Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema,
(born January 8, 1836, Dronrijp, Netherlands—died June
25, 1912, Wiesbaden, Germany), Dutch-born painter of
scenes from everyday life in the ancient world whose
work was immensely popular in its time.
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Alma-Tadema, the son
of a Dutch notary, studied art at the Antwerp
Academy (1852–58) under the Belgian historical
painter Hendrik Leys, assisting the painter in 1859
with frescoes for the Stadhuis (town hall) in
During a visit to Italy in 1863, Alma-Tadema became
interested in Greek and Roman antiquity and Egyptian
archaeology, and afterward he depicted imagery
almost exclusively from those sources.
Moving to England, he became a naturalized British
subject in 1873 and was elected a member of the
Royal Academy in 1879. He was knighted in 1899.
excelled at the accurate re-creation of ancient
architecture and costumes and the precise depiction
of textures of marble, bronze, and silk.
His expert rendering of settings provides a backdrop
for anecdotal scenes set in the ancient world.
Alma-Tadema’s wife, Laura Epps, was also a painter.
(14 January 1836 – 25 August 1904) was a French painter
and lithographer best known for his flower paintings and
group portraits of Parisian artists and writers.
Henri Fantin-Latour. Self-portrait (1859)
Biography He was born
Ignace Henri Jean Théodore Fantin-Latour in Grenoble,
Isère. As a youth, he received drawing lessons from
his father, who was an artist. In 1850 he entered
the Ecole de Dessin, where he studied with Lecoq de
After studying at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris
from 1854, he devoted much time to copying the works
of the old masters in the Musée du Louvre. Although
Fantin-Latour befriended several of the young
artists who would later be associated with
Impressionism, including Whistler and Manet,
Fantin's own work remained conservative in style.
attention to Fantin in England, where his still-lifes
sold so well that they were "practically unknown in
France during his lifetime". In addition to his
realistic paintings, Fantin-Latour created
imaginative lithographs inspired by the music of
some of the great classical composers.
In 1875, Henri
Fantin-Latour married a fellow painter, Victoria
Dubourg, after which he spent his summers on the
country estate of his wife's family at Buré, Orne in
Lower Normandy, where he died of lyme disease on 25
He was interred in
the Cimetière du Montparnasse, Paris, France
Marcel Proust mentions Fantin-Latour's work in In Search of Lost
Many young women's hands would
be incapable of doing what I see there,' said the Prince, pointing
to Mme de Villeparisis's unfinished watercolours. And he has asked
her whether she had seen the flower painting by Fantin-Latour which
had recently been exhibited. (The Guermantes Way)
His first major UK gallery
exhibition in 40 years took place at the Bowes Museum in April 2011.
The painting "A basket of roses"
was used as the cover of New Order's album Power, Corruption & Lies
by Peter Saville in 1983.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fantin-Latour. Still Life with Flowers and Fruit, 1865
Winslow Homer, (born
February 24, 1836, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.—died
September 29, 1910, Prouts Neck, Maine), American
painter whose works, particularly those on marine
subjects, are among the most powerful and expressive of
late 19th-century American art. His mastery of sketching
and watercolour lends to his oil paintings the
invigorating spontaneity of direct observation from
nature (e.g., in The Gulf Stream, 1899). His subjects,
often deceptively simple on the surface, dealt in their
most serious moments with the theme of human struggle
within an indifferent universe.
Early life and work
Homer was born into an old New England family. When
he was six, the family moved to Cambridge,
Massachusetts, then a rural village, where he
enjoyed a happy country childhood. His artistic
inclinations were encouraged by his mother, an
amateur painter. When he was 19, he was apprenticed
to the lithographic firm of John Bufford in Boston.
At first most of his work involved copying the
designs of other artists, but within a few years he
was submitting his own drawings for publication in
such periodicals as Ballou’s Pictorial and Harper’s
Weekly. In 1859 Homer moved from Boston to New York
City to begin a career as a freelance illustrator.
The following year he exhibited his first paintings
at the National Academy of Design. With the outbreak
of the American Civil War, Homer made drawings at
the front for Harper’s, but, unlike most
artist-correspondents, he dealt more often with
views of everyday camp life than with scenes of
battle. As the war dragged on, he concentrated
increasingly on painting. In 1865 he was elected to
the National Academy of Design. Admirably capturing
the dominant national mood of reconciliation, his
Prisoners from the Front (1866) was warmly received
when exhibited at the academy shortly after the war
Although Homer’s studio was in
New York City, the city was rarely his theme. During the
warm months he traveled to Pennsylvania, the Hudson River
valley, and New England, camping, hunting, fishing, and
sketching. In 1866 he went to France for about a year.
