Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1835 Part III NEXT-1836 Part I    
 
 
     
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
Locomotive: Electric traction
 
 

Photo by Wiliam Henry Fox Talbot
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1835 Part IV
 
 
 
1835
 
 
Newcomb Simon
 

Simon Newcomb, (born March 12, 1835, Wallace, N.S., Can.—died July 11, 1909, Washington, D.C., U.S.), Canadian-born American astronomer and mathematician who prepared ephemerides—tables of computed places of celestial bodies over a period of time—and tables of astronomical constants.

 

Simon Newcomb
  Life
Newcomb displayed his aptitude for working with figures at an early age. His father, an itinerant country schoolteacher, taught him to count at the age of four, and before he was five he was spending several hours a day making calculations in addition and multiplication; before he was seven he had finished the arithmetic book, including the extraction of cube roots.

Newcomb had little or no formal education. At the age of 16 he was apprenticed to a quack herb doctor in Salisbury, N.B. After two or three years he ran away to join his widowed father, who had settled in the United States, in Maryland.

In the libraries at Washington, D.C., Simon found the first full opportunity to indulge his intellectual curiosity. After avidly exploring many technical fields he concluded that his principal talent lay in mathematics. He was especially attracted to the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, an annual handbook for astronomers, containing predicted positions in the sky of the principal celestial objects and other astronomical phenomena.

He thereupon applied for employment in the American Nautical Almanac Office, then at Cambridge, Mass., and became a computer there in 1857.

He also enrolled in the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard University, receiving a degree in 1858.

 
 
In 1861 he applied for and received a commission in the corps of professors of mathematics in the United States Navy and was assigned to the United States Naval Observatory at Washington, where he worked for more than 10 years determining the positions of celestial objects with the meridian instruments and for two years with a then new 26-inch refractor telescope.

In 1877 Newcomb was put in charge of the American Nautical Almanac Office, then in Washington, where almost at once he commenced the great work that he had had in his mind for some years and that was to occupy the greater part of the rest of his life: the calculation of the motions of the bodies in the solar system. Reaching the compulsory retirement age for captains in 1897, he later received the then unusual distinction of retirement with the rank of rear admiral.

In 1884 Newcomb had obtained the additional appointment of professor of mathematics and astronomy, which he held until 1893, at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, continuing, however, to live in Washington. For many years he was editor of the American Journal of Mathematics. He was one of the founders of the American Astronomical Society and was its first president (1899–1905). Newcomb received numerous honorary degrees and was awarded the highest scientific prizes of his day. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1869, serving as home secretary, 1881–83; vice president, 1883–89; and foreign secretary, 1903 until his death.

 
 
Accomplishments
Newcomb’s most important work appeared in the Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, a series of memoirs that he founded in 1879 with the object of giving “a systematic determination of the constants of astronomy from the best existing data, a reinvestigation of the theories of the celestial motions, and the preparation of tables, formulae, and precepts for the construction of ephemerides, and for other applications of the same results.”

Of 36 articles filling approximately 4,500 quarto pages in the first nine volumes, he was the sole or principal author of 25. Among them were his tables of the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Uranus, and Neptune, along with tables of Jupiter and Saturn that were devised by George W. Hill, another American astronomer. These tables were used throughout most of the world for calculating daily positions of the objects from 1901 to 1959, and even afterward for the Sun, Mercury, Venus, and Mars.
This series of Papers is remarkable for its sustained high quality. Hardly anything in them has proved to be incorrect, and at mid-20th century they were still worthy of the attention of any student of celestial motions.
  Possibly Newcomb’s most far-reaching contribution was his inauguration, jointly with A.M.W. Downing, then superintendent of the British Nautical Almanac Office, of a worldwide unified system of astronomical constants, which was later to lead to the outstandingly successful scheme of international collaboration among the principal almanac makers of the world that survived two World Wars with increasing vigour. Newcomb and Downing were impressed by the “confusion which pervaded the whole system of exact astronomy, arising from the diversity of the fundamental data made use of by the astronomers of foreign countries and various institutions in their work.” A conference of the directors of the national ephemerides of the United States, Great Britain, France, and Germany, was held in Paris in May 1896. It resolved that beginning with 1901 a certain set of constants, substantially Newcomb’s, should be used by all the ephemerides. The decision even included some work of Newcomb’s that was not to be finished for several years. A similar conference, held at Paris in 1950, decided unanimously that the system of constants adopted in 1896 was still preferable to any other for practical use.

Gerald M. Clemence

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1835
 
 
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
 

Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli, (born March 14, 1835, Savigliano, Italy—died July 4, 1910, Milan), Italian astronomer and senator whose reports of groups of straight lines on Mars touched off much controversy on the possible existence of life on that planet.

 

Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli
  Schiaparelli went to Berlin in 1854 to study astronomy under Johann F. Encke. Two years later he was appointed assistant observer at the Pulkovo Observatory, Russia, a post he resigned in 1860 for a similar one at the Brera Observatory, Milan, where he remained until his retirement in 1900; he became director in 1862.

In 1861 Schiaparelli discovered the asteroid Hesperia. Five years later he demonstrated that meteor swarms have orbits similar to certain comets and concluded that the swarms are the remnants of comets.

