Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1835 Part IV NEXT-1836 Part II    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

The Battle of San Jacinto. Painting by Henry Arthur McArdle
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1836 Part I
 
 
 
1836
 
 
Davy Crockett, Amer. frontiersman and politician, killed at the Alamo (b. 1786)
 
 
Crockett Davy
 

Davy Crockett, byname of David Crockett (born Aug. 17, 1786, eastern Tennessee, U.S.—died March 6, 1836, San Antonio, Texas), American frontiersman and politician who became a legendary figure.

 

Davy Crockett
  His father, having little means, hired him out to more prosperous backwoods farmers, and Davy’s schooling amounted to 100 days of tutoring with a neighbour. Successive moves west to middle Tennessee brought him close to the area of the Creek War, in which he made a name for himself from 1813 to 1815.

In 1821 he was elected to the Tennessee legislature, winning popularity through campaign speeches filled with yarns and homespun metaphors. In the legislature an opposing speaker referred to Crockett as the “gentleman from the cane,” an allusion to the dense canebrakes of western Tennessee, where Davy hunted bears and raccoons during the winter.

This image of the rough backwoods legislator caught the popular imagination during Crockett’s lifetime and continued to do so after his death.

Following a second term in the state legislature in 1823, Crockett ran for the U.S. House of Representatives. He lost in 1825, won in 1827 and 1829, lost in 1831, barely won in 1833, and suffered his final defeat in 1835, owing to the concentrated opposition of the party of Andrew Jackson. He then headed west to Texas, joined the American forces, and died along with the entire garrison of the Alamo when it was overrun by a Mexican army under General Santa Anna on March 6, 1836.

 
 
During his first congressional term, Crockett broke with Andrew Jackson and the new Democratic party over Crockett’s desire for preferential treatment of the squatters occupying land in western Tennessee. The Whigs early courted and publicized Crockett in the hope of creating a popular “coonskin” politician to offset Jackson. In 1834 Crockett was conducted on a triumphal speechmaking tour of Whig strongholds in the East. From the many stories appearing in newspapers and books during his congressional years, the legend rapidly grew of an eccentric but shrewd “b’ar-hunting” and Indian-fighting frontiersman.
 
 

Davy Crockett by William Henry Huddle, 1889
 
Portrait of Davy Crockett by John Gadsby Chapman
 
 
Actually Crockett engaged in several business ventures and delivered his speeches in fairly conventional English. A series of Crockett almanacs, appearing from 1835 to 1856, developed the legend along the lines of Old World folk epics. Crockett’s Autobiography, written in 1834 with Thomas Chilton, U.S. Representative from Kentucky, played up the backwoods scene and said little about politics. It helped introduce a new style of vigorous, realistic writing into American literature.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1836
 
 
Texas (Texas Revolution 1835 – 1836) wins independence from Mexico and becomes a republic with General Sam Houston as first president
 
 
Houston Sam
 

Sam Houston, byname of Samuel Houston (born March 2, 1793, Rockbridge County, Va., U.S.—died July 26, 1863, Huntsville, Texas), U.S. lawyer and politician, a leader of the struggle by U.S. emigrants in Mexican territory to win control of Texas (1834–36) and make it part of the United States.

 

Sam Houston
  In his youth Houston moved with his family to a farm in rural Tennessee after the death of his father in 1807. He ran away in his mid-teens and lived for nearly three years with the Cherokee Indians in eastern Tennessee, where he took the name Black Raven and learned the native language, skills, and customs.

Houston thus developed a rapport with the Indians that was unique for his day. As a consequence, after service in the War of 1812 and an interlude of study and teaching, in 1817 Houston became a U.S. subagent assigned to manage the removal of the Cherokee from Tennessee to a reservation in the Arkansas Territory. He returned to Nashville to practice law and from 1823 to 1827 served as a U.S. congressman. He was elected governor of Tennessee in 1827.

After a brief unsuccessful marriage to Eliza Allen in 1829, he resigned his office; he again sought refuge among the Cherokee and was formally adopted into the tribe. He twice went to Washington, D.C., to expose frauds practiced upon the Indians by government agents and in 1832 was sent by Pres.


Andrew Jackson to Texas, then a Mexican province, to negotiate Indian treaties for the protection of U.S. border traders.
 
 
Houston’s arrival in Texas coincided with the heated contest between U.S. settlers and Mexicans for control of the area. He established a home there by 1833, and he quickly emerged as one of the settlers’ main leaders. When they rose in rebellion against Mexico in November 1835, he was chosen commander in chief of their army. The revolt suffered reverses during the winter, but on April 21, 1836, Houston and a force of roughly 800 Texans surprised and defeated 1,500 Mexicans under Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna at San Jacinto.
 
 

Detail from Houston at the Battle of San Jacinto by Henry Arthur McArdle
 
 
This triumph secured Texan independence and was followed by Houston’s election as president (1836–38; 1841–44) of the Republic of Texas. He was influential in gaining the admission of Texas to the United States in 1845. Houston was elected one of the new state’s first two senators, serving as a Union Democrat from 1846 to 1859. His views on the preservation of the union were unpopular with the Texas legislature, however, and on the eve of the Civil War he was not reelected—although he was chosen governor once more in 1859. In this position he tried unsuccessfully to prevent the secession of his state in 1861, and upon his refusal to swear allegiance to the Confederacy, he was declared deposed from office in March.

He spent his last two years quietly at home in Huntsville with Margaret Lea, his wife from 1840 and mother of his eight children. The city of Houston, Texas, was named in his honour.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Surrender of Santa Anna by William Henry Huddle shows the Mexican general Santa Anna surrendering to a wounded Sam Houston. It hangs in the Texas State Capitol.
 
 
 
1836
 
 
Battle of the Alamo
 

The Battle of the Alamo (February 23 – March 6, 1836) was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna launched an assault on the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar (modern-day San Antonio, Texas, United States), killing all of the Texian defenders. Santa Anna's cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians—both Texas settlers and adventurers from the United States—to join the Texian Army. Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, on April 21, 1836, ending the revolution.

