Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1834 Part III NEXT-1835 Part I    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons by J. M. W. Turner.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1834 Part IV
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Haeckel Ernst
 
Ernst Haeckel, in full Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (born Feb. 16, 1834, Potsdam, Prussia [Germany]—died Aug. 9, 1919, Jena, Ger.), German zoologist and evolutionist who was a strong proponent of Darwinism and who proposed new notions of the evolutionary descent of human beings. He declared that ontogeny (the embryology and development of the individual) briefly, and sometimes necessarily incompletely, recapitulated, or repeated, phylogeny (the developmental history of the species or race).
 
 

Ernst Haeckel
  Early years
Haeckel grew up in Merseburg, where his father was a government official. He studied at Würzburg and at the University of Berlin, where his professor, the physiologist and anatomist Johannes Müller, took him on a summer expedition to observe small sea creatures off the coast of Heligoland in the North Sea.
Such experiences in marine biology strongly attracted Haeckel toward zoology, but dutifully he took a medical degree, as his family wished, at Berlin in 1857. For a time he practiced medicine; his father then agreed to his traveling to Italy, where he painted and even considered art as a career. At Messina he studied the one-celled protozoan group Radiolaria, members of which are strikingly crystalline in form; not surprisingly, Haeckel later maintained that the simplest organic life had originated spontaneously from inorganic matter by a sort of crystallization.

The turning point in Haeckel’s thinking was his reading of Charles Darwin’s 1859 work, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Meanwhile, he completed a dissertation in zoology in 1861 at Jena and became privatdozent there. In 1862 he was appointed extraordinary (that is, associate) professor of zoology, and that year, when he published his monograph on the Radiolaria, he expressed in it his agreement with Darwin’s theory of evolution; from that time he was a proponent of Darwinism, and he soon was lecturing to scientific and lay audiences on the descent theory.

 
 
Darwin had described evolution through the natural selection of accumulated favourable variations that in time formed new species; to Haeckel, however, this was only a beginning, with consequences to be pursued further. In 1865 he was appointed full professor, and he remained at Jena until his retirement in 1909.
 
 

Ernst Haeckel
  Haeckel’s views on evolution
Haeckel saw evolution as the basis for a unified explanation of all nature and the rationale of a philosophical approach that denied final causes and the teleology of the church. His Generelle Morphologie der Organismen (1866; “General Morphology of Organisms”) presented many of his evolutionary ideas, but the scientific community was little interested. He set forth his ideas in popular writings, all of which were widely read though they were deplored by many of Haeckel’s scientific colleagues.

Enthusiastically attempting to explain both inorganic and organic nature under the same physical laws, Haeckel portrayed the lowest creatures as mere protoplasm without nuclei; he speculated that they had arisen spontaneously through combinations of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur. In those days of great interest in protoplasm, it was believed for a while that certain deep-sea dredgings had brought up such structureless organisms; when scientists found this to be in error, Haeckel continued to insist, throughout the years, that “monera” existed.
From them he traced one-celled forms with nuclei and three kingdoms—animal, vegetable, and the neutral, borderline “protista.” His artistic leanings toward ideal symmetries led him to outline numerous genealogical trees, sometimes to supply missing links or branches; and he reconstructed the human ancestral tree to demonstrate humankind’s descent from the lower animals.

 
 

Haeckel tended to speculate, and for some years, he pondered the problem of heredity. Interestingly, though it was only on a theoretical basis, he suggested as early as 1866 that the cell nucleus was concerned with inheritance. He had long been thinking of “vital molecular movement” when, in 1876, he attempted to place heredity on a molecular basis in a work entitled Die Perigenesis der Plastidule (“The Generation of Waves in the Small Vital Particles”). Here again he traced a branching scheme, this time to illustrate the mechanism of heredity and to show the influence of outer conditions on the inherited undulatory motion he attributed to the “plastidules,” the term he adopted for the molecules making up protoplasm.

Though his concepts of recapitulation were in error, Haeckel brought attention to important biological questions. His gastraea theory, tracing all multicellular animals to a hypothetical two-layered ancestor, stimulated both discussion and investigation. His propensities to systematization along evolutionary lines led to his valuable contributions to the knowledge of such invertebrates as medusae, radiolarians, siphonophores, and calcareous sponges.

Building collections around his own, Haeckel founded both the Phyletic Museum in Jena and the Ernst Haeckel Haus; the latter contains his books and archives, and it preserves many other mementos of his life and work.

Gloria Robinson

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 

1874 illustration from Anthropogenie showing "very early", "somewhat later" and "still later" stages of embryos of fish (F), salamander (A), turtle (T), chick (H), pig (S), cow (R), rabbit (K), and human (M)
 
 
 

Sea anemones from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur (Art forms of Nature) of 1904
Kunstformen — plate 72: Muscinae
Kunstformen — plate 96: Chaetopoda
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Senefelder Alois, Ger. inventor of lithography, d. (b. 1771)
 
 

Alois Senefelder
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Francois Arago: "Astronomie populaire"
 
 
Arago Francois
 
François Arago, in full Dominique-françois-jean Arago (born Feb. 26, 1786, Estagel, Roussillon, France—died Oct. 2, 1853, Paris), French physicist who discovered the principle of the production of magnetism by rotation of a nonmagnetic conductor. He also devised an experiment that proved the wave theory of light and engaged with others in research that led to the discovery of the laws of light polarization.
 

François Arago
  Arago was educated in Perpignan and at the École Polytechnique, Paris, where, at the age of 23, he succeeded Gaspard Monge in the chair of analytic geometry. Subsequently he was director of the Paris Observatory and permanent secretary of the Academy of Sciences. He was also active as a republican in French politics. As minister of war and marine in the provisional government formed after the Revolution of 1848, he introduced many reforms.

In 1820, elaborating on the work of H.C. Ørsted of Denmark, Arago showed that the passage of an electric current through a cylindrical spiral of copper wire caused it to attract iron filings as if it were a magnet and that the filings fell off when the current ceased. In 1824 he demonstrated that a rotating copper disk produced rotation in a magnetic needle suspended above it. Michael Faraday later proved these to be induction phenomena.

Arago supported A.-J. Fresnel’s wave theory of light against the emission theory favoured by P.-S. Laplace, J.-B. Biot, and S.-D. Poisson. According to the wave theory, light should be retarded as it passes from a rarer to a denser medium; according to the emission theory, it should be accelerated. Arago’s test for comparing the velocity of light in air and in water or glass was described in 1838, but the experiment required such elaborate preparation that Arago was not ready to perform it until 1850, when his sight failed.

