. On August 17, after being joined by the tenders Sea Gull and Flying-Fish which delivered Lieutenant Wilkes final orders and at 15:00 hours the afternoon of 18 August the vessels weighed anchor. Due to light breezes the expedition did not discharge their pilots until 09:00 August 19 when they passed Cape Henry Light. By 11:00 the small fleet was standing to open seas.
  Originally the expedition was first organized under Commodore Jones, however he subsequently resigned the station. Several more senior officers had either resigned from or indicated their unwillingness to accept command of the expedition. Command was finally vested in Lieutenant Wilkes. The three duties laid down were daunting to officers trained only in fighting ships. In addition to exploration, the naval squadron was tasked with the duties to survey both the newly found areas and survey other areas previously discovered, but about which there was insufficient knowledge. As well, an all-civilian scientific corps was to be included as an additional command responsibility. There were few officers in the American navy at that time with any surveying experience and none with a background of working alongside scientists. The United States Coast Survey, where most of the surveyors were employed and learned their trade, was a civilian organization. Wilkes, who had largely trained himself in surveying work, cut the excessively large number of scientists down to nine. He then reserved for himself, and other naval officers, some of the scientific duties, including all those connected with surveying and cartography.

Personnel included naturalists, botanists, a mineralogist, taxidermists and a philologist, and was carried by the sloops-of-war USS Vincennes , of 780 tons, and USS Peacock of 650 tons, the brig USS Porpoise, of 230 tons, the full-rigged ship Relief, which served as a store-ship, and two schooners, Sea Gull, of 110 tons and USS Flying Fish of 96 tons which served as tenders.

 
 
Coincidentally, Commodore George C. Read in command of the East India Squadron aboard the flagship frigate USS Columbia, together with the frigate USS John Adams, were at the time in the process of circumnavigating the globe when the ships paused for the second Sumatran punitive expedition, which required no detour.
 
 

USS Vincennes at Disappointment Bay, Antarctica in early 1840
 
 
Route of the expedition
Upon clearing the Cape Henry Light at 09:00 on Saturday, August 19, 1838, Wilkes laid in his course for Rio de Janeiro. By orders, he was to survey certain reported vigias, or shoals at latitude 10° south and between longitudes 18° and 22° west. Due to the prevailing winds at this season, the squadron made an easterly tack of the Atlantic.

The squadron arrived at the harbor of Funchal in the Madeira Islands on September 16, 1838. After completing some repairs, the group moved southward and arrived on October 7 at the bay of Porto Praya, Cape Verde Islands, and eventually arrived at Rio de Janeiro on November 23. The entire passage from the United States to Brazil took ninety-five days, about twice the time normally for a vessel proceeding directly. Due to repairs needed by the Peacock, the Squadron did not leave Rio de Janeiro until January 6, 1839. From there, they moved southward to Buenos Aires and the mouth of the Río Negro, and passed a French naval blockade of Argentina's seaports. The European powers at the time, with the aid of Brazil, were involved in the internal affairs of the Argentine Republic. However, since the Americans had reduced their military profile prior to departure from the United States, they were not molested by the French warships.

Following this beginning, the squadron visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, and Peru. The USS Sea Gull and its crew of fifteen were lost during a South American coastal storm in May, 1839. From South America, the expedition visited the Tuamotu Archipelago, Samoa and New South Wales, Australia. In December 1839, the expedition sailed from Sydney into the Antarctic Ocean and reported the discovery "of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny Islands". That part of Antarctica was later named Wilkes Land.

Because of discrepancies in the logs of the various ships of the Wilkes expedition, and suggestions that these may have been subsequently altered, there is a controversy between the Wilkes expedition, who saw an "ice island" 175 km from the coast on January 16 then the coast itself on January 25, and the French expedition of Jules Dumont d'Urville who saw the coast about 400 km westward on January 20 and disembarked on an islet of Geologie Archipelago, 4 km from the mainland, on January 22 to take mineral, algae and animal samples, on who was the first to sight the Antarctic mainland coast in this vicinity. The controversy was added to by the actions of the commander of the USS Porpoise, Lieutenant Cadwalader Ringgold, who, after sighting d'Urville's Astrolabe deliberately avoided contact.