 

The Fall of the Alamo by Robert Jenkins Onderdonk depicts Davy Crockett swinging his rifle at Mexican troops who have breached the south gate of the mission.
 
 
Several months previously, Texians had driven all Mexican troops out of Mexican Texas. About 100 Texians were then garrisoned at the Alamo. The Texian force grew slightly with the arrival of reinforcements led by eventual Alamo co-commanders James Bowie and William B. Travis.

On February 23, approximately 1,500 Mexicans marched into San Antonio de Béxar as the first step in a campaign to retake Texas. For the next 10 days the two armies engaged in several skirmishes with minimal casualties.

Aware that his garrison could not withstand an attack by such a large force, Travis wrote multiple letters pleading for more men and supplies, but fewer than 100 reinforcements arrived there.

In the early morning hours of March 6, the Mexican Army advanced on the Alamo. After repulsing two attacks, the Texians were unable to fend off a third attack. As Mexican soldiers scaled the walls, most of the Texian soldiers withdrew into interior buildings.

Defenders unable to reach these points were slain by the Mexican cavalry as they attempted to escape. Between five and seven Texians may have surrendered; if so, they were quickly executed.

  Most eyewitness accounts reported between 182 and 257 Texians died, while most historians of the Alamo agree that around 600 Mexicans were killed or wounded. Several noncombatants were sent to Gonzales to spread word of the Texian defeat.

The news sparked both a strong rush to join the Texian army and a panic, known as "The Runaway Scrape", in which the Texian army, most settlers, and the new Republic of Texas government fled from the advancing Mexican Army.

Within Mexico, the battle has often been overshadowed by events from the Mexican–American War of 1846–48. In 19th-century Texas, the Alamo complex gradually became known as a battle site rather than a former mission. The Texas Legislature purchased the land and buildings in the early part of the 20th century and designated the Alamo chapel as an official Texas State Shrine. The Alamo is now "the most popular tourist site in Texas". The Alamo has been the subject of numerous non-fiction works beginning in 1843. Most Americans, however, are more familiar with the myths spread by many of the movie and television adaptations, including the 1950s Disney miniseries Davy Crockett and John Wayne's 1960 film The Alamo.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1836
 
 
Battle of San Jacinto
 

The Battle of San Jacinto, fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas, was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston, the Texian Army engaged and defeated General Antonio López de Santa Anna's Mexican army in a fight that lasted just 20 minutes. About 630 of the Mexican soldiers were killed and 730 captured, while only nine Texans died.

 
Santa Anna, the President of Mexico, was captured the following day and held as a prisoner of war. Three weeks later, he signed the peace treaty that dictated that the Mexican army leave the region, paving the way for the Republic of Texas to become an independent country. These treaties did not specifically recognize Texas as a sovereign nation, but stipulated that Santa Anna was to lobby for such recognition in Mexico City. Sam Houston became a national celebrity, and the Texans' rallying cries, "Remember the Alamo!" and "Remember Goliad!" became etched into Texan history and legend.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 

The Battle of San Jacinto.1895 painting by Henry Arthur McArdle
 
 
 
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
 
21 April 1836


Forces Engaged

Texan: 783 men. Commander: General Sam Houston.
Mexican: Approximately 1,500 men. Commander: President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.

Importance
Mexican defeat led directly to Texas' independence from Mexico, the dispute over which led to the
U.S.-Mexican War 10 years later. The annexation of Texas by the United States was the first official
acquisition of land in western North America, land over which the controversy concerning slavery
led to the American Civil War.



Historical Setting


Mexico won its independence from Spain in the early 1820s and, desiring to have sufficient population in case of a return of Spanish armies, advertised in the United States for immigrants who could occupy the lightly populated north-
eastern province of Texas. Spanish and then Mexican immigration to the area had been unsuccessful because of the aggressive Comanches, so American settlers could not only hold the ground against a potential Spanish invasion but could act as a buffer against the Comanches for the 4,000 Mexican settlers. American settlers led by Stephen E Austin began arriving in 1823; by 1830, some 20,000 had moved to Texas. At that point, the Mexican government closed the borders, but over the next 3 years another 10,000 Americans entered Texas illegally, establishing a practice followed to this day (although from a different direction).

In 1833, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was elected president of Mexico, but a year later he rejected the constitution adopted in 1824 and declared himself dictator. Any Mexican province that complained of that action found its population slaughtered; the president believed that was the best example for the others. It worked. In Texas, however, the American immigrants were a different breed. They had been raised as followers of a constitution, the same one upon which the Mexican constitution of 1824 had been based. They had become Mexican citizens as a condition of receiving land grants in Texas and had sworn to uphold the constitution. Knowing that, Santa Anna sent word to the Texians, as they called themselves, that because they had failed to convert to Catholicism (as the terms of their land grants also had provided), they had forfeited their land and now must leave. When the Texians rejected the dictator's orders that violated the constitution that they had sworn to uphold, Santa Anna declared them in rebellion and began operations to slaughter them as he had any other rebels that opposed him.

Mexican forces entering Texas in late 1835 could not impose Santa Anna's will on the Texians. Mexican troops withdrew in the face of serious opposition at the town of Gonzales in October and then in December lost the main town of San Antonio a hundred miles to the west. A force of about 150 men remained in San Antonio through the winter of 1835-1836. In the meantime, a provisional government had been elected and Sam Houston had been appointed army commander. Houston was newly arrived from the United States and a close friend of U.S. President Andrew Jackson. Houston sent 26-year-old William Travis to San Antonio to remove the garrison so he could incorporate them into the army that he was trying to build. Once in San Antonio, Travis and local commander Jim Bowie decided not to withdraw, but to defend a ramshackle mission called the Alamo. It was in reality impossible to defend a position with such a large perimeter with as few men as they had. When Santa Anna arrived in late February 1836 with 4,000 to 6,000 men, the resulting 13-day siege and ensuing massacre was a forgone conclusion.