 
 
Before his death, however, the retardation of light in denser media was demonstrated by A.-H.-L. Fizeau and Léon Foucault, who used his method with improvements in detail.

In astronomy, Arago is best known for his part in the dispute between U.-J.-J. Le Verrier, who was his protégé, and the English astronomer John C. Adams over priority in discovering the planet Neptune and over the naming of the planet. Arago had suggested in 1845 that Le Verrier investigate anomalies in the motion of Uranus. When the investigation resulted in Le Verrier’s discovery of Neptune, Arago proposed that the newly found planet be named for Le Verrier.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1834
 
 
Christian Leopold von Buch publishes his "Theory of Volcanism"
 
 
Buch Leopold
 

Leopold, Baron von Buch, (born April 26, 1774, Angermünde, Prussia—died March 4, 1853, Berlin), geologist and geographer whose far-flung wanderings and lucid writings had an inestimable influence on the development of geology during the 19th century.

 

Leopold, Baron von Buch
  From 1790 to 1793 Buch studied at the Freiberg School of Mining under the noted German geologist Abraham G. Werner. In 1796 he secured a position as an inspector of mines, but, because he was from a wealthy family, he soon was able to resign and devote himself to geological studies. His investigations of the Alps began in 1797.

The following year he went to Italy, where his observations of the volcano Vesuvius first brought to his attention possible flaws in Werner’s Neptunism, the theory that all rocks are formed by sedimentation (settling out at the bottom of the sea). His visit to the Auvergne Mountains in 1802 furthered his gradual conversion to volcanism, the theory that granite and many other rocks are formed by volcanic action. His studies vastly extended knowledge of volcanoes, and his search for combustible material, such as coal, which Werner insisted was necessary for volcanic action, proved fruitless. The final blow was delivered to Werner’s theories when Buch found volcanoes resting upon solid granite, implying that they are generated below primitive rock.

In 1806 Buch went to Scandinavia, where he established the parent source of many of the rocks found on the north German plains.

 
 
He also was the first to observe that Sweden, from Frederikshald to Åbo, is slowly rising above the sea.

His Scandinavian findings are given in Reise durch Norwegen und Lappland (1810; Travels Through Norway and Lapland, 1813).

Buch visited the Canary Islands in 1815, where he studied the complex volcanic system to which the islands owe their existence. Later he walked through the Hebrides and along the coasts of Scotland and Ireland, where he examined basalt deposits.

Upon his return to Germany, Buch continued his investigations of the structure of the Alps in an effort to explain their origin. He finally concluded that they resulted from vast upheavals of the Earth’s crust. His magnificent geological map of Germany, composed of 42 sheets, anonymously published in 1826, was the first of its kind.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
 

Faraday's (Faraday Michael) laws of electrolysis are quantitative relationships based on the electrochemical researches published by Michael Faraday in 1834.

 
Statements of the laws
Several versions of the laws can be found in textbooks and the scientific pieces of literature. The most common statements resemble the following:

Faraday's 1st Law of Electrolysis - "The mass of a substance altered at an electrode during electrolysis is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity transferred at that electrode. Quantity of electricity refers to the quantity of electrical charge, typically measured in coulomb."
Faraday's 2nd Law of Electrolysis - "For a given quantity of D.C electricity (electric charge), the mass of an elemental material altered at an electrode is directly proportional to the element's equivalent weight". The equivalent weight of a substance is equal to its molar mass divided by the change in oxidation state it undergoes upon electrolysis (often equal to its charge or valence). This will be explained further in the next paragraph.
For an element the equivalent weight is the quantity that combines with or replaces 1.00797 grams (g) of hydrogen or 7.9997 g of oxygen; or, the weight of an element that is liberated in an electrolysis (chemical reaction caused by an electric current) by the passage of 9.64853399(24) x 104 coulombs of electricity.

  The equivalent weight of an element is its gram atomic weight divided by its valence (combining power). Some equivalent weights are: silver (Ag), 107.868 g; magnesium (Mg), 24.312/2 g; aluminum (Al), 26.9815/3 g; sulfur (S, in forming a sulfide), 32.064/2 g. For compounds that function as oxidizing or reducing agents (compounds that act as acceptors or donors of electrons), the equivalent weight is the gram molecular weight divided by the number of electrons lost or gained by each molecule; e.g., potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in acid solution, 158.038/5 g; potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), 294.192/6 g; and sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3·5H2O), 248.1828/1 g. For all oxidizing and reducing agents (elements or compounds) the equivalent weight is the weight of the substance that is associated with the loss or gain of 6.023 × 1023 electrons.
The equivalent weight of an acid or base for neutralization reactions or of any other compound that acts by double decomposition is the quantity of the compound that will furnish or react with or be equivalent to 1.00797 g of hydrogen ion or 17.0074 g of hydroxide ion; e.g., hydrochloric acid (HCl), 36.461 g; sulfuric acid (H2SO4), 98.078/2 g; sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 40 g; sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), 105.9892/ 2 g. The equivalent weight of a substance may vary with the type of reaction it undergoes.
 
 
Thus, potassium permanganate reacting by double decomposition has an equivalent weight equal to its gram molecular weight, 158.038/1 g; as an oxidizing agent under different circumstances it may be reduced to the manganate ion (MnO42−), to manganese dioxide (MnO2), or to the manganous ion (Mn2+), with the equivalent weights of 158.038/1 g, 158.038/3 g, and 158.038/5 g, respectively. The number of equivalent weights of any substance dissolved in one litre of solution is called the normality of that solution.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1834
 
 
Langley Samuel Pierpont
 

Samuel Pierpont Langley, (born Aug. 22, 1834, Roxbury, Mass., U.S.—died Feb. 27, 1906, Aiken, S.C.), American astrophysicist and aeronautical pioneer who developed new instruments with which to study the Sun and built the first powered heavier-than-air machine of significant size to achieve sustained flight.

 

Samuel Pierpont Langley
  Following his education at the Boston Latin School, Langley worked as an engineer and architectural draftsman before traveling to Europe in 1864. Following his return in 1866, he was appointed an assistant professor of mathematics at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Md. The next year he accepted a position as a professor of physics and astronomy at the Western University of Pennsylvania (now the University of Pittsburgh) and as the director of the university’s Allegheny Observatory.

His chief interest was in the impact of solar radiation on the Earth. In 1878 he invented the bolometer, an instrument capable of detecting minute differences in temperature. Using this and other instruments, Langley extended the study of the Sun into the far infrared region of the solar spectrum. He was named assistant secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in 1887 and secretary soon thereafter.