In particular, he calculated that the Perseid meteors are remnants of Comet 1862 III and the Leonids of Comet 1866 I. He also observed double stars and made extensive studies of Mercury, Venus, and Mars.

Schiaparelli called the peculiar markings he observed on Mars in 1877 canali. The word, erroneously translated into English as “canals” instead of “channels,” led to widespread speculation over whether the “canals” were constructed by intelligent beings.

From his observations of Mercury and Venus, Schiaparelli concluded that those planets rotate on their axes at the same rate at which they revolve about the Sun, thus always keeping one side facing the Sun. This view was generally accepted until the late 1960s, when advanced radar techniques and space probes gave different values.

 
 
On his retirement Schiaparelli studied the astronomy of the ancient Hebrews and Babylonians and wrote L’astronomia nell’antico testamento (1903; Astronomy in the Old Testament, 1905).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 

Schiaparelli's surface map of Mars
 
 
 
1835
 
 
Geikie Archibald
 
Sir Archibald Geikie, (born Dec. 28, 1835, Edinburgh, Scot.—died Nov. 10, 1924, Haslemere, Surrey, Eng.), British geologist who became the foremost advocate of the fluvial theories of erosion. His prolific book writing made him very influential in his time.
 

Sir Archibald Geikie
  In 1855 Geikie was appointed to the Geological Survey of Great Britain, under Sir Roderick I. Murchison.

Ten years later he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and, when a separate branch of the Geological Survey was established for Scotland in 1867, Geikie became its director.

In 1871 he became the first Murchison professor of geology and mineralogy at the University of Edinburgh.

In 1882 Geikie became director general of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, and he immediately reorganized and increased the survey work, which had lagged under the previous director.

He served as president of the Geological Society of London (1891–92 and 1906–08) and of the Royal Society (1908–13).
He was knighted in 1891.

His best-known works are The Scenery of Scotland (1865, 3rd ed. 1901), Life of Sir R.I. Murchison (1875), Text-Book of Geology (1882, 4th ed. 1903), The Founders of Geology (1897, 2nd ed. 1905), The Ancient Volcanoes of Great Britain (1897), and Outlines of Field Geology (1876, 5th ed. 1900).

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1835
 
 
Chaillu Paul
 

Paul du Chaillu (1835-1903), traveller and anthropologist, was born either at Paris or at New Orleans (accounts conflict) on the 31st of July 1835.

 

Paul du Chaillu
  In his youth he accompanied his father, an African trader in the employment of a Parisian firm, to the west coast of Africa. Here, at a station on the Gabun, the boy received some education from missionaries, and acquired an interest in and knowledge of the country, its natural history, and its natives, which guided him to his subsequent career.

In 1852 he exhibited this knowledge in the New York press, and was sent in 1855 by the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia on an African expedition. From 1855 to 1859 he regularly explored the regions of West Africa in the neighbourhood of the equator, gaining considerable knowledge of the delta of the Ogowé river and the estuary of the Gabun. During his travels he saw numbers of the great anthropoid apes called the gorilla (possibly the great ape described by Carthaginian navigators), then known to scientists only by a few skeletons.

A subsequent expedition, from 1863 to 1865, enabled him to confirm the accounts given by the ancients of a pygmy people inhabiting the African forests. Narratives of both expeditions were published, in 1861 and 1867 respectively, under the titles Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa, with Accounts of the Manners and Customs of the People, and of the Chace of the Gorilla, Crocodile, and other Animals; and A Journey to Ashango-land, and further penetration into Equatorial Africa.
 
 
 
The first work excited much controversy on the score of its veracity, but subsequent investigation proved the correctness of du Chaillu’s statements as to the facts of natural history; though possibly some of the adventures he described as happening to himself were reproductions of the hunting stories of natives.
 
 
 

Drawing of Du Chaillu at close quarters with a gorilla
 
 
The map accompanying Ashango-land was of unique value, but the explorer’s photographs and collections were lost when he was forced to flee from the hostility of the natives. After some years’ residence in America, during which he wrote several books for the young founded upon his African adventures, du Chaillu turned his attention to northern Europe, and published in 1881 The Land of the Midnight Sun, in 1889 The Viking Age, and in 1900 The Land of the Long Night. He died at St Petersburg on the 29th of April 1903.

1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
 
 
 
1835
 
 
Halley's Comet reappears
 
 

Halley comet in 1835
 
 
 
1835
 
 
The first efforts to propel railroad vehicles by electric batteries; first successful application of
electric traction 1879
 
 
Locomotive: Electric traction
 

Efforts to propel railroad vehicles using batteries date from 1835, but the first successful application of electric traction was in 1879, when an electric locomotive ran at an exhibition in Berlin.

 
The first commercial applications of electric traction were for suburban or metropolitan railroads. One of the earliest came in 1895, when the Baltimore and Ohio electrified a stretch of track in Baltimore to avoid smoke and noise problems in a tunnel. One of the first countries to use electric traction for main-line operations was Italy, where a system was inaugurated as early as 1902.
 
 
By World War I a number of electrified lines were operating both in Europe and in the United States. Major electrification programs were undertaken after that war in such countries as Sweden, Switzerland, Norway, Germany, and Austria.
By the end of the 1920s nearly every European country had at least a small percentage of electrified track. Electric traction also was introduced in Australia (1919), New Zealand (1923), India (1925), Indonesia (1925), and South Africa (1926). A number of metropolitan terminals and suburban services were electrified between 1900 and 1938 in the United States, and there were a few main-line electrifications.
 