After the fall of the Alamo on 6 March, Santa Anna marched west looking for Houston's Army of Texas and terrorizing the countryside in the process. A second column of troops southeast of Santa Anna's force surrounded and slaughtered almost the entire 400-man command of James Fannin outside another mission at the town of Goliad. A handful of survivors escaped to Houston's force with the news. Houston's plan was to withdraw eastward, trading land for time, building and training a force as best he could. Throughout March and early April, Santa Anna followed along, unable to corner the Texians. Finally, in mid-April, things began to change. Houston learned that Santa Anna had detached himself from his main body of troops with a contingent of just over a thousand men in order to range ahead, looking for opportunities. When Houston learned of that action, and then discovered the actual location of Santa Anna's detachment, he placed himself in a position to fight.




The Battle

On 19 April, Houston established a camp for his baggage and for his sick and ailing and then
set out with just under 800 men. They crossed swollen Vince's Bayou and marched east along the southern bank of a flooded tributary of the San Jacinto River called Buffalo Bayou. The next day, Houston and Santa Anna found each other and fought a light skirmish on a spot of open prairie in a bend of the fast-flowing San Jacinto. The sparring was inconclusive, and neither side tried to press the matter. Because Houston seemed to be trapped between two raging rivers and the Mexican force, Santa Anna was content to retire about three-quarters of a mile, hastily construct a semifortified camp of brush, packs, and saddlebags, and sit down to await reinforcements.

There was no possible escape for the Texians, so there was no hurry. The coup de grace could be administered when the rest of the Mexican army came up. Meanwhile, Santa Anna was careful to place his camp just over a slight rise in the prairie so that it was protected from Houston's two six-pounder cannon, "the Twin Sisters." He ordered that his men should sleep on their weapons in battle formation and that a keen watch be kept. Then, satisfied with his dispositions, the supremely confident "Napoleon of the West" retired for the evening.

The next morning, 21 April, 500 reinforcements arrived, bringing the total Mexican strength to more than 1,500. The Mexican president's optimism soared. He outnumbered Houston's rabble nearly two to one and was in an easily defensible position. Today he would rest his men, and tomorrow he would successfully conclude his most satisfying campaign ever. Santa Anna sent orders to his men to stand down, and he retired to his tent for an afternoon siesta. His officers lounged under the trees sipping champagne and dozing. By four in the afternoon, the Mexican camp was silent.

By contrast, the Texian encampment was alive with furious, but relatively quiet, activity. The army readied itself to fight, and their commander at last was ready to let them. Houston then made the final preparations. Unknown to his men, he had dispatched Deaf Smith and methodically slaughtered by riflemen who poured a relentless fire into the milling helpless mob. Not until late in the day were surrenders accepted.


Results


By the next morning, the extent of the Texian victory had become apparent. They had lost two killed, and another seven would soon die. There were 23 wounded, including Sam Houston. He had had two horses killed under him and had taken a musket ball in his ankle. Mexican losses were staggering—630 lay dead on the field, including one general, four colonels, two lieutenant colonels, five captains, and twelve lieutenants. Another 208 were wounded, and 730 were prisoners. The Mexican force had literally been erased. But the one man Houston wanted most had eluded death or capture. Santa Anna had fled just before his camp was overrun, and since nightfall Houston's scouts had been scouring ing the countryside for him. Unless he could be caught, the great victory would mean little because the Mexican army in Texas still outnumbered Houston's force by four to one. On 22 April, a Texian patrol brought in what they thought was just another dusty Mexican private, but when he was put with the other prisoners, some of the soldiers imprudently cried, "Est el Presidentef It was indeed General Santa Anna, president of Mexico. Houston was at that moment lying under an oak tree, cursing his wounded ankle. But when he looked up and saw a prisoner being herded into his presence by what seemed to be half the camp, his mood brightened considerably.

Although most of the Texian army looked for the nearest hanging tree, Houston realized that Santa Anna's death would be counterproductive. A dead man's signature on a treaty recognizing Texas' independence would be useless. Houston sent Santa Anna under escort to me provisional government to negotiate such a treaty. Within a month, Santa Anna signed a treaty with die Republic of Texas; the treaty ended hostilities and withdrew the Mexican army south of the Rio Grande. Texas had its independence, and the men of the Alamo and Goliad were avenged. In the space of 18 minutes, Mexico had lost an area of land larger than either of the nations of Germany or France, and events were put into motion that within 12 years would cost Mexico one-third of its sovereign territory and push the United States "from sea to shining sea." Seldom in all of military history has more been accomplished in less time.

Although the Texans immediately applied for statehood, the U.S. Congress rejected the application. Northern members of Congress knew that Texas would enter the union as a state that allowed slavery, and in 1836 that was an extremely sensitive political subject. Texas therefore spent 9 years as an independent nation, recognized by and establishing diplomatic relations with the United States, Britain, France, and other European countries. As Texas seemed to be growing closer to Britain in the early 1840s, attitudes toward annexing Texas into the union began to soften. When James K. Polk was elected president in November 1844 on a campaign promise of annexing Texas, the northern Whig members of Congress (soon to be in the minority) negotiated a deal whereby Texas joined the union in 1845. The question of where Texas' border lay led to trouble, however. Santa Anna's treaty had awarded Texas the Rio Grande, from mouth to source, as its border. The Mexican government rejected the treaty, however, and claimed Texas' border to be the Nueces River, well to the north. That dispute ultimately led to war between the United States and Mexico in 1846.

The acquisition of Texas by the United States, and the war that followed, inflamed already hot passions about the nature of slavery in the United States. The viewpoint of the South, that slavery was, like almost all political issues, a matter of states' rights further drove a wedge between the southern and northern United States that led to civil war in 1861.

—Allen Lee Hamilton
 
 
 

The Antagonists


Sam Houston

Born in Virginia in 1793, Sam Houston moved with his family to Tennessee. At the age of 15, he ran away from home to spend 3 years with the Cherokees, who made him a member of their tribe and named him "the Raven." During the War of 1812, Houston marched to Florida as a young lieutenant with Andrew Jackson's Creek campaign and was severely wounded at the battle of Horseshoe Bend. General Jackson, impressed with Houston's reckless gallantry, had him transported to his plantation, the Hermitage, and nursed back to health. From that time, Jackson and Houston were fast friends. With the general's patronage, Houston rose rapidly in politics, first becoming a member of Congress from Tennessee and then governor of the state. Most onlookers agreed that one day Houston would also be president.

