Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1837 Part III NEXT-1838 Part I    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

Technical drawing of the first steam locomotive
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1837 Part IV
 
 
 
1837
 
 
Eng. mathematician Babbage Charles invents the principle of the "analytical engine" (modern computer)
 
 
Analytical Engine
 
 
The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician Charles Babbage.

It was first described in 1837 as the successor to Babbage's Difference engine, a design for a mechanical computer. The Analytical Engine incorporated an arithmetic logic unit, control flow in the form of conditional branching and loops, and integrated memory, making it the first design for a general-purpose computer that could be described in modern terms as Turing-complete.

Babbage was never able to complete construction of any of his machines due to conflicts with his chief engineer and inadequate funding. It was not until the 1940s that the first general-purpose computers were actually built.



Two types of punched cards used to program the machine. Foreground: "operational cards", for inputting instigonometric functions by evaluating finite differences to create approximating polynomials. Construction of this machine was never completed; Babbage had conflicts with his chief engineer, Joseph Clement, and ultimately the British government withdrew its funding for the project.


Design

During Babbage's difference engine project, he realized that a much more general design, the Analytical Engine, was possible. The input (programs and data) was to be provided to the machine via punched cards, a method being used at the time to direct mechanical looms such as the Jacquard loom. For output, the machine would have a printer, a curve plotter and a bell. The machine would also be able to punch numbers onto cards to be read in later. It employed ordinary base-10 fixed-point arithmetic.

There was to be a store (that is, a memory) capable of holding 1,000 numbers of 40 decimal digits each (ca. 16.7 kB). An arithmetical unit (the "mill") would be able to perform all four arithmetic operations, plus comparisons and optionally square roots. Initially it was conceived as a difference engine curved back upon itself, in a generally circular layout, with the long store exiting off to one side. (Later drawings depict a regularized grid layout.) Like the central processing unit (CPU) in a modern computer, the mill would rely upon its own internal procedures, to be stored in the form of pegs inserted into rotating drums called "barrels", to carry out some of the more complex instructions the user's program might specify.

The programming language to be employed by users was akin to modern day assembly languages. Loops and conditional branching were possible, and so the language as conceived would have been Turing-complete as later defined by Alan Turing. Three different types of punch cards were used: one for arithmetical operations, one for numerical constants, and one for load and store operations, transferring numbers from the store to the arithmetical unit or back. There were three separate readers for the three types of cards.

In 1842, the Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea, whom Babbage had met while travelling in Italy, wrote a description of the engine in French. In 1843, the description was translated into English and extensively annotated by Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace, who had become interested in the engine eight years earlier. In recognition of her additions to Menabrea's paper, which included a way to calculate Bernoulli numbers using the machine, she has been described as the first computer programmer. The modern computer programming language Ada is named in her honor.


Henry Babbage's Analytical Engine Mill, built in 1910, in the Science Museum (London)
 

Construction
Late in his life, Babbage sought ways to build a simplified version of the machine, and assembled a small part of it before his death in 1871.

In 1878, a committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science recommended against constructing the Analytical Engine.

In 1910, Babbage's son Henry Prevost Babbage reported that a part of the mill and the printing apparatus had been constructed, and had been used to calculate a (faulty) list of multiples of pi. This constituted only a small part of the whole engine; it was not programmable and had no storage. (Popular images of this section have sometimes been mislabelled, implying that it was the entire mill or even the entire engine.) Henry Babbage's "Analytical Engine Mill" is on display at the Science Museum in London. Henry also proposed building a demonstration version of the full engine, with a smaller storage capacity: "perhaps for a first machine ten (columns) would do, with fifteen wheels in each". Such a version could manipulate 20 numbers of 25 digits each, and what it could be told to do with those numbers could still be impressive. "It is only a question of cards and time", wrote Henry Babbage in 1888, "... and there is no reason why (twenty thousand) cards should not be used if necessary, in an Analytical Engine for the purposes of the mathematician".

In 1991, the London Science Museum built a complete and working specimen of Babbage's Difference Engine No. 2, a design that incorporated refinements Babbage discovered during the development of the Analytical Engine. This machine was built using materials and engineering tolerances that would have been available to Babbage, quelling the suggestion that Babbage's designs could not have been produced using the manufacturing technology of his time.

In October 2010, John Graham-Cumming started a campaign to raise funds by "public subscription" to enable serious historical and academic study of Babbage's plans, with a view to then build and test a fully working virtual design which will then in turn enable construction of the physical Analytical Engine. As of October 2013, no actual construction had been reported.



Trial model of a part of the Analytical Engine, built by Babbage, as displayed at the Science Museum (London)


 

Instruction set
Babbage is not known to have written down an explicit set of instructions for the engine in the manner of a modern processor manual. Instead he showed his programs as lists of states during their execution, showing what operator was run at each step with little indication of how the control flow would be guided. Bromley (see below) has assumed that the card deck could be read in forwards and backwards directions as a function of conditional branching after testing for conditions, which would make the engine Turing-complete:

The introduction for the first time, in 1845, of user operations for a variety of service functions including, most importantly, an effective system for user control of looping in user programs.

There is no indication how the direction of turning of the operation and variable cards is specified. In the absence of other evidence I have had to adopt the minimal default assumption that both the operation and variable cards can only be turned backward as is necessary to implement the loops used in Babbage’s sample programs. There would be no mechanical or microprogramming difficulty in placing the direction of motion under the control of the user.

From Bromley, A.G. Babbage's Analytical Engine Plans 28 and 28a. The programmer's interface. Annals of the History of Computing, IEEE. 2000
In their emulator of the engine, Fourmilab say:

The Engine's Card Reader is not constrained to simply process the cards in a chain one after another from start to finish. It can, in addition, directed by the very cards it reads and advised by the whether the Mill's run-up lever is activated, either advance the card chain forward, skipping the intervening cards, or backward, causing previously-read cards to be processed once again.

This emulator does provide a written symbolic instruction set, though this has been constructed by its authors rather than based on Babbage's original works. For example a factorial program would be written as:

N0 6
N1 1
N2 1
×
L1
L0
S1
-
L0
L2
S0
L2
L0
CB?11
where the CB is the conditional branch instruction or "combination card' used to make the control flow jump, in this case backwards by 11 cards.

Influence
Predicted influence

Babbage understood that the existence of an automatic computer would kindle interest in the field now known as algorithmic efficiency, writing in his Passages from the Life of a Philosopher, "As soon as an Analytical Engine exists, it will necessarily guide the future course of the science. Whenever any result is sought by its aid, the question will then arise—By what course of calculation can these results be arrived at by the machine in the shortest time?"

Computer science
Swedish engineers Georg and Edvard Scheutz, inspired by a description of the difference engine, created a mechanical calculation device based on the design in 1853. Table-sized instead of room-sized, the device was capable of calculating tables, but imperfectly.

From 1872 Henry continued diligently with his father's work and then intermittently in retirement in 1875. Percy Ludgate wrote about the engine in 1915 and even designed his own Analytical Engine (it was drawn up in detail, but never built). Ludgate's engine would be much smaller than Babbage's of about 8 cubic feet (230 L), and hypothetically would be capable of multiplying two 20-decimal-digit numbers in about six seconds.