Langley began his experiments on the physics of flight while still at the Allegheny Observatory. The results of those tests were published in Experiments in Aerodynamics (1881) and provided a foundation for the design of a series of flying models, beginning with smaller rubber-powered aircraft and culminating in larger tandem-wing aerodromes, as he called them, powered by lightweight steam engines. On May 6, 1896, one of these aircraft, the Langley aerodrome No. 5, made a flight of some 3,000 feet (some 900 metres) over the Potomac River.

 
 
It was the first time that a powered, heavier-than-air machine had achieved sustained flight.

In 1898, with a grant from the U.S. government, Langley began work on a full-scale aerodrome capable of carrying a human aloft. Completed in 1903, the machine was powered by a radial engine developing 52 horsepower. Two attempts were made to launch the machine by catapult into the air from the roof of a large houseboat moored in the Potomac in October and December 1903. On both occasions, the aerodrome fell into the water without flying. The pilot, Charles Matthews Manly, Langley’s chief aeronautical assistant, survived both crashes, but the aeronautical experiments of Langley had come to an end. In spite of later claims, there is no reason to believe that the full-scale Langley aerodrome was capable of flight.

Tom D. Crouch

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Langley Aerodrome No. 6 at Posvar Hall, University of Pittsburgh
 
 
 
1834
 
 
The American inventor Cyrus Hall McCormick patents his reaping machine
 
 
McCormick Cyrus Hall
 

Cyrus Hall McCormick, (born Feb. 15, 1809, Rockbridge county, Va., U.S.—died May 13, 1884, Chicago, Ill.), American industrialist and inventor who is generally credited with the development (from 1831) of the mechanical reaper.

 

Cyrus Hall McCormick
  McCormick was the eldest son of Robert McCormick, a farmer, blacksmith, and inventor. McCormick’s education, in local schools, was limited. Reserved, determined, and serious-minded, he spent all of his time in his father’s workshop. The elder McCormick had invented several practical farm implements but, like other inventors in the United States and England, had failed in his attempt to build a successful reaping machine. In 1831 Cyrus, aged 22, tried his hand at building a reaper. Resembling a two-wheeled, horse-drawn chariot, the machine consisted of a vibrating cutting blade, a reel to bring the grain within its reach, and a platform to receive the falling grain. The reaper embodied the principles essential to all subsequent grain-cutting machines. For farmers in the early 19th century, harvesting required a large number of labourers, and, if they could be found, the cost of hiring them was high. When McCormick’s reaper was tested on a neighbour’s farm in 1831, it offered the hope that the yield of the farmer’s fields would soon not be limited to the amount of labour available. The machine had defects, not the least of which was a clatter so loud that slaves were required to walk alongside to calm the frightened horses.

McCormick took out a patent in 1834, but his chief interest at that time was the family’s iron foundry. When the foundry failed in the wake of the Bank Panic of 1837, leaving the family deeply in debt, McCormick turned to his still-unexploited reaper and improved it. He sold 2 reapers in 1841, 7 in 1842, 29 in 1843, and 50 the following year.
 
 
An 1844 visit to the prairie states in the Midwest convinced McCormick that the future of his reaper and of the world’s wheat production lay in this vast fertile land rather than in the rocky, hilly East. In 1847, with further patented improvements, he opened a factory in the then small, swampy, lakeside town of Chicago in partnership with the mayor, William Ogden, who capitalized the venture with $50,000 of his own money. The first year, 800 machines were sold. More were sold the next year, and McCormick was able to buy out Ogden.

McCormick’s main rival was Obed Hussey, whose machine proved to be inferior as a reaper but superior as a mower. When McCormick’s basic patent expired in 1848, competing manufacturers—Hussey among them—tried to block renewal. The ensuing legal battle was but one of many in McCormick’s career. He was involved in endless litigation not only with rival manufacturers and infringers but also with the New York Central Railroad, which he sued for $20,000 damages following an altercation over an $8.75 overcharge on his wife’s baggage. He fought this particular case up to the Supreme Court three times—and won, even though it took 20 years. He did not win his 1848 patent renewal battle, however. Except for improvements on the reaper patented after 1831, the basic machine passed into the public domain. McCormick then set out to beat his manufacturing competitors another way: by outselling them.

 
 

McCormick reaper and twine binder in 1884
 
 
Pockets stuffed with order blanks, McCormick rode over the plains selling his reaper to farmers and would-be farmers. To increase sales, he used innovations such as mass production, advertising, public demonstration, warranty of product, and extension of credit to his customers. Soon the factory expanded, and the company had a traveling sales force. By 1850 the McCormick reaper was known in every part of the United States, and at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London it was introduced to European farmers. Although mocked by The Times of London as “a cross between an Astley Chariot, a wheelbarrow, and a flying machine,” the reaper took the Grand Prize. In 1855 it won the Grand Medal of Honour at the Paris International Exposition. There followed a long series of prize honours and awards that made the McCormick reaper known to farmers throughout the world.

By 1856 McCormick was selling more than 4,000 machines a year. In the 1858 account of his marriage to Nancy (Nettie) Fowler, the Chicago Daily Press referred to him as the “massive Thor of industry.” Business did not absorb all of his energy, however. He became active in the Democratic Party and in the Presbyterian church, establishing the McCormick Theological Seminary in Chicago.

In 1871 the Chicago fire gutted his factory. Then—more than 60 years old, his fortune long since made—he rebuilt. When he died, his business was still growing. In 1902 the McCormick Harvesting Company joined with other companies to form International Harvester Company, with McCormick’s son, Cyrus, Jr., as its first president.

Mitchell Wilson

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1834
 
 
Mendeleyev Dmitry
 

Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev, Mendeleyev also spelled Mendeleev (born January 27 (February 8, New Style), 1834, Tobolsk, Siberia, Russian Empire—died January 20 (February 2), 1907, St. Petersburg, Russia), Russian chemist who developed the periodic classification of the elements. Mendeleyev found that, when all the known chemical elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic weight, the resulting table displayed a recurring pattern, or periodicity, of properties within groups of elements. In his version of the periodic table of 1871, he left gaps in places where he believed unknown elements would find their place. He even predicted the likely properties of three of the potential elements. The subsequent proof of many of his predictions within his lifetime brought fame to Mendeleyev as the founder of the periodic law.

