Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1836 Part IV NEXT-1837 Part II    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

The Battle of Saint-Eustache, Lower Canada (December 14, 1837)
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1837 Part I
 
 
 
1837
 
 
William IV, King of Great Britain, d. (b. 1765); his death terminates personal union between Great Britain and Hanover
 
 
William IV, King of Great Britain
 

William IV, also called (1789–1830) Prince William Henry, Duke Of Clarence, German Wilhelm Heinrich, byname The Sailor King (born Aug. 21, 1765, London—died June 20, 1837, Windsor Castle, near London), king of Great Britain and Ireland and king of Hanover from June 26, 1830. Personally opposed to parliamentary reform, he grudgingly accepted the epochal Reform Act of 1832, which, by transferring representation from depopulated “rotten boroughs” to industrialized districts, reduced the power of the British crown and the landowning aristocracy over the government.

 

William IV, painted by Sir Martin Archer Shee, 1833
  The third son of King George III, he entered the Royal Navy at the age of 13, fought in the American Revolution, and, while serving in the West Indies, formed a close friendship with the future naval hero Horatio (afterward Viscount) Nelson. When he left the sea in 1790, however, he had become unpopular with many other fellow officers and had angered his father by his numerous love affairs. Between 1794 and 1807 he had 10 illegitimate children (surnamed FitzClarence) by the Irish comedienne Dorothea Jordan. His marriage (July 11, 1818) to Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen produced two daughters, both of whom died in infancy. On William’s death, therefore, the British crown passed to his niece Princess Victoria, and the Hanoverian crown passed to his brother Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland.

The Duke became heir presumptive on the death (Nov. 6, 1817) of Princess Charlotte Augusta, only legitimate child of his older brother, the Prince Regent (afterward King George IV, reigned 1820–30). In April 1827 the new prime minister, George Canning, revived for him the office of lord high admiral, but he was forced to resign in August 1828, when the Duke of Wellington was premier. After succeeding George IV as king, William proved to be less brilliant but also less selfish and more attentive to official business than his brother had been.

In May 1832 the prime minister, Charles Grey, the 2nd Earl Grey, asked the King to create at least 50 new peers to overcome the House of Lords majority hostile to parliamentary reform.

 
 
At first William refused, but after Wellington had failed to form a Tory (Conservative) ministry, Grey’s Whigs resumed office with the King’s written promise to create enough peers to carry the Reform Bill. The Lords, sufficiently threatened, allowed the bill to pass. As a consequence of redistricting, Sir Robert Peel’s Tories were unable to gain a Commons majority in the election of January 1835; and from April of that year the King had to deal with an uncongenial Whig premier, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whom he had previously dismissed.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Relationships and marriage
From 1791 William lived for 20 years with an Irish actress, Dorothea Bland, better known by her stage name, Mrs. Jordan, the title "Mrs." being assumed at the start of her stage career to explain an inconvenient pregnancy and "Jordan" because she had "crossed the water" from Ireland to Britain.
 
William was part of the first generation to grow to maturity under the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which forbade descendants of George II from marrying unless they obtained the monarch's consent, or, if over the age of 25, giving twelve months' notice to the Privy Council. Several of George III's sons, including William, chose to cohabit with the women they loved, rather than seeking a wife. Having legitimate issue was not a primary concern; as William was one of the younger sons of George III, he was not expected to figure in the succession, which was considered secure once the Prince of Wales married and had a daughter, Princess Charlotte, second-in-line to the throne. William appeared to enjoy the domesticity of his life with Mrs. Jordan, remarking to a friend: "Mrs. Jordan is a very good creature, very domestic and careful of her children. To be sure she is absurd sometimes and has her humours. But there are such things more or less in all families." The couple, while living quietly, enjoyed entertaining, with Mrs. Jordan writing in late 1809: "We shall have a full and merry house this Christmas, 'tis what the dear Duke delights in." George III was accepting of his son's relationship with the actress (though recommending that he halve her allowance) and in 1797, created William Ranger of Bushy Park, which included a large residence, Bushy House, for William's growing family. William used Bushy as his principal residence until he became king. His London residence, Clarence House, was constructed to the designs of John Nash between 1825 and 1827.

The couple had ten illegitimate children—five sons and five daughters—nine of whom were named after William's siblings; each was given the surname "FitzClarence".

 
Mrs. Jordan in the Character of Hypolita, mezzotint by John Jones of London, 1791, after a painting by John Hoppner
 
 
Their affair lasted for twenty years before ending in 1811. Mrs. Jordan had no doubt as to the reason for the break-up: "Money, money, my good friend, has, I am convinced made HIM at this moment the most wretched of men," adding, "With all his excellent qualities, his domestic virtues, his love for his lovely children, what must he not at this moment suffer?" She was given a financial settlement of £4,400 (equal to £278,600 today) per year and custody of her daughters on condition that she did not resume the stage. When she resumed acting in an effort to repay debts incurred by the husband of one of her daughters from a previous relationship, William took custody of the daughters and stopped paying the £1,500 (equal to £91,500 today) designated for their maintenance. After Mrs. Jordan's acting career began to fail, she fled to France to escape her creditors, and died, impoverished, near Paris in 1816.

Before he met Mrs. Jordan, William had an illegitimate son whose mother is unknown; the son, also called William, drowned off Madagascar in HMS Blenheim in February 1807. Caroline von Linsingen, whose father was a general in the Hanoverian infantry, claimed to have had a son, Heinrich, by William in around 1790 but William was not in Hanover at the time that she claims and the story is considered implausible by historians.

Deeply in debt, William made multiple attempts at marrying a wealthy heiress, but his suits were unsuccessful. Following the death of William's niece Charlotte, then second-in-line to the British throne, in 1817, the king was left with twelve children, but no legitimate grandchildren.

The race was on among the royal dukes to marry and produce an heir. William had great advantages in this race—his two older brothers were both childless and estranged from their wives, who were both beyond childbearing age anyway, and William was the healthiest of the three.

 
 
If he lived long enough, he would almost certainly ascend the British and Hanoverian thrones, and have the opportunity to sire the next monarch. William's initial choices to wed either met with the disapproval of his eldest brother, the Prince of Wales, or turned him down. William's younger brother Adolphus, the Duke of Cambridge, was sent to Germany to scout out the available Protestant princesses; he came up with Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel, but her father Frederick declined the match. Two months later, the Duke of Cambridge married Augusta himself. Eventually, a princess was found who was amicable, home-loving, and was willing to accept, even enthusiastically welcoming of William's nine surviving children, several of whom had not yet reached adulthood. At Kew on 11 July 1818, William married Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, the daughter of George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. At 25, Adelaide was half William's age. Their marriage, which lasted almost twenty years until William's death, was a happy one. Adelaide took both William and his finances in hand. For their first year of marriage, the couple lived in economical fashion in Germany, and William's debts were soon on the way to being paid, especially since Parliament had voted him an increased allowance, which he reluctantly accepted after his requests to increase it further were refused. William is not known to have had mistresses after his marriage. The couple had two short-lived daughters and Adelaide suffered three miscarriages. Despite this, false rumours that Adelaide was pregnant persisted into William's reign—he dismissed them as "damned stuff".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Adelaide Amelia Louisa Theresa Caroline of Saxe-Coburg Meiningen, portrait by Sir William Beechey, c.1831
 
 
 
1837
 
 
Michigan becomes a state of the U.S.
 
 
Michigan
 

Michigan, constituent state of the United States of America. Although by the size of its land Michigan ranks only 23rd of the 50 states, the inclusion of the Great Lakes waters over which it has jurisdiction increases its area considerably, placing it 10th. The capital is Lansing, in south-central Michigan. The state’s name is derived from michi-gama, an Ojibwa (Chippewa) word meaning “large lake.”

 
Michigan is the only one of the states to be split into two large land segments: the sparsely populated but mineral-rich Upper Peninsula (commonly called “the U.P.”) slices eastward from northern Wisconsin between Lakes Superior and Michigan, and the mitten-shaped Lower Peninsula reaches northward from Indiana and Ohio. Indeed, for most Michigan residents, an upturned right hand serves as a ready-made map for roughly locating towns, routes, regions, parks, or any other feature of the Lower Peninsula. The two landmasses have been connected since 1957 by “Big Mac,” the 5-mile (8-km) Mackinac Bridge across the Straits of Mackinac, which separate Lake Michigan on the west from Lake Huron on the east. Between Lake Huron and Lake Erie, in the southeast, the Lower Peninsula is separated from the Canadian province of Ontario by Lake St. Clair and the St. Clair and Detroit rivers. The St. Marys River, which flows from Lake Superior to Lake Huron, forms the international boundary between the Upper Peninsula and Ontario.
 