Despite this ground work, Babbage's work fell into historical obscurity, and the Analytical Engine was unknown to builders of electro-mechanical and electronic computing machines in the 1930s and 1940s when they began their work, resulting in the need to re-invent many of the architectural innovations Babbage had proposed. Howard Aiken, who built the quickly-obsoleted electromechanical calculator, the Harvard Mark I, between 1937 and 1945, praised Babbage's work likely as a way of enhancing his own stature, but knew nothing of the Analytical Engine's architecture during the construction of the Mark I, and considered his visit to the constructed portion of the Analytical Engine "the greatest disappointment of my life". The Mark I showed no influence from the Analytical Engine and lacked the Analytical Engine's most prescient architectural feature, conditional branching. J. Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly similarly were not aware of the details of Babbage's Analytical Engine work prior to the completion of their design for the first electronic general-purpose computer, the ENIAC.

Comparison to other early computers
If the Analytical Engine had been built, it would have been digital, programmable and Turing-complete. However, it would have been very slow. Ada Lovelace reported in her notes on the Analytical Engine: "Mr. Babbage believes he can, by his engine, form the product of two numbers, each containing twenty figures, in three minutes". By comparison the Harvard Mark I could perform the same task in just six seconds. A modern PC can do the same thing in well under a millionth of a second.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1837
 
 
German industrialist August Borsig opens his iron foundry and engine-building factory in Berlin
 
 
Borsig August
 

Johann Friedrich August Borsig (23 June 1804 – 6 July 1854) was a German businessman who founded the Borsig-Werke factory.

Borsig was born in Breslau (Wrocław), the son of cuirassier and carpenter foreman Johann George Borsig. After learning his father's trade, he first attended the Königliche Provinzial-Kunst- und Bauschule (Royal Provincial Art and Building school), then until fall of 1825 the Königliche Gewerbe-Institut (Royal Institute of Trade). He received his practical training in engine construction at the Neue Berliner Eisengießerei (New Iron Foundry of Berlin) of F. A. Egells, where one of his first tasks was the assembly of a steam engine in Waldenburg, Silesia. After the successful completion of this task, Borsig was made factory manager for eight years. In 1828, he married Louise Pahl; they had one son, Albert.

 

Johann Friedrich August Borsig
  August Borsig and his company
From early on, Borsig was a supporter of railroads. Despite the lack of experience with railroads in Germany and the risks involved in the founding of a railroad machinery manufacturing company, Borsig used his savings to buy a site at Chausseestraße (in the Feuerland) near the Oranienburger Tor, neighboring his old company's factory, and founded his own machine factory, focusing on locomotives. The founding date was declared to be 22 July 1837, the day of the first successful casting in the foundry.

Despite tremendous costs, the first locomotive, bearing factory number 1 and the name BORSIG, was finished in 1840. This locomotive had an interior frame, a two-axle front pivoted bogie and an extra dead axle behind the only drive axle. On 21 July 1840, Borsig let it compete against a Stephenson-built locomotive on the Berlin-Jüterbog railroad. The Borsig locomotive won by 10 minutes, proving that in spite of the lack of experience, Germans could build locomotives that were at least as good as the British models, and so the import of locomotives and engineers was no longer necessary. After this victory, the number of orders rose quickly. A further six machines of this type were sold to the Berlin-Stettiner Eisenbahn and the Oberschlesische Eisenbahn in 1842.
In the beginning, the Borsig company also built steam engines for their own needs and machines for other companies as well as cast parts for art and construction.

 
 
However, the focus soon shifted to locomotive building, and the name Borsig is connected with locomotives to this day. By 1843, railway companies in Prussia had ordered 18 locomotives, and in 1844, Borsig could exhibit his 24th locomotive at the Berlin industrial fair. The one hundredth locomotive was finished in 1846. Meanwhile, Borsig built the steam pump for the fountain at Sanssouci and participated in the building of the domes of the Nicolai Church in Potsdam and the Berliner Stadtschloss (Berlin City Palace). The company was expanding rapidly in those years, since new railways were being built all over Germany. In 1847, construction of the new Moabit ironworks started and they became operational in 1849. The machine factory and iron foundry in Kirchstraße was bought in 1850, and this put the total number of employees at the three Berlin factories at 1800, making Borsig's company one of the large-scale enterprises of its time.

The increasing number of orders also increased Borsig's private wealth, and he soon became a rich entrepreneur who was not averse to splendor and a patron for many artists. August Borsig was said to be a strict but just boss with a zest for action. For his workers, he set up a sickness fund, a funeral expense fund, and a savings bank. His company had an instruction room, a dining room and a bath with swimming pool.
 
 

Technical drawing of the first steam locomotive
 
 
Borsig had become sufficiently important by the end of the 1840s that he was able to weather the economic crisis of 1848-1852 with little damage. Starting 1851, foreign railway companies also began to order Borsig locomotives, among them the Warsaw-Vienna Railway and the Seeländische Eisenbahn. After the 500th locomotive had been completed in 1854, Borsig was made Geheimer Kommerzienrat (Secret Commerce Councillor). This allowed him to tighten his monopoly position, and 67 of the 68 new Prussian locomotives in 1854 came from Borsig factories.

Some years earlier, his magnificent villa in Berlin-Moabit had been completed, fulfilling a dream of Borsig's. However, he could not enjoy his wealth for very long. He died in Berlin on 6 July 1854, at the height of his power.

 
 

Borsig steam locomotive used on the Warsaw-Vienna railway
 
 
Further history of the company
After the death of August Borsig, the company was led and expanded by his son August Julius Albert Borsig.

On the occasion of the completion of the 1000th locomotive, a large celebration with many prominent guests was held, among them the explorer Alexander von Humboldt. At this time, the company that had started out with 50 workers, had 2800 employees. It continued its expansion, and moved some part of its production to Hindenburg in Silesia in 1862. In 1872, Borsig was the largest locomotive producer in Europe. Albert Borsig co-founded the Maschinenfabrik Deutschland on the Köln-Mindener Eisenbahn line in Dortmund but the most successful chapter in the Borsig business history ended with Albert's death in 1878.

The company continued to be led mostly by Borsig family members and continued to build large numbers of locomotives, but it began to lose market share to other traffic-related companies. The company moved to Tegel, a former suburb of Berlin. The works was inaugurated in 1898. The Tegel works area was one of the most modern facilities in Germany at that time. It had its own harbour where the ships brought the material for the locomotives.

The works itself had long road with every production step at its place. The end of this production lane was the BORSIG Gate. The brand new locomotives left the works through this gate. The company also developed new products that are still part of the current manufacturing program: pressure vessels and compressors. The Great Depression made an end the success of BORSIG as a private company. By 1930, the company was on the verge of liquidation, the locomotive business was saved by a merger with AEG.

Borsig built a number of famous locomotives, among which was the world speed record holder DRG Class 05, the first steam locomotive to hit 200 km/h. The last of a total of 16,352 locomotives was built in 1954. The rest of the company went to Rheinmetall.