 

Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev
  Early life and education
Mendeleyev was born in the small Siberian town of Tobolsk as the last of 14 surviving children (or 13, depending on the source) of Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleyev, a teacher at the local gymnasium, and Mariya Dmitriyevna Kornileva. Dmitry’s father became blind in the year of Dmitry’s birth and died in 1847. To support the family, his mother turned to operating a small glass factory owned by her family in a nearby town. The factory burned down in December 1848, and Dmitry’s mother took him to St. Petersburg, where he enrolled in the Main Pedagogical Institute. His mother died soon after, and Mendeleyev graduated in 1855. He got his first teaching position at Simferopol in Crimea. He stayed there only two months and, after a short time at the lyceum of Odessa, decided to go back to St. Petersburg to continue his education. He received a master’s degree in 1856 and began to conduct research in organic chemistry.
Financed by a government fellowship, he went to study abroad for two years at the University of Heidelberg. Instead of working closely with the prominent chemists of the university, including Robert Bunsen, Emil Erlenmeyer, and August Kekulé, he set up a laboratory in his own apartment. In September 1860 he attended the International Chemistry Congress in Karlsruhe, convened to discuss such crucial issues as atomic weights, chemical symbols, and chemical formulas. There he met and established contacts with many of Europe’s leading chemists.
 
 
In later years Mendeleyev would especially remember a paper circulated by the Italian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro that clarified the notion of atomic weights.

In 1861 Mendeleyev returned to St. Petersburg, where he obtained a professorship at the Technological Institute in 1864. After the defense of his doctoral dissertation in 1865 he was appointed professor of chemical technology at the University of St. Petersburg (now St. Petersburg State University). He became professor of general chemistry in 1867 and continued to teach there until 1890.

 
 

Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev
  Formulation of the periodic law
As he began to teach inorganic chemistry, Mendeleyev could not find a textbook that met his needs. Since he had already published a textbook on organic chemistry in 1861 that had been awarded the prestigious Demidov Prize, he set out to write another one. The result was Osnovy khimii (1868–71; The Principles of Chemistry), which became a classic, running through many editions and many translations. When Mendeleyev began to compose the chapter on the halogen elements (chlorine and its analogs) at the end of the first volume, he compared the properties of this group of elements to those of the group of alkali metals such as sodium.

Within these two groups of dissimilar elements, he discovered similarities in the progression of atomic weights, and he wondered if other groups of elements exhibited similar properties. After studying the alkaline earths, Mendeleyev established that the order of atomic weights could be used not only to arrange the elements within each group but also to arrange the groups themselves. Thus, in his effort to make sense of the extensive knowledge that already existed of the chemical and physical properties of the chemical elements and their compounds, Mendeleyev discovered the periodic law.

His newly formulated law was announced before the Russian Chemical Society in March 1869 with the statement “elements arranged according to the value of their atomic weights present a clear periodicity of properties.”
Mendeleyev’s law allowed him to build up a systematic table of all the 70 elements then known.

 
 
He had such faith in the validity of the periodic law that he proposed changes to the generally accepted values for the atomic weight of a few elements and predicted the locations within the table of unknown elements together with their properties. At first the periodic system did not raise interest among chemists. However, with the discovery of the predicted elements, notably gallium in 1875, scandium in 1879, and germanium in 1886, it began to win wide acceptance. Gradually the periodic law and table became the framework for a great part of chemical theory. By the time Mendeleyev died in 1907, he enjoyed international recognition and had received distinctions and awards from many countries.
 
 

Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev
  Other scientific achievements
Since Mendeleyev is best known today as the discoverer of the periodic law, his chemical career is often viewed as a long process of maturation of his main discovery. Indeed, in the three decades following his discovery, Mendeleyev himself offered many recollections suggesting that there had been a remarkable continuity in his career, from his early dissertations on isomorphism and specific volumes (for graduation and his master’s degree), which involved the study of the relations between various properties of chemical substances, to the periodic law itself. In this account, Mendeleyev mentioned the Karlsruhe congress as the major event that led him to the discovery of the relations between atomic weights and chemical properties.

However, this retrospective impression of a continuous research program is misleading, since one striking feature of Mendeleyev’s long career is the diversity of his activities. First, in the field of chemical science, Mendeleyev made various contributions. In the field of physical chemistry, for instance, he conducted a broad research program throughout his career that focused on gases and liquids. In 1860, while working in Heidelberg, he defined the “absolute point of ebullition” (the point at which a gas in a container will condense to a liquid solely by the application of pressure). In 1864 he formulated a theory (subsequently discredited) that solutions are chemical combinations in fixed proportions.

 
 
In 1871, as he published the final volume of the first edition of his Principles of Chemistry, he was investigating the elasticity of gases and gave a formula for their deviation from Boyle’s law (now also known as the Boyle-Mariotte law, the principle that the volume of a gas varies inversely with its pressure). In the 1880s he studied the thermal expansion of liquids. A second major feature of Mendeleyev’s scientific work is his theoretical inclinations. From the beginning of his career, he continually sought to shape a broad theoretical scheme in the tradition of natural philosophy.
 
 

Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev
  This effort can be seen in his early adoption of the type theory of the French chemist Charles Gerhardt and in his rejection of electrochemical dualism as suggested by the great Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius. All his efforts were not equally successful.

He based his 1861 organic chemistry textbook on a “theory of limits” (that the percentage of oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen could not exceed certain amounts in combination with carbon), and he defended this theory against the more popular structural theory of his countryman Aleksandr Butlerov. Because of his antipathy to electrochemistry, he later opposed the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius’s ionic theory of solutions. Before and during Mendeleyev’s time, many attempts at classifying the elements were based on the hypothesis of the English chemist William Prout that all elements derived from a unique primary matter. Mendeleyev insisted that elements were true individuals, and he fought against those who, like the British scientist William Crookes, used his periodic system in support of Prout’s hypothesis. With the discovery of electrons and radioactivity in the 1890s, Mendeleyev perceived a threat to his theory of the individuality of elements. In Popytka khimicheskogo ponimania mirovogo efira (1902; An Attempt Towards a Chemical Conception of the Ether), he explained these phenomena as movements of ether around heavy atoms, and he tried to classify ether as a chemical element above the group of inert gases (or noble gases). This bold (and ultimately discredited) hypothesis was part of Mendeleyev’s project of extending Newton’s mechanics to chemistry in an attempt to unify the natural sciences.
 
 
Activities outside the laboratory
Mendeleyev carried on many other activities outside academic research and teaching. He was one of the founders of the Russian Chemical Society (now the Mendeleyev Russian Chemical Society) in 1868 and published most of his later papers in its journal. He was a prolific thinker and writer. His published works include 400 books and articles, and numerous unpublished manuscripts are kept to this day in the Dmitry Mendeleyev Museum and Archives at St. Petersburg State University. In addition, in order to earn money he started writing articles on popular science and technology for journals and encyclopaedias as early as 1859.

His interest in spreading scientific and technological knowledge was such that he continued popular science writing until the end of his career, taking part in the project of the Brockhaus Enzyklopädie and launching a series of publications entitled Biblioteka promyshlennykh znany (“Library of Industrial Knowledge”) in the 1890s.
 