Von Siemens experimental train, 1879
 
 
 
The advent of the diesel locomotive inhibited further trunk route electrification in the United States after 1938, but following World War II such electrification was rapidly extended elsewhere. Today a significant percentage of the standard-gauge track in national railroads around the world is electrified—for example, in Japan (100 percent), Switzerland (92 percent), Belgium (91 percent), the Netherlands (76 percent), Spain (76 percent), Italy (68 percent), Sweden (65 percent), Austria (65 percent), Norway (62 percent), South Korea (55 percent), France (52 percent), Germany (48 percent), China (42 percent), and the United Kingdom (32 percent). By contrast, in the United States, which has some 225,000 km (140,000 miles) of standard-gauge track, electrified routes hardly exist outside the Northeast Corridor, where Amtrak runs the 720-km (450-mile) Acela Express between Boston and Washington, D.C.

The century’s second half also was marked by the creation in cities worldwide of many new electrified urban rapid-transit rail systems, as well as extension of existing systems.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1835
 
 
"Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire," the earliest negative photograph, taken in England by Wm. Henry Fox Talbot
(1800-1877)
 
 
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
 

Wiliam Henry Fox Talbot, (born Feb. 11, 1800, Melbury Sampford, Dorset, Eng.—died Sept. 17, 1877, Lacock Abbey, near Chippenham, Wiltshire), English chemist, linguist, archaeologist, and pioneer photographer.

 

William Henry Fox Talbot, by John Moffat, 1864.
  He is best known for his development of the calotype, an early photographic process that was an improvement over the daguerreotype of the French inventor L.-J.-M. Daguerre. Talbot’s calotypes involved the use of a photographic negative, from which multiple prints could be made; had his method been announced but a few weeks earlier, he and not Daguerre would probably have been known as the founder of photography.

Talbot was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge, and published many articles in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, and physics. He briefly served in Parliament (1833–34) and in 1835 published his first article documenting a photographic discovery, that of the paper negative.

These so-called photogenic drawings were basically contact prints on light-sensitive paper, which unfortunately produced dark and spotty images. In 1840 he modified and improved this process and called it the calotype (later the talbotype). Unlike the original process, it used a much shorter exposure time and a development process following exposure.

Talbot patented the process in 1841 and was reluctant to share his knowledge with others, which lost him many friends and much information. In 1842 Talbot received a medal from the British Royal Society for his experiments with the calotype.

 
 
Talbot’s The Pencil of Nature (1844–46), published in six installments, was the first book with photographic illustrations. Its 24 (of a proposed 50) plates document the beginnings of photography primarily through studies of art objects and architecture. In 1851 Talbot discovered a way of taking instantaneous photographs, and his “photolyphic engraving” (patented in 1852 and 1858), a method of using printable steel plates and muslin screens to achieve quality middle tones of photographs on printing plates, was the precursor to the development in the 1880s of the more successful halftone plates.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 

Latticed window at Lacock Abbey, August 1835. A positive from what may be the oldest camera negative in existence.
 
 
 

Miss Horatia Feilding, half sister of Talbot playing the harp, c. 1842
 
 
 

London Street, Reading, c. 1845
 
 
 

1853 photo by Talbot
 
 
 
1835
 
 
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
 
The Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society headquartered in Boston was organized as an auxiliary of the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1835. Its roots were in New England Anti-Slavery Society, organized by William Lloyd Garrison, editor of The Liberator, in 1831.
 
Predecessors
New England Anti-Slavery Society
The New England Anti-Slavery Society (1831–1835) was formed by William Lloyd Garrison, editor of The Liberator, in 1831.

The Liberator was also its official publication.

Based in Boston, Massachusetts, members of the New England Anti-slavery Society supported immediate abolition and viewed slavery as immoral and non-Christian. It was particularly opposed to the American Colonization Society which proposed sending African Americans to Africa.

The Society sponsored lecturers or "agents" who traveled throughout the New England area, speaking in local churches or halls, and also selling abolitionist tracts or The Liberator. Whenever possible, the Society's agents would also encourage the formation of local anti-slavery societies.

By 1833 there were 47 local societies in ten northern states, 33 of them in New England.

The Society also sponsored mass mobilizations such as yearly anti-slavery conventions and celebrations of July 4 or the Anniversary of the Abolition of Slavery in the West Indies, August 1.

  Massachusetts General Colored Association
In January 1833, Thomas Dalton, president of the Massachusetts General Colored Association, led a successful petition to merge with the New England Anti-Slavery Society. Separate black anti-slavery societies had already existed in Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, Connecticut, and New Jersey, however, a strong feeling against the organization of separate anti-slavery societies had been emerging.

Together they organized Anti-Slavery conventions and speaking programs throughout New England.

Sometime after Joshua Easton was sent as a delegate to the New England society in 1833, African Americans were granted full membership in the organization.

American Anti-Slavery Society
In 1833, Garrison and Arthur Tappan expanded this society and formed the American Anti-Slavery Society. The American Anti-Slavery Society, however, attempted to create state-based organizations under the umbrella of its Executive Committee. At first the New England Anti-Slavery Society and the American Society worked together with the New England Society becoming an auxiliary in 1834.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1835
 
 
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
 

Leopold Ritter von Sacher-Masoch (27 January 1836 – 9 March 1895) was an Austrian writer and journalist, who gained renown for his romantic stories of Galician life. The term masochism is derived from his name.