Although influenced by French naturalism, Japanese prints,
and contemporary fashion illustration, his work after his
return to America did not change markedly, except that his
palette was generally somewhat brighter. Such early pictures
as Long Branch, New Jersey (1869) and Snap the Whip (1872)
depict happy scenes, the former of fashionable ladies
promenading along the seashore and the latter of children
frolicking in a meadow after school. In a few early pictures
a disquieting note of human isolation is struck, premonitory
of Homer’s later, more powerful work.
watercolour and artistic development
In 1873 Homer began to work in watercolour, which
allowed him to make rapid, fresh observations of
nature. In this demanding medium he explored and
resolved new artistic problems, and his paintings of
the next few years, such as Breezing Up (A Fair
Wind) (1873–76), reflect the invigorating effect of
watercolour. Homer matured slowly as an artist, but
his development was constant. With the passage of
years his oil paintings became larger, his figures
more solitary, his concern for naturalistic detail
greater. He painted many women, increasingly as
single figures, intimate, withdrawn, feminine.
From the late 1870s Homer began to devote his summers exclusively to
direct painting from nature in watercolour. Greater
concern for atmospheric effects and reflected light
added complexity to the images but at the same time
enabled him to achieve greater pictorial unity.
Although Homer received some recognition during his
early years, he had not had any real success by
midcareer. By 1880 he began to show signs of
increasing antisociality, deliberately shunning the
company of other people.
In 1881 he unexpectedly went
to England, where he spent about two years sketching and
painting in Tynemouth, a remote fishing port on the North
Sea. There, at age 45, his period of greatest artistic
growth began. He was intrigued by the life of the hardy
fisherfolk of Tynemouth, who struggled against the sea to
earn their livelihood, but he did not paint that struggle
directly. He depicted instead the robust and courageous
women of Tynemouth, who mended the nets, kept house, and
waited for their men to return from the sea. The English
coastal atmosphere posed a new and difficult artistic
challenge, but Homer mastered the diffused light, limited in
colour but infinitely varied in tone, in a series of subtle
The move to Prouts
After Homer’s return to America in 1883, the sea
became the dominant theme in his work. He moved to
Prouts Neck, a fishing village on the bleak,
desolate coast of Maine. He traveled extensively but
always returned to his Prouts Neck studio to convert
his sketches into major paintings. Solitude became
for Homer not simply a preference but an absolute
necessity, as he turned his mind and his art to
subjects dealing with human fate in confronting the
elemental forces of nature.
In the summer of
1883 Homer saw a demonstration in Atlantic City of
the use of a breeches buoy for rescue from the sea.
The following year he painted his large, impressive,
and immediately popular painting The Life Line
(1884), one of several he did at this time on the
rescue theme, depicting the dramatic transfer of an
unconscious woman from a wrecked ship to shore.
During the next few
years, Homer’s interest shifted from the edge of the
sea to the sea itself. Perhaps inspired by a
putative trip to the Grand Banks of Newfoundland,
Canada, with a fishing fleet, he painted heroic men
pitting their strength, intelligence, and experience
against the mighty sea. In the most impressive of
those works, Fog Warning (1885), night is falling,
fog is rolling in, and a lone fisherman in a dory
calculates the distance and the time remaining for
him to get back to his home ship in safety. Although
the monumental narrative paintings Homer produced in
his studio in the mid-1880s lack the freshness of
his earlier works, Homer simultaneously painted
innumerable brilliantly coloured watercolours during
his travels north to Canada and south to the
fishermen and their women are heroic in their
confrontations with the physical world, the artist
occasionally took a more jaundiced view of his
fellow man. In Huntsman and Dogs of 1891, set in a
cheerless autumnal landscape, a sullen-faced young
hunter, pausing on a hillside leveled by timbering
and blackened by fire, epitomizes man as a despoiler
of nature, killing for trophies rather than food.
Final years and
Homer abandoned the human subject entirely in The
Fox Hunt of 1893. A fox ventures forth to forage for
berries on the snow-covered land, and a sinister
line of starved black crows converges to attack him.
The ensuing life-and-death struggle will be over
quickly, but the pulse of nature that drives the
winter ocean against the cliffs in the distance will
go on forever. Northeaster (1895) distills this
theme, and only the viewer witnesses the endless
struggle between the irresistible sea and the
immovable rocky shore. In Northeaster Homer
successfully wedded the freshness of his
watercolours to the power of his oils to achieve an
impressive pictorial effect that, as in many of his
later works, transcends the subject matter.