 
Another interest, that of developing the agricultural and industrial resources of Russia, began to occupy Mendeleyev in the 1860s and grew to become one of his major preoccupations. He wrote projects to develop a coal industry in the Donets Basin, and he traveled to both Baku in Azerbaijan (then part of the Russian Empire) and to Pennsylvania in the United States in order to learn more about the petroleum industry. All told, he may have devoted more time to questions of national economy than to pure chemistry.

Like his lifelong commitment to the industrial development of Russia, Mendeleyev’s philosophical views may have been rooted in his family background in Siberia. However, it seems he developed a metaphysics of his own through his daily experience. In the 1870s the visit of a famous medium to St. Petersburg drew him to publish a number of harsh criticisms of “the apostles of spiritualism.” In March 1890, Mendeleyev had to resign from his chair at the university following his support of protesting students, and he started a second career. He first acted as a government consultant until he was appointed director of the Central Bureau of Weights and Measures, created in 1893. There he made significant contributions to metrology. Refusing to content himself solely with the managerial aspect of his position (which involved the renewal of the prototypes of length and weight and the determination of standards), he purchased expensive precision instruments, enlarged the team of the bureau, and conducted extensive research on metrology.
After a few years he published an independent journal of metrology. Thus, Mendeleyev was able to combine his lifetime interests in science and industry and to achieve one of his main goals: integrating Russia into the Western world.

Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
The scientist's sculpture on Moskovsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg next to his Periodic Table on a wall of D.I.Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology opposite Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology
 
 
 
1834
 
 
German chemist Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge  discovers phenol, or carbolic acid
 
 
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
 

Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, (born Feb. 8, 1795, Hamburg [Germany]—died March 25, 1867, Oranienburg, Prussia [Germany]), German chemist considered to be the originator of the widely used analytic technique of paper chromatography.

 

Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge
  Runge earned a medical degree from the University of Jena in 1819 and a doctorate in chemistry from the University of Berlin in 1822.

He was a professor at the University of Breslau (now Wrocław, Pol.) before taking a post as a chemist in a chemical factory at Oranienburg in 1831.

In the course of his research on synthetic dyes, he isolated and named several important components of coal-tar oil, among them carbolic acid (now called phenol), pyrrole, rosolic acid (aurin), and cyanol (aniline).

He did not analyze any of these compounds, however. Runge described his pioneering use of paper chromatography in two books published in 1850.

He also noted the ability of belladonna to induce long-lasting dilation of the pupil of the eye (mydriasis), and he developed a process for obtaining sugar from beet juice.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Phenol
 

Phenol, also known as carbolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.

 
It is a white crystalline solid that is volatile. The molecule consists of a phenyl group (-C6H5) bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH). It is mildly acidic and requires careful handling due to its propensity to cause chemical burns.

Phenol was first extracted from coal tar, but today is produced on a large scale (about 7 billion kg/year) from petroleum.

It is an important industrial commodity as a precursor to many materials and useful compounds. Its major uses involve its conversion to plastics or related materials. Phenol and its chemical derivatives are key for building polycarbonates, epoxies, Bakelite, nylon, detergents, herbicides such as phenoxy herbicides, and numerous pharmaceutical drugs.

Although similar to alcohols, phenols have unique distinguishing properties. Unlike in alcohols where the hydroxyl group is bound to a saturated carbon atom, in phenols the hydroxyl group is attached to an unsaturated aromatic (alternating double and single bond) hydrocarbon ring such as benzene. Consequently, phenols have greater acidity than alcohols due to stabilization of the conjugate base through resonance in the aromatic ring.

  History
Phenol was discovered in 1834 by Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, who extracted it (in impure form) from coal tar.[22] Runge called phenol "Karbolsäure" (coal-oil-acid, carbolic acid). Coal tar remained the primary source until the development of the petrochemical industry. In 1841, the French chemist Auguste Laurent obtained phenol in pure form.

In 1836, Auguste Laurent coined the name "phène" for benzene; this is the root of the word "phenol" and "phenyl". In 1843, French chemist Charles Gerhardt coined the name "phénol".

The antiseptic properties of phenol were used by Sir Joseph Lister (1827–1912) in his pioneering technique of antiseptic surgery. Lister decided that the wounds themselves had to be thoroughly cleaned. He then covered the wounds with a piece of rag or lint[26] covered in phenol, or carbolic acid as he called it. The skin irritation caused by continual exposure to phenol eventually led to the substitution of aseptic (germ-free) techniques in surgery.

Phenol is the active ingredient in some oral analgesics such as Chloraseptic spray and Carmex.

 
 
Phenol was the main ingredient of the Carbolic Smoke Ball, an ineffective device marketed in London in the 19th century as protecting against influenza and other ailments, and the subject of the famous law case Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1834
 
 
Swiss mathematician Jakob Steiner, one of the founders of modern synthetic geometry, appointed professor at Berlin University
 
 
Steiner Jakob
 

Jakob Steiner, (born March 18, 1796, Utzenstorf, Switzerland—died April 1, 1863, Bern), Swiss mathematician who was one of the founders of modern synthetic and projective geometry.

 

Jakob Steiner
  As the son of a small farmer, Steiner had no early schooling and did not learn to write until he was 14. Against the wishes of his parents, at 18 he entered the Pestalozzi School at Yverdon, Switzerland, where his extraordinary geometric intuition was discovered. Later he went to the University of Heidelberg and the University of Berlin to study, supporting himself precariously as a tutor. By 1824 he had studied the geometric transformations that led him to the theory of inversive geometry, but he did not publish this work. The founding in 1826 of the first regular publication devoted to mathematics, Crelle’s Journal, gave Steiner an opportunity to publish some of his other original geometric discoveries. In 1832 he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Königsberg, and two years later he occupied the chair of geometry established for him at Berlin, a post he held until his death.

During his lifetime some considered Steiner the greatest geometer since Apollonius of Perga (c. 262–190 bce), and his works on synthetic geometry were considered authoritative. He had an extreme dislike for the use of algebra and analysis, and he often expressed the opinion that calculation hampered thinking, whereas pure geometry stimulated creative thought.
By the end of the century, however, it was generally recognized that Karl von Staudt (1798–1867), who worked in relative isolation at the University of Erlangen, had made far deeper contributions to a systematic theory of pure geometry. Nevertheless, Steiner contributed many basic concepts and results in projective geometry.