  BORSIG today
After World War II, the company was called Borsig AG, owned by Rheinmetall (as Rheinmetall-Borsig) and later by VIAG, a company owned by the German Federal Republic. In 1970, Borsig was sold to the private company Deutsche Babcock AG, later known as Babcock Borsig AG. In July 2002, Borsig had to reorganize due to the insolvency of its mother company, Babcock Borsig AG, Oberhausen. In 2004, Borsig bought ZM Zwickauer Maschinenfabrik, a manufacturer of reciprocating compressors and blowers, today known as BORSIG ZM Compression GmbH, situated in Meerane/Saxony. In 2006, Borsig bought the industrial boiler manufacturer DIM KWE, today BORSIG Boiler Systems GmbH. Today the BORSIG Group consists of six companies:

BORSIG GmbH, the mother company, Berlin,
BORSIG Process Heat Exchanger GmbH, Berlin, manufacturer of pressure vessels and heat exchangers,
BORSIG ZM Compression GmbH, Meerane, manufacturer of compressors and blowers,
BORSIG Membrane Technology GmbH, Gladbeck and Rheinfelden, manufacturer of membrane technology such as emission control systems or vapour recovery units,
BORSIG Boiler Systems GmbH, Hamburg, industrial boilers and power plant engineering,
BORSIG Service GmbH, Berlin and Gladbeck, industrial service.
In 2008 the whole BORSIG Group got a new owner, the KNM Group Berhad, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The actual product and service programme of the BORSIG Group consists of pressure vessels, heat exchangers, process gas waste heat recovery systems, quench coolers, scraped surface exchangers, reciprocating compressors for process gases, turbo compressors for process gases, reciprocating compressors for CNG filling stations, blowers and blowers systems, compressor valves, membrane technologies, such as emission control units, vapour recovery systems, gas conditioning, advanced separations, industrial boilers, power plant engineering, power plant services and industrial services.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1837
 
 
Burroughs John
 

John Burroughs, (born April 3, 1837, near Roxbury, N.Y., U.S.—died March 29, 1921, en route from California to New York), American essayist and naturalist who lived and wrote after the manner of Henry David Thoreau, studying and celebrating nature.

 

John Burroughs
  In his earlier years Burroughs worked as a teacher and a farmer and for nine years as a clerk in the Treasury Department, Washington, D.C. In 1867 he paid tribute to his friend Walt Whitman in the book Notes on Walt Whitman as Poet and Person.

In 1871 Wake-Robin, the first of his books on birds, flowers, and rural scenes, was published. Two years later he moved to a farm in the Hudson River valley, and, from various retreats, he wrote for half a century on nature subjects. His later writings showed a more philosophic mood and a greater disposition toward literary or meditative allusion than did his earlier work.

His chief books, in addition to Wake-Robin, are Birds and Poets (1877), Locusts and Wild Honey (1879), Signs and Seasons (1886), and Ways of Nature (1905). He also wrote a volume of poems, Bird and Bough (1906).

Burroughs traveled extensively, camping out with such friends as the naturalist John Muir and Theodore Roosevelt and accompanying an expedition to Alaska.

Winter Sunshine (1875) and Fresh Fields (1884) are sketches of travel in England and France. His Whitman: A Study was published in 1896. Other collections of his essays are Time and Change (1912), The Summit of the Years (1913), The Breath of Life (1915), Under the Apple Trees (1916), and Field and Study (1919). The John Burroughs Association, a society to encourage writing in natural science, was established in his memory.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1837
 
 
Wheatstone Charles and W. F. Cooke patent electric telegraph
 
 
Cooke William
 

Sir William Fothergill Cooke (4 May 1806 – 25 June 1879) was an English inventor.

He was, with Charles Wheatstone, the co-inventor of the Cooke-Wheatstone electrical telegraph, which was patented in May 1837. Together with John Lewis Ricardo he founded the Electric Telegraph Company, the world's first public telegraph company, in 1846. He was knighted in 1869.

 

Sir William Fothergill Cooke
  Sir William Fothergill Cooke, (born May 4, 1806, Ealing, Middlesex, Eng.—died June 25, 1879, Surrey), English inventor who worked with Charles Wheatstone in developing electric telegraphy.

Cooke’s attendance at a demonstration of the use of wire in transmitting messages led to his experimentation in 1836 with telegraphy.

Soon afterward, he and Wheatstone, who had also worked with the telegraph, formed a partnership.

In 1837 they were granted their first patent, but the cost of their model made it impractical.

A quarrel between them over credit for the invention was settled amicably in 1841 but flared again a few years later.

Wheatstone is generally considered the more important of the two in the history of the telegraph, but Cooke contributed a superior business ability.

Their most important invention, an electric telegraph using only one magnetic needle instead of several, was recognized by patent in 1845.

Cooke was knighted in 1869 and granted a civil-list pension in 1871.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1837
 
 
Morse Samuel exhibits his electric telegraph at the College of the City of New York
 
 

A Morse key
 
 
 
Telegraph
 

Telegraph, any device or system that allows the transmission of information by coded signal over distance. Many telegraphic systems have been used over the centuries, but the term is most often understood to refer to the electric telegraph, which was developed in the mid-19th century and for more than 100 years was the principal means of transmitting printed information by wire or radio wave.

 
Preelectric telegraph systems
The word telegraph is derived from the Greek words tele, meaning “distant,” and graphein, meaning “to write.” It came into use toward the end of the 18th century to describe an optical semaphore system developed in France. However, many types of telegraphic communication have been employed since before recorded history.

The earliest methods of communication at a distance made use of such media as smoke, fire, drums, and reflected rays of the Sun. Visual signals given by flags and torches were used for short-range communication and continued to be utilized well into the 20th century, when the two-flag semaphore system was widely used, particularly by the world’s navies.

Before the development of the electric telegraph, visual systems were used to convey messages over distances by means of variable displays. One of the most successful of the visual telegraphs was the semaphore developed in France by the Chappe brothers, Claude and Ignace, in 1791.

This system consisted of pairs of movable arms mounted at the ends of a crossbeam on hilltop towers. Each arm of the semaphore could assume seven angular positions 45° apart, and the horizontal beam could tilt 45° clockwise or counterclockwise. In this manner it was possible to represent numbers and the letters of the alphabet. Chains of these towers were built to permit transmission over long distances. The towers were spaced at intervals of 5 to 10 km (3 to 6 miles), and a signaling rate of three symbols per minute could be achieved.

 
Sommering's electric telegraph in 1809
 
 
Another widely used visual telegraph was developed in 1795 by George Murray in England. In Murray’s device, characters were sent by opening and closing various combinations of six shutters. This system rapidly caught on in England and in the United States, where a number of sites bearing the name Telegraph Hill or Signal Hill can still be found, particularly in coastal regions. Visual telegraphs were completely replaced by the electric telegraph by the middle of the 19th century.
 