But in 1829 disaster struck. Houston married young Eliza Allen, daughter of one of die richest families in Tennessee. For reasons still unknown, what should have been an advantageous match for both parties turned sour within months. Eliza went home to her parents, and Houston, after resigning as governor (because of the scandal involved), went to live with the Cherokees in Oklahoma, where he quickly earned an unwelcome new tribal name, "Big Drunk."

In 1832, Houston moved to Texas, became a Mexican citizen, and promptly fell in with the "War Party," those Texans who desired independence. Houston was immensely popular, and after San Jacinto he became the political colossus of the state. He was twice elected president of the Republic of Texas and became governor of the state, and he later served a long term as a U.S. senator from Texas. Along the way, he married again, raised a large family, and at the insistence of his new wife gave up drinking. She even talked him into joining a church. After he had been baptized in a creek, the minister told him: "Your sins are now all washed away." Supposedly, Houston looked into the creek and said: "God help the fish!"
Santa Anna, on the other hand, was by trade a career soldier. He had first gone to war as a 17-year-old lieutenant in the Spanish Royalist Army during the Mexican Revolution. Afterward, he changed sides and political alliances as frequently as he did medal-laden uniforms. He has been described by unsympathetic historians as a vain, egotistical, corrupt, opportunistic lover and opium addict. Others have described him as a charismatic speaker, personally charming and handsome, and frequently brave to the point of recklessness. Whatever his faults and strengths, there can be no denying that he was immensely popular with both the Mexican people and with the military and aristocracy who controlled the country. In 1829, he repelled a Spanish invasion, was hailed as his country's savior, used the publicity to springboard to the presidency in 1833, and the next year placed Mexico under his own style of military dictatorship.

After his humiliating defeat at San Jacinto, Santa Anna was released by the Texans in return for his promise to work for ratification of the peace treaty that he had signed (once back in Mexico he reneged on his agreement, and the Mexican Senate never approved the treaty), but he was deposed. In 1838, he helped blunt a French invasion of Mexico and in the fighting lost a leg. (The limb was given a full state funeral, and a monument was raised over the burial place.) Santa Anna promptly became acting president and, in 1841, led a conservative coup and seized the office full-time, only to be exiled in 1845 by a liberal. The outbreak of the Mexican-American War in 1846 saw Santa Anna return to power long enough to lead his country to ignominious defeat against Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott.

 
 
 
1836
 
 
Cannon Joseph Gurney
 

Joseph Gurney Cannon (May 7, 1836 – November 12, 1926) was a United States politician from Illinois and leader of the Republican Party.

Cannon served as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1903 to 1911, and many consider him to be the most dominant Speaker in United States history, with such control over the House that he could often control debate. Cannon is the second-longest continuously serving Republican Speaker in history, having been surpassed by fellow Illinoisan Dennis Hastert, who passed him on June 1, 2006. Cannon is also the longest serving Republican Representative ever, as well as first member of congress, of either party, ever to surpass 40 years of service (non-consecutive). His congressional career spanned 46 years of cumulative service—a record that went unchallenged until 1959. Although technically the second-longest serving Republican member of Congress ever (behind Strom Thurmond), he was the longest-serving Republican to never change his party affiliation, as Thurmond switched from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party in 1964. He was the subject of the first Time cover ever published, appearing in March 3, 1923.

 

oseph Gurney Cannon
  Joseph Gurney Cannon, byname Joe Cannon (born May 7, 1836, Guilford county, North Carolina, U.S.—died November 12, 1926, Danville, Illinois), American politician who was a longtime member of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Admitted to the Indiana bar in 1858, Cannon in 1859 moved to Illinois, where he continued the practice of law and entered politics. In 1872 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served for 46 years (1873–91, 1893–1913, 1915–23). Cannon was a staunch conservative and loyal Republican who, because of seniority, held important committee chairmanships and was speaker of the House for eight years (1903–11).

As speaker, he exercised the power of that office in a blatantly partisan manner until March 1910, when a coalition of Democrats and insurgent Republicans passed a resolution making the speaker ineligible for membership on the committee on rules, thus divesting him of much of his power.

Cannon did not originate a single major legislative measure during his 46 years in the House. He was personally liked by his colleagues, however, and was popularly known as “Uncle Joe” Cannon.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1836
 
 
Livingston Edward, American statesman, d. (b. 1764)
 
 

Edward Livingston
 
 
 
1836
 
 
The People's Charter initiates the first national working-class movement in Great Britain; Chartism demands
universal suffrage and vote by ballot
 
 
Chartism
 
Chartism, British working-class movement for parliamentary reform named after the People’s Charter, a bill drafted by the London radical William Lovett in May 1838. It contained six demands: universal manhood suffrage, equal electoral districts, vote by ballot, annually elected Parliaments, payment of members of Parliament, and abolition of the property qualifications for membership. Chartism was the first movement both working class in character and national in scope that grew out of the protest against the injustices of the new industrial and political order in Britain. While composed of working people, Chartism was also mobilized around populism as well as clan identity.
 

Chartist riot
 
 
The movement was born amid the economic depression of 1837–38, when high unemployment and the effects of the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 were felt in all parts of Britain. Lovett’s charter provided a program acceptable to a heterogeneous working-class population. The movement swelled to national importance under the vigorous leadership of the Irishman Feargus Edward O’Connor, who stumped the nation in 1838 in support of the six points. While some of the massive Irish presence in Britain supported Chartism, most were devoted to the Catholic Repeal movement of Daniel O’Connell.

A Chartist convention met in London in February 1839 to prepare a petition to present to Parliament. “Ulterior measures” were threatened should Parliament ignore the demands, but the delegates differed in their degrees of militancy and over what form “ulterior measures” should take. In May the convention moved to Birmingham, where riots led to the arrest of its moderate leaders Lovett and John Collins.

The rump of the convention returned to London and presented its petition in July. Parliament rejected it summarily. There followed in November an armed rising of the “physical force” Chartists at Newport, which was quickly suppressed.