The Gulf Stream
(1899) stands at the apex of Homer’s career. A black
man lies inert on the deck of a small sailboat. A
hurricane has shredded the sails, snapped off the
mast, and snatched away the rudder. Unlike the boys
in Breezing Up or the fisherman in Fog Warning, this
man is powerless to control his vessel. He is at the
mercy of the elements. Sharks circle the boat, a
waterspout hovers in the distance, and a boat on the
distant horizon passes by unseeing and unseen. As in
Stephen Crane’s comparable short story, “The Open
Boat,” nature is seen as not caring whether a man
lives or dies.
Homer, ever more crusty and isolated in his old age,
continued to paint vigorously and adventurously
through the first decade of the 20th century.
Similar in subject matter to his earlier work,
although with more emphasis on pure seascape, his
late paintings, in their unconventional composition
and brilliant colour, reflect increasing concern
with the abstract and expressive possibilities of
art. Homer died in his Prouts Neck studio in 1910.
Although by the 1890s he had become generally
recognized as a leading American painter, and his
work brought top prices, his passing was but briefly
noted, and appreciation of his artistic achievement
came only in the years following his death.
Lefebvre (14 March 1836 – 24 February 1912) was a French
figure painter, educator and theorist.
Lefebvre was born in Tournan-en-Brie,
Seine-et-Marne, on 14 March 1836. He entered the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in 1852
and was a pupil of Léon Cogniet.
He won the prestigious Prix de Rome in 1861. Between
1855 and 1898, he exhibited 72 portraits in the
Paris Salon. In 1891, he became a member of the
French Académie des Beaux-Arts.
He was an
instructor at the Académie Julian in Paris. Lefebvre
is chiefly important as an excellent and sympathetic
teacher who numbered many Americans among his 1500
or more pupils.
Among his famous students were Fernand Khnopff,
Kenyon Cox, Félix Vallotton, Ernst Friedrich von
Liphart, Georges Rochegrosse, the Scottish-born
landscape painter William Hart, Walter Lofthouse
Dean, and Edmund C. Tarbell, who became an American
Many of his
paintings are single figures of beautiful women.
Among his best portraits were those of M. L. Reynaud
and the Prince Imperial (1874).
Franz von Lenbach (13
December 1836 – 6 May 1904) was a German painter of
Realist style. He travelled to Italy and Spain and
completed many notable portraits.
Portrait of Franz von Lenbach (1892) by Christian
Lenbach was born at Schrobenhausen, in Bavaria. His
father was a mason, and the boy was destined for the
building trade. He went to school at Landsberg, and
then to the polytechnic at Augsburg. However after
seeing Hofner, the animal painter, executing some
studies, he made various attempts at painting, which
his father's orders interrupted. However, when he
had seen the galleries of Augsburg and Munich, he
obtained his father's permission to work for a short
time in the studio of Gräfle, the painter; after
this he devoted much time to copying.
Lenbach was already
accomplished when he became the pupil of Piloty,
with whom he set out for Italy in 1858. A few works
remain as the outcome of this first journey A
Peasant seeking Shelter from Bad Weather (1855), The
Goatherd (1860, in the Schack Gallery, Munich) and
The Arch of Titus (in the Palfy collection,
Budapest). On returning to Munich, he was at once
called to Weimar to take the appointment of
professor at the Academy. But he did not need to
teach for long, having made the acquaintance of
Count Schack, who commissioned a great number of
copies for his collection.
Lenbach returned to
Italy the same year, and there copied many famous
pictures.At this time he took on Ernst Friedrich von
Liphart who was the gifted son of a Baltic German
noble. He set out in 1867 for Spain with Liphart,
where he copied not only the famous pictures by
Velázquez in the Prado, but also some landscapes in
the museums of Granada and the Alhambra (1868). This
trip was funded by Lenbach's patron Count Schack.
In the previous year he had exhibited
at the great exhibition at Paris several portraits, one of which
took a third-class medal. In 1882 Lenbach was ennobled, and since
then known as von Lenbach. Thereafter he exhibited frequently both
at Munich and at Vienna, and in 1900 at the Paris exhibition was
awarded a Grand Prix for painting. Lenbach, who died in 1904,
painted many of the most remarkable personages of his time
Most of von Lenbach's paintings are in National collections in the
United Kingdom, with some in the Frye Art Museum in Seattle,
Washington. The UK collections include portraits by him of both
Bismarck and Gladstone are in the National Galleries of Scotland and
there is another of Gladstone in the Palaces of Westminster.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Franz von Lenbach. Portrait of an Elegant Lady In Rubenesque
Sir Edward John Poynter, 1st Baronet
PRA (Paris 20 March 1836 – 26 July 1919 London) was an English
painter, designer, and draughtsman who served as President of the
Sir Edward John Poynter
Edward Poynter was the son of the architect Ambrose Poynter. He was
born in Paris, though his parents returned to Britain soon after. He
was educated at Brighton College and Ipswich School, but left school
early for reasons of ill health, spending winters in Madeira and
Rome. In 1853 he met Frederick Leighton in Rome, who made a great
impression on the 17-year-old Poynter. On his return to London he
studied at Leigh's academy in Newman Street and the Royal Academy
Schools, before going to Paris to study in the studio of the
classicist painter Charles Gleyre where James McNeill Whistler and
George du Maurier were fellow-students.