 
 
For example, during a trip to Rome in 1844 he discovered a transformation of the real projective plane (the set of lines through the origin in ordinary three-dimensional space) that maps each line of the projective plane to one point on the Steiner surface (also known as the Roman surface). Steiner never published these and other findings concerning the surface. A colleague, Karl Weierstrass, first published a paper on the surface and Steiner’s results in 1863, the year of Steiner’s death. Steiner’s other work was primarily on the properties of algebraic curves and surfaces and on the solution of isoperimetric problems. His collected writings were published posthumously as Gesammelte Werke, 2 vol. (1881–82; “Collected Works”).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1834
 
 
Sir Charles Wheatstone (Wheatstone Charles) uses revolving mirror to measure the speed of electric discharge in a conductor
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Malthus Thomas Robert, English economist, d. (b. 1766)
 
 

Thomas Robert Malthus
 
 
 
1834
 
 
The Castle Garden Boat Club Association, first Amer. organization of amateur rowing clubs, formed in New York
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Robin Carver: "Book of Sports" (Boston, Mass.), the first Amer. book on baseball
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
 

Chauncey Mitchell Depew (April 23, 1834 – April 5, 1928) was an attorney for Cornelius Vanderbilt's railroad interests, president of the New York Central Railroad System, and a United States Senator from New York from 1899 to 1911.

 

Chauncey Mitchell Depew
  Chauncey Mitchell Depew, (born April 23, 1834, Peekskill, N.Y., U.S.—died April 5, 1928, New York City), American railroad lawyer and politician who is best remembered as an orator, a wit, and an after-dinner speaker.

Entering politics as a Republican, Depew served as a member of the New York Assembly (1861–62) and as secretary of state of New York (1864–65).

In 1866 he declined an appointment as the first U.S. minister to Japan in order to become an attorney and lobbyist for Cornelius Vanderbilt’s New York and Harlem Railroad.

Eventually he rose to be president of the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad (1885–98) and board chairman of the entire Vanderbilt railway system (from 1898).

A candidate for the Republican nomination for president in 1888, he withdrew in favour of Benjamin Harrison, whose successful campaign he strongly supported.

In 1892 he declined Harrison’s offer of the secretaryship of state.

He later served two terms (1899–1911) as a U.S. senator from New York.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Burning of Parliament
 

The Burning of the Houses of Parliament is the popular name for the fire which destroyed the Palace of Westminster, the ancient home of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, on 16 October 1834.

The blaze, which started in two overheated chimney flues, spread rapidly throughout the medieval complex and developed into the biggest conflagration to occur in London since the Great Fire of 1666, attracting massive crowds. The fire lasted for many hours and gutted most of the Palace, including the converted St Stephen's Chapel (the meeting place of the House of Commons), the Lords Chamber, the Painted Chamber and the official residences of the Speaker and the Clerk of the House of Commons. Westminster Hall and a few other parts of the old Houses of Parliament survived the blaze and were incorporated into the New Palace of Westminster, which was built in the Victorian Gothic style over the following decades.

 
Background
The fire was caused by the destruction of tally sticks. Treasury officials had ordered in 1724 that the sticks' use be discontinued by the now-literate clerks of the Exchequer; however, the sticks remained valid and were not completely abolished until 1826.

A device for keeping records of contracts for the illiterate brought about the destruction of both Houses of Parliament, Charles Dickens mocked the episode in an 1855 speech to the Administrative Reform Association:

...it took until 1826 to get these sticks abolished. In 1834 it was found that there was a considerable accumulation of them; and the question then arose, what was to be done with such worn-out, worm-eaten, rotten old bits of wood?

....The sticks were housed in Westminster, and it would naturally occur to any intelligent person that nothing could be easier than to allow them to be carried away for fire-wood by the miserable people who lived in that neighbourhood.

However, they never had been useful, and official routine required that they should never be, and so the order went out that they were to be privately and confidentially burnt. It came to pass that they were burnt in a stove in the House of Lords.

The stove, overgorged with these preposterous sticks, set fire to the panelling; the panelling set fire to the House of Lords; the House of Lords set fire to the House of Commons; the two houses were reduced to ashes; architects were called in to build others; we are now in the second million of the cost thereof....

  The fire
The responsibility for disposing of the tally sticks fell to Richard Weobley, the Clerk of Works at the Palace. He decided against burning them on a bonfire out in the open, as he feared such an action would upset the neighbours. The decision was made to burn the sticks in the underfloor coal furnaces that heated the House of Lords chamber. On the morning of October 16, Weobley assigned the task to two Irish labourers from the Metropolitan Board of Works, Joshua Cross and Patrick Furlong. The work went on all day; witnesses recalled seeing both Cross and Furlong throw great handfuls of sticks onto the fires, despite the risk of the burning wood overheating the copper-lined brick flues, which coincidentally had not been swept for over a year. Weobley, already well aware that the archaic jumble of buildings that made up the old palace presented a major fire risk, had warned the two men not to overfill the furnaces or stoke the fires too high but his instructions were ignored.

The first indication that something was wrong came that afternoon when the on-duty housekeeper at the palace, Elizabeth Wright, was showing round two gentleman tourists. They complained that the House of Lords chamber was full of smoke and noted the exceptional amount of heat coming up through the floor. Nonetheless neither Wright nor anyone else pursued the matter any further. Cross and Furlong clocked off in the late afternoon, having completed their task. Mrs. Wright locked up the Lords chamber at 5pm. Within an hour it was discovered to be ablaze. It is believed the over-stoked furnaces heated the flues to such an extent that their copper linings collapsed, causing the exposed brickwork to heat up, and igniting the timber joists that supported the stone floor of the chamber above. This allowed the fire to spread to the vast range of combustible wooden and fabric furnishings inside the Chamber itself.

 
 
The fire was one of the biggest conflagrations seen in London since the Great Fire of 1666, and an enormous crowd flocked to Westminster to witness the spectacle, including Lord Melbourne, the prime minister, and many of his cabinet. Firefighters belonging to the London Fire Engine Establishment, the newly professionalized service under James Braidwood, arrived at the scene but, realizing they would be unable to stop the fire spreading around the palace site, concentrated on saving Westminster Hall. The House of Commons chamber, housed within the former St Stephen's Chapel, soon caught fire and Westminster Hall was under threat. Heroic efforts by firefighters and civilian volunteers, who dampened the Hall's great 14th century hammerbeam roof with water, prevented it from catching fire and ensured its survival. The fire was eventually brought under control; but not until most of the old Palace had been destroyed. Along with Westminster Hall, the only other surviving remnants were the Jewel Tower, St Stephen's Cloister and the Chapel of St Mary Undercroft, which was located directly beneath the destroyed Commons chamber.

The English landscape painter J. M. W. Turner (1775–1851) painted the burning of the Palace of Westminster from memory, having witnessed it at first hand.