  Its principal leaders were banished to Australia, and nearly every other Chartist leader was arrested and sentenced to a short prison term. The Chartists then started to emphasize efficient organization and moderate tactics. Three years later a second national petition was presented containing more than three million signatures, but again Parliament refused to consider it. The movement lost some of its mass support later in the 1840s as the economy revived. Also, the movement to repeal the Corn Laws divided radical energies, and several discouraged Chartist leaders turned to other projects.

The last great burst of Chartism occurred in 1848. Another convention was summoned, and another petition was prepared. Again Parliament did nothing. Thereafter, Chartism lingered another decade in the provinces, but its appeal as a national mass movement was ended. With the onset of the relative prosperity of mid-Victorian Britain, popular militancy lost its edge. Many Chartist leaders, however, schooled in the ideological debates of the 1840s, continued to serve popular causes, and the Chartist spirit outlasted the organization. Five of the six points—all except the annual Parliaments—have since been secured.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 

The Great Chartist Meeting on Kennington Common, London in 1848
 
 

The People's Charter called for six reforms to make the political system more democratic:

  1. 1. A vote for every man twenty-one years of age, of sound mind, and not undergoing punishment for a crime.
  2. 2. The Secret Ballot – To protect the elector in the exercise of his vote.
  3. 3. No Property Qualification for Members of Parliament – thus enabling the constituencies to return the man of their choice, be he rich or poor.
  4. 4. Payment of Members, thus enabling an honest trades-man, working man, or other person, to serve a constituency; when taken from his business to attend to the interests of the country.
  5. 5. Equal Constituencies, securing the same amount of representation for the same number of electors, instead of allowing small constituencies to swamp the votes of large ones.
  6. 6. Annual Parliament Elections, thus presenting the most effectual check to bribery and intimidation, since as the constituency might be bought once in seven years (even with the ballot), no purse could buy a constituency (under a system of universal suffrage) in each ensuing twelvemonth; and since members, when elected for a year only, would not be able to defy and betray their constituents as now.

Chartism can be interpreted as a continuation of the 18th century fight against corruption and for democracy in an industrial society but attracted considerably more support than the radical groups for economic reasons including wage cuts and unemployment.

 
 
 
1836
 
 
Arkansas admitted to the Union
 
 
Arkansas
 

Arkansas, constituent state of the United States of America. Arkansas ranks 27th among the 50 states in area, but, except for Louisiana and Hawaii, it is the smallest state west of the Mississippi River. Its neighbours are Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east, Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, and Oklahoma to the west. The name Arkansas was used by the early French explorers to refer to the Quapaw people—a prominent indigenous group in the area—and to the river along which they settled. The term was likely a corruption of akansea, the word applied to the Quapaw by another local indigenous community, the Illinois. Little Rock, the state capital, is located in the central part of the state.

 

Map of the Arkansas
 
 
History
Early inhabitants, exploration, and European settlement

Arkansas’s earliest inhabitants included indigenous hunting-and-gathering peoples whose cultures flourished about 500 ce. One of the distinctive features of these communities was their use of bluff shelters for seasonal or other short-term residence. Later peoples left large mounds—markers of sacred spaces, public places, and burial sites—as well as other remains along the Mississippi River.

Spanish and French expeditions traveled the Mississippi regions in the 16th and 17th centuries, and the Italian-born French explorer Henri de Tonty founded the Arkansas Post on the lower Arkansas River in 1686. The first permanent white European settlement in what is now Arkansas, it served as a fur-trading centre and a way station for travelers between the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes.

After the Louisiana Purchase (1803), Arkansas lay within the territories of Louisiana until 1812 and Missouri until 1819, when it became a separate territory. Arkansas’s northern boundary, latitude 36°30′ N, was the line of the Missouri Compromise of 1820—the agreement that allowed for the admission of Missouri to the union as a slave state.

  Statehood and Civil War
By the time Arkansas achieved statehood in 1836, all land titles of the local indigenous peoples—including the Quapaw, Osage, Caddo, Cherokee, and Choctaw—had been withdrawn by the U.S. Congress, and the groups were forced westward into the Indian Territory, the future state of Oklahoma. Violence broke out intermittently along the state’s western border until the late 19th century, when the frontier atmosphere disappeared with the white settlement of the Indian Territory.

Many white settlers brought with them (or purchased) slaves of African descent, which ultimately led Arkansas, like other states of the South, to develop an agricultural economy that was heavily dependent on the institution of slavery.

The issue of slavery figured prominently in the decision of 11 Southern states to secede from the union in 1860–61 to form the Confederate States of America; this act ultimately ignited the American Civil War. Arkansas was the ninth state to secede, in May 1861, after the Confederate capture of Fort Sumter and Pres. Abraham Lincoln’s subsequent call for volunteers. Union sentiment was strong in northern Arkansas, however, and some 10,000 Arkansans—both white and black—joined Federal forces.

 
 

Lakeport Plantation, c. 1859 and built south of Lake Village, is the only remaining antebellum plantation house on the Mississippi River in Arkansas. Many planters became wealthy from the cotton industry in southern Arkansas.
 
 
Although many more Arkansans fought for the Confederacy, Little Rock fell to Union troops in 1863, and for the next decade the state was a political battleground between the supporters of secession and the imposed Republican government of the North.



Cleveland County Courthouse in Rison
 

Arkansas was readmitted to the union in 1868, but the state was still racked with internal strife. As was the case in most of the other former Confederate states, defeat in the Civil War triggered the establishment of a sharecropping system of tenant farming, the emergence of a race problem of new and formidable dimensions, and the spread of poverty. It also led to the development of a virtually one-party political system; Arkansas returned to the fold of the Democratic Party in 1874, and it remained there for more than a century.