  In February 1840, some of the expedition were present at the initial signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in New Zealand.

After sighting the Astrolabe, the expedition visited Fiji. In July 1840, two members of the party, Lieutenant Underwood and Wilkes' nephew, Midshipman Wilkes Henry, were killed while bartering for food in western Fiji's Malolo Island. The cause of this event remains equivocal. Immediately prior to their deaths the son of the local chief, who was being held as a hostage by the Americans, escaped by jumping out of the boat and running through the shallow water for shore. The Americans fired over his head. According to members of the expedition party on the boat, his escape was intended as a prearranged signal by the Fijians to attack. According to those on shore, the shooting actually precipitated the attack on the ground. The Americans landed sixty sailors to attack the hostile natives. Close to eighty Fijians were killed in the resulting American reprisal and two villages were burned to the ground.

In 1841, the expedition explored the west coast of South America and North America, including the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound, and the Columbia River. After Fiji, the expedition sailed to Hull Island, later known as Orona, and the Hawaiian Islands. Like his predecessor, British explorer George Vancouver, Wilkes spent a good deal of time near Bainbridge Island. He noted the bird-like shape of the harbor at Winslow and named it Eagle Harbor. Continuing his fascination with bird names, he named Bill Point and Wing Point. Port Madison, Washington and Points Monroe and Jefferson were named in honor of former United States presidents. Port Ludlow was assigned to honor Lieutenant Augustus Ludlow, who lost his life during the War of 1812.

In April 1841 USS Peacock, under Lieutenant William L. Hudson, and USS Flying Fish, surveyed Drummond's Island, which was named for an American of the expedition. Lieutenant Hudson heard from a member of his crew that a ship had wrecked off the island and her crew massacred by the Gilbertese. A woman and her child were said to be the only survivors, so Hudson decided to land a small force of marines and sailors, under William M. Walker, to search the island. Initially, the natives were peaceful and the Americans were able to explore the island, without results. It was when the party was returning to their ship that Hudson noticed a member of his crew was missing. After making another search, the man was not found and the natives began arming themselves. Lieutenant Walker returned his force to the ship, to converse with Hudson, who ordered Walker to return to shore and demand the return of the sailor.

 
 

The attack on Malolo by Alfred Agate.
 
 
Walker then reboarded his boats with his landing party and headed to shore. Walker shouted his demand and the natives charged for him, forcing the boats to turn back to the ships. It was decided on the next day that the Americans would bombard the hostiles and land again. While doing this a force of around 700 Gilbertese warriors opposed the American assault, but were defeated after a long battle. No Americans were hurt, but twelve natives were killed and others were wounded, and two villages were also destroyed. A similar episode occurred two months before in February when the Peacock and the Flying Fish briefly bombarded the island of Upolu, Samoa following the death of an American merchant sailor on the island.

The Peacock was lost in July 1841 on the Columbia River, though with no loss of life, thanks to a canoe rescue by John Dean, an African American servant of the Vincennes purser, and a group of Chinook Indians. Dean also rescued the expedition's artist, Alfred Agate, along with his paintings and drawings. Upon learning that the Peacock had foundered on the Columbia River Bar, Wilkes interrupted his work in the San Juan Islands and sailed south. He never returned to Puget Sound.

From the area of modern-day Portland, Oregon, an overland party headed by George F. Emmons was directed to proceed via an inland route to San Francisco Bay. This Emmons party traveled south along the Siskiyou Trail, including the Sacramento River, making the first official recorded visit by Americans to, and scientific note of, Mount Shasta, in northern California.