 
The beginning of electric telegraphy
 
The first transmitters and receivers
The electric telegraph did not burst suddenly upon the scene but rather resulted from a scientific evolution that had been taking place since the 18th century in the field of electricity. One of the key developments was the invention of the voltaic cell in 1800 by Alessandro Volta of Italy. This made it possible to power electric devices in a more effective manner using relatively low voltages and high currents. Previous methods of producing electricity employed frictional generation of static electricity, which led to high voltages and low currents. Many devices incorporating high-voltage static electricity and various detectors such as pith balls and sparks were proposed for use in telegraphic systems. All were unsuccessful, however, because the severe losses in the transmission wires, particularly in bad weather, limited reliable operation to relatively short distances. Application of the battery to telegraphy was made possible by several further developments in the new science of electromagnetism. In 1820 Hans Christian Ørsted of Denmark discovered that a magnetic needle could be deflected by a wire carrying an electric current. In 1825 in Britain William Sturgeon discovered the multiturn electromagnet, and in 1831 Michael Faraday of Britain and Joseph Henry of the United States refined the science of electromagnetism sufficiently to make it possible to design practical electromagnetic devices.

The first two practical electric telegraphs appeared at almost the same time. In 1837 the British inventors Sir William Fothergill Cooke and Sir Charles Wheatstone obtained a patent on a telegraph system that employed six wires and actuated five needle pointers attached to five galvanoscopes at the receiver.

 
Original Samuel Morse telegraph
 
 
If currents were sent through the proper wires, the needles could be made to point to specific letters and numbers on their mounting plate.

In 1832 Samuel F.B. Morse, a professor of painting and sculpture at the University of the City of New York (later New York University), became interested in the possibility of electric telegraphy and made sketches of ideas for such a system. In 1835 he devised a system of dots and dashes to represent letters and numbers. In 1837 he was granted a patent on an electromagnetic telegraph. Morse’s original transmitter incorporated a device called a portarule, which employed molded type with built-in dots and dashes. The type could be moved through a mechanism in such a manner that the dots and dashes would make and break the contact between the battery and the wire to the receiver. The receiver, or register, embossed the dots and dashes on an unwinding strip of paper that passed under a stylus. The stylus was actuated by an electromagnet turned on and off by the signals from the transmitter.



Key-type Morse telegraph transmitter from the 1840s.

 

Morse had formed a partnership with Alfred Vail, who was a clever mechanic and is credited with many contributions to the Morse system. Among them are the replacement of the portarule transmitter by a simple make-and-break key, the refinement of the Morse Code so that the shortest code sequences were assigned to the most frequently occurring letters, and the improvement of the mechanical design of all the system components. The first demonstration of the system by Morse was conducted for his friends at his workplace in 1837. In 1843 Morse obtained financial support from the U.S. government to build a demonstration telegraph system 60 km (35 miles) long between Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Md. Wires were attached by glass insulators to poles alongside a railroad. The system was completed and public use initiated on May 24, 1844, with transmission of the message, “What hath God wrought!” This inaugurated the telegraph era in the United States, which was to last more than 100 years.

 
 
Development of the telegraph industry
Although railroad traffic control was one of the earliest applications of the telegraph, it immediately became a vital tool for the transmission of news around the country.

In 1848 the Associated Press was formed in the United States to pool telegraph expenses, and in 1849 Paul Julius Reuters in Paris initiated telegraphic press service (using pigeons to cover sections where lines were incomplete). By 1851 more than 50 telegraph companies were in operation in the United States.

One of the most significant was the New York and Mississippi Printing Telegraph Company formed by Hiram Sibley, which was soon consolidated with a number of other start-up telegraph companies into the Western Union Telegraph Company in 1856.

Western Union became the dominant telegraph company in the United States. In 1861 it completed the first transcontinental telegraph line, connecting San Francisco to the Midwest and then on to the East Coast. After the Union Pacific Railroad was finished in 1869, much of the line was relocated to run along the railroad right-of-way to facilitate maintenance.

In Britain the Electric Telegraph Company was formed in 1845 to promote development of the needle telegraph system. As in the United States, development of the telegraph was carried out by highly competitive private companies, but a movement toward monopoly was strong.

 
Cooke and Wheatstone's five-needle, six-wire telegrap
 
 
In 1870 the telegraph industry was nationalized and became part of the British Post Office.

Because of worldwide interest in applications of the telegraph, the International Telegraph Union was formed in 1865 to establish standards for use in international communication. In the following year the first successful transatlantic cables were completed.
 
 

Phelps' Electro-motor Printing Telegraph from circa 1880, the last and most advanced telegraphy mechanism designed by George May Phelps
 
 
Advances in telegraph technology
Signal processing and transmission

Soon after its introduction in Europe it became apparent that the American Morse Code was inadequate for the transmission of much non-English text because it lacked letters with diacritical marks. A variant that ultimately became known as the International Morse Code was adopted in 1851 for use on cables, for land telegraph lines except in North America, and later for wireless telegraphy. Except for some minor improvements in 1938, the International Morse Code has remained unchanged. It is no longer a major means of commercial or maritime communications, but it is still used by amateur radio operators.

New technology and devices kept appearing and led to a continual evolution of the telegraph industry during the latter half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. By 1856 the register in the Morse system was replaced by a sounder, and the code was transcribed directly from the sounds by the operator. In 1871 J.B. Stearns of the United States completed refinement of the duplex transmission system originated in Germany by Wilhelm Gintl, which allowed the same line to be used simultaneously for sending and receiving, thus doubling its capacity. This system was further improved by the American inventor Thomas Alva Edison, who patented a quadraplex telegraph system in 1874 that permitted the simultaneous transmission of two signals in each direction on a single line. A major new concept was introduced in 1871 by Jean-Maurice-Émile Baudot in France. Baudot devised a system for multiplexing (switching) a single line among a number of simultaneous users. The heart of the system was a distributor consisting of a stationary face plate containing concentric circular copper rings that were swept by brushes mounted on a rotating assembly. The face plate was divided into sectors depending on the number of users. Each sector could produce a sequence of five on or off connections that represented a transmitted letter or symbol. The on/off connections were referred to as marks or spaces—in modern terminology, binary digits, or bits, consisting of ones or zeros—and the 32 possible symbols that they encoded came to be known as the Baudot Code.

  In the Baudot system, the transmitter and receiver had to be operated in synchrony so that the correct transmitter and receiver were connected at the same time. The first systems used manual transmission, but this was soon replaced with perforated tape. Variations of this system were used well into the 20th century; and it was the forerunner of what is now known as time-division multiplexing.

During this time of rapid change in the telegraph industry a new device, the telephone, was patented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. Although the telephone was originally expected to replace the telegraph completely, this turned out not to be the case: both industries thrived side by side for many decades. Much of the technology developed for telephony had parallel applications in telegraphy. A number of systems were developed that allowed simultaneous transmission of telegraph and telephone signals on the same lines. In 1882 the Western Electric Company was acquired from Western Union by the American Bell Telephone Company. Western Electric had started as a telegraph manufacturing company but later became a major contributor to both the telephone and telegraph industries.

The vacuum tube, patented by Lee De Forest in the United States in 1907, led to several improvements in telegraph performance and greatly intensified research efforts in telegraphy, telephony, and the emerging field of wireless communication. In 1918 modulated carriers with frequency-division multiplexing, in which several different frequencies are transmitted simultaneously over the same line, were introduced. At the receiving end the different signals were separated from one another by frequency-selective filters and sent to separate decoding units, thus allowing as many as 24 telegraph signals to be transmitted over a single telephone channel. Vacuum tube circuits were used to amplify and regenerate weak signals in a manner not previously possible. The development of new magnetic materials enabled more effective loading of transmission lines, thereby improving transmission speeds. In 1928 loading was first successfully applied to submarine cables to allow duplex operation, but it was not until 1950 that Western Union installed the first successful underwater vacuum tube repeater.