 
 

View from the Ozark Highlands Scenic Byway in Boxley Valley
 
 
Arkansas in the 20th and 21st centuries
In the 20th century Arkansas shifted away from its cotton-focused agricultural base to a diverse economy with significant manufacturing and services components. The change began in the 1930s, by which time a vast gulf had emerged between the sharecroppers and other tenant farmers on one end of the social scale and the managers and landlords on the other. (The owners of small farms or businesses constituted another class.) Through the establishment of the Southern Tenant Farmers’ Union, the sharecroppers were able to improve their conditions considerably, as well as influence the national farm policy of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt and his successors. Over the next several decades, mechanization of agriculture and the shift from cotton farming to the cultivation of rice and soybeans virtually eliminated the sharecropper—though not the rural poor.

Meanwhile, the effects of the Great Depression (1929–c. 1939) in Arkansas were amplified by several years of drought, forcing many farmworkers to turn fully—and permanently—to other sorts of labour. During the next decade, World War II (1939–45), with its large number of soldiers and defense-related industries, extended changes to the most isolated parts of Arkansas. By the early 21st century, not only had agriculture been eclipsed by the combined total of the state’s diverse service activities as the principal component of the economy, but, like many of its neighbours to the north, the state had become largely urbanized.

  The era of the civil rights movement was a tense time in Arkansas’s history. Orval E. Faubus, governor from 1954 to 1967, resisted a federal court order to integrate black and white students in the public schools. In 1957 Little Rock Central High School became the focus of national and international attention as federal troops were deployed to the campus to force integration.

A landmark political event of the mid-20th century was the election of Winthrop Rockefeller, a Republican, to the governorship; he took office in 1967, breaking a long tradition of Democratic leadership in Arkansas. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries the state produced political figures of national prominence. Arkansas native and long-time governor Bill Clinton, a Democrat, was elected president of the United States for two terms (1993–2001). In 2008 Mike Huckabee, governor from 1996 to 2007, ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination. Indeed, after more than a century of Democratic domination, politics in Arkansas had by the early 21st century entered a more competitive era, with the rapidly growing northwestern corner of the state emerging as a Republican stronghold. Although the Democratic Party continued to control most of the local political offices, Republicans increasingly captured statewide offices, and Arkansas began to vote Republican in the presidential elections.

Boyce A. Drummond, Jr.
Thomas O. Graff

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

UAMS Medical Center, Little Rock
 
 
 
1836
 
 
Madison James, fourth President of the U.S., d. (b. 1751)
 
 

James Madison
 
 
 
1836
 
 
Chamberlain Joseph
 

Joseph Chamberlain, (born July 8, 1836, London, Eng.—died July 2, 1914, London), British businessman, social reformer, radical politician, and ardent imperialist.

 

Joseph Chamberlain
  At the local, national, or imperial level, he was a constructive radical, caring more for practical success than party loyalty or ideological commitment. The ideas with which he is most closely associated—tariff reform and imperial unity—were in advance of his time and pointed the direction that British policy would take in the 20th century.

Chamberlain, the son of a prosperous shoe manufacturer in London, was reared in an atmosphere of political Liberalism and Nonconformist religion and, eschewing a university career, entered the family business at age 16. Two years later he moved to Birmingham to join his cousin’s screw-making concern, and there his tycoon characteristics came to the fore. His relentless energy and organizational genius drove out his competitors, and in 1874, at age 38, he was able to retire with a substantial fortune.

Meanwhile, he had become involved in civic affairs and had been elected mayor of Birmingham in 1873. His pioneer efforts in educational reform, slum clearance, improved housing, and municipalization of public utilities vaulted him into national prominence.
At the age of 40, the “gas-and-water Socialist,” widely caricatured for his spare frame, incisive features, and ribboned monocle, was one of the most successful men in England.

Wasting no time, in 1876 he was elected to Parliament, where he was distrusted as a Dissenter and an upstart, and his genuinely radical speeches, delivered with a haughty confidence, frightened the Conservatives.

 
 
Yet his industrial middle-class constituency in Birmingham adored him, and his efficient party organization there (the “caucus”) turned out big Liberal votes in the Midlands. Known as a wire puller, he became Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone’s lieutenant in the House of Commons and in 1882 was appointed president of the Board of Trade in Gladstone’s second ministry (1880–85). Chamberlain, along with his fellow radical Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke, led the left wing of the Liberal Party, and in 1885 they stumped the country in support of their “unauthorized programme,” calling for a graduated income tax, free education, improved housing for the poor, local government reform, and “three acres and a cow” for agricultural labourers.

During the 1880s, when Irish demands for land reform and an autonomous parliament (Home Rule) increasingly bedeviled British politics and caused a deep rift in the Liberal Party, Chamberlain favoured Irish reform, especially at the local level, and stood with Gladstone in opposition to the use of repressive force in quashing Irish agitation. Chamberlain’s instincts, however, were already on the side of imperial unity, and he could not go along with Gladstone in 1885, when the latter committed the party to Home Rule for Ireland. In 1886, when the Home Rule issue came to a vote in Commons, Chamberlain joined with other dissident Liberals (Liberal Unionists) to defeat the government.

 
 

The Right Honourable Joseph Chamberlain, oil on canvas, 1896, John Singer Sargent. National Portrait Gallery
  The split in the Liberal Party proved permanent; the Conservatives, supported by the Liberal Unionists, dominated British politics for most of the period from 1886 until 1906. Chamberlain used his control of the Liberal Unionists to pressure the Conservatives into adopting a more progressive social policy; before 1892 he had the satisfaction of seeing the Conservatives pass various measures of social reform.

The Conservative hegemony reflected a growing disenchantment with social reform in the country and marked a new emphasis upon empire and foreign affairs. Chamberlain, too, began to abandon his radicalism and turned increasingly to imperialist rhetoric, popular with the increasingly jingoistic industrial masses. In 1895 he joined the Conservative Cabinet of Robert Cecil, 3rd marquess of Salisbury, asking to be made secretary of state for the colonies.

In that office Chamberlain quickly became involved in South African affairs and was accused of complicity in the Jameson Raid, an abortive invasion of the Boer republic of Transvaal by British settlers from the neighbouring Cape Colony (December 1895). Though he was later cleared by a Commons investigation, his anti-Boer stance was evident. When worsening Anglo-Boer relations erupted in the South African War (1899–1902), Chamberlain supported it enthusiastically.