 

Michigan
 
 
Since its admission on Jan. 26, 1837, as the 26th state of the Union and the fourth to be carved from the Northwest Territory, Michigan has become a mainspring in the economic life of the United States; the name of its largest city, Detroit, has become a byword throughout the world for the American automotive industry. The state also has retained its prominence in agriculture and, to a lesser extent, forestry. In addition, because of its many inland lakes, its borders on four of the five Great Lakes, and its many wilderness tracts, Michigan has evolved into one of the country’s leading tourist destinations.

Michigan’s population is primarily urban, concentrated in the industrialized centres of the southern Lower Peninsula. Many have been attracted by the union-dominated labour pool, and the state’s urban populations reflect a broad spectrum of ethnic, economic, educational, and professional backgrounds. Such socioeconomic diversity has given rise to an environment in which affluence and poverty often exist side by side; nowhere is this better exemplified than in the Detroit metropolitan region. The state government coordinates a vast network of programs that aim to reduce such contrasts. Michigan’s system of public higher education has consistently remained among the strongest, most diverse, and most widely respected in the country. Area 96,713 square miles (250,486 square km). Population (2010) 9,883,640; (2013 est.) 9,895,622.

History
The earliest inhabitants

In the 17th century, the Native American population of what is present-day Michigan included the Ottawa, Ojibwa, Miami, and Potawatomi nations, all of which belonged to the Algonquian linguistic group. Together, the Ottawa, Ojibwa, and Potawatomi formed a loose alliance known as the “Three Fires.” Smaller numbers of Huron (Wyandot) groups, including members of the Wendat confederacy—all speakers of Iroquoian languages—were located primarily in southeastern Michigan.

At the time of initial contact with Europeans, all of these peoples engaged in agriculture and fishing, as well as in hunting and gathering activities. The proportion of time spent on each depended on the quantity and reliability of local wild foods, the most important of which were wild rice (for those living in lakeside environments); semidomesticated seed-bearing plants, mostly from the Amaranthaceae family (for those living in inland environments); deer; and fish. The key crops were corn (maize), beans, and squash.

  European settlement
Étienne Brulé was the first European to visit the area, in 1622. He was the forerunner of numerous missionaries, fur traders, and explorers (many seeking a water route to the Pacific Ocean) who helped pave the way for French control of Michigan. Although some of the region’s indigenous peoples and the newcomers initially engaged in skirmishes, these soon gave way to more amiable relationships. Many native individuals became fur trappers, trade middlemen, or guides, while others, particularly women, focused on providing food to the French settlements. In turn, the French provided knives, axes, guns, metal utensils and jewelry, glass beads, cloth, and alcohol. A number of formal alliances were made between tribal and French communities, as were many personal alliances. The latter were often cemented by marriage—the Algonquians, Huron, and French were all accustomed to using the institution as a means of joining extended families.

The oldest European settlement in Michigan is Sault Sainte Marie, founded by the French in 1668 at a site where in 1641 missionaries had held services for some 2,000 Ojibwa. In 1701 Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac established Detroit as a fur-trading centre and administrative post; it soon became the leading French community in the entire Great Lakes area. The French, and later the British and Americans, also maintained Fort Michilimackinac at the strategic Straits of Mackinac between Lake Huron and Lake Michigan.

The period from the late 17th century to the beginning of the 19th century saw France, Great Britain, and other European powers engaged in a near-constant state of warfare that often included actions in the colonies. In the midst of the Seven Years’ War (1756–63; in the North American theatre, the French and Indian War, 1754–63), the French garrisons were surrendered to the British (1760). In 1763, by the Treaty of Paris, Great Britain acquired jurisdiction over Canada and the French territory east of the Mississippi River except for New Orleans. Under British rule Michigan remained a part of Canada. During the American Revolution (1775–83) Detroit was a major supply centre for British troops, who raided the Kentucky country continually until 1779, when the British general Henry Hamilton was captured.

The British (unlike the French) did not get along with the indigenous peoples, and hostilities quickly developed between them and several of the tribes. Repeated attacks by armed native forces upon British forts in Michigan resulted in several one-sided massacres in which the British sustained serious losses; eventually most of the British forts in Michigan fell to the native forces.

 
 
The hostility culminated in “Pontiac’s Siege,” in which the Ottawa chief Pontiac and his followers led an attack on Detroit that lasted for more than four months. The British forces held out under the leadership of Henry Gladwin, however, and eventually the indigenous resistance succumbed, allowing the region to stay under British control.
 
 

Approximate area of Michigan highlighted in Guillaume de L'Isle's 1718 map
 
 
U.S. territory
The area that would become Michigan was awarded to the United States in 1783. In 1787 it was made a part of the newly created Northwest Territory—along with the lands now constituting Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, and Wisconsin. Once the territory was under U.S. sovereignty, politicians implemented an aggressive program to acquire the lands of the native populations (sometimes forcibly) through the negotiation of treaties. Indigenous peoples’ opposition to U.S. rule in the region ended with the victory of Anthony Wayne at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, near present-day Toledo, Ohio, in 1794.

The Jay Treaty of the same year provided for the evacuation of the remaining British from the Northwest Territory by 1796. Negotiations with the indigenous populations continued for the next several decades, during which time they lost most of their lands. Some of the native peoples resettled on reservations within the area that is now Michigan, while others moved (or were relocated) to western territories. Others slowly assimilated into the society of the majority.

In 1805 Michigan Territory was separated from Indiana, and Detroit was made its capital. Although Michigan’s first territorial governor, William Hull, surrendered Detroit to the British early in the War of 1812, American rule was restored late in 1813 by the victory of Oliver Hazard Perry at the Battle of Lake Erie. Notable growth began with the new territorial governor, Lewis Cass, who actively encouraged settlement and promoted development. Improvements in transportation and infrastructure were especially significant under Cass’s leadership. In 1818 steamship navigation linked Detroit and Buffalo (N.Y.), inaugurating a new era in lake transportation. Moreover, Cass’s highway chain from Detroit to Chicago (Ill.), Saginaw, and Port Huron helped to establish the patterns of settlement in the interior. Completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 made Michigan even more appealing for settlers seeking new homes in the Great Lakes area; the canal provided easy access to the region from the east by water, and further, it opened up the markets of the east coast to Michigan products such as wheat.

  Statehood and growth
Michigan was anxious for statehood so that it might undertake a more ambitious program of internal improvements. The first constitution was enacted in 1835, but statehood was delayed until 1837 by the so-called Toledo War, a boundary dispute with Ohio. The “war” centred on what was known as the Toledo Strip, a narrow piece of land on the southern Michigan border that ran westward from Toledo (on Lake Erie) to the Indiana border. According to the Ordinance of 1787, which had established the Northwest Territory, the land should have gone to Michigan. Ohio claimed the land based on earlier, albeit inaccurate, surveys, however, because it wanted Toledo—the planned terminus of the Miami and Erie canals. In the end, Michigan relinquished its claims to Toledo and to the mouth of the Maumee River. In return, Michigan was awarded the western Upper Peninsula. (A small, eastern segment of the Upper Peninsula had already been part of Michigan Territory.) Although initially the agreement was widely scorned as an unequal exchange, it ultimately proved a boon for Michigan, which inherited the vast copper and iron riches of the Upper Peninsula.

In the wake of the frenzy of new settlement popularly called “Michigan Fever,” the state grew very rapidly through the 1840s and ’50s. Thousands of prospective agricultural settlers—including many who came from New York and the New England states via the Erie Canal and Lake Erie, as well as many who were foreign-born—established new homes in the state. Detroit and other leading cities profited, and in the 1840s rich iron and copper resources were discovered in the Upper Peninsula, drawing even more immigrants to the state. The state capital was moved from Detroit to the more central location of Lansing in 1847.

National tension over the slavery issue resulted in the formation of the present-day Republican Party at Jackson in July 1854, and throughout the American Civil War (1861–65) Michigan made major contributions to the Union cause. In so doing, the state lost some 14,000 of its 90,000 men who served. A black regiment from Michigan included enlistees from many states and also from the Canadian province of Canada West (now Ontario).

 
 
The Republican Party became dominant after the war. In the 1890s many leaders, including Hazen Pingree, mayor of Detroit and subsequently governor of Michigan, implemented progressive legislation.

Meanwhile, the mining and forestry industries helped to jump-start Michigan’s economy. Iron ore was extracted from three ranges in the Upper Peninsula—Marquette, Gogebic, and Menominee—while copper mining was centred in the Keweenaw Range, in the northernmost part of the Upper Peninsula. Lumbering of the vast pine forests was the mainstay of the state’s economy during the late 1800s. The Saginaw Valley, in the east-central region of the Lower Peninsula, was the leading lumbering area between 1840 and 1860. By 1900, however, most of the pine in the Lower Peninsula was gone. Logging in the Upper Peninsula began to assume importance in the 1880s, and the virgin stands lasted into the early 20th century.