 
 

A printing electrical telegraph receiver, with transmitter key at bottom right
 
 
Printing telegraphs
In 1903 the British inventor Donald Murray, following the ideas of Baudot, devised a time-division multiplex system for the British Post Office. The transmitter used a typewriter keyboard that punched tape, and the receiver printed text. He modified the Baudot Code by assigning code combinations with the fewest punched holes to the most frequently encountered letters and symbols. Murray sold the patent rights to Western Union and Western Electric in 1912, and this formed the basis of the printing telegraph systems that came into use in the 1920s.

In 1924 the American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) introduced a printing telegraph system called the Teletype, which became widely used for business communication. The unit consisted of a typewriter keyboard and a simplex printer.

Each keystroke generated a series of coded electric impulses that were then sent over the transmission line to the receiving system. There the receiver decoded the pulses and printed the message on a paper tape or other medium. For many years teleprinters used the five-bit Baudot Code and, in some cases, other specialized codes.

  With the advent of computers, however, it became apparent that the Baudot Code was no longer adequate, and in 1966 the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) was established. ASCII consisted of seven bits, compared with five bits for the Baudot Code; these allowed 128 different coded letters or symbols, as compared with 32 for the Baudot Code. Code speeds of 150 words per minute were possible with teleprinter systems using the ASCII code, as compared with 75 words per minute for those using the Baudot Code.

In 1932 AT&T inaugurated the Teletypewriter Exchange Service (TWX), a switched teleprinter network. Switching was accomplished manually until it was automated after World War II. In Europe a similar service called Telex was inaugurated in the early 1930s and was partially automated in Germany before World War II. In 1962 Western Union introduced Telex in the United States as an international teleprinter service, and in 1970 it acquired TWX from AT&T. It was not possible for the Telex and TWX instruments to communicate directly with one another because of differences in transmission codes and transmission speeds. Western Union linked the two services through a network of processing centres that made the necessary conversions between the two systems.

 
 

A Baudot keyboard, 1884
 
 
The end of the telegraph era
After World War II much new technology became available that radically changed the telegraph industry. Old wire lines were too expensive to maintain and were replaced by coaxial cable and microwave links. Very wide-bandwidth channels became available, allowing transmission speeds limited only by the capabilities of the terminal equipment. These new transmission media were later augmented by satellite links and fibre optic transmission lines. In 1974 the Westar satellite, providing enormous capacity for all types of telecommunication, was placed in operation by Western Union. These new transmission channels were complemented by new electronic technology including transistors, integrated circuits, and various microelectronics devices that reduced costs and improved performance. With the advent of the digital computer in the 1960s, the trend toward entirely digital communication began. The facsimile telegraph was perfected in the 1930s and was widely used for sending photographs and other graphic information over telephone and telegraph lines in an analog transmission system.
  By the 1980s, however, analog facsimile was virtually replaced by the digital fax machine. In many offices, fax machines and e-mail began to replace other types of communication, including telegrams, TWX, Telex, and, in many cases, the postal service.

In the face of changing technology, the Western Union Telegraph Company was reorganized as the Western Union Corporation in 1988 to handle money transfers and related services. It sold its international private line service to Tele-Columbus AG of Switzerland, the Westar satellite system was sold to GM Hughes Electronics Corporation of the United States, and AT&T acquired Western Union’s business services group.
The telegraph, which had started in 1837, was replaced in most applications in developed countries by digital data-transmission systems based on computer technology.

Clare D. McGillem

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

A T100 Telex teleprinter.
 
     
 
1837
 
 
Jules Dumont d'Urville - voyage to Antarctica
 
 
d'Urville Jules Dumont
 

Jules-Sébastien-César Dumont d’Urville, (born May 23, 1790, Condé-sur-Noireau, Fr.—died May 8, 1842, near Meudon), French navigator who commanded voyages of exploration to the South Pacific (1826–29) and the Antarctic (1837–40), resulting in extensive revisions of existing charts and discovery or redesignation of island groups.

 

Jules-Sébastien-César Dumont d’Urville
  In 1820, while on a charting survey of the eastern Mediterranean, d’Urville helped the French government gain possession of what became one of the best-known Greek sculptures, the Venus de Milo, which had been unearthed on the Aegean island of Mílos in that year. In 1822 he served on a voyage around the world and returned to France in 1825. His next mission took him to the South Pacific, where he searched for traces of explorer Jean-François La Pérouse, lost in that region in 1788.

On this voyage he charted parts of New Zealand and visited the Fiji and Loyalty islands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Amboyna, Van Diemen’s Land (now Tasmania), the Caroline Islands, and the Celebes. In February 1828 d’Urville sighted wreckage, believed to be from the frigates of La Pérouse, at Vanikoro in the Santa Cruz Islands. The expedition returned to France on March 25, 1829.

The voyage resulted in extensive revision in charts of South Sea waters and redesignation of island groups into Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, and Malaysia. D’Urville also returned with about 1,600 plant specimens, 900 rock samples, and information on the languages of the islands he had visited. Promoted to capitaine de vaisseau (captain) in 1829, he conveyed the exiled king Charles X to England in August 1830.
 
 
In September 1837 d’Urville set sail from Toulon on a voyage to Antarctica. He hoped to sail beyond the 74°15′ S reached by James Weddell in 1823. After surveying in the Straits of Magellan, d’Urville’s ships reached the pack ice at 63°29′ S, 44°47′ W, but they were ill-equipped for ice navigation. Unable to penetrate the pack, they coasted it for 300 miles to the east. Heading westward, they visited the South Orkneys and the South Shetlands and discovered Joinville Island and Louis Philippe Land before scurvy forced them to stop at Talcahuano, Chile. After proceeding across the Pacific to the Fiji and Pelew (now Palau) islands, New Guinea, and Borneo, they returned to the Antarctic, hoping to discover the magnetic pole in the unexplored sector between 120° and 160° E. In January 1840 they sighted the Adélie coast, south of Australia, and named it for Mme d’Urville. The expedition reached France late in 1841. The following year d’Urville was killed, with his wife and son, in a railway accident.

Dumont d’Urville’s chief works include (with others) Voyage de la corvette “l’Astrolabe,” 1826–1829 (1830–34; “Voyage of the Corvette ‘Astrolabe,’ 1826–1829”), Voyage au Pole Sud et dans l’Océanie, 1837–1840 (1841–54; “Voyage to the South Pole and in Oceania, 1837–1840”), and An Account in Two Volumes of Two Voyages to the South Seas (1987).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
First contact with Antarctica
The Astrolabe and the Zélée sailed from Toulon on 7 September 1837, after three weeks of delay compared to Dumont’s plans. His objectives were to reach the more southerly point possible at this time in the Weddell Sea; to pass through the Strait of Magellan; to travel up the coast of Chile in order to head for Oceania with the objective of inspecting the new British colonies in Western Australia; to sail to Hobart; and to sail to New Zealand to find opportunities for French whalers and to examine places where a penal colony might be established. After passing through the East Indies, the mission would have to round the Cape of Good Hope and return to France.