This war, in which Great Britain was roasted in world opinion as a bully, brought home to Chamberlain the fact that Britain was militarily vulnerable and diplomatically isolated in Europe. Germany, with which he had always wanted an alliance, had proved particularly hostile.

In view of Britain’s isolation, Chamberlain looked to the self-governing colonies, which had given encouraging support to Britain during the war. Returning from his negotiation of the peace settlement in South Africa in 1902, Chamberlain announced a new tariff scheme that he hoped would draw Britain and its dependencies together in a kind of common market.

 
 
Protected by stiff tariffs without and united by preferential tariffs within, the new union would add to Britain’s international security, protect manufactures threatened by new competition from the United States and Germany, and raise revenue for social projects at home.

Characteristically, Chamberlain energetically set out to convert his party to the new scheme. When Conservative leader Arthur Balfour (later 1st earl of Balfour) refused to commit himself, Chamberlain resigned his cabinet post and from 1903 to 1906 conducted a forceful private campaign, exhorting his listeners to “think imperially.” But protection was a political bombshell. Free trade (which to the English meant cheap imported food) had been the touchstone of Britain’s conventional wisdom for more than a half century. Liberals everywhere raised the cry of cheap bread, and Conservatives split as irrevocably as the Liberals had 20 years earlier over Home Rule. In the general elections of 1906 the Conservatives and Liberal Unionists went down to a resounding defeat, in great part because of Chamberlain’s abandonment of free trade. Chamberlain, however, was reelected in his native Birmingham by an astonishing majority.

It was his last political victory, for shortly after, in July 1906, he suffered a paralytic stroke that left him a helpless invalid for the rest of his life.

Gary William Poole

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1836
 
 
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
 
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, original name Henry Campbell (born September 7, 1836, Glasgow, Scotland—died April 22, 1908, London, England), British prime minister from December 5, 1905, to April 5, 1908. His popularity unified his own Liberal Party and the unusually strong cabinet that he headed. He took the lead in granting self-government to the Transvaal (1906) and the Orange River Colony (1907), thereby securing the Boers’ loyalty to the British Empire despite their recent defeat by the British in the South African War (1899–1902).
 

Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
  A member of the House of Commons from 1868, Campbell-Bannerman (who in 1871 added his mother’s family surname to that of his father) served as financial secretary to the War Office (1871–74, 1880–82), parliamentary and financial secretary to the Admiralty and spokesman for the Admiralty in the Commons (1882–84), chief secretary for Ireland (1884–85), and secretary of state for war (1886, 1892–95).

On June 21, 1895, he induced the Duke of Cambridge, a cousin of Queen Victoria, to retire as commander in chief of the armed forces. During his 39-year tenure the duke had blocked army reform, and the queen, recognizing the necessity of the change, rewarded Campbell-Bannerman with a knighthood. At the same time, however, a Commons vote, taken with few Liberals present, on a Conservative motion to reduce Campbell-Bannerman’s salary resulted in a defeat for the government and the resignation of the 5th Earl of Rosebery’s ministry.

On Feb. 6, 1899, Campbell-Bannerman was elected leader in the Commons of the badly divided Liberal Party. During the South African War he at first pursued a middle course between the imperialists and the antiwar “pro-Boers” among the Liberals.
On June 14, 1901, however, he exacerbated party disunity by condemning the British “methods of barbarism in South Africa.” The Liberal imperialists’ threatened secession from the party was averted, and the end of the war a year later eased party tensions, as did Campbell-Bannerman’s “step by step” approach to the divisive issue of Irish Home Rule.

 
 
After the resignation of the Conservative prime minister Arthur James Balfour late in 1905, Campbell-Bannerman accepted the post from King Edward VII, whose friend he had become. His cabinet included two future prime ministers, Herbert Henry Asquith (afterward 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith), who had been a Liberal imperialist, and David Lloyd George, who had been “pro-Boer,” and also included the first person from the working class ever to attain cabinet rank in Great Britain, John Elliot Burns. The general election of January 1906 produced a large Liberal majority in the Commons, but much of the Campbell-Bannerman legislative program was nullified by the House of Lords. He obtained, however, the peers’ approval of the Trades Disputes Act of 1906, which gave labour unions considerable freedom to strike. Self-government for the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony was conceded by letters patent, over which the Lords had no control.

In 1907 Campbell-Bannerman’s health began to fail, and, 17 days before his death, he resigned in favour of Asquith.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1836
 
 
Burr Aaron, Amer. vice president and intriguer, d. (b. 1756)
 
 

Aaron Burr
 
 
 
1836
 
 
Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon III) tries to bring about a revolt of the garrison at Strasbourg and is banished to America
 
 

Napoleon at the time of his failed coup in 1836
 
 
 
1836
 
 
Boer farmers launch "The Great Trek" (systematic emigration across the Orange River) away from Brit, rule; founding of Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State
 
 
Great Trek
 

Great Trek, Afrikaans Groot Trek, the emigration of some 12,000 to 14,000 Boers from Cape Colony in South Africa between 1835 and the early 1840s, in rebellion against the policies of the British government and in search of fresh pasturelands.

 

A map charting the routs of the largest trekking parties during the first wave of the Great Trek (1835-1840) along with key battles and events.
 
 
The Great Trek is regarded by Afrikaners as a central event of their 19th-century history and the origin of their nationhood. It enabled them to outflank the Xhosa peoples who were blocking their eastward expansion, to penetrate into Natal and the Highveld (which had been opened up by the tribal wars of the previous decade), and to carry white settlement north to the Limpopo River.
 
 

An artists impression of a trekker ox wagon traversing a mountain rage (1840).
 
 
The migrating Boers, called Voortrekkers (Afrikaans: “Early Migrants”), left in a series of parties of kinfolk and neighbours, with an almost equal number of mixed-race dependents, under prominent leaders.

Though they all crossed the Orange River, they were soon divided as to their ultimate destination—some wanted an outlet to the sea in Natal, and others wished to remain on the Highveld.