 
 
The Emmons party rejoined the ships, which had sailed south, in San Francisco Bay. The squadron surveyed San Francisco and its tributaries, and later produced a map of "Upper California". The expedition then headed back out into the Pacific, including a visit to Wake Island in 1841, and returned by way of the Philippines, the Sulu Archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on June 10, 1842.

The expedition was plagued by poor relationships between Wilkes and his subordinate officers throughout. Wilkes' self-proclaimed status as captain and commodore, accompanied by the flying of the requisite pennant

and the wearing of a captain's uniform while being commissioned only as a Lieutenant, rankled heavily with other members of the expedition of similar real rank. His apparent mistreatment of many of his subordinates, and indulgence in punishments such as "flogging round the fleet" resulted in a major controversy upon his return to America.

Wilkes was court-martialled on his return, but was acquitted on all charges except that of illegally punishing men in his squadron.

  The publication program
For a short time Wilkes was attached to the Coast Survey, but from 1844 to 1861 he was chiefly engaged in preparing the report of the expedition. Twenty-eight volumes were planned but only nineteen were published. Of these Wilkes wrote the Narrative of 1845 and the volumes Hydrography and Meteorology of 1851. The Narrative contains much interesting material concerning the manners and customs and political and economic conditions in many places then little known.

Other valuable contributions were the three reports of James Dwight Dana on Zoophytes, of 1846, Geology, 1849, and Crustacea of 1852 to 1854. In addition to many shorter articles and reports, Wilkes published the major scientific works Western America, including California and Oregon, 1849, and Theory of the Winds of 1856. The Smithsonian Institution digitized the five volume Narrative and the accompanying scientific volumes. The mismanagement and bungling that plagued the expedition prior to its departure continued after its completion.
By June 1848 many of the specimens had been lost or damaged and many remained unidentified. Asa Gray was hired for five years, including the first one being at the herbariums in Europe, to work on the botanical specimens.
 
 

The Pacific Northwest. An 1841 Map of Oregon Territory.
from "Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition." Philadelphia, 1845.
 
 
Significance of the expedition
The Wilkes Expedition played a major role in development of 19th-century science, particularly in the growth of the American scientific establishment. Many of the species and other items found by the expedition helped form the basis of collections at the new Smithsonian Institution.

With the help of the expedition's scientists, derisively called "clam diggers" and "bug catchers" by navy crew members, 280 islands, mostly in the Pacific, were explored, and over 800 miles of Oregon were mapped. Of no less importance, over 60,000 plant and bird specimens were collected. A staggering amount of data and specimens were collected during the expedition, including the seeds of 648 species, which were later traded, planted, and sent throughout the country. Dried specimens were sent to the National Herbarium, now a part of the Smithsonian Institution. There were also 254 live plants, which mostly came from the home stretch of the journey, that were placed in a newly constructed greenhouse in 1850, which later became the United States Botanic Garden.

Alfred Thomas Agate, engraver and illustrator, created an enduring record of traditional cultures such as the illustrations made of the dress and tattoo patterns of natives of the Ellice Islands (now Tuvalu).

A collection of artifacts from the expedition also went to the National Institute for the Promotion of Science, a precursor of the Smithsonian Institution. These joined artifacts from American history as the first artifacts in the Smithsonian collection.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Wilkes Charles
 

Charles Wilkes, (born April 3, 1798, New York City—died Feb. 8, 1877, Washington, D.C.), U.S. naval officer who explored the region of Antarctica named for him.

 

Charles Wilkes
  Wilkes entered the navy as a midshipman in 1818, became a lieutenant in 1826, and in 1830 was placed in charge of the depot of instruments and charts from which the Naval Observatory and Hydrographic Office developed.

From 1838 to 1842 he commanded an exploring and surveying expedition that took him ultimately into the Antarctic Ocean and along the Antarctic barrier, where he reported land at a number of points in the region subsequently known as Wilkes Land. He visited islands in the Pacific, explored the West Coast of the United States, then recrossed the Pacific and reached New York in June 1842, having sailed completely around the world. He was advanced to the rank of commander in 1843. From 1844 to 1861 he prepared the report of his expedition, writing himself 7 of its 19 volumes.