Early in the voyage, part of the crew was involved in a drunken brawl and arrested in Tenerife. A short pause was made in Rio de Janeiro to disembark a sick official. During the first part of the voyage there were also problems of provisioning, particularly rotten meat, which affected the health of the crew. At the end of November, the ships reached the Strait of Magellan. Dumont thought there was sufficient time to explore the strait for three weeks, taking into account the precise maps drawn by Phillip Parker King in the HMS Beagle between 1826 and 1830, before heading south again.

Two weeks after seeing their first iceberg, the Astrolabe and the Zélée found themselves entangled again in a mass of ice on 1 January 1838. The same night the pack ice prevented the ships from continuing to the south.

 
L'Astrolabe making water on a floe 6 February 1838
 
 
In the next two months Dumont led increasingly desperate attempts to find a passage through the ice so that he could reach the desired latitude.
For a while the ships managed to keep to an ice-free channel, but shortly afterwards they became trapped again, after a wind change. Five days of continuous work were necessary in order to open a corridor in the pack ice to free them.

After reaching the South Orkney Islands, the expedition headed directly to the South Shetland Islands and the Bransfield Strait. In spite of thick fog they located some land only sketched on the maps, which Dumont named Terre de Louis-Philippe (now called Graham Land), the Joinville Island group and Rosamel Island (now called Andersson Island). Conditions on board had rapidly deteriorated: most of the crew had obvious symptoms of scurvy and the main decks were covered by smoke from the ships fires and bad smells and became unbearable. At the end of February 1838, Dumont accepted that he was not able to continue further south, and he continued to doubt the actual latitude reached by Weddell. He therefore directed the two ships towards Talcahuano, in Chile, where he established a temporary hospital for the crew members affected by scurvy.

 
 
 
 
see also: Charting the Coastline
 
 
 
1837
 
 
Kuhne Wilhelm
 

Wilhelm Friedrich Kühne (28 March 1837 – 10 June 1900) was a German physiologist. Born in Hamburg, he is best known today for coining the word enzyme.

 
Biography
Kühne was born at Hamburg on 28 March 1837. After attending the gymnasium in Lüneburg, he went to Göttingen, where his master in chemistry was Friedrich Wöhler and in physiology Rudolph Wagner. Having graduated in 1856, he studied under various famous physiologists, including Emil du Bois-Reymond at Berlin, Claude Bernard in Paris, and KFW Ludwig and EW von Brücke in Vienna.
 
 

Wilhelm Friedrich Kühne
  At the end of 1863 he was put in charge of the chemical department of the pathological laboratory at Berlin, under Rudolf Virchow; in 1868 he was appointed professor of physiology at Amsterdam; and in 1871 he was chosen to succeed Hermann von Helmholtz in the same capacity at Heidelberg, where he died on 10 June 1900.

Works
Kühne's original work falls into two main groups, the physiology of muscle and nerve, which occupied the earlier years of his life, and the chemistry of digestion, which he began to investigate while at Berlin with Virchow.
In 1876, he discovered the protein-digesting enzyme trypsin.He was also known for his research on vision and the chemical changes occurring in the retina under the influence of light.

Using the "visual purple" (or rhodopsin), described by Franz Christian Boll in 1876, he attempted to make the basis of a photochemical theory of vision, but though he was able to establish its importance in connection with vision in light of low intensity, its absence from the retinal area of most distinct vision detracted from the completeness of the theory and precluded its general acceptance. Kühne also pioneered the process of optography, the generation of an image from the retina of a rabbit by applying a chemical process to fix the state of the rhodopsin in the eye.He was elected member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1898.

 
 
Some notable students
Dr. José Rizal (1861-1896), martyr and national hero of the Philippines, learned physiology under Professor Kühne at the Heidelberg University in 1886.

Ida Henrietta Hyde (1857–1945) wanted to study physiology under Dr. Kühne at the University of Heidelberg on the recommendation of Professor Alexander Goette at Strasbourg. The University accepted her, but Dr. Willhelm Kühne refused to allow her in lectures and laboratories. He is reported to have said that he would never allow “skirts” in his classes. However, when a colleague asked him whether, if at the end of the course she could pass the examination, he would grant her the degree, he jokingly replied that he would. And so for six semesters, she had to study physiology independent of the classroom and of hands-on laboratory projects, using only his assistants’ notes and lab sketches. Finally, a four-hour oral examination by Kühne’s academic committee, proved her worthiness. The “Summa Cum Laude” degree, the highest honors, could not go to a woman, so Kühne invented a new phrase: “Multa Cum Laude Superavit" in English meaning “she overcame with much praise.”

Hyde completed the PhD at Heidelberg in 1896, the first woman to receive one for this type of work. Dr. Kühne recommended her for a position at the Heidelberg-supported research program at the Naples Marine Biological Laboratory in Naples Italy, where she studied the nature and function of salivary glands. She was a life member of this organization, and its secretary from 1897 to 1900.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1837
 
 
Fr. mathematician Simeon D. Poisson (Poisson Simeon-Denis) publishes his fundamental study, "Recherches sur la probabilite des jugements"
 
 

Simeon D. Poisson. "Recherches sur la probabilite des jugements"
 
 
 
1837
 
 
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
 

Johannes Diederik van der Waals, (born Nov. 23, 1837, Leiden, Neth.—died March 9, 1923, Amsterdam), Dutch physicist, winner of the 1910 Nobel Prize for Physics for his research on the gaseous and liquid states of matter. His work made the study of temperatures near absolute zero possible.

 

Johannes Diederik van der Waals
  A self-educated man who took advantage of the opportunities offered by the University of Leiden, van der Waals first attracted notice in 1873 with his doctoral treatise “On the Continuity of the Liquid and Gaseous State,” for which he was awarded a doctorate.

In pursuing his research, he knew that the ideal-gas law could be derived from the kinetic theory of gases if it could be assumed that gas molecules have zero volume and that there are no attractive forces between them.

Taking into account that neither assumption is true, in 1881 he introduced into the law two parameters (representing size and attraction) and worked out a more exact formula, known as the van der Waals equation.
Since the parameters were distinct for each gas, he continued his work and arrived at an equation (the law of corresponding states) that is the same for all substances.

It was this work that brought him the Nobel Prize and also led Sir James Dewar of England and Heike Kamerlingh Onnes of the Netherlands to the determination of the necessary data for the liquefaction of hydrogen and helium.

 
 
Van der Waals was appointed professor of physics at the University of Amsterdam in 1877, a post he retained until 1907. The van der Waals forces, weak attractive forces between atoms or molecules, were named in his honour.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1837
 
 
The first boat race, sponsored by the Castle Garden Boat Club Association, held at Poughkeepsie, N.Y.
 