In both areas, after initial setbacks, they were able to defeat powerful African military kingdoms through the skilled use of horses, guns, and defensive laagers (encampments), though in later years they were to find the problems of maintaining control over Africans and establishing stable politics more intractable.
  In Natal the Voortrekkers established a short-lived republic, but, after its annexation by the British in 1843, most rejoined their compatriots across the Drakensberg, where, except for a short period, the British government was reluctant to pursue them. In 1852 and 1854 the British granted independence to the trekkers in the Transvaal and Transorangia regions, respectively. In Transvaal several warring little polities were established, and factional strife ended only in the 1860s. In Transorangia the trekkers established the Orange Free State, which, under the double threat posed by the Sotho and the proximity of imperial power, settled down in more unified fashion after the British withdrawal in 1854.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Voortrekker
 

Voortrekker, Afrikaans: Pioneer, Leading Migrant, or “those who go ahead”, any of the Boers (Dutch settlers or their descendants), or, as they came to be called in the 20th century, Afrikaners, who left the British Cape Colony in Southern Africa after 1834 and migrated into the interior Highveld north of the Orange River.

 

Voortrekkers in a 1909 illustration
 
 
During the next 20 years, they founded new communities in the Southern African interior that evolved into the colony of Natal and the independent Boer states of the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (the Transvaal). The “Voortrekkers” label is used for the Boers who participated in the organized migrations of systematic colonization—commonly referred to as the Great Trek—and as a term it is to be distinguished from “trekboers,” who were Boers who had moved into the interior prior to the mid-1830s but on an individual or temporary basis.

Most Voortrekkers were farming families from the eastern frontier region of the Cape Colony, and their departure is associated with the war against the Xhosa of 1835, although the relationship is disputed.
  The Voortrekkers traditionally have been depicted by English historians as economically backward people who left the Cape Colony as a protest against aspects of British rule, especially the ban on holding slaves (implemented after 1834) and British reluctance to take further land from the Xhosa for white settlement.

More recently it has been argued that the very power of the British and the easy victory over the Xhosa in 1835, as well as an increase in the settler population, enticed the Voortrekkers into the interior with the prospect of more land and easy conquests. In this view, the Voortrekker exodus was part of a highly dynamic global movement of European expansion.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Xhosa
 

Xhosa, formerly spelled Xosa , a group of mostly related peoples living primarily in Eastern Cape province, South Africa. They form part of the southern Nguni and speak mutually intelligible dialects of Xhosa, a Bantu language of the Niger-Congo family. In addition to the Xhosa proper, for whom the entire group was named, the Xhosa clans include the Gcaleka, Rharhabe, Ngqika, Ndlambe, and the Gqunkhwebe (the latter being partly of Khoekhoe origin).

 

Xhosa people, 1848
 
 
In the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts commonly known as the Cape Frontier Wars engaged the Xhosa against European settlers in the eastern frontier region of Cape Colony.

The expanding Xhosa, moving southward in the search for land, encountered not only the hunting-and-gathering Khoisan-speaking peoples (many of whose click sounds they adopted) but also Cape colonists moving northward in search of good farmland.

The struggle of the Xhosa peoples against the Cape colonists lasted for a century, but eventually they were defeated and their territories were annexed by the Cape Colony.

The victors gave the name Transkei to the Xhosa lands lying east of the Great Kei River; the lands between the Great Fish and Great Kei rivers they called Ciskei.
  In 1959 Transkei was administratively created by the South African government as a nonindependent black state (Ciskei followed in 1961) designated for the Xhosa-speaking peoples. Beginning in the 1960s, a high proportion of workers left Transkei as labour migrants, going to Johannesburg and other parts of the country. This migration of workers (for the most part men) seriously disrupted Xhosa family and community life. With the repeal of the apartheid system of racial separation, Transkei and Ciskei became part of the newly created province of Eastern Cape in 1994.

Although the socioeconomic life brought vast change to the Xhosa, many remain agriculturists who keep some sheep and cattle. They are still organized into patrilineal clans. They numbered some 7.3 million in the early 21st century.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1836
 
 
Inoue Kaoru
 

Marquis Inoue Kaoru (井上 馨?, January 16, 1836 – September 1, 1915), GCMG was a member of the Meiji oligarchy during the Meiji period Empire of Japan. As one of the senior statesman in Japan during that period, he had a tremendous influence on the selection of the nation's leaders and formation of its policies.

 

Marquis Inoue Kaoru
  Inoue Kaoru, in full (from 1907) Kōshaku (Marquess) Inoue Kaoru (born Jan. 16, 1835, Nagato province [now in Yamaguchi prefecture], Japan—died Sept. 1, 1915, Tokyo), one of the elder statesmen (genro) who ruled Japan during the Meiji period (1868–1912).

Inoue was born to a samurai family of the Chōshū clan of western Japan and was a close boyhood friend of Itō Hirobumi, who later became Japan’s first prime minister. Both wished to rid Japan of foreigners, and they joined an attack on the British legation in Edo (now Tokyo). When this failed they became aware of Japan’s powerlessness and decided to study the foreigners firsthand. The two left Japan in 1863 and worked their way to England as ordinary sailors. The following year, when news reached them of a crisis in Japan after their clan had bombarded foreign ships in the Shimonoseki Strait, they hurried home to urge their clansmen and others to seek peace. They failed in this effort, and Inoue was attacked and injured by reactionary samurai.

With the Meiji Restoration (1868)—which overthrew the Tokugawa clan that had ruled Japan since 1603 and reestablished the formal ruling authority of the emperor—Inoue became a leading member of the government and held important positions in the ministries of finance, industry, and foreign affairs. After Itō became prime minister in 1885, Inoue served successively as foreign minister, minister of the interior, and minister of finance.

 
 
During the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05) he was named special adviser to the minister of finance and at the request of the emperor attended all important state councils.

Inoue was closely associated with the financial world and had connections with the giant Mitsui zaibatsu (one of the vast, family-owned financial empires of Japan up to 1945). He retired from active politics in 1898 but continued to have an important influence on the state, remaining until his death one of the genro whose advice the emperor sought on difficult political questions. He was made a marquess in 1907.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1835 Part IV NEXT-1836 Part II