 
 

Tahquamenon Falls in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan
 
 
Michigan, c. 1900–70
Before 1900 a diverse base of agriculture, lumbering, mining, and manufacturing activities had propelled the state’s economy; throughout much of the 20th century, however, the economy was dominated by the automotive industry. During World War I, industrial production at all levels was intensified, and Michigan became a buoy of the national economy. Conversely, in the decade following the Great Depression that began in 1929. unemployment and deflation were far above the national averages, largely because the state’s industrial products were not among the necessities of life. In 1932 Michigan departed from the Republican fold, thereafter becoming one of the indeterminate “swing” states, while organized labour became a powerful political and economic force. In 1937 the United Automobile Workers became the bargaining agent for production workers at General Motors Corporation, and by the outbreak of World War II it was the dominant union in all automotive plants. During the war Detroit became a major producer of military (rather than commercial) vehicles and, as such, was known as the Arsenal of Democracy. After the war, industrial production continued at a peak to restock the country with new cars and other war-depleted consumer goods.

The postwar years were also a period of explosive growth in the suburbs and rapid expansion of the state’s highway system. One of the ramifications of these developments, however, was a decline in population, industries, and services in the inner cities, beginning in the late 1950s. In response to this negative trend, the state undertook projects to revive urban areas, including the construction of Detroit’s Renaissance Center, a high-rise riverfront hotel, retail, and business development; the centre remains a symbol of Michigan’s dedication to making its cities attractive and livable.

Meanwhile, racial polarization in Michigan increased during the mid-20th century, with major riots erupting in Detroit, most notably in 1943 and 1967. Such incidents notwithstanding, Michigan emerged as a leader in the movement to provide equal opportunity for minorities, people with disabilities, and women. The 1963 Michigan constitution was the first in the country to provide for a Department of Civil Rights.

  Michigan since the 1970s
Michigan has experienced significant economic fluctuations since the late 20th century. A severe recession in the late 1970s and early 1980s caused widespread unemployment, business failures, and cuts in state government services.

The government, business, and education sectors subsequently pooled their efforts to attract new enterprises, broaden opportunities for young people, strengthen the work force, and promote the expanding tourism industry.

Especially with the development of high-technology industries and a revival of automobile manufacturing, the state experienced somewhat of an economic renaissance in the 1990s, and unemployment dropped to low levels.

Tourism, manufacturing, agriculture, and services dominated the economy more evenly than in the past. By the early 21st century, however, Michigan’s auto industry again was struggling, urban sprawl and the loss of prime farmland to suburban development were growing concerns, and the rate of unemployment was among the highest in the country.

The state’s uncertain economic climate was a factor in the growth of the militia movement in the 1990s and 2000s, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation closely monitored these groups, particularly in the wake of the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995.

Nevertheless, economic diversification and high-technology industries continued to be viewed as the long-term solution to the state’s economic woes.

The state increasingly encouraged the development of wind farms for power generation, and in 2008 the U.S. Department of Energy awarded a $550 million nuclear physics research project to Michigan State University.

Sidney Glazer
Richard J. Hathaway
Randall J. Schaetzl

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

The Detroit skyline along the International Riverfront
 
 
     
 



World Countries



United States of America
     
 
 
 
1837
 
 
Mazzini Giuseppe arrives in London as an exile
 
 

Giuseppe Mazzini
 
 
 
1837
 
 
Martin Van Buren inaugurated as eighth President of the U.S.
 
 
Van Buren Martin
 

Martin Van Buren, (born December 5, 1782, Kinderhook, New York, U.S.—died July 24, 1862, Kinderhook), eighth president of the United States (1837–41) and one of the founders of the Democratic Party. He was known as the “Little Magician” to his friends (and the “Sly Fox” to his enemies) in recognition of his reputed cunning and skill as a politician. (For a discussion of the history and nature of the presidency, see presidency of the United States of America.)

 

Martin Van Buren
  Van Buren was the son of Abraham Van Buren, a farmer and tavern keeper, and Maria Hoes Van Alen, both of Dutch descent. Apprenticed to the lawyer Francis Silvester in 1796, Van Buren began his own practice in Kinderhook in 1803.

In 1807 he married his cousin Hannah Hoes (Hannah Van Buren), with whom he had four children. Van Buren served two terms in the New York Senate (1812–20) and during his tenure was appointed state attorney general. After his election to the U.S. Senate in 1821, he created the Albany Regency, an informal political organization in New York state that was a prototype of the modern political machine.

Van Buren regarded himself as a disciple of Thomas Jefferson. As a member of the Jeffersonian faction of the Republican Party, he supported the doctrine of states’ rights, opposed a strong federal government, and disapproved of federally sponsored internal improvements. After John Quincy Adams was elected president in 1824, Van Buren brought together a diverse coalition of Jeffersonian Republicans, including followers of Andrew Jackson, William H. Crawford, and John C. Calhoun, to found a new political party, which was soon named the Democratic Party.

In 1828 Van Buren resigned his Senate seat and successfully ran for governor of New York.

 
 
However, he gave up the governorship within 12 weeks to become President Andrew Jackson’s secretary of state. In this role he was criticized for expanding the system of political patronage, though some later historians considered the criticism unfair. Resigning as secretary of state in 1831 to permit reorganization of the cabinet, he served briefly as minister to Great Britain.
 
 

Martin Van Buren
  Nominated for the vice presidency in 1832 by the first national convention of the Democratic Party, Van Buren was elected with Jackson on a ticket opposing the continued operation of the Bank of the United States. With Jackson’s endorsement, Van Buren was unanimously nominated for president in May 1835. In the election the following year, Van Buren defeated three candidates fielded by the splintered Whig Party, collecting 170 electoral votes to his opponents’ 124. He took office in 1837, at the onset of a national financial panic brought about in part by the transfer of federal funds from the Bank of the United States to state banks during Jackson’s second term.
In 1840 Van Buren’s proposal to move federal funds from state banks to an “independent treasury” was passed by Congress after a bitter struggle in which many conservative Democrats deserted to the new Whig Party. Van Buren’s popularity was further eroded by the long and costly war with the Seminole Indians in Florida (the second of the Seminole Wars) and by his failure to support the proposed annexation of the newly independent state of Texas. In 1839, after a series of armed clashes between Americans and Canadians in disputed territory along the Maine–New Brunswick border (the Aroostook War), Van Buren dispatched General Winfield Scott to restore order, and a permanent settlement was negotiated in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842. In an effort to win the proslavery vote in the election of 1840, Van Buren sided against African slaves on trial in the United States for their part in the Amistad mutiny in 1839.
 
 
One of Van Buren’s last acts in office was to order that no person should work more than 10 hours a day on federal public works.

Unanimously renominated by the Democrats in 1840, Van Buren was overwhelmingly defeated by the Whig candidate William Henry Harrison. Four years later the Democrats were bitterly divided over the question of the annexation of Texas, and Van Buren, who opposed annexation, was passed over in favour of James K. Polk, who won the election on a platform calling for the annexation of both Texas and Oregon. In 1848 Van Buren ran as a candidate of the Free Soil Party, which included members of the antislavery factions of the Democratic Party (the “Barnburners”) and the Whig Party, but he received only 10 percent of the vote. He spent several years in Europe and then retired to his estate, Lindenwald, in Kinderhook.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1837
 
 
Cleveland Grover
 

Grover Cleveland, in full Stephen Grover Cleveland (born March 18, 1837, Caldwell, New Jersey, U.S.—died June 24, 1908, Princeton, New Jersey), 22nd and 24th president of the United States (1885–89 and 1893–97) and the only president ever to serve two discontinuous terms. Cleveland distinguished himself as one of the few truly honest and principled politicians of the Gilded Age. His view of the president’s function as primarily that of blocking legislative excesses made him quite popular during his first term, but that view cost him public support during his second term when he steadfastly denied a positive role for government in dealing with the worst economic collapse the nation had yet faced. (For a discussion of the history and nature of the presidency, see presidency of the United States of America.)

 

Grover Cleveland
  Early life and career
Cleveland was the son of Richard Falley Cleveland, an itinerant Presbyterian minister, and Ann Neal. The death of Grover Cleveland’s father in 1853 forced him to abandon school in order to support his mother and sisters. After clerking in a law firm in Buffalo, New York, he was admitted to the bar in 1859 and soon entered politics as a member of the Democratic Party. During the Civil War he was drafted but hired a substitute so that he could care for his mother—an altogether legal procedure but one that would make him vulnerable to political attack in the future. In 1863 he became assistant district attorney of Erie county, New York, and in 1870–73 he served as county sheriff. With this slight political background and only modest success as a lawyer, the apparently unambitious Buffalo attorney launched perhaps the most meteoric rise in American politics.