 
 
1837
 
 
First Canadian railroad
 
 
 
1837
 
 
England introduces official birth registration
 
 
 
1837
 
 
Mrs. Fitzherbert, morganatic wife of King George IV, d. (b. 1756)
 
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
 

Maria Anne Fitzherbert (previously Weld, née Smythe; 26 July 1756 – 27 March 1837) was a longtime companion of the future King George IV of the United Kingdom with whom she secretly contracted a marriage that was invalid under English civil law before his accession to the throne. Though Fitzherbert had been disinherited by her first husband, his nephew (Cardinal Weld) persuaded Pope Pius VII to declare the marriage sacramentally valid.

 

Maria Anne Fitzherbert by Sir Joshua Reynolds
  Early life
Fitzherbert was born at Tong, Shropshire. She was the eldest child of Walter Smythe of Brambridge, Hampshire, younger son of Sir John Smythe, 3rd Baronet, of Acton Burnell, Shropshire. Her mother was Mary Ann Errington of Beaufront, Northumberland, maternal half-sister of Charles William Molyneux, 1st Earl of Sefton. She was educated in Paris at a French convent.

Marriages
Fitzherbert married Edward Weld, 16 years her senior, a rich Catholic landowner of Lulworth Castle in July 1775. Weld died just three months later after a fall from his horse and having failed to sign his new will. His estate went to his younger brother Thomas, father of Cardinal Weld. His widow was left effectively destitute, had little or no financial support from the Weld family and was obliged to remarry as soon as she could.

She married a second time, three years later, to Thomas Fitzherbert of Swynnerton, Staffordshire. She was ten years younger than he. They had a son who died young. She was widowed again on 7 May 1781. He left her an annuity of £1000 and a town house in Park Street, Mayfair.

Relationship with George
The twice widowed Fitzherbert soon entered London high society. In spring, 1784, she was introduced to a youthful admirer: George, Prince of Wales, six years her junior.

 
 
The prince became infatuated with her and pursued her endlessly until she agreed to marry him. Secretly, and – as both parties were well aware – against the law, they went through a form of marriage on 15 December 1785, in the drawing room of her house in Park Street, London. Her uncle, Henry Errington, and her brother, Jack Smythe, were the witnesses. This invalid marriage ceremony was performed by one of the prince's Chaplains in Ordinary, the Reverend Robert Burt, whose debts (of £500) were paid by the prince to release him from the Fleet Prison.

The marriage was not valid because it had not received the prior approval of King George III and the Privy Council as required by the Royal Marriages Act 1772. Had approval been sought, it might not have been granted for many reasons including, for example, Fitzherbert's Roman Catholic allegiance. Had consent been given and the marriage been legal, the Prince of Wales would have been automatically removed from the succession to the British throne under the provisions of the Bill of Rights and the Act of Settlement 1701. His brother, Prince Augustus Frederick, contracted an invalid marriage with Lady Augusta Murray in 1793 without the King's consent and had two children with her.

 
On 23 June 1794, Fitzherbert was informed by letter that her relationship with the Prince was over. George told his younger brother, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, that he and Fitzherbert were "parted, but parted amicably", conveying his intention to marry their first cousin, Duchess Caroline of Brunswick. According to King George III it was the only way out of a hole: his heir apparent's debts of £600,000 would be paid the day he wed. So the Prince married Caroline on 8 April 1795. In 1796, three days after Caroline gave birth to their daughter, Princess Charlotte of Wales, on 10 January, the Prince of Wales wrote his last will and testament, bequeathing all his "worldly property . . . to my Maria Fitzherbert, my wife, the wife of my heart and soul".
 
 

Maria Anne Fitzherbert
  Although by the laws of the country she "could not avail herself publicly of that name, still such she is in the eyes of Heaven, was, is, and ever will be such in mine…". However, this did not lead to a reunion. The Prince finally sought a reconciliation with his "second self" during the summer of 1798. By then, he had separated from Caroline for good and was bored with his mistress, Frances Villiers, Countess of Jersey. They reconciled again after the Pope deemed their marriage legitimate.

During the first few years of his reign as King George IV, he turned violently against Fitzherbert and several of his former associates. Whenever he mentioned her name it was "with feelings of disgust and horror", claiming that their union "was an artificial marriage… just to satisfy her; that it was no marriage – for there could be none without a licence or some written document."

Fitzherbert was in possession of documents and after their final break her demands for her annuity payments were often accompanied by veiled threats to go public with her papers if she did not receive the funds. In June 1830, when the King was dying, he eagerly seized her "get well soon" letter and, after reading it, placed it under his pillow. Fitzherbert – who had no idea just how ill he was – was deeply hurt that he had never replied to her final letter. However, before dying, the King asked to be buried with Fitzherbert's eye miniature around his neck, which was done.

 
 
Death
Following the death of George IV on 26 June 1830, it was discovered that he had kept all of Fitzherbert's letters, and steps were taken to destroy them. Fitzherbert told George IV's brother, King William IV, about their marriage and showed him the document in her possession. He asked Fitzherbert to accept a dukedom, but she refused, asking only permission to wear widow's weeds, and to dress her servants in royal livery. Architect William Porden designed Steine House, on the west side of Old Steine in Brighton, for Fitzherbert. She lived there from 1804 until her death in 1837. She was buried at St John the Baptist's Church in the Kemp Town area of Brighton.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1837
 
 
Gag Law, aimed at suppressing debate on slavery, passed by U.S. Congress
 
 
 
1837
 
 
Hanna Mark
 

Mark Hanna, byname of Marcus Alonzo Hanna (born Sept. 24, 1837, New Lisbon, Ohio, U.S.—died Feb. 15, 1904, Washington, D.C.), American industrialist and prototype of the political kingmaker; he successfully promoted the presidential candidacy of William McKinley in the election of 1896 and personified the growing influence of big business in American politics.

 

Marcus Alonzo Hanna
  The prosperous owner of a Cleveland coal and iron enterprise, Hanna soon expanded his interests to include banking, transportation, and publishing. Convinced that the welfare of business (and consequently the prosperity of the nation) was dependent upon the success of the Republican Party, he began as early as 1880 to work among industrialists to ensure the financial support of likely candidates for office. He was especially impressed by Ohio congressman William McKinley’s successful sponsorship in 1890 of a high protective tariff, and thenceforth he devoted all his energies to McKinley’s political advancement, first as governor (1892–96) and then as president (1897–1901).

In preparation for the 1896 contest with the Democrat–Populist candidate, William Jennings Bryan, Hanna was reputed to have poured more than $100,000 of his own money into preconvention expenses alone. Raising an unprecedented fund from wealthy individuals and corporations, the dynamic Hanna skillfully directed the $3,500,000 campaign—the costliest and best organized the nation had ever witnessed. At a rate of spending exceeding his opponents by 20 to 1, his 1,400 paid workers inundated the country with millions of pamphlets promising continuing prosperity with McKinley.
 
 
Hanna succeeded in stunting Bryan’s grass-roots appeal with a continual barrage of posters and propaganda that preceded and followed Bryan at every whistle-stop of his campaign train.
Once in office, McKinley helped to fulfill Hanna’s lifelong ambition by appointing Sen. John Sherman secretary of state, thus creating a vacancy in the U.S. Senate. Hanna was elected to fill the vacancy (March 1897) and remained in the Senate until his death.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 

 
 
1837
 
 
Lovejoy Elijah
 

Elijah Parish Lovejoy (November 9, 1802 – November 7, 1837) was an American Presbyterian minister, journalist, newspaper editor and abolitionist. He was murdered by a pro-slavery mob in Alton, Illinois, during their attack on his warehouse to destroy his press and abolitionist materials.