 
 

The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons (1835) by J. M. W. Turner. Turner witnessed the fire, and painted the subject several times.
 
 
Aftermath
The British standard measurements, the standard yard and standard pound, were both lost in the blaze. Also lost were most of the procedural records for the House of Commons, which dated back as far as the late 15th century. All of the actual Acts of Parliament survived, however, as they were Lords' records stored in the Jewel Tower at the time of the fire.

Yet while the fire was regarded by many as a national tragedy, it was also the occasion for ribald songs, jokes and much celebration amongst those who bore grievances against the political establishment. 'Oh, What a Flare Up!' was published (c. 1838).

The Palace of Westminster was rebuilt according to a design by Sir Charles Barry with Gothic Revival detailing by A.W.N. Pugin. Though Dickens deplored the cost, the building is one of the most familiar landmarks of London.

The story of the 1834 fire was retold in The Day Parliament Burned Down by Caroline Shenton, which book won Political Book of Year in 2013.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Bavarian civil servant Franz Xaver Gabelsberger publishes his system of German shorthand
 
 
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
 

Franz Xaver Gabelsberger (9 February 1789 – 4 January 1849, both in Munich) was a German inventor of a shorthand writing system, named Gabelsberger shorthand after him.

 
 

Franz Xaver Gabelsberger
  Gabelsberger, employed as typist by the Bavarian government, started to develop a new shorthand system at age of 28.

His system was first fully described in the textbook Anleitung zur deutschen Redezeichenkunst oder Stenographie (1834) and became rapidly used. He is buried in the Alter Südfriedhof in Munich.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1834
 
 
Two-wheeled, one-horse Hansom cabs, designed by J. A. Hansom, introduced in London
 
 
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
 

Joseph Aloysius Hansom (26 October 1803 – 29 June 1882) was a prolific English architect working principally in the Gothic Revival style. He invented the Hansom cab and founded the eminent architectural journal, The Builder, in 1843.

 

Joseph Aloysius Hansom
  Career
Hansom was born at 114 Micklegate, York (now the Brigantes pub) to a Roman Catholic family and baptised as Josephus Aloysius Handsom(e). He was the brother of the architect Charles Francis Hansom and the uncle of Edward J. Hansom. He was apprenticed to his father as a joiner, but showing an early aptitude for draughtsmanship and construction, he was permitted to transfer his apprenticeship to a local architect named Mr Philips. About 1825 he settled in Halifax, Yorkshire, and in the same year he married Hannah Glover at St. Michael le Belfrey in York. He took a post as assistant to John Oates and there befriended Edward Welch, with whom he formed his first architectural partnership in 1828. Together they designed several churches in Yorkshire and Liverpool, and also worked on the renovation of Bodelwyddan Castle in Denbighshire and King William's College in the Isle of Man. In 1831 their designs for Birmingham Town Hall were accepted; however, the contract led to their bankruptcy, as they had stood surety for the builders. The disaster led to the dissolution of the partnership and may have contributed to Hansom becoming a radical socialist.

On 23 December 1834 he registered the design of a 'Patent Safety Cab' on the suggestion of his employer. Distinctive safety features included a suspended axle, while the larger wheels and lower position of the cab led to less wear and tear and fewer accidents. He went on to sell the patent to a company for £10,000; however, as a result of the purchaser's financial difficulties, the sum was never paid. The first Hansom Cab travelled down Hinckley's Coventry Road in 1835. The Hansom cab was improved by subsequent modifications and exported worldwide to become a ubiquitous feature of the 19th-century street scene.

 
 
In 1843 Hansom founded a new architectural journal known as The Builder, another venture which was to flourish through the century; renamed Building in 1966, it continues to this day. However, neither he nor his partner Alfred Bartholomew (1801–45) profited from the enterprise, because they were compelled to retire for lack of capital.

Between 1854 and 1879 Hansom devoted himself to architecture, designing and erecting a great number of important buildings, private and public, including numerous churches, schools and convents for the Roman Catholic Church. Buildings from his designs are to be found all over the United Kingdom, as well as in Australia and South America.

Hansom practised in a succession of architectural partnerships. From 1847 to 1852 he practised in Preston, Lancashire, working briefly in association with Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin towards the end of the latter's life. After the practice moved to London, he took his brother Charles Francis Hansom into partnership in 1854. But this partnership was dissolved in 1859 when Charles established an independent practice in Bath with his son Edward Joseph Hansom as clerk.

In 1862 Joseph Hansom formed a partnership with Edward Welby Pugin, which broke up acrimoniously in 1863. Finally, in 1869, he took his son Joseph Stanislaus Hansom into partnership.

Hansom lived at 27 Sumner Place, South Kensington, London, and there is a blue plaque there in his memory.

Hansom moved to manage an estate at Caldecote Hall. He retired on 31 December 1879 and died at 399 Fulham Road, London, on 29 June 1882.

 
 

A Hansom cab
 
 
Surviving works
Hansom designed around 200 buildings, including Birmingham Town Hall; Arundel Cathedral; Oxford Oratory; Cathedral of St John the Evangelist, Portsmouth; St George's Catholic Church in York; Mount St Mary's Church, the 'Famine Church' in Leeds; St Walburge's Church in Preston (with the tallest church spire in England); St Beuno's Jesuit Theologate in North Wales (1848); St David's Church, Dalkeith in 1853; Annunciation Church, Chesterfield in 1854; St Joseph's Roman Catholic Church, Leigh in 1855; Our Lady the Immaculate Conception Church in Devizes, Wiltshire (opened 1865); St Edward King and Confessor Catholic Church, Clifford; the Church of the Holy Name of Jesus, Manchester (1871); The Roman Catholic Plymouth Cathedral (built 1856 – 1858); and St Mary's Priory, Fulham Road (1876). In Leicester, the New Walk Museum building, formerly a prep school, and a Baptist chapel, later used as the town’s central library, are in Hansom's Classical style. In Cornwall he designed the Roman Catholic churches of Falmouth and Liskeard.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1834
 
 
Walter Hunt of New York constructs one of the first sewing machines (vibrating arm with curved needle)
 
 
Hunt Walter
 

Walter Hunt (July 29, 1796 – June 8, 1859) was an American mechanic.

 

Walter Hunt
  He was born in Martinsburg, New York.[ Through the course of his work he became renowned for being a prolific inventor, notably of the lockstitch sewing machine (1833), safety pin (1849), a forerunner of the Winchester repeating rifle, a successful flax spinner, knife sharpener, streetcar bell, hard-coal-burning stove, artificial stone, street sweeping machinery, the velocipede, and the ice plough.