In 1881, eight years after stepping down as sheriff, Cleveland was nominated for mayor by Buffalo Democrats who remembered his honest and efficient service in that office. He won the election easily. As Buffalo’s chief executive he became known as the “veto mayor” for his rejection of spending measures he considered to be wasteful and corrupt. In 1882, without the support of the Tammany Hall Democratic machine in New York City, Cleveland received his party’s nomination for governor, and he went on to crush his Republican opponent by more than 200,000 votes.

 
 
As governor of New York, Cleveland again used the veto frequently, even to turn down measures that enjoyed wide public support. His devotion to principle and his unstinting opposition to Tammany Hall soon earned him a national reputation—particularly among Americans disgusted with the frequent scandals of Gilded Age politics.

In 1884 the Democrats sought a presidential candidate who would contrast sharply with Republican nominee James G. Blaine, a longtime Washington insider whose reputation for dishonesty and financial impropriety prompted the Republican Mugwump faction to bolt their party. Cleveland’s image was the opposite of Blaine’s, and he seemed likely to draw Mugwump votes to the Democratic ticket. As a result, Cleveland won the Democratic nomination with ease.

During the campaign, Cleveland’s image as the clean alternative to the supposedly sullied Blaine suffered serious damage when Republicans charged that the Democratic candidate had fathered a child out of wedlock some 10 years earlier. As Republicans joyously chortled, “Ma, ma, where’s my pa?,” Cleveland remained undaunted, and he instructed Democratic leaders to “Tell the truth.” The truth, as Cleveland admitted, was that he had had an affair with the child’s mother, Maria Halpin, and had agreed to provide financial support when she named him as the father, though he was uncertain whether the child was really his. Meanwhile, Democrats, trying to contrast Cleveland’s reputation with Blaine’s, chanted “Blaine Blaine, James G. Blaine, the continental liar from the state of Maine!” Late in the campaign, Blaine experienced an embarrassment of his own, when a supporter at a rally in New York City described the Democrats as the party of “rum, Romanism, and rebellion”—a swipe at the city’s Irish Catholics, many of whom Blaine hoped to lure into his camp. Although Blaine was present when the fateful words were spoken, he did nothing to dissociate himself from the remark. The general election was determined by electoral votes from New York state, which Blaine lost to Cleveland by fewer than 1,200 votes.

 
 
Presidency
As president, Cleveland continued to act in the same negative capacity that had marked his tenures as mayor and governor. He nullified fraudulent grants to some 80 million acres (30 million hectares) of Western public lands and vetoed hundreds of pension bills that would have sent federal funds to undeserving Civil War veterans. Once again, Cleveland’s rejection of wasteful and corrupt measures endeared the president to citizens who admired his honesty and courage. He also received credit for two of the more significant measures enacted by the federal government in the 1880s: the Interstate Commerce Act (1887), which established the Interstate Commerce Commission, the first regulatory agency in the United States, and the Dawes General Allotment Act (1887), which redistributed Indian reservation land to individual tribe members. In 1886 Cleveland, a lifelong bachelor, married Frances Folsom, the daughter of his former law partner. Frances Cleveland, 27 years younger than her husband, proved to be a very popular first lady. To all appearances the marriage was a happy one, though during the 1888 presidential campaign she was forced to publicly refute Republican-spread rumours that Cleveland had beaten her during drunken rages.
 
An anti-Cleveland cartoon highlights the Halpin scandal.
 
 
The major issue of the 1888 presidential campaign was the protective tariff. Cleveland, running for reelection, opposed the high tariff, calling it unnecessary taxation imposed upon American consumers, while Republican candidate Benjamin Harrison defended protectionism. On election day, Cleveland won about 100,000 more popular votes than Harrison, evidence of the esteem in which the president was held and to the widespread desire for a lower tariff. Yet Harrison won the election by capturing a majority of votes in the electoral college (233 to 168), largely as a result of lavish campaign contributions from pro-tariff business interests in the crucial states of New York and Indiana.
 
 

Gubernatorial portrait of Grover Cleveland
  Winning a second term
Cleveland spent the four years of the Harrison presidency in New York City, working for a prominent law firm. When the Republican-dominated Congress and the Harrison administration enacted the very high McKinley Tariff in 1890 and made the surplus in the treasury vanish in a massive spending spree, the path to a Democratic victory in 1892 seemed clear. Cleveland won his party’s nomination for the third consecutive time and then soundly defeated Harrison and Populist Party candidate James B. Weaver by 277 electoral votes to Harrison’s 145, making Cleveland the only president ever elected to discontinuous terms. Early in Cleveland’s second term the United States sank into the most severe economic depression the country had yet experienced. Cleveland believed that the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890—which required the secretary of the treasury to purchase 4.5 million ounces of silver each month—had eroded confidence in the stability of the currency and was thus at the root of the nation’s economic troubles. He called Congress into special session and, over considerable opposition from Southern and Western members of his own party, forced the repeal of the act. Yet the depression only worsened, and Cleveland’s negative view of government began to diminish his popularity. Apart from assuring a sound—i.e., gold-backed—currency, he insisted the government could do nothing to alleviate the suffering of the many thousands of people who had lost jobs, homes, and farms. His popularity sank even lower when—distraught over the diminishing quantity of gold in the treasury—he negotiated with a syndicate of bankers headed by John Pierpont Morgan to sell government bonds abroad for gold.
 
 
The deal succeeded in replenishing the government’s gold supply, but the alliance between the president and one of the era’s leading “robber barons” intensified the feeling that Cleveland had lost touch with ordinary Americans.

That the president cared more about the interests of big business than those of ordinary Americans seemed manifest in Cleveland’s handling of the Pullman Strike in 1894. Cleveland sent federal troops to Chicago to quell violence at Pullman’s railroad car facility, despite the objections of Illinois Gov. John P. Altgeld. The strike was broken within a week, and the president received the plaudits of the business community. However, he had severed whatever support he still had in the ranks of labour.

In foreign policy Cleveland displayed the same courageous righteousness that characterized much of his domestic policy. He withdrew from the Senate a treaty for the annexation of Hawaii when he learned how the Hawaiian leader, Queen Liliuokalani, had been overthrown in an American-led coup. He also refused to be swept along with popular sentiment for intervention on behalf of Cuban insurgents fighting for independence from Spain. Yet he was not totally immune to the new spirit of American assertiveness on the international stage. By invoking the Monroe Doctrine, for example, he forced Britain to accept arbitration of a boundary dispute between its colony of British Guiana (now Guyana) and neighbouring Venezuela.

At the tumultuous Democratic convention in 1896, the party was divided between supporters of Cleveland and the gold standard and those who wanted a bimetallic standard of gold and silver designed to expand the nation’s money supply. When William Jennings Bryan delivered his impassioned Cross of Gold speech, the delegates not only nominated the little-known Bryan for president but also repudiated Cleveland—the first and only president ever to be so repudiated by his own party.

Cleveland retired to Princeton, New Jersey, where he became active in the affairs of Princeton University as a lecturer in public affairs and as a trustee (1901–08). As the rancour over the gold standard subsided with the return of prosperity, Cleveland regained much of the public admiration he had earlier enjoyed. Never again, however, would the Democratic Party adhere to the pro-business, limited-government views that so dominated his presidency, and Cleveland remains the most conservative Democrat to have occupied the White House since the Civil War.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1837
 
 
 
Itagaki Taisuke
 

Hakushaku Itagaki Taisuke, (born April 17, 1837, Kōchi, Japan—died July 11, 1919, Tokyo), founder of Japan’s first political party, the Liberal Party, or Jiyūtō.

 

Hakushaku Itagaki Taisuke
  Born into a middle-ranking samurai family, Itagaki entered the service of his feudal lord in 1860 and emerged from subsequent factional struggles to become the military commander in Tosa, the large feudal domain controlled by his clansmen.

Under Itagaki’s command the troops of Tosa participated in the Meiji Restoration in 1868, which overthrew the Tokugawa shogunate and restored national authority to the emperor.

Afterward, he was one of a dozen powerful young leaders on the national scene and served from 1868 to 1873 as an official in the new government. When the majority of the cabinet thwarted his plans for a war against Korea, he resigned and founded a political club (political parties were then unknown in Japan).

He denounced the government’s arbitrary stand and called for the formation of a “council chamber chosen by the people” to advise the government.