Assigned to the “San Jacinto” during the U.S. Civil War (1861–65), Wilkes caused an international incident by stopping the British mail steamer “Trent” (Nov. 8, 1861) and removing two Confederate commissioners en route to Europe. His action was later disavowed by President Lincoln to avoid a break with Great Britain. Commissioned commodore in 1862, he commanded a squadron sent to the West Indies to protect U.S. commerce there. His actions brought protests of neutrality violations from several foreign governments, and he was court-martialled in 1864 for insubordination and conduct unbecoming an officer and suspended from duty.

He was commissioned rear admiral, retired, on July 25, 1866.

 
 
Wilkes also wrote Western America, Including California and Oregon (1849); Voyage Around the World (1849); and Theory of the Winds (1856).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1838
 
 
Hill Octavia
 
Octavia Hill, (born Dec. 3, 1838, Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, Eng.—died Aug. 13, 1912, London), leader of the British open-space movement, which resulted in the foundation (1895) of the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty.
 

Octavia Hill by John Singer Sargent, 1898
  She was also a housing reformer whose methods of housing-project management were imitated in Great Britain, on the Continent, and in the United States.

Hill was greatly influenced by John Ruskin, whom she met in 1853.

Using money lent her by Ruskin, she established (1864) the first of her housing projects in a slum area of St. Marylebone borough, London.

The next year she took over the direction of other housing projects, and later (1884) the Ecclesiastical Commissioners put her in charge of their property in Southwark, London, where she trained other women to manage mass housing.

In 1869 Hill and Edward Denison founded the Charity Organisation Society to investigate the living conditions and the mode of life of the poor.

Her crusade for preserving open spaces was a consequence of her knowledge of the crowded environment of the poor people in London.

In her various enterprises she was assisted by several of her sisters, especially Miranda (1836–1910), herself a noted teacher and reformer.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1838
 
 
Navy statistics: Great Britain has 90 ships of the line, Russia 50, France 49, America 15
 
 
 
1838
 
 
The first traveling post office, running between Birmingham and Liverpool, England
 
 
 
1838
 
 
Wanamaker John
 

John Wanamaker (July 11, 1838 – December 12, 1922) was a United States merchant, religious leader, civic and political figure, considered by some to a proponent of advertising and a "pioneer in marketing." He served as U.S. Postmaster General. Wanamaker was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

 

John Wanamaker
  John Wanamaker, (born July 11, 1838, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died Dec. 12, 1922, Philadelphia), merchant and founder of one of the first American department stores.

Wanamaker began work at age 14 as an errand boy for a bookstore and served as secretary of the Philadelphia YMCA from 1857 to 1861.

In 1861 he established with Nathan Brown the clothing firm of Brown and Wanamaker, a partnership that ended with Brown’s death in 1868.

In 1869 he founded John Wanamaker and Company and in 1875 bought the freight depot of the Pennsylvania Railroad to house the store. A “new kind of store,” it collected specialty shops under one roof and soon became one of the largest department stores in the nation. Wanamaker also acquired the former A.T. Stewart Store in New York City in 1896.

The two Wanamaker’s stores remained among the nation’s largest and most innovative department stores under the direction of John’s son Lewis Rodman Wanamaker (1863–1928).

John Wanamaker was noted for his successful use of advertising, and he was one of the first major merchandisers to employ advertising agencies. From 1889 to 1893 he served as U.S. postmaster general.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1838
 
 
Woodhull Victoria
 

Victoria Woodhull, née Victoria Claflin (born Sept. 23, 1838, Homer, Ohio, U.S.—died June 9, 1927, Bredon’s Norton, Worcestershire, Eng.), unconventional American reformer, who at various times championed such diverse causes as woman suffrage, free love, mystical socialism, and the Greenback movement. She was also the first woman to run for the U.S. presidency (1872).