In 1866 Poynter married the
famous beauty Agnes MacDonald, daughter of the Rev G B MacDonald of
Wolverhampton, and they had three children. Her sister Georgiana
married the artist Edward Burne-Jones; her sister Alice was the
mother of writer Rudyard Kipling; and her sister Louisa was the
mother of three-times-Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Stanley
He became best known for his large historical paintings such as
Israel in Egypt (1867; Guildhall Art Gallery, London), followed by
St George for England (1869), a mosaic for the Central Lobby of the
Palace of Westminster, depicting St George and the Dragon.
of the Queen of Sheba (1871–75) and King Solomon (1890). He was
admitted as an associate of the Royal Academy in 1869.
Poynter held a number of official
posts: he was the first Slade Professor at University College London
from 1871 to 1875, principal of the National Art Training School
from 1875 to 1881 and director of the National Gallery from 1894 to
1904 (overseeing the opening of the Tate Gallery). He became a Royal
Academician in 1876. In 1896, on the death of Sir John Millais,
Poynter was elected President of the Royal Academy. He received a
knighthood in the same year and an honorary degree from Cambridge
University in 1898. He was made a baronet in 1902.
It appears from the subjects of his
paintings (King Solomon and King Solomon's Temple) and his
association with Kipling that he was a Freemason. Prints of his
painting The Visit of the Queen of Sheba to King Solomon are to be
found in many Masonic Lodges around the world.
Poynter's old school, Brighton
College held an exhibition of Poynter's paintings and drawings
entitled 'Life at Arms Length' in its Burstow Gallery in
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sir Edward John Poynter. Chloe, Dulces Docta Modos et
Jacques Joseph Tissot (15 October 1836
– 8 August 1902), who became known as James Tissot by 1854, was a
French painter and illustrator. He left Paris for London in 1871. He
was a successful painter of Paris society before moving to London in
1871. He became famous as a genre painter of fashionably dressed
women shown in various scenes of everyday life. He also made
paintings illustrating the Bible.
Tissot was born in the port town of Nantes, France and spent his
early childhood there. His father, Marcel Théodore Tissot, was a
successful drapery merchant. His mother, Marie Durand, assisted her
husband in the family business and designed hats. A devout Catholic,
Tissot's mother instilled pious devotion in the future artist from a
very young age. Tissot's youth spent in Nantes likely contributed to
his frequent depiction of shipping vessels and boats in his later
works. The involvement of his parents in the fashion industry is
believed to have been an influence on his painting style, as he
depicted women's clothing in fine detail. By the time Tissot was 17,
he knew he wanted to pursue painting as a career. His father opposed
this preferring his son to follow a business profession but he
gained his mother's support for his chosen vocation. Around this
time, he began adopting the name of James and by 1854 was commonly
known as James Tissot, perhaps because of his increasing interest in
Portrait of James Tissot by
Early career In 1856 or 1857, Tissot travelled to Paris to pursue an
education in art. While staying with a friend of his mother, painter
Elie Delaunay, Tissot enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts to study
in the studios of Hippolyte Flandrin and Louis Lamothe, both
successful Lyonnaise painters who came to Paris to study under
Ingres. Lamothe provided a majority of Tissot's studio education,
while he studied on his own as did most other artists of the time,
by copying works at the Louvre.
Around this time, Tissot also made
the acquaintance of James McNeill Whistler as well as Edgar Degas
(who had also been a student of Lamothe and a friend of Delaunay)
and Édouard Manet.
In 1859, Tissot exhibited in the
Paris Salon for the first time. He showed five paintings of scenes
from the Middle Ages, many depicting scenes from Goethe's Faust.
These works show the influence over his work of the Belgian painter
Henri Leys (Jan August Hendrik Leys), whom Tissot had met in Antwerp
earlier that same year.