In 1875 he served briefly in the cabinet but then left again. This time he founded the first nationwide organization with a mass following, the Society of Patriots, but he resisted the desire of radical members of the group to join in the rebellion that was raised in 1877 by dissatisfied samurai.

In 1878 Itagaki tried to further his movement by establishing a school devoted to teaching the principles of democratic government. For this action he became known as the Jean-Jacques Rousseau of Japan.

 
 
The peak of his fame came shortly after, when he organized Japan’s first political party, the Jiyūtō. He was a charismatic leader and a popular speaker. In April 1882, campaigning for the Liberal Party, he was stabbed by an attacker and is reputed to have declared: “Itagaki may die, but liberty, never.”
 
 

When Itagaki Taisuke was attacked by a thug in Gifu,
he said "Itagaki may die, but liberty never!"
 
 
With the beginning of parliamentary government in 1890, Itagaki, who had been made a count in 1887, served as the symbolic head of his party, which frequently cooperated with Itō Hirobumi, Japan’s first prime minister and one of the more liberal of the government oligarchs. Itagaki and his party felt a responsibility to demonstrate to the West that the Japanese were capable of parliamentary government. After his retirement in 1900, Itagaki wrote position papers and agitated for social reform.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1837
 
 
Holstein Friedrich
 

Friedrich von Holstein, byname The Gray Eminence German Die Graue Eminenz (born April 24, 1837, Schwedt an der Oder, Pomerania—died May 8, 1909, Berlin, Germany), the most influential German foreign policymaker from 1890 to 1909, during the reign of Emperor William II (Kaiser Wilhelm II), after the departure of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. A member of the Foreign Office in Berlin uninterruptedly from 1876, he never became foreign minister but exercised his large power behind the scenes, as a “gray eminence.”

 

Friedrich von Holstein
  Early career
Holstein was raised on his family’s estate in Pomerania and their town house in Berlin. Throughout his youth, his family spent a great deal of time traveling abroad, and Holstein became fluent in several foreign languages. A sickly boy, he was educated mostly by private tutors, and, after studying at the University of Berlin, he joined the legal section of the Prussian government.

Always a proud and self-willed man, Holstein rarely deferred to his superiors and took a cavalier attitude toward his official duties. He could afford to do so, for his family was wealthy, and he himself enjoyed the patronage of a neighbour of his father, Otto von Bismarck, who was already in the 1850s a power in Prussian politics.

With the support of Bismarck, Holstein entered the Prussian diplomatic service in 1860, serving his apprenticeship under Bismarck at the Prussian legation in St. Petersburg. After being posted to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, he returned to Germany at the time of Prussia’s war with Denmark in 1864, acting as one of Bismarck’s diplomatic representatives at army headquarters and taking part in the international conference in London in 1864–65 to settle the Danish question.

 
 
From 1865 to 1867 he was stationed in the United States, where he had the opportunity to observe the operation of a democratic government at first hand and to travel in what was then still the “wild” West. While in the United States, he became interested in a project for the development of a mechanical device for towing barges and invested in this venture the greater part of his fortune, most of which he appears to have lost. Holstein was recalled by Bismarck but not, as has been alleged, as a result of a love affair with the wife of Senator Charles Sumner.

Just before the outbreak of war with France in the summer of 1870, Bismarck, alarmed by the possibility that the Italian monarchy might side with France, instructed Holstein to enter into secret negotiations with Italian republicans. After the war broke out, Holstein grew bored in Berlin and appeared at Bismarck’s headquarters in France. He was attached to Bismarck’s staff, though officially he did little more than serve as a translator during the armistice negotiations with France. However, Bismarck, who liked to be as fully informed as possible, allowed Holstein a more independent role in maintaining unofficial contact with leaders of the Paris Commune, the city’s left-wing government that refused the Prussian peace terms and opposed France’s regular government.

After the conclusion of peace with France, Holstein served under the German ambassador to Paris, Harry, Graf (count) von Arnim. An opponent of Bismarck’s support of republican France, Arnim was also suspected by the chancellor of planning to supplant him. When papers were found to be missing from the embassy, Arnim was disgraced. The story spread by Bismarck’s enemies that Holstein had served as Bismarck’s spy in bringing about Arnim’s eventual ruin was proved false in the course of Arnim’s trial for the removal of official documents.

 
 

Friedrich von Holstein
 
 
Influence on government policy
In April 1876 Holstein was recalled to the German Foreign Office, where his thorough study of every problem and his network of connections soon enabled him to exert a predominant influence not only on foreign policy but also on domestic policy. To remain at the centre of affairs in Berlin, he declined several offers of advancement to diplomatic posts. In 1900 he even refused Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow’s offer to make him head (state secretary) of the Foreign Office, reportedly because he did not wish to operate in the limelight, a refusal he himself later acknowledged to have been the greatest mistake of his career.

One of the greatest puzzles in Holstein’s life was his metamorphosis from an ardent partisan of Bismarck, whom he served during the 1870s as close collaborator and political confidant, into a bitter critic and opponent of the older statesman. This change in attitude took place gradually over many years and was largely prompted by Bismarck’s alignment with Russia. Holstein advocated instead a firm alliance with Austria and Britain, and, after Bismarck’s dismissal in 1890, he joined with other counsellors of the new chancellor, Leo von Caprivi, in advising against the renewal of the Russian treaty.

Owing to Caprivi’s inexperience in international affairs, Holstein assumed a more important role in the formulation of German foreign policy. Although Holstein had played an important part in formulating the new anti-Russian and pro-British direction of German policy, he also warmly supported Caprivi’s reciprocal trade treaties, including the one with Russia, which reduced tariffs on agricultural imports, thus lowering German food costs and stimulating Germany’s export trade.

Holstein’s influence increased further under Caprivi’s successor, Chlodwig Karl Viktor Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, who became chancellor in 1894, and he retained his influential role as the confidential adviser of Hohenlohe’s successor, von Bülow, who became head of the German Foreign Office in 1897 and chancellor in 1900. Yet Holstein found himself stymied in the most extended and crucial fight of his career. He was powerless to oppose the policies of his unpredictable sovereign, Emperor William II, nor could he persuade his superiors to do so.

  For the most important German policies in the years after Bismarck’s dismissal—the feverish quest for colonies, the construction of a German battle fleet and the ensuing Anglo-German naval rivalry, the tortuous negotiations for an Anglo-German alliance that not only failed but actually heightened the tension between the two countries—were in large part inspired by the emperor, often without consulting the members of his government.

Holstein saw the folly of many of these policies. Had he restricted himself to warning against them, he might have gone down in history as the Cassandra of the era. But the policies he himself formulated and tried to carry out were hardly more beneficial to his country than those of his emperor. After helping to sever the German alliance with Russia, he failed to secure the alliance he desired with Britain, and when he once again sought an understanding with Russia, that country had formed an alliance with France. Meanwhile, Germany was left with only one reliable ally, the Habsburg Empire, which presented ever greater demands in return for its friendship. Holstein’s most notable diplomatic campaign, his attempt to break up the newly formed Anglo-French entente of 1904 by fomenting a crisis over Morocco, only served to expose Germany’s global isolation. At the height of the Moroccan crisis, in April 1906, William dismissed him. Holstein died three years later.

Holstein was a conservative Prussian aristocrat, an individualist, proud, anxious to make his mark in the world, but with very independent ideas as to how to attain his goal. He was not a German nationalist but rather a proponent of the status quo for Germany, for although he had loved and sought adventure in his youth, he feared and disliked adventures in foreign policy. He himself believed he would go down in history, if he were remembered at all, as an intriguer, although in his opinion he had only tried to be of service to his country. Holstein’s greatest weakness was his excessive confidence in his own judgment and his grasp of political facts, for the wisdom of his decisions was often debatable. He also overemphasized the personal element in any political situation.

He liked to think himself the equal of any man, no matter how exalted, and would concede others superiority only in having greater means at their disposal.

 
 
He did not know the meaning of political fear, and the greater the power of a potential opponent, the more heedlessly he plunged into the fray, whether it was against Bismarck’s son-in-law, while Bismarck was still at the height of his power, or against a favourite of the emperor. He was equally unconcerned about his economic status. Although he enjoyed spending money while he still had it, in his old age he lived in almost penurious modesty in his bachelor quarters. The last half of his life was completely taken up with politics, which to the day of his death remained his overriding obsession.

Helmuth Rogge

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1837
 
 
Boulanger Georges
 

Georges Boulanger, (born April 29, 1837, Rennes, Fr.—died Sept. 30, 1891, Brussels), French general, minister of war, and political figure who led a brief but influential authoritarian movement that threatened to topple the Third Republic in the 1880s.