 

Victoria Woodhull
  Born into a poor and eccentric family, Victoria Claflin traveled with her sister Tennessee in a family medicine and fortune-telling show, offering psychic and other remedies to the public. Even after her marriage to Canning Woodhull at age 15, she continued to give demonstrations in clairvoyance with her sister. After divorcing Woodhull in 1864, she was said to have been married to Colonel James H. Blood, who introduced her to a number of 19th-century reform movements.

In 1868 (moved by a vision of Demosthenes, Woodhull claimed), the sisters traveled to New York City, where they met the recently widowed Cornelius Vanderbilt, who was interested in spiritualism. He set them up in a stockbrokerage firm, Woodhull, Claflin, & Company, which opened in January 1870 and, in part through its novelty and in larger part owing to the sisters’ native shrewdness, was quite successful. With their considerable profits they founded in 1870 Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly, a women’s rights and reform magazine that espoused such causes as a single moral standard for men and women, legalized prostitution, and dress reform. Much of each issue was written by Stephen Pearl Andrews, promoter of the utopian social system he called “Pantarchy”—a theory rejecting conventional marriage and advocating a perfect state of free love combined with communal management of children and property. Woodhull expounded her version of these ideas in a series of articles in the New York Herald in 1870 that were collected in Origin, Tendencies and Principles of Government (1871).

 
 
Woodhull’s ardent speeches on woman suffrage, notably in January 1871 before the Judiciary Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, won her at least tentative acceptance by woman suffrage leaders, who until then had been put off by both her newspaper and her reputation. Invited into the National Woman Suffrage Association by Susan B. Anthony, Woodhull soon became a rival for leadership.
 
 

Victoria Woodhull
  When a dissident group called the National Radical Reformers broke away from the NWSA in 1872, Woodhull—by then an accomplished public speaker—was nominated for the presidency by the Equal Rights Party.

By mid-1872 Woodhull’s troubles had begun to mount. Her ex-husband reappeared and took up residence with her and her current husband, thus providing rich new material for her enemies. No longer enjoying the backing of Vanderbilt, Woodhull was forced to suspend publication of her Weekly that summer (it had recently published the first English-language version of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels’s Communist Manifesto).

Woodhull responded to critics of her morals by hurling back charges of her own. She published a full report of an alleged liaison between the highly respected Reverend Henry Ward Beecher and a married parishioner. For this act Woodhull and her sister were promptly jailed under a statute forbidding the passage of obscene materials through the mail. After seven months of litigation the sisters were acquitted of the charge.

Woodhull divorced Blood in 1876, and when Vanderbilt died, in the following year, the sisters went to England—the trip apparently financed by the Vanderbilt heirs to prevent a challenge to the will. In London a lecture by Woodhull charmed a wealthy English banker, John Biddulph Martin, who proposed to her. Objections by his family, however, prevented their marriage until 1883. Woodhull and her sister became widely known for their philanthropy and were largely accepted in high British social circles.

 
 
Woodhull’s later publications include Stirpiculture, or the Scientific Propagation of the Human Race (1888), Garden of Eden: Allegorical Meaning Revealed (1889), The Human Body the Temple of God (1890; with her sister), and Humanitarian Money: The Unsolved Riddle (1892). From 1892 to 1901 she published with her daughter, Zula Maud Woodhull, the Humanitarian magazine devoted to eugenics. Although Victoria returned on occasion to the United States, she lived in England until her death.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Victoria Woodhull
 
Get thee behind me, (Mrs.) Satan!" 1872 caricature by Thomas Nast: Wife, carrying heavy burden of children and drunk husband, admonishing (Mrs.) Satan (Victoria Woodhull), "I'd rather travel the hardest path of matrimony than follow your footsteps." Mrs. Satan's sign reads, "Be saved by free love."
 
 
 

 
 
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