Other influences include the works of the
German painters Peter von Cornelius and Moritz Retzsch.
had only exhibited at the Salon once and before he had been awarded
a medal, the French government paid 5,000 francs for his depiction
of The Meeting of Faust and Marguerite in 1860, with the painting
being exhibited at the Salon the following year together with a
portrait and other paintings.
Émile Péreire supplied Tissot's painting Walk in the Snow for the
1862 international exhibition in London; the next year three
paintings by Tissot were displayed at the London gallery of Ernest
Gambart. In about 1863, Tissot suddenly shifted his focus from the
medieval style to the depiction of modern life through portraits.
During this period, Tissot found himself held in high critical
acclaim, quickly becoming a successful artist. Like contemporaries
such as Alfred Stevens and Claude Monet, Tissot also explored
japonisme, including Japanese objects and costumes in his pictures.
A portrait of Tissot by Degas from these years (Metropolitan Museum
of Art, New York) shows him with a Japanese screen hanging on the
Tissot fought in the
Franco-Prussian War as part of the improvised defence of Paris,
joining two companies of the Garde Nationale and later as part Paris
Commune. Either because of the political associations caused by the
latter, which he was believed to have joined to protect his own
belongings, or simply because of better opportunities, he left Paris
for London in 1871. During this period, Seymour Haden helped him
with learning about etching. Having already worked as a
caricaturist for Thomas Gibson Bowles, the owner of the magazine
Vanity Fair, as well as exhibited at the Royal Academy, Tissot
arrived with established social and artistic connections in London.
Bowles gave Tissot both a place to stay as well as a cartooning job
for Vanity Fair.
Tissot in 1898 (detail of a self-portrait on silk).
He quickly developed his reputation
as a painter of elegantly dressed women shown in scenes of
fashionable life. By 1872, Tissot was able to purchase his own home
in St John's Wood, an area of London very popular with artists at
the time. According to The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists, "in
1874 Edmond de Goncourt wrote sarcastically that he had 'a studio
with a waiting room where, at all times, there is iced champagne at
the disposal of visitors'". He gained membership of The Arts
Club in 1873.
Paintings by Tissot appealed greatly to wealthy British
industrialists during the second half of the 19th-century and during
1872 he earned 94,515 francs, an income normally only enjoyed by
those in the echeleons of the upper classes.
In 1874, Degas asked him to join
them in the first exhibition organized by the artists we call the
Impressionists, but Tissot refused. He continued to be close to the
artists however. Berthe Morisot visited him in London in 1874 and he
travelled to Venice with Édouard Manet at about the same time. He
regularly saw Whistler, who influenced Tissot's Thames scenes.
In 1875-6, Tissot met a divorcee
named Mrs. Kathleen Newton, who became the painter's companion and
frequent model. He composed an etching of her in 1876 entitled
Portrait of Mrs N., more commonly titled La frileuse. She gave birth
to a son, Cecil George Newton in 1876, who is believed to be
Tissot's son. She moved into Tissot's household in St. John's Wood
in 1876 and stayed there until her death in the late stages of
consumption in 1882.
Tissot would frequently refer to these years
with Newton as the happiest of his life, a time when he was able to
live out his dream of a family life.
After Kathleen Newton's death,
Tissot returned to Paris. A major exhibition of his work took place
in 1885 at the Galerie Sedelmeyer, where he showed 15 large
paintings in a series called La Femme à Paris. Unlike the genre
scenes of fashionable women he painted in London, these paintings
represent different types and classes of women, shown in their
professional and social contexts. The works suggest the influence of
Japanese prints in their use of unexpected angles and framing, as
well as a monumental context shown in the size of the canvases. This
was the influence of Japanese art, fashion and aesthetics on Western
Late career In 1885, Tissot experienced a re-conversion to Catholicism,
which led him to spend the rest of his life illustrating the Bible.
Many of his artist friends were skeptical about his conversion, as
it conveniently coincided with the French Catholic revival, a
reaction against the secular attitude of the French Third Republic.
At a time when French artists were still working in impressionism,
pointilism, and heavy oil washes, Tissot was moving toward realism
in his watercolors. To assist in his completion of biblical
illustrations, Tissot traveled to the Middle East in 1886, 1889, and
1896 to make studies of the landscape and people. His series of 365
gouache (opaque watercolor) illustrations showing the life of Christ
were shown to critical acclaim and enthusiastic audiences in Paris
(1894–5), London (1896) and New York (1898–9), before being bought
by the Brooklyn Museum in 1900. They were published in a French
edition in 1896–7 and in an English one in 1897–8, bringing Tissot
vast wealth and fame. During July 1894, Tissot was awarded the
Légion d'honneur, France's most prestigious medal.