During his lifetime, Sacher-Masoch was well known as a man of letters, a utopian thinker who espoused socialist and humanist ideals in his fiction and non-fiction. Most of his works remain untranslated into English. The novel Venus in Furs was until recently his only book commonly available in English, but an English translation by William Holmes of Die Gottesmutter was released in 2015 as The Mother of God.

 

Leopold Ritter von Sacher-Masoch
  Biography
Early life

Von Sacher-Masoch was born in the city of Lemberg (now Lviv, Ukraine), the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, at the time a province of the Austrian Empire, into the Roman Catholic family of an Austrian civil servant, Leopold Johann Nepomuk Ritter von Sacher, and Charlotte von Masoch, a Ukrainian noblewoman. He later combined his surname with his wife's 'von Masoch', at the request of her family (she was the last of the line). Von Sacher served as a Commissioner of the Imperial Police Forces in Lemberg, and he was recognised with a new title of nobility as Sacher-Masoch awarded by the Austrian Emperor.

Galician storyteller
Leopold studied law, history and mathematics at Graz University, and after graduating moved back to Lemberg where he became a professor. His early, non-fictional publications dealt mostly with Austrian history. At the same time, Masoch turned to the folklore and culture of his homeland, Galicia. Soon he abandoned lecturing and became a free man of letters. Within a decade his short stories and novels prevailed over his historical non-fiction works, though historical themes continued to imbue his fiction.

Panslavist ideas were prevalent in Masoch's literary work, and he found a particular interest in depicting picturesque types among the various ethnicities that inhabited Galicia. From the 1860s to the 1880s he published a number of volumes of Jewish Short Stories, Polish Short Stories, Galician Short Stories, German Court Stories and Russian Court Stories. His works were published in translation in Ukrainian, Polish, Russian and French.

 
 
 
The Legacy of Cain
In 1869, Sacher-Masoch conceived a grandiose series of short stories under the collective title Legacy of Cain that would represent the author's aesthetic Weltanschauung. The cycle opened with the manifesto The Wanderer that brought out misogynist themes that became peculiar to Masoch's writings. Of the six planned volumes, only the first two were ever completed. By the middle of the 1880s, Masoch abandoned the Legacy of Cain. Nevertheless, the published volumes of the series included Masoch's best-known stories, and of them, Venus in Furs (1869) is the most famous today. The short novel expressed Sacher-Masoch's fantasies and fetishes (especially for dominant women wearing fur). He did his best to live out his fantasies with his mistresses and wives.
 
 
 
Philosemitism and feminism
Sacher-Masoch edited the Leipzig-based monthly literary magazine Auf der Höhe. Internationale Review (At the Pinnacle. International Review), which was published from October, 1881 to September, 1885. This was a progressive magazine aimed at tolerance and integration for Jews in Saxony, as well as for the emancipation of women with articles on women's education and suffrage. In his later years, he worked against local antisemitism through an association for adult education called the Oberhessischer Verein für Volksbildung (OVV), founded in 1893 with his second wife, Hulda Meister.

Private life
On 9 December 1869, Sacher-Masoch and his mistress Baroness Fanny Pistor signed a contract making him her slave for a period of six months, with the stipulation that the Baroness wear furs as often as possible, especially when she was in a cruel mood. Sacher-Masoch took the alias of "Gregor", a stereotypical male servant's name, and assumed a disguise as the servant of the Baroness. The two traveled by train to Italy. As in Venus in Furs, he traveled in the third-class compartment, while she had a seat in first-class, arriving in Venice (Florence, in the novel), where they were not known, and would not arouse suspicion.

Sacher-Masoch pressured his first wife – Aurora von Rümelin, whom he married in 1873 – to live out the experience of the book, against her preferences. Sacher-Masoch found his family life to be unexciting, and eventually got a divorce and married his assistant.

 
A Sacher-Masoch compilation published in 1901
 
 
 

Later years
In 1875 Masoch wrote The Ideals of Our Time, an attempt to give a portrait of German society during its Gründerzeit period.

In his late fifties, his mental health began to deteriorate, and he spent the last years of his life under psychiatric care. According to official reports, he died in Lindheim, Altenstadt, Hesse, in 1895. It is also claimed that he died in an asylum in Mannheim in 1905.

Sacher-Masoch is the great-great-uncle to the British singer and actress Marianne Faithfull on the side of her mother, the Viennese Baroness Eva Erisso.

 
 
Masochism
The term masochism was coined in 1886 by the Austrian psychiatrist Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing (1840–1902) in his book Psychopathia Sexualis:

...I feel justified in calling this sexual anomaly "Masochism", because the author Sacher-Masoch frequently made this perversion, which up to his time was quite unknown to the scientific world as such, the substratum of his writings. I followed thereby the scientific formation of the term "Daltonism", from Dalton, the discoverer of colour-blindness.