 

Georges Boulanger
  A graduate of the Saint-Cyr Military Academy, he entered the army in 1856 and saw service in Italy, Algeria, Indochina, and the Franco-German War (1870–71). Wounded in suppressing the 1871 Paris Commune, he was appointed brigadier general in May 1880 and director of infantry in 1882. Two years later he was appointed to command the army in Tunisia but was recalled because of differences of opinion with Pierre-Paul Cambon, the political resident. Returning to Paris, he began to take part in politics under the aegis of Georges Clemenceau and the Radical Party. In January 1886 he entered the government of Charles-Louis de Saulces de Freycinet as minister of war. By introducing reforms for the benefit of all ranks and by courting popularity openly, Boulanger came to be accepted by the people as the man destined to avenge France’s defeat in the Franco-German War. He thus became a tool in the hands of groups hostile to the existing republican dispensation. On Freycinet’s defeat in December 1886, Boulanger was retained at the ministry of war by the new prime minister, René Goblet, though Clemenceau by this time had withdrawn his patronage from the obviously too compromising general. On Goblet’s retirement from office in May 1887, the Paris populace clamoured for their “brav’ général,” but Maurice Rouvier, who had long been hostile to Boulanger, refused to include him in his government, and the General was sent to Clermont-Ferrand to command the XIII Corps. A Boulangist “movement,” however, was now in full swing. Many Bonapartists had attached themselves to the General, and the royalists were led to support him by the Duchesse d’Uzès (Marie Anne Clémentine de Rochechouart-Mortemart), who contributed large sums to the General’s political fund.
 
 
Boulanger was deprived of his command in 1888 for coming three times to Paris without leave and in disguise and for visiting Prince Napoleon at Prangins in Switzerland. His name was removed from the army list, but almost immediately he was elected deputy for the Nord. In June 1888 his proposals for revising the constitution were rejected by the Chamber, whereupon he resigned. An altercation with Charles Floquet led to a duel (July 13) in which the elderly prime minister inflicted a severe wound on the General. Neither this humiliation nor Boulanger’s failure as an orator checked his followers’ enthusiasm, and throughout 1888 his personality dominated French politics.

In January 1889 Boulanger was returned as deputy for Paris by an overwhelming majority. When the election results were announced, wildly shouting masses of his supporters urged him to take over the government immediately. Boulanger declined and spent the evening with his mistress instead. His failure to seize control at the crucial moment was a severe blow to his following. A new government under Pierre Tirard, with Ernest Constans as minister of the interior, decided to prosecute Boulanger, and within two months the Chamber was requested to waive the General’s parliamentary immunity. To his friends’ astonishment, Boulanger fled from Paris on April 1, going first to Brussels and then to London. He was tried in absentia for treason by the Senate as high court and condemned on Aug. 14, 1889, to deportation. In the elections of 1889 and 1890 his supporters received setbacks, and public enthusiasm for his cause dwindled away. In 1891 Boulanger committed suicide in Brussels at the cemetery of Ixelles, over the grave of his mistress, Marguerite de Bonnemains, who had died two months earlier.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1837
 
 
Victoria becomes Queen of Great Britain
 
 

Coronation of Queen Victoria
 
 
     
 
Queen Victoria

Victorian Era
     
 
 
 
1837
 
 
Carnot Sadi
 

Sadi Carnot, in full Marie-François-Sadi Carnot (born Aug. 11, 1837, Limoges, France—died June 24, 1894, Lyon), an engineer turned statesman who served as fourth president (1887–94) of the Third Republic until he was assassinated by an Italian anarchist.

 

Marie-François-Sadi Carnot
  Carnot was the son of a leftist deputy (Hippolyte Carnot) who was a vigorous opponent of the July Monarchy (after 1830) and grandson of Lazare Carnot, the famous “Organizer of Victory” of the French Revolution. He was educated as an engineer at the École Polytechnique and then the École des Ponts et Chaussées (School of Bridges and Highways). After service as a government engineer at Annecy, he was named commissioner of Normandy with responsibility for organizing resistance there in the Franco-German War (1870–71). After a brief term as prefect of Seine-Inférieure, he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies from the Côte d’Or département. Sitting with the Left Republicans, Carnot concentrated on issues concerning public works and railroad development. In October 1878 he was appointed undersecretary of public works, and in 1880 he took charge as minister. Elected vice president of the Chamber in April 1885, he served as minister of commerce and finance. In 1887 he was elected president of the republic without actively aspiring to the office. The Carnot presidency was marked by the plots of the political adventurer Gen. Georges Boulanger, labour agitation, anarchist movements, and the Panama Canal scandals (1892). Yet he managed to retain his popularity through 10 different governments formed in the course of seven years. After delivering a speech at a Lyon exposition, he was fatally wounded by the Italian anarchist Sante Caserio. He was buried in the Panthéon next to his illustrious grandfather.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1837
 
 
Disraeli Benjamin delivers his maiden speech in the House of Commons
 
 

Disraeli as a young man—
a retrospective portrayal
 painted in 1852
 
 
see also: Benjamin Disraeli
 
 
 
1837
 
 
U.S.S. "Caroline" is set on fire and sunk by Canadian troops while transporting supplies to Canadian insurgents across Niagara River
 
 
Caroline affair
 

The Caroline affair (also known as the Caroline case) was a series of events beginning in 1837 that strained relations between the United States and Britain.

 

The Destruction of the Caroline by George Tattersall
 
 
Events
A group of Canadian rebels, led by William Lyon Mackenzie, seeking a Canadian republic, had been forced to flee to the United States after leading the failed Upper Canada Rebellion in Upper Canada (now Ontario). They took refuge on Navy Island on the Canadian side of the Niagara River, which separates the two countries (between Ontario and New York) and declared themselves the Republic of Canada under MacKenzie's "general" Rensselaer Van Rensselaer (nephew of General Stephen Van Rensselaer). American sympathizers supplied them with money, provisions, and arms via the steamboat SS Caroline.

On December 29, 1837, Canadian loyalist Colonel Sir Allan MacNab and Captain Andrew Drew of the Royal Navy commanding a party of militia, acting on information and guidance from Alexander McLeod that the vessel belonged to Mackenzie, crossed the international boundary and seized the Caroline, chased off the crew, towed her into the current, set her afire, and cast her adrift over Niagara Falls, after killing one black American named Amos Durfee in the process. His body was later exhibited in front of a recruiting tavern in Buffalo, New York.

US newspapers falsely reported "the death of twenty-two of her crew" when in fact, only Durfee was killed.

  Public opinion across the United States was outraged against the British. President Martin Van Buren protested strongly to London, but was ignored.

On May 29, 1838, 13 raiders, mostly Canadian and American refugees from the 1837 rebellion, led by American William "Pirate Bill" Johnston, retaliated by capturing, looting, and burning the British steamer Sir Robert Peel while she was in U.S. waters. President Martin Van Buren sent General Winfield Scott to prevent further incursions into Canada. However, there were several other attacks, the biggest being the Battle of the Windmill in November 1838.

Later that year, Irish-Canadian rebel Benjamin Lett murdered a loyalist, Captain Edgeworth Ussher, who had been involved in the incident.

The case was finally disposed of by U.S. Secretary of State Daniel Webster and Alexander Baring, 1st Baron Ashburton, in the course of their negotiations leading to the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842. Secretary Webster admitted that the employment of force might have been justified by the necessity of self-defence, but denied that such necessity existed, while Lord Ashburton, although he maintained that the circumstances afforded excuse for what was done, apologized for the invasion of United States territory.

 
 
Anticipatory self-defense
This incident has been used to establish the principle of "anticipatory self-defense" in international politics, which holds that it may be justified only in cases in which the "necessity of that self-defense is instant, overwhelming, and leaving no choice of means, and no moment for deliberation". This formulation is part of the Caroline test. The Caroline affair is also now invoked frequently in the course of the dispute around preemptive strike (or preemption doctrine).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1837
 
 
Ernst Augustus, successor to William IV as King of Hanover, cancels constitution of 1833 and dismisses seven professors of Gottingen University who protest against his action
 
 
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
 

Ernest Augustus, also called (1799–1837) Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke Of Cumberland, Duke Of Teviotdale, Earl Of Armagh (born June 5, 1771, Kew, Surrey, Eng.—died Nov. 18, 1851, Herrenhausen, Hanover [Germany]), king of Hanover, from 1837 to 1851, the fifth son of George III of England.

 

Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
  Ernest Augustus studied at Göttingen, entered the Hanoverian army, and served as a leader of cavalry when war broke out between Great Britain and France in 1793. When Hanover withdrew from the war in 1795 he returned to England, being made lieutenant general in the British army in 1799. In the same year he was created duke of Cumberland.