Tissot spent the
last years of his life working on paintings of subjects from the Old
Testament (Jewish Museum, New York). Although he never completed the
series, he exhibited 80 of them in Paris in 1901 and engravings
after them were published in 1904.
Death and legacy
Tissot died suddenly in Doubs, France on 8 August 1902, while living
in the Château de Buillon, a former abbey which he had inherited
from his father in 1888. His grave is in the chapel sited within the
grounds of the chateau. Widespread use of his illustrations in
literature and slides continued after his death with The Life of
Christ and The Old Testament becoming the "definitive Bible images".
His images have provided a foundation for contemporary films such as
Raiders of the Lost Ark and The Age of Innocence. In the first half
of the 20th century there was a re-kindling of interest in his
portraits of well attired ladies and some fifty years later these
were achieving record prices.
Antoine Charles Horace
Vernet aka. Carle Vernet (14 August 1758 – 17 November
1836) was a French painter, the youngest child of Claude
Joseph Vernet, and the father of Horace Vernet.
Carle Vernet by Robert Lefèvre
Carle Vernet, Carle
also called Charlot, original name Antoine-charles-horace
Vernet (born Aug. 14, 1758, Bordeaux, Fr.—died Nov.
27, 1836, Paris), French painter of battle scenes
for Napoleon I and of sporting subjects, notably
horses, for King Louis XVIII.
The son of the popular landscapist Joseph Vernet,
the younger Vernet early exhibited a gift for
painting and came to develop an acute eye for
Although Napoleon commanded him to paint vast battle
scenes, such as “Marengo” (1804), his real talent
was for intimate genre and for drawing rather than
His long series of fashionable studies, often
satirizing contemporary manners and costume, were
reproduced by the best engravers of the time.
After the restoration of the monarchy, Vernet became
court painter to Louis XVIII.
Le postillon de Lonjumeau (The
Postillion of Lonjumeau) is an opéra-comique in three acts by
to a French libretto by 'Adolphe de Leuven' and
'Brunswick' (pen names of Adolphe von Ribbing and Léon Lévy).
The opera has become the most
successful of Adam's works and the one by which he is best known
outside his native France (apart from his ballet Giselle and his
Christmas carol Cantique de Noël). The opera is known for the
difficult aria 'Mes amis, écoutez l'histoire' which has been called
a test for tenors because of the demanding high D, or D5, in the end
of the aria.
The opera was premiered by the Opéra-Comique at the Salle de la
Bourse in Paris on 13 October 1836. Performances followed at the St.
James Theatre, London on 13 March 1837, and in New Orleans at the
Théâtre d'Orléans on 19 April 1838.
Recent productions have been
mounted in the Berlin Staatsoper Unter den Linden (from 4 August
2000) under Sebastian Weigle, directed by Alexander Schulin with
Gert Henning-Jensen (Chapelou), Simone Nold (Madeleine),
Hanno-Müller Brachmann (Biju), Klaus Häger (Corcy), and Bernd
Zettisch (Bourdon), and at the Grand Théâtre, Dijon (from 30 March
2004 under Philippe Cambreling, directed by Patrick Abéjean with
Bruno Comparetti (Chappelou / Saint-Phar), Isabelle Poulenard
(Madeleine / Madame de Latour), Laurent Alvaro (le Marquis de Corcy),
Jean Vendassi (Biju / Alcindor), Michèle Dumont (Rose), and Matthieu
Grenier (Bourdon). The latter was a co-production of Opéra Paris-Sud
and Le Duo / Dijon.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Le postillon de Lonjumeau - Hidden treasures
John Aler - Chapelou,
June Anderson - Madeleine,
Francois Le Roux - Le Marquis de Corcy,
Jean-Phillippe Lafont - Bijou (bass-baritone), a friend of Chapelou,
Balvina de Courcelles - Rose (soprano), Madeleine's chambermaid.
Leo Delibes, in full
Clément-Philibert-Léo Delibes (born February 21, 1836,
Saint-Germain-du-Val, France—died January 16, 1891,
Paris), French opera and ballet composer who was the
first to write music of high quality for the ballet.
symphonic work for the ballet opened up a field for
serious composers, and his influence can be traced
in the work of Tchaikovsky and others who wrote for
His own music—light, graceful, elegant, with a
tendency toward exoticism—reflects the spirit of the
Second Empire in France.
Delibes studied at
the Paris Conservatoire under the influential opera
composer Adolphe Adam and in 1853 became accompanist
at the Théâtre-Lyrique.
He became accompanist at the Paris Opéra in 1863,
professor of composition at the Conservatoire in
1881, and a member of the French Institute in 1884.