During recent years facts have been advanced which prove that Sacher-Masoch was not only the poet of Masochism, but that he himself was afflicted with the anomaly. Although these proofs were communicated to me without restriction, I refrain from giving them to the public. I refute the accusation that "I have coupled the name of a revered author with a perversion of the sexual instinct", which has been made against me by some admirers of the author and by some critics of my book. As a man, Sacher-Masoch cannot lose anything in the estimation of his cultured fellow-beings simply because he was afflicted with an anomaly of his sexual feelings.

  As an author, he suffered severe injury so far as the influence and intrinsic merit of his work is concerned, for so long and whenever he eliminated his perversion from his literary efforts he was a gifted writer, and as such would have achieved real greatness had he been actuated by normally sexual feelings.

In this respect he is a remarkable example of the powerful influence exercised by the vita sexualis be it in the good or evil sense over the formation and direction of man's mind.

Sacher-Masoch was not pleased with Krafft-Ebing's assertions. Nevertheless, details of Masoch's private life were obscure until Aurora von Rümelin's memoirs, Meine Lebensbeichte (1906), were published in Berlin under the pseudonym Wanda v. Dunajew.

The following year, a French translation, Confession de Ma Vie (1907) by "Wanda von Sacher-Masoch", was printed in Paris by Mercure de France. An English translation of the French edition was published as The Confessions of Wanda von Sacher-Masoch (1991) by RE/Search Publications.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Masochism
 
Masochism, psychosexual disorder in which erotic release is achieved through having pain inflicted on oneself.
 
The term derives from the name of Chevalier Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, an Austrian who wrote extensively about the satisfaction he gained by being beaten and subjugated. The amount of pain involved can vary from ritual humiliation with little violence to severe whipping or beating; generally the masochist retains some control over the situation and will end the abusive behaviour before becoming seriously injured. While pain may cause a certain amount of sexual excitement in many persons, for the masochist it becomes the chief end of sexual activity. The term is frequently used in a looser social context in which masochism is defined as the behaviour of one who seeks out and enjoys situations of humiliation or abuse.

Masochism as an isolated trait is fairly rare. More commonly, the association of pain with sexual pleasure takes the form of both masochism and sadism, the obtaining of sexual pleasure through inflicting pain on others. Often, an individual will alternate roles, becoming aroused through the experience of pain in one instance and through the infliction of pain in another.

Encyclopædia Britannica
     
 
 
1835
 
 
U.S. showman Phineas Taylor Barnum (Barnum Phineas Taylor) begins his career with the exhibition of Joyce Heth, a Black woman, alleged to be George Washington's nurse and over 160 years old
 
 
Heth Joice
 

Joice Heth (c.1756 – February 19, 1836) was an African-American slave who was exhibited by Barnum Phineas Taylor with the false claim that she was the 161-year-old nursing "mammy" of George Washington.

 
Biography
Little is known of Heth's early years. In 1835 she was held as a slave by John S Bowling and exhibited in Louisville, Kentucky. In June 1835, she was sold to promoters R. W. Lindsay and Coley Bartram. R. W. Lindsay introduced her as the nurse of former President George Washington, but lacking success sold her in her old age to PT Barnum.

Posters advertising her shows in 1835 included the lines, "Joice Heth is unquestionably the most astonishing and interesting curiosity in the World! She was the slave of Augustine Washington, (the father Gen. Washington) and was the first person who put clothes on the unconscious infant, who, in after days, led our heroic fathers on to glory, to victory, and freedom.
To use her own language when speaking of the illustrious Father of this Country, 'she raised him'. Joice Heth was born in the year 1674, and has, consequently, now arrived at the astonishing age of 161 years".

She was toward the end of her life, blind and almost completely paralyzed (she could talk, and had some ability to move her right arm)[5] when Barnum started to exhibit her on August 10, 1835, at Niblo's Garden in New York City. As a 7-month traveling exhibit for Barnum, Heth told stories about "little George" and sang a hymn. Eric Lott claims that Heth earned the impresario $1,500 a week, a princely sum in that era. Barnum's career as a showman took off. Her case was discussed extensively in the press.

Because doubt had been expressed about her age Barnum announced that upon her death she would be publicly autopsied. She died the next year; probably her actual age at the time of her death was no more than 80 years.
Barnum stated that Joice's remains were "buried respectably" in his home town of Bethel, Connecticut.
 
Poster advertising Joice Heth
 
 
Public autopsy
Heth died on February 19, 1836, and in order to gratify the public interest in her life, Barnum set up a public autopsy. Barnum engaged the service of a surgeon, Dr. David L. Rogers, who performed the autopsy on February 25, 1836, in front of fifteen hundred spectators in New York's City Saloon, with Barnum charging fifty cents admission. When Rogers declared the age claim a fraud, Barnum insisted that the autopsy victim was another person, and that Heth was alive, on a tour to Europe. Later Barnum admitted the hoax.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1835
 
 
James Gordon Bennet publishes the first number of his four-page penny paper, "N.Y. Herald"
 
 
Bennett James Gordon
 
James Gordon Bennett, (born Sept. 1, 1795, Newmill, Banffshire, Scot.—died June 1, 1872, New York, N.Y., U.S.), Scottish-born American editor who shaped many of the methods of modern journalism.
 