In 1810 Ernest Augustus was severely injured by an assailant, probably his valet Sellis, who was found dead; subsequently two men were imprisoned for asserting that the duke had murdered his valet.

Recovering from his wounds, the duke again proceeded to the seat of war; as a British field marshal, he was in command of the Hanoverian army during the campaigns of 1813 and 1814. Back in England in 1815, however, the duke’s strong Toryism made him unpopular.

He resented the refusal of Parliament to increase his allowance and retired for some years to Berlin. On the accession of George IV he returned to England but he ceased to play an important part in politics after the accession of William IV in 1830.

When William died in June 1837, the crowns of Great Britain and Hanover were separated; and Ernest Augustus, as the nearest male heir of the late king, became king of Hanover.

 
 
He cancelled the constitution that William had given in 1833, and the constitution that he sanctioned in 1840 was characteristic of his own illiberal ideas. His reign was a stormy one, and serious trouble between king and people had arisen when he died. He was succeeded by his son, George V.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1837
 
 
Constitutional revolts in Lower and Upper Canada
 
 
Rebellions of 1837
 

The Rebellions of 1837 were two armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838. Both rebellions were motivated by frustrations with political reform. A key shared goal was responsible government, which was eventually achieved in the incidents' aftermath. The rebellions led directly to Lord Durham's Report on the Affairs of British North America and to The British North America Act, 1840 which partially reformed the British provinces into a unitary system and eventually led to the British North America Act 1867 which created Canada and its government.

 
Atlantic context
Some historians contend that the rebellions in 1837 ought to be viewed in the wider context of the late-18th- and early-19th-century Atlantic revolutions. The American Revolutionary war in 1776, the French Revolution of 1789–1799, the Haitian Revolution of 1791-1804, the Irish Rebellion of 1798, and the rebellions in Spanish America (1810–1825) were inspired by republican ideals, but whether the rebels would have gone so far as to usurp the Crown remains a subject for historical debate. Great Britain's Chartists sought the same democratic goals. Historians have tended to view the two Canadian Rebellions and the subsequent US Patriot War in isolation, without reference to each other, and without reference to the republican impetus they shared. Recent reconsiderations have emphasized that this was a purposeful forgetfulness by the Reformers after the Rebellions, as they attempted to repudiate the bald republicanism of William Lyon Mackenzie, yet steer an acceptable course to national independence under the guise of responsible government. Ducharme (2006) puts the rebellion in 1837 in the context of the Atlantic Revolutions. He argues that Canadian reformers took their inspiration from the republicanism of the American Revolution. The rebels believed that the right of citizens to participate in the political process through the election of representatives was the most important right, and they sought to make the legislative council elective rather than appointed. Rebellion in Upper Canada (and Lower Canada also) broke out after the 1836 Legislative Assembly elections were corrupted. It seemed then that the reformers' struggles could only be settled outside the framework of existing colonial institutions.
  The British military crushed the rebellions, ending any possibility the two Canadas would become republics. Some historians see ties to the Chartist Newport Uprising of 1839 in Wales, suppressed by Sir Francis Bond Head's cousin, Sir Edmund Walker Head.

Rebellions

The rebellion in Lower Canada began first, in November 1837, and was led by many leaders such as Wolfred Nelson, Louis-Joseph Papineau, and Edmund Bailey O'Callaghan.

The Lower-Canada rebellion probably inspired the much shorter rebellion in Upper Canada led by William Lyon Mackenzie and Charles Duncombe in December.

While the initial rebellion in Upper Canada ended quickly with the Battle of Montgomery's Tavern, many of the rebels (including Mackenzie) fled to the United States. Mackenzie established a short-lived "Republic of Canada" on Navy Island in the Niagara River, but withdrew from armed conflict soon thereafter. Charles Duncombe and Robert Nelson, in contrast, helped foment a largely American militia, the Hunters' Lodge/Frères chasseurs, which organized a convention in Cleveland in Sept. 1838 to declare another Republic of Lower Canada.

The Hunters' Lodges drew on the American members of the radical republican "Equal Rights Party" (or Locofocos). This organization launched the "Patriot War," which was suppressed only with the help of the American government. The raids did not end until the rebels and Hunters were defeated at the decisive Battle of the Windmill, nearly a year after the first defeat near Montgomery's Tavern.

 
 

The Battle of Saint-Eustache, Lower Canada (December 14, 1837)
 
 
Similarities
The constitutions of Upper and Lower Canada differed greatly, but shared a basis on the principle of "mixed monarchy" - a balance of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy. The colonies, however, lacked the aristocratic element, and found their non-elective Legislative Councils dominated by local oligarchies who controlled local trade and the institutions of state and religion. In Lower Canada they were known as the Chateau Clique; in Upper Canada they were known as the Family Compact.

Both office-holding oligarchies were affiliated with more broadly based "Tory parties" and opposed by a Reform opposition that demanded a radically more democratic government than existed in each colony.

The governments in both provinces were viewed by the Reformers as illegitimate. In Lower Canada, acute conflict between the elected and appointed elements of the legislature brought all legislation to a halt, leaving the Tories to impose Lord John Russell's Ten Resolutions, allowing them to rule without elected accountability. In Upper Canada, the 1836 elections had been marred by political violence and fraud organized by the new Lt. Governor, Sir Francis Bond Head. William Lyon Mackenzie and Samuel Lount lost their seats in the result.

  The Tories passed a bill allowing them to continue to sit in disregard of the established practice of dissolving the House on the death of a monarch (William IV died in June 1837).

In the midst of this crisis of legitimacy, the Atlantic economy was thrown into recession, with the greatest impact being on farmers. These farmers barely survived widespread crop failures in 1836-7, and now faced lawsuits from merchants trying to collect old debts. The collapse of the international financial system imperiled trade and local banks, leaving large numbers in abject poverty.

In response, Reformers in each province organized radical democratic "political unions." The Political Union movement in Britain was largely credited with the passing of the Great Reform Bill of 1832. In Lower Canada, the Patriotes organized the "Sons of Liberty." William Lyon Mackenzie helped organize the Toronto Political Union in July 1837. Both organizations became the vehicles for politically organizing protests, and eventually, rebellion. As the situation in Lower Canada approached crisis the British concentrated their troops there, making it apparent that the British planned on using armed force against the Patriotes. With no troops left in Upper Canada, an opportunity for a sympathetic revolt was opened.

 
 
Differences
Since the time of Lord Durham's Report on the Rebellions, the Lower Canada Rebellion has been attributed to tensions between the English and the French, that the conflict was "'racial' and, as a consequence, it was sharper than - indeed fundamentally different from - the milder strife that disturbed 'English' Upper Canada." This underestimates the republicanism of the Patriotes on the one hand, and overestimates the ethnic homogeneity of Upper Canada, itself torn by strife, especially between those immigrants from the United States and from Britain.

Also, an additional interest group present in Lower Canada was the wealthy and ultra-conservative Catholic clergy, which supported the continuation of a feudalistic, agrarian society. As such, they also discouraged economic and political liberalization and thwarted the ambitions of the rising French-Canadian middle-class who were largely spearheading demands for reform.

Moreover, the Lower Canada rebellion was widely supported by the populace, resulting in mass actions over an extended period of time, such as boycotts, strikes and sabotage. These drew harsh punitive responses such as the burning of entire villages by government troops and militias, which had been concentrated in Lower Canada to deal with the crisis. In contrast, the Upper Canada Rebellion was not as broadly supported by local populations, was quickly quelled by relatively small numbers of pro-government militias and volunteers, and so was consequently less widespread and brutal in comparison.

  Aftermath
Those rebels who were arrested in Upper Canada following the 1837 uprisings were put on trial, with most being found guilty of insurrection against the Crown, and several of the ring-leaders were publicly hanged; most notably Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews. Almost as severe was the sentencing of 100 Canadian rebels and American sympathizers to transportation for life in Australia's prison colonies. The root cause of resentment in Upper Canada was not so much against distant rulers in Britain, but rather against the corruption and injustice by local politicians – the so-called "Family Compact."

However, the rebels were not really convicted because their views aligned with the liberalism of the United States, and thus caused some kind of offense to the Tory values of the Canadian colonies. Rather, as revealed in the ruling of Chief Justice Sir John Robinson, a Lockean justification was given for the prisoners' condemnation, and not a Burkean one: the Crown, as protector of the lives, liberty, and prosperity of its subjects could "legitimately demand allegiance to its authority." Robinson went on to say that those who preferred republicanism over monarchism were free to emigrate, and thus the participants in the uprisings were guilty of treason.

After the rebellions died down, more moderate reformers, such as the political partners Robert Baldwin and Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine, gained credibility as an alternative voice to the radicals. They proved to be influential when the British government sent Lord Durham, a prominent British reformer, to investigate the cause of the troubles.