 

Elijah Parish Lovejoy
  Elijah P. Lovejoy, in full Elijah Parish Lovejoy (born November 9, 1802, Albion, Maine, U.S.—died November 7, 1837, Alton, Illinois), American newspaper editor and martyred abolitionist who died in defense of his right to print antislavery material in the period leading up to the American Civil War (1861–65).

In 1827 Lovejoy moved to St. Louis, Missouri, where he established a school and entered journalism. Six years later he became editor of the St. Louis Observer, a Presbyterian weekly in which he strongly condemned slavery and supported gradual emancipation.

Missouri was a slave state, and in 1835 a letter signed by a number of important men in St. Louis requested him to moderate the tone of his editorials.

He replied in an editorial reiterating his views and his right to publish them. Threats of mob violence, however, forced him to move his press across the Mississippi River to Alton, in the free state of Illinois. Despite its new location, his press was destroyed by mobs several times in one year.

Finally, on the night of November 7, 1837, a mob attacked the building, and Lovejoy was killed in its defense.

The news of his death stirred the people of the North profoundly and led to a great strengthening of abolitionist sentiment.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1837
 
 
Morgan John Pierpont
 

John Pierpont Morgan, byname J.P. Morgan (born April 17, 1837, Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.—died March 31, 1913, Rome, Italy), American financier and industrial organizer, one of the world’s foremost financial figures during the two pre-World War I decades. He reorganized several major railroads and consolidated the United States Steel, International Harvester, and General Electric corporations.

 

John Pierpont Morgan
  The son of a successful financier, Junius Spencer Morgan (1813–90), John Pierpont was educated in Boston and at the University of Göttingen. He began his career in 1857 as an accountant with the New York banking firm of Duncan, Sherman and Company, which was the American representative of the London firm George Peabody and Company. In 1861 Morgan became the agent for his father’s banking company in New York City. During 1864–71 he was a member of the firm of Dabney, Morgan and Company, and in 1871 he became a partner in the New York City firm of Drexel, Morgan and Company, which soon became the predominant source of U.S. government financing. This firm was reorganized as J.P. Morgan and Company in 1895, and, largely through Morgan’s ability, it became one of the most powerful banking houses in the world.
Because of his links with the Peabody firm, Morgan had intimate and highly useful connections with the London financial world, and during the 1870s he was thereby able to provide the rapidly growing industrial corporations of the United States with much-needed capital from British bankers. He began reorganizing railroads in 1885, when he arranged an agreement between two of the largest railroads in the country, the New York Central Railroad and the Pennsylvania Railroad, that minimized a potentially destructive rate war and rail-line competition between them. In 1886 he reorganized two more major railroads with the aim of stabilizing their financial base. In the course of these corporate restructurings, Morgan became a member of the board of directors of these and other railroads, thereby amassing great influence on them.
 
 
Between 1885 and 1888 he extended his influence to lines based in Pennsylvania and Ohio, and after the financial panic of 1893 he was called upon to rehabilitate a large number of the leading rail lines in the country, including the Southern Railroad, the Erie Railroad, and the Northern Pacific. He helped to achieve railroad rate stability and discouraged overly chaotic competition in the East. By gaining control of much of the stock of the railroads that he reorganized, he became one of the world’s most powerful railroad magnates, controlling about 5,000 miles (8,000 km) of American railroads by 1902.
 
 

John Pierpont Morgan
  During the depression that followed the panic of 1893, Morgan formed a syndicate that resupplied the U.S. government’s depleted gold reserve with $62 million in gold in order to relieve a Treasury crisis. Three years later he began financing a series of giant industrial consolidations that were to reshape the corporate structure of the American manufacturing sector. His first venture, in 1891, was to arrange the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric, which became the dominant electrical-equipment manufacturing firm in the United States. Having financed the creation of the Federal Steel Company in 1898, Morgan in 1901 joined in merging it with the giant Carnegie Steel Company and other steel companies to form United States Steel Corporation, which was the world’s first billion-dollar corporation. In 1902 Morgan brought together several of the leading agricultural-equipment manufacturers to form the International Harvester Company. In that same year he organized, with less subsequent success, the International Mercantile Marine (IMM), an amalgamation of a majority of the transatlantic shipping lines, notably including White Star. In April 1912 Morgan had a booking on the maiden voyage of White Star’s Titanic but was forced to cancel, reportedly because of an illness. The ship subsequently sank with great loss of life.

Morgan successfully led the American financial community’s attempt to avert a general financial collapse following the stock market panic of 1907.

 
 
He headed a group of bankers who took in large government deposits and decided how the money was to be used for purposes of financial relief, thereby preserving the solvency of many major banks and corporations. Having ceased to undertake large industrial reorganizations, Morgan thereafter concentrated on amassing control of various banks and insurance companies. Through a system of interlocking memberships on the boards of companies he had reorganized or influenced, Morgan and his banking house achieved a top-heavy concentration of control over some of the nation’s leading corporations and financial institutions. This earned Morgan the occasional distrust of the federal government and the enmity of reformers and muckrakers throughout the country, but he remained the dominant figure in American capitalism until his death in 1913.

Morgan was one of the greatest art and book collectors of his day, and he donated many works of art to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. His book collection and the building that housed them in New York City became a public reference library in 1924.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1837
 
 
Financial and economic panic in America (inflated land values, wildcat banking, paper speculation)
 
 
 
1837
 
 
Eng. teacher Isaac Pitman publishes his manual "Stenographic Soundhand"
 
 
Pitman Isaac
 
 

Sir Isaac Pitman (4 January 1813 – 22 January 1897),[1] was an English teacher who developed the most widely used system of shorthand, known now as Pitman shorthand. He first proposed this in Stenographic Soundhand in 1837. Pitman was a qualified teacher and taught at a private school he founded in Wotton-under-Edge - The British School, Wotton-under-Edge. He was also the vice president of the Vegetarian Society. Pitman was knighted in 1894.

 

Sir Isaac Pitman
  Sir Isaac Pitman, (born Jan. 4, 1813, Trowbridge, Wiltshire, Eng.—died Jan. 12, 1897, Somerset), English educator and inventor of the shorthand system named for him.

After clerking in a textile mill, Pitman entered a training college for teachers (1831) and taught in elementary schools for 11 years before opening his own private school in Bath.

Earlier he had taken up Samuel Taylor’s system of shorthand and become interested in developing shorthand based on sound. In 1837, at the suggestion of publisher Samuel Bagster, Pitman wrote Stenographic Sound Hand, which Bagster published at a low price for widest possible distribution.

To encourage the adoption of his system, Pitman established a Phonetic Institute and a Phonetic Journal at Bath. He also printed standard works in shorthand, and his book Phonography (1840) went through many editions.
He was an enthusiastic spelling reformer and adopted a phonetic system that he tried to bring into general use. In 1894 he was knighted.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1837
 
 
Records of the 11-mile 220- yard Crick Run Race at Rugby School, Warwickshire, England, begun
 
 
 

 
 
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