James Gordon Bennett
  Bennett immigrated to America in the spring of 1819 and eventually settled in New York City, where he founded a school, gave lectures on political economy, and did subordinate work for the journals. During the next 10 years he was employed on various papers. He was the Washington, D.C., correspondent of the New York Enquirer and associate editor of the Morning Courier and New York Enquirer, his articles attracting much attention. He founded the short-lived Globe in New York City in 1832, and in 1833–34 he was the chief editor and one of the proprietors of The Pennsylvanian at Philadelphia.

With a capital of $500 he published on May 6, 1835, the first number of a four-page penny paper bearing the title of The New York Herald and issuing from a cellar. By his industry and sagacity he made the paper a great commercial success. He devoted attention particularly to the gathering of news and was the first to introduce many of the methods of modern news reporting. He published on June 13, 1835, the first Wall Street financial article to appear in any American newspaper; printed a vivid and detailed account of the great fire of December 1835 in New York; was the first, in 1838, to establish correspondents in Europe; was the first, in 1846, to obtain the report in full by telegraph of a long political speech; maintained during the Civil War a staff of 63 war correspondents; was a leader in the use of illustrations; introduced a society department; and, with the Helen Jewett case (1836), was the first in American journalism to publish an account of a love-nest murder.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1835
 
 
Carnegie Andrew
 
Andrew Carnegie, (born November 25, 1835, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland—died August 11, 1919, Lenox, Massachusetts, U.S.), Scottish-born American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. He was also one of the most important philanthropists of his era.
 

Andrew Carnegie
  Carnegie’s father, William Carnegie, a handloom weaver, was a Chartist and marcher for workingman’s causes; his maternal grandfather, Thomas Morrision, also an agitator, had been a friend of William Cobbett. During the young Carnegie’s childhood the arrival of the power loom in Dunfermline and a general economic downturn impoverished his father, inducing the Carnegies to immigrate in 1848 to the United States, where they joined a Scottish colony of relatives and friends in Allegheny, Pennsylvania (now part of Pittsburgh).

Young Andrew began work at age 12 as a bobbin boy in a cotton factory. He quickly became enthusiastically Americanized, educating himself by reading and writing and attending night school.

At age 14 Carnegie became a messenger in a telegraph office, where he eventually caught the notice of Thomas Scott, a superintendent of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, who made Carnegie his private secretary and personal telegrapher in 1853. Carnegie’s subsequent rise was rapid, and in 1859 he succeeded Scott as superintendent of the railroad’s Pittsburgh division. While in this post he invested in the Woodruff Sleeping Car Company (the original holder of the Pullman patents) and introduced the first successful sleeping car on American railroads.

 
 
He had meanwhile begun making shrewd investments in such industrial concerns as the Keystone Bridge Company, the Superior Rail Mill and Blast Furnaces, the Union Iron Mills, and the Pittsburgh Locomotive Works. He also profitably invested in a Pennsylvania oilfield, and he took several trips to Europe, selling railroad securities. By the age of 30 he had an annual income of $50,000.

During his trips to Britain he came to meet steelmakers. Foreseeing the future demand for iron and steel, Carnegie left the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1865 and started managing the Keystone Bridge Company. From about 1872–73, at about age 38, he began concentrating on steel, founding near Pittsburgh the J. Edgar Thomson Steel Works, which would eventually evolve into the Carnegie Steel Company. In the 1870s Carnegie’s new company built the first steel plants in the United States to use the new Bessemer steelmaking process, borrowed from Britain. Other innovations followed, including detailed cost- and production-accounting procedures that enabled the company to achieve greater efficiencies than any other manufacturing industry of the time. Any technological innovation that could reduce the cost of making steel was speedily adopted, and in the 1890s Carnegie’s mills introduced the basic open-hearth furnace into American steelmaking. Carnegie also obtained greater efficiency by purchasing the coke fields and iron-ore deposits that furnished the raw materials for steelmaking, as well as the ships and railroads that transported these supplies to his mills. The vertical integration thus achieved was another milestone in American manufacturing. Carnegie also recruited extremely capable subordinates to work for him, including the administrator Henry Clay Frick, the steelmaster and inventor Captain Bill Jones, and his own brother Thomas M. Carnegie.

 
 
In 1889 Carnegie’s vast holdings were consolidated into the Carnegie Steel Company, a limited partnership that henceforth dominated the American steel industry. In 1890 the American steel industry’s output surpassed that of Great Britain’s for the first time, largely owing to Carnegie’s successes. The Carnegie Steel Company continued to prosper even during the depression of 1892, which was marked by the bloody Homestead strike.
(Although Carnegie professed support for the rights of unions, his goals of economy and efficiency may have made him favour local management at the Homestead plant, which used Pinkerton guards to try to break the Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers.)

In 1900 the profits of Carnegie Steel (which became a corporation) were $40,000,000, of which Carnegie’s share was $25,000,000. Carnegie sold his company to J.P. Morgan’s newly formed United States Steel Corporation for $250,000,000 in 1901. He subsequently retired and devoted himself to his philanthropic activities, which were themselves vast.

Carnegie wrote frequently about political and social matters, and his most famous article, “Wealth,” appearing in the June 1889 issue of the North American Review, outlined what came to be called the Gospel of Wealth.

 
Andrew Carnegie's philanthropy. Puck magazine cartoon by Louis Dalrymple, 1903
 
 
This doctrine held that a man who accumulates great wealth has a duty to use his surplus wealth for “the improvement of mankind” in philanthropic causes. A “man who dies rich dies disgraced.”