His first produced works were a series of amusing
operettas, parodies, and farces in which Delibes was
associated with Jacques Offenbach and other
He collaborated with Ludwig Minkus in the ballet La
Source (1866), and its success led to commissions to
write his large-scale ballets, Coppélia (1870),
based on a story of E.T.A. Hoffmann, and Sylvia
(1876), based on a mythological theme. In the
meantime, he developed his gifts for opera.
The opéra comique Le Roi l’a dit (1873; The King
Said So) was followed by the serious operas Jean de
Nivelle (1880) and Lakmé (1883), his masterpiece.
Known for its coloratura aria “Bell Song,” Lakmé
contains “Oriental” scenes illustrated with music of
a novel, exotic character.
Delibes also wrote church
music (he had worked as a church organist) and some
picturesque songs, among which “Les Filles de Cadiz” (“The
Girls of Cadiz”) suggests the style of Georges Bizet.
(1770-1836), French musical theorist and teacher of
composition, was born at Prague on the 27th of February
1770, and educated chiefly by his uncle, Joseph Reicha
(1746-1795), a clever violoncellist, who first received
him into his house at Wallerstein in Bohemia, and
afterwards carried him to Bonn.
Here, about 1789, he
was made flutist in the orchestra of the elector. In
1794 he went to Hamburg and gave music lessons
there, also producing the opera Godefroid de
Montfort. He was in Paris in 1799 and in Vienna from
1802 to 1808, during which period he saw much of
Beethoven and Haydn. In the latter year he returned
to Paris, where he produced three operas without
much success. In 1817 he succeeded Mehul as
professor of counterpoint at the Conservatoire. In
1829 he was naturalized as a Frenchman, and in 1835
he was admitted as a member of the Institute in the
place of Boieldieu. He died in Paris on the 28th of
May 1836. He produced a vast quantity of church
music, five operas, a number of symphonies,
oratorios and many miscellaneous works.
Though clever and ingenious, his compositions are
more remarkable for their novelty than for the
beauty of the ideas upon which they are based. His
fame is, indeed, more securely based upon his
didactic works. His Traite de melodie (Paris, 1814),
Cours de composition musicale (Paris, 1818), Traite
de haute composition musicale (Paris, 1824-26), and
Art du compositeur dramatique (Paris, 1833), are
valuable and instructive essays for the student,
though many of the theories they set forth are now
condemned as erroneous.
1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
A Life for the
Tsar (Russian: Жизнь за царя, Zhizn' za tsarya), as
it is known in English, although in Soviet times its
name was Ivan Susanin (Russian: Иван Сусанин) is a
"patriotic-heroic tragic opera" in four acts with an
epilogue by Glinka Mikhail.
The original Russian libretto, based on historical
events, was written by Nestor Kukolnik, Baron Egor
Fyodorovich (von) Rozen, Vladimir Sollogub and Vasily
Zhukovsky. It premiered on 27 November 1836 OS (9
December NS) at the Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre in St.
Petersburg. The historical basis of the plot involves
Ivan Susanin, a patriotic hero of the early 17th century
who gave his life in the expulsion of the invading
Polish army for the newly elected Tsar Mikhail, the
first of the Romanov dynasty, elected in 1613.
The plot of A Life for the Tsar had been used
earlier in 1815, when Catterino Cavos, an
Italian-Russian composer, had written a two-act
singspiel with the same subject and title. The
original title of the opera was to be Ivan Susanin,
after the hero, but when Nicholas I attended a
rehearsal, Glinka changed the title to A Life for
the Tsar as an ingratiating gesture. This title was
retained in the Russian Empire.
In 1924, under the
new Soviet regime, it appeared under the title
Hammer and Sickle, but that production was not
successful and was shelved. On 26 February 1939 it
reappeared under the title Glinka had originally
chosen, Ivan Susanin.
Glinka and the
writers with whom he was associated chose, in
Susanin, a hero of Russian nationalism well suited
to the mood of the time.
The opera was
immediately hailed as a great success, and became
the obligatory season-opener in the Imperial Russian
A Life for the Tsar occupies an important position
in Russian musical theater as the first native opera
to win a permanent place in the repertoire.
It was one of the first Russian operas to be known
The opera was given its premiere performance on 27
November 1836 in Saint Petersburg conducted by
Catterino Cavos with set designs by Andrei Roller.