 
 
Among the recommendations in his report was the establishment of responsible government for the colonies, one of the rebels' original demands (although it was not achieved until 1849). Durham also recommended the merging of Upper and Lower Canada into a single political unit (the Act of Union), which became the nucleus for modern-day Canada. More controversially, he recommended the government-sponsored Cultural Assimilation of French Canadians to the English language and culture.
 
 
The Mac-Paps in the Spanish Civil War
In 1937, exactly one century after the Rebellion, the names of William Mackenzie and Louis-Joseph Papineau were applied to the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion or the Mac-Paps, a battalion of officially unrecognised Canadian volunteers who fought on the Republican side in Spain during the Spanish Civil War. In memory of their heritage, the group fought to the rallying cry "The Spirit of 1837 Lives on!"

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
 

Sir Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine, Baronet, (born October 4, 1807, Boucherville, Lower Canada [now Quebec]—died February 26, 1864, Montreal), Canadian statesman who was joint premier of the Province of Canada with Robert Baldwin (as the attorneys general of Canada East and Canada West, respectively) in 1842–43 and again during the “great ministry” of 1848–51, when responsible, or cabinet, government was finally achieved.

 

Sir Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine, Father of Responsible Government
  LaFontaine was called to the bar in Lower Canada in 1828, and two years later he began his political career when elected to the provincial assembly for Terrebonne.

He supported the French-Canadian grievances against the British governor in chief, but he did not condone the Rebellion of 1837. With a second outbreak of rebellion in 1838, LaFontaine was imprisoned but released without trial.

After the union of Upper and Lower Canada in the Province of Canada (1840) as Canada West and Canada East, respectively, LaFontaine took over the leadership of the French Canadian Reformers. He declined the post of solicitor general offered by the first governor, Lord Sydenham, but responded to the request of the succeeding governor, Sir Charles Bagot, that LaFontaine form a ministry with Baldwin, leader of the Reformers in Canada West (now Ontario).

The ministry, formed in 1842, resigned within a year as a protest against the action of Bagot’s successor, Sir Charles Metcalfe. After four years in opposition, LaFontaine formed a new administration with Baldwin under Lord Elgin, and they successfully established responsible government in Canada.

LaFontaine’s Rebellion Losses Bill (1849), which compensated those who suffered damages during the rebellion, precipitated riots in Montreal.

 
 
He retired from office in 1851 and was appointed chief justice of Canada East and president of the seigneurial court in 1853. He was made a baronet in 1854. (His two sons died in infancy, and the baronetcy became extinct upon his death.)

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Baldwin Robert
 

Robert Baldwin, (born May 12, 1804, York, Upper Canada [now Toronto, Ontario, Canada]—died December 9, 1858, Toronto), statesman who was joint leader with Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine (as the attorneys general of Canada West and East, respectively) of the first and second Reform administrations in the Province of Canada, which established the principle of responsible, or cabinet, government in Canada.

 

Robert Baldwin, Father of Responsible Government
  Called to the bar in 1825, Baldwin began his political career as a member (1829–30) of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada for York. In 1836 he served briefly on the Executive Council of Upper Canada and supported the union of Canada, condemning the Rebellion of 1837. He served (1840) on the Executive Council under Charles Poulett Thomson (later Baron Sydenham) but resigned, joining the opposition.

In 1842, under the governor-generalship of Sir Charles Bagot, Baldwin and LaFontaine formed a Reform administration for the newly constituted Province of Canada, a merger of Lower Canada (renamed Canada East; now Quebec) and Upper Canada (Canada West; now Ontario). They held office until Bagot’s successor, Sir Charles Metcalfe, caused several ministers to resign. In the 1843 election the governor-generalship was narrowly sustained, but in 1848 the Reformers were returned to power. Under James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, Baldwin and LaFontaine saw the realization of their aim of responsible government and the enactment of other reforms, including municipal self-government for Canada West and freeing of the University of Toronto from sectarian control.

Feeling increasingly out of sympathy with the advanced reformers in his party and offended by an attempt to abolish the Court of Chancery in Canada West, which he had personally helped to establish, Baldwin resigned in 1851.

 
 
He was not reelected to Parliament by Toronto, largely because of his uncommitted attitude toward the Clergy Reserves question, regarding the secularization of the one-eighth of crown lands in Canada set apart for the support of a Protestant clergy. In 1858 he was invited to stand for a seat in the upper house, but, dissociated from the radicals (the Clear Grits), he could not identify with the conservative element of his old party either. In retirement he devoted himself to family matters.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1837
 
 
Sitting Bull
 

Sitting Bull, Indian name Tatanka Iyotake (born c. 1831-1837 ?, near Grand River, Dakota Territory [now in South Dakota], U.S.—died December 15, 1890, on the Grand River in South Dakota), Teton Dakota Indian chief under whom the Sioux tribes united in their struggle for survival on the North American Great Plains. He is remembered for his lifelong distrust of white men and his stubborn determination to resist their domination.

 

Sitting Bull
  Sitting Bull was born into the Hunkpapa division of the Teton Sioux. He joined his first war party at age 14 and soon gained a reputation for fearlessness in battle. He became a leader of the powerful Strong Heart warrior society and, later, was a participant in the Silent Eaters, a select group concerned with tribal welfare. As a tribal leader Sitting Bull helped extend the Sioux hunting grounds westward into what had been the territory of the Shoshone, Crow, Assiniboin, and other Indian tribes. His first skirmish with white soldiers occurred in June 1863 during the U.S. Army’s retaliation against the Santee Sioux after the “Minnesota Massacre,” in which the Teton Sioux had no part. For the next five years he was in frequent hostile contact with the army, which was invading the Sioux hunting grounds and bringing ruin to the Indian economy.

In 1866 he became principal chief of the northern hunting Sioux, with Crazy Horse, leader of the Oglala Sioux, as his vice-chief. Respected for his courage and wisdom, Sitting Bull was made principal chief of the entire Sioux nation about 1867.

In 1868 the Sioux accepted peace with the U.S. government on the basis of the Second Treaty of Fort Laramie, which guaranteed the Sioux a reservation in what is now southwestern South Dakota. But when gold was discovered in the Black Hills in the mid-1870s, a rush of white prospectors invaded lands guaranteed to the Indians by the treaty. Late in 1875 those Sioux who had been resisting the whites’ incursions were ordered to return to their reservations by January 31, 1876, or be considered hostile to the United States. Even had Sitting Bull been willing to comply, he could not possibly have moved his village 240 miles (390 km) in the bitter cold by the specified time.

 
 
In March General George Crook took the field against the hostiles, and Sitting Bull responded by summoning the Sioux, Cheyenne, and certain Arapaho to his camp in Montana Territory. There on June 17 Crook’s troops were forced to retreat in the Battle of the Rosebud. The Indian chiefs then moved their encampment into the valley of the Little Bighorn River. At this point Sitting Bull performed the Sun Dance, and when he emerged from a trance induced by self-torture, he reported that he had seen soldiers falling into his camp like grasshoppers from the sky. His prophecy was fulfilled on June 25, when Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer rode into the valley and he and all the men under his immediate command were annihilated in the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
 
 

Sitting Bull (Tatonka-I-Yatanka), a Hunkpapa Sioux, 1885
  Strong public reaction among whites to the Battle of the Little Bighorn resulted in stepped-up military action. The Sioux emerged the victors in their battles with U.S. troops, but though they might win battle after battle, they could never win the war. They depended on the buffalo for their livelihood, and the buffalo, under the steady encroachment of whites, were rapidly becoming extinct. Hunger led more and more Sioux to surrender, and in May 1877 Sitting Bull led his remaining followers across the border into Canada. But the Canadian government could not acknowledge responsibility for feeding a people whose reservation was south of the border, and after four years, during which his following dwindled steadily, famine forced Sitting Bull to surrender. After 1883 he lived at the Standing Rock Agency, where he vainly opposed the sale of tribal lands. In 1885, partly to get rid of him, the Indian agent allowed him to join Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show, in which he gained international fame.

The year 1889 saw the spread of the Ghost Dance religious movement, which prophesied the advent of an Indian messiah who would sweep away the whites and restore the Indians’ former traditions. The Ghost Dance movement augmented the unrest already stirred among the Sioux by hunger and disease. As a precaution, Indian police and soldiers were sent to arrest the chief. Seized on Grand River, December 15, 1890, Sitting Bull was killed while his warriors were trying to rescue him. He was buried at Fort Yates, but his remains were moved in 1953 to Mobridge, South Dakota, where a granite shaft marks his resting place.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 

 
 
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