Carnegie’s own distributions of wealth came to total about $350,000,000, of which $62,000,000 went for benefactions in the British Empire and $288,000,000 for benefactions in the United States.
 
 

Andrew Carnegie
  His main “trusts,” or charitable foundations, were (1) the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland (Edinburgh), founded in 1901 and intended for the improvement and expansion of the four Scottish universities and for Scottish student financial aid, (2) the Carnegie Dunfermline Trust, founded in 1903 and intended to aid Dunfermline’s educational institutions, (3) the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust (Dunfermline), founded in 1913 and intended for various charitable purposes, including the building of libraries, theatres, child-welfare centres, and so on, (4) the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, founded in 1896 and intended to improve Pittsburgh’s cultural and educational institutions, (5) the Carnegie Institution of Washington, founded in 1902 and contributing to various areas of scientific research, (6) the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, founded in 1910 and intended to disseminate (usually through publications) information to promote peace and understanding among nations, (7) the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the largest of all Carnegie foundations, founded in 1911 and intended for “the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding among the people of the United States” and, from 1917, Canada and the British colonies. The Carnegie Corporation of New York has aided colleges and universities and libraries, as well as research and training in law, economics, and medicine.

Chief among Carnegie’s writings are Triumphant Democracy (1886; rev. ed. 1893), The Gospel of Wealth, a collection of essays (1900), The Empire of Business (1902), Problems of To-day (1908), and Autobiography (1920).

 
 
Carnegie married Louise Whitfield in 1887. Until World War I, the Carnegies alternated between Skibo Castle in northern Scotland, their home in New York City, and their summer house “Shadowbrook” in Lenox, Massachusetts.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1835
 
 
Charles Chubb patents burglar-proof safe
 
 
Chubb Charles
 

Charles Chubb, (died May 16, 1845, Islington, London, Eng.), British inventor and entrepreneur, founder of the locksmith firm of Chubb & Son (now Chubb & Son PLC), which in the 20th century became a major corporation manufacturing and distributing locks, safes, alarms, fire extinguishers, security systems, surveillance equipment, and other products.

 
Beginning the hardware trade in Winchester, Hampshire, Chubb moved first to nearby Portsea and then to London, where he founded Chubb & Son, initially in the area of St. Paul’s Churchyard. There he worked to improve the “detector” lock originally patented in 1818 by his brother Jeremiah Chubb of Portsea. This “Chubb lock” had tumblers and, in addition, a lever called a detector, which made the bolt immovable when someone inexpertly tried to pick the lock. He took out further patents in 1824, 1828, and 1833 and also patented fireproof and burglarproof safes.

His son John Chubb (1816–72) took out more patents on locks and safes and greatly expanded the business, which was carried on by John’s three sons, John C. Chubb, George H. Chubb, and Henry W. Chubb.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1835
 
 
Samuel Colt takes out Eng. patent for his single-barreled pistol and rifle
 
 
Colt Samuel
 

Samuel Colt, (born July 19, 1814, Hartford, Conn., U.S.—died Jan. 10, 1862, Hartford), American firearms manufacturer who popularized the revolver.

 

Samuel Colt
  When Colt was a young seaman, he carved a wooden model of a revolver, and years later he perfected a working version that was patented in England and France in 1835 and in the United States the following year. Featuring a cartridge cylinder that was rotated by cocking the hammer, Colt’s single-barreled pistols and rifles were slow to gain acceptance, and a company that formed to manufacture them in Paterson, N.J., failed in 1842. The following year he devised an electrically discharged naval mine, the first device using a remotely controlled explosive, and he also conducted a telegraph business that utilized the first underwater cable.

Word from military units that Colt’s multi-shot weapons had been effective against Indians in Florida and Texas prompted a government order for 1,000 pistols during the Mexican War, and Colt resumed firearms manufacture in 1847. In 1855 he built the world’s largest private armoury on the site of the present Colt Industries plant in Hartford. Assisted by Eli Whitney, Jr., he developed beyond any industrialist before him the manufacture of interchangeable parts and the production line, and he also applied progressive ideas concerning employee welfare. His invention made him a wealthy man. His firm produced the pistols most widely used during the American Civil War, and its six-shot, single-action .45-calibre Peacemaker model, introduced in 1873, became the most famous sidearm of the West.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
Colt's early revolver (1835–1843)

In 1835, Samuel Colt traveled to the United Kingdom, following in the footsteps of Elisha Collier, a Bostonian who had patented a revolving flintlock there that achieved great popularity. Despite the reluctance of English officials to issue a patent to Colt, no fault could be found with the gun and he was issued his first patent (Number 6909). Upon his return to America, he applied for his US patent for a "revolving gun"; he was granted the patent on February 25, 1836 (later numbered 9430X). This instrument and patent No. 1304, dated August 29, 1836, protected the basic principles of his revolving-breech loading, folding trigger firearm named the Colt Paterson.

With a loan from his cousin, Dudley Selden, and letters of recommendation from Ellsworth, Colt formed a corporation of venture capitalists in April 1836 to bring his idea to market. Through the political connections of these venture capitalists, the Patent Arms Manufacturing of Paterson, New Jersey, was chartered by the New Jersey legislature on March 5, 1836. Colt was given a commission for each gun sold in exchange for his dam of patent rights, and stipulated the return of the rights if the company disbanded.