It was followed several years later with its
premiere in Moscow on 7 September (Old Style) 1842
in a new production with sets by Serkov and Shenyan.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Osip Petrov as Susanin
Fyodor Shalyapin as Susanin
Fyodor Shalyapin as Susanin
Mikhail Glinka - A Life for the
Choir/Orchestra: Sofia Nationa Opera
Chorus and Orchestra
Conductor: Ivan Maximov
Recorded in: 1986
The libretto was begun in 1832 by the composer with Pastor
Julius Schubring, a childhood friend, pulling together
passages from the New Testament (chiefly the Acts of the
Apostles) and Old Testament. It also features chorales or
hymn settings after Bach's manner.
Composition of the music
began in 1834, and the work was premiered on May 22, 1836 at
the Lower Rhenish Music Festival in Düsseldorf. The English
premiere was in Liverpool on October 3, 1836 in a
translation by Mendelssohn's friend, Karl Klingermann.
Contralto Mary Shaw was one of the soloists at the English
premiere. The first performance in the United States was in
Boston on March 14, 1837. Mendelssohn himself conducted the
first performance in Leipzig in the Paulinerkirche on March
16, 1837. Numerous performances followed in Europe and in
the United States.
lifetime, St. Paul was a popular and frequently performed
work. However, compared with such oratorios as Handel's
Messiah, Bach's Christmas Oratorio and St Matthew Passion or
even Mendelssohn's own Elijah, it has failed to maintain its
place in the choral repertory and is now infrequently
performed in its entirety.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy: Paulus
op.36 aus dem Katharinensaal der HMT-Rostock
Paulus op.36 - Oratorium nach Worten
der Heiligen Schrift
Konzertmitschnitt vom 28.Januar 2013 aus dem Katharinensaal der
Grzegorz Sobczak - Paulus, Emanuel Jessel - Stephanus, Philipp
Franke - Rezitative, Claudia Roick - Sopran, Hitomi Kawai - Alt,
Karo Khachatryan - Tenor, Yuji Natsume - Bassbariton, Yuji Natsume -
Hochschulchor, Kammerchor "Vocalisti Rostochiensés", Chor des
Goethegymnasiums Schwerin, Orchester der HMT-Rostock, Solo-Cello:
Chor-Einstudierung: Dagmar Gatz, Bernd Spitzbarth
Gesamtleitung: Christfried Göckeritz
(French pronunciation: [lez‿ygəno]) is a French opera
, one of the most popular and spectacular
examples of the style of grand opera. In five acts, to a
libretto by Eugène Scribe and Émile Deschamps, it
premiered in Paris in 1836.
Les Huguenots was some five years in creation. Meyerbeer
prepared carefully for this opera after the sensational
success of Robert le diable, recognising the need to
continue to present lavish staging, a highly (melo)dramatic
storyline, impressive orchestration and virtuoso parts for
the soloists – the essential elements of the new genre of
Grand Opera. Coming from a wealthy family, Meyerbeer could
afford to take his time, dictate his own terms, and to be a
perfectionist. The very detailed contract which Meyerbeer
arranged with Louis-Désiré Véron, director of the Opéra, for
Les Huguenots (and which was drawn up for him by the lawyer
Adolphe Crémieux) is a testament to this. While Meyerbeer
was writing the opera, another opera with a similar setting
and theme (Le pré aux clercs by Ferdinand Hérold) was also
produced in Paris (1832). Like Meyerbeer's, Hérold's work
was extremely popular in its time, although it is now
Les Huguenots premiered at the Paris Opera on 29
February 1836 (conductor: François Habeneck), and
was an immediate success. Both Adolphe Nourrit and
Cornélie Falcon were particularly praised by the
critics for their singing and performances. It was
indeed Falcon's last important creation before her
voice so tragically failed in April of the following
year. Hector Berlioz called the score "a musical
encyclopaedia". Les Huguenots was the first opera to
be performed at the Opéra more than 1,000 times (the
1,000th performance being on 16 May 1906) and
continued to be produced regularly up to 1936, more
than a century after its premiere. Its many
performances in all other of the world's major opera
houses give it a claim to being the most successful
opera of the 19th century.
Other first performances included London (Covent
Garden Theatre), 20 June 1842, and New Orleans (Théâtre
d'Orléans) on 29 April 1839. Due to its subject
matter it was sometimes staged under different
titles such as The Guelfs and the Ghibellines (in
Vienna before 1848), Renato di Croenwald in Rome, or
The Anglicans and the Puritans (in Munich), to avoid
inflaming religious tensions among its audiences.
Les Huguenots was chosen to open the present
building of the Covent Garden Theatre in 1858.
During the 1890s, when it was performed at the
Metropolitan Opera, it was often called 'the night
of the seven stars', as the cast would include
Lillian Nordica, Nellie Melba, Sofia Scalchi, Jean
de Reszke, Édouard de Reszke, Victor Maurel and Pol