Colt 1851 Navy Revolver

 

Colt never claimed to have invented the revolver; his design was a more practical adaption of Collier's earlier revolving flintlock incorporating a locking bolt to keep the cylinder in line with the barrel. The invention of the percussion cap made ignition more reliable, faster, and safer than the older flintlock design. Colt's great contribution was to the use of interchangeable parts. Knowing that some gun parts were made by machine, he envisioned that all the parts on every Colt gun to be interchangeable and made by machine, later to be assembled by hand. His goal was the assembly line. This is shown in an 1836 letter that Colt wrote to his father in which he said.

Colt's US revolver patent gave him a monopoly on revolver manufacture until 1857. His was the first practical revolver and the first practical repeating firearm due to progress made in percussion technology. No longer a mere novelty arm, the revolver became an industrial and cultural legacy as well as a contribution to the development of war technology, ironically personified in the name of one of his company's later innovations, the "Peacemaker".

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1835
 
 
Field Marshall
 

Marshall Field, (born Aug. 18, 1834-1835?, near Conway, Mass., U.S.—died Jan. 16, 1906, New York City), American department-store owner whose pioneering activities in retail merchandising were continued and extended into publishing by successive generations of his family.

 

Marshall Field
  Born on a farm, Field became at 16 an errand boy in a dry-goods store in Pittsfield, Mass., where he developed rapidly into an adept salesman. After going to Chicago, he was hired in 1856 by the mercantile house of Cooley, Wadsworth and Company (afterward Farwell, Field and Company), in which he attained full partnership. In 1865 he and Levi Zeigler Leiter (1834–1904), one of his junior partners, joined the merchandising firm of Potter Palmer (1826–1902). When Palmer formally withdrew in 1867, the organization became known as Field, Leiter and Company and in 1868 rented from Palmer an ornate building on State Street to serve as their firm’s department store. In 1881 Field bought out Leiter for $2,500,000, changing the name of the firm to Marshall Field and Company. In an age of shoddy and unethical merchandising practices, Field instead emphasized customer service, stressing liberal credit, the one-price system, and the privilege of returning merchandise. He also introduced the department-store restaurant for shoppers.
Field left an estate valued at $125,000,000. Among his benefactions were gifts to the University of Chicago and the Columbian Museum, which later became the Field Museum of Natural History. His grandson Marshall Field III (1893–1956) founded the Chicago Sun (afterward the Chicago Sun-Times). Marshall Field IV (1916–65), the first Field’s great-grandson, followed by Marshall Field V (1941– ), became publisher of the Sun-Times and the Chicago Daily News (ceased publication in 1978) and chairman of the board of Field Enterprises, Inc. Field family members sold the Sun-Times in 1983.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1835
 
 
First German railroad line opens between Nuremberg and Furth
 
 
 
1835
 
 
Green Henrietta Howland
 

Henrietta Howland "Hetty" Green (née Robinson; November 21, 1834 – July 3, 1916), nicknamed "The Witch of Wall Street", was an American businesswoman and financier known as "the richest woman in America" during the Gilded Age. Known for both her wealth and her miserliness, she was the lone woman to amass a fortune when other major financiers were men.

 

Henrietta Howland  Green
  Hetty Green, byname of Henrietta Howland Robinson Green, née Henrietta Howland Robinson (born Nov. 21, 1834, New Bedford, Mass., U.S.—died July 3, 1916, New York, N.Y.), financier who was reputedly the wealthiest woman of her time in the United States.

Henrietta Howland Robinson was connected on the maternal Howland side to one of the great mercantile families of New England. She was reared in a home of Quaker austerity, however, and schooled privately. In 1865 both her father and a maternal aunt died, leaving her in their wills a total of about $10,000,000 in outright bequests and trust funds.
Her suit to secure her aunt’s entire estate on the basis of a deathbed will dragged on for five years, until the will was adjudged a forgery in 1871. In July 1867 she had married Edward H. Green, but by mutual consent their finances were kept separate, and she managed hers with single-minded dedication both before and after his death in 1902.

Both her father and her grandfather had steeped Hetty Green in business and finance from childhood, and she devoted her life to increasing her fortune. She became a major and feared operator on Wall Street, where, in addition to extensive holdings in railroad and other stocks and in government bonds, she maintained a considerable liquid fund for lending purposes. In the aftermath of the panic of 1907, a number of major investors found themselves in her debt. She also invested heavily in mortgages and real estate, particularly in Chicago.

 
 
As her fortune grew, Hetty Green, sometimes called the “witch of Wall Street,” continued to live with her son and daughter in inexpensive lodgings, avoiding any display of wealth and virtually all society. Her eccentricities made her a favourite subject for newspaper gossip, and all manner of stories were circulated concerning her miserliness. Perhaps the most widely repeated was that of her supposed refusal to hire a doctor to treat her son’s injured leg, resulting eventually in an amputation. She often appeared publicly in shabby dress, and she was known to seek medical treatment for herself at charity clinics. She lived for much of her later life in a small apartment in Hoboken, New Jersey. On her death, Green left an estate of more than $100,000,000.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1835
 
 
1,098 miles of railroad in use in America
 
 
 

 
 
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