Walter Hunt did not realize the significance of many of these when he invented them; today, many are widely used products. He thought little of the safety pin, selling the patent for a paltry sum of $400 (roughly $10,000 in 2008 dollars) to the company W R Grace and Company, to pay a man to whom he owed $15. He failed to patent his sewing machine at all, because he feared that it would create unemployment among seamstresses. (This led to an 1854 court case when the machine was re-invented by Elias Howe; Hunt's machine shown to have design flaws limiting its practical use).

 
 

In seeking patents for his inventions, Hunt used the services of Charles Grafton Page, a patent solicitor who had previously worked at the US Patent Office. Like Howe, Hunt is buried in Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York.

Some of his important inventions are shown here with drawings from the patent.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 

Fountain pen. Safety pin. Nail making machine. Sewing machine.
 
 

Swivel-Cap Stopper. Inkstand. Firing cock repeating gun. Ice Boat.
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Lloyd's Register of Shipping (published since 1764) placed under control of Lloyd's Register Society
 
 
Lloyd's Register
 

Lloyd's Register Group Limited (LR) is a global engineering, technical and business services organisation and a maritime classification society, wholly owned by the Lloyd’s Register Foundation, a UK charity dedicated to research and education in science and engineering. The organisation dates back to 1760. Its stated aims are to enhance the safety of life, property, and the environment, by helping its clients to ensure the quality construction, and operation, of critical infrastructure.

 
Historically, as Lloyd's Register of Shipping, it was a specifically maritime organisation. During the late 20th century, it diversified into other industries including oil and gas, process industries, nuclear, and rail. Through its 100% subsidiary Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance Ltd (LRQA), it is also a major vendor of independent assessment services, including management systems certification for quality certification to ISO9001, ISO14001 and OSHAS18001. Lloyd's Register is unaffiliated with Lloyd's of London.

In July 2012, the organisation converted from an industrial and provident society to a company limited by shares, named Lloyd’s Register Group Limited, with the new Lloyd’s Register Foundation as the sole shareholder. At the same time the organisation gifted to the Foundation a substantial bond and equity portfolio to assist it with its charitable purposes and it will benefit from continued funding from the group’s operating arm, Lloyd’s Register Group Limited.

 
 
Origin
The organisation's name came from the 17th-century coffee house in London frequented by merchants, marine underwriters, and others, all associated with shipping.

The coffee house owner, Edward Lloyd, helped them to exchange information by circulating a printed sheet of all the news he heard.

In 1760, the Register Society was formed by the customers of the coffee house who assembled the Register of Shipping, the first known register of its type. Between 1800 and 1833, a dispute between shipowners and underwriters caused them to publish a list each—the "Red Book" and the "Green Book". This brought both parties to the verge of bankruptcy.

Agreement was reached in 1834 when they united to form Lloyd’s Register of British and Foreign Shipping, establishing a General Committee and charitable values. In 1914, with an increasingly international outlook, the organisation changed its name to Lloyd's Register of Shipping.
  The Register
The Society printed the first Register of Ships in 1764 in order to give both underwriters and merchants an idea of the condition of the vessels they insured and chartered: ship hulls were graded by a lettered scale (A being the best), and ship's fittings (masts, rigging, and other equipment) were graded by number (1 being the best). Thus the best classification "A1", from which the expression A1 or A1 at Lloyd's is derived, first appeared in the 1775–76 edition of the Register.

The Register, with information on all seagoing, self-propelled merchant ships of 100 gross tonnes or greater, is published annually. A vessel remains registered with Lloyd's Register until it is sunk, wrecked, hulked, or scrapped.

The Register was published formerly by the joint venture company of Lloyd's Register-Fairplay, which was formed in July 2001 by the merger of Lloyd's Register's Maritime Information Publishing Group and Prime Publications Limited. Lloyd's Register sold its share of the venture to IHS in 2009.

 
 
Classification rules
Lloyd's Register provides quality assurance and certification for ships, offshore structures, and shore-based installations such as power stations and railway infrastructure. However, Lloyd's Register is known best for the classification and certification of ships, and inspects and approves important components and accessories, including life-saving appliances, marine pollution prevention, fire protection, navigation, radio communication equipment, deck gear, cables, ropes, and anchors.
 
 
LR's Rules for Ships
LR's Rules for Ships are derived from principles of naval architecture and marine engineering, and govern safety and operational standards for numerous merchant, military, and privately owned vessels. LR's Rules govern a number of topics including:

Materials used for construction of the vessel
Ship structural requirements and minimum scantlings, depending on ship type
Operation and maintenance of main and auxiliary machinery
Operation and maintenance of emergency and control systems
Specific editions of the rules are available to cater for merchant ships, naval ships, trimarans, special purpose vessels and offshore structures. A ship is known as being in class if it meets all the minimum requirements of LR's Rules, and such a status affects the possibility of a ship getting insurance. Class can be withdrawn from a ship if it is in violation of any regulations and does not maintain the minimum requirements specified by the company. However, exceptional circumstances may warrant special dispensation from Lloyd's Register. Any alteration to the vessel, whether it is a structural alteration or machinery, must be approved by Lloyd's Register before it is implemented.

 
The Lloyd's Register load line on the hull of the Cutty Sark
 
 
Ships are inspected on a regular basis by a team of Lloyd's Register surveyors, one of the most important inspections being a ship's annual Load Line survey. Such a survey includes an inspection of the hull to make sure that the load line has not been altered. Numerous other inspections such as the condition of hatch and door seals, safety barriers, and guard rails are also performed. Upon completion the ship is allowed to be operated for another year, and is issued a Load Line Certificate.
 
 
Location
Lloyd's Register's main office is located in London at 71 Fenchurch Street. Lloyd's Register also maintains other offices globally, including Hong Kong (Asia Office) and Houston, Texas (Americas Office).

Influence in Austria
In 1833 the Österreichischer Lloyd ("Austrian Lloyd") company was formed in the then-Austrian port city of Trieste, consciously modeling itself on the British company and seeking to publish a similar register. Later it also became an important shipping line.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 

The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 (PLAA), known widely as the New Poor Law, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed by the Whig government of Earl Grey that reformed the country's poverty relief system (excepting Scotland, which reformed its poor law in 1845). The PLAA curbed the cost of poor relief, which had been spiraling throughout the nineteenth century, and led to the creation of workhouses. The law arose out of a wider drive for Poor Law reform, and completely replaced earlier legislation based on the Poor Law of 1601. The PLAA was written after an investigation by the 1832 Royal Commission into the Operation of the Poor Laws which included Edwin Chadwick, George Nicholls, John Bird Sumner and Nassau William Senior. The Act has been described as "the classic example of the fundamental Whig-Benthamite reforming legislation of the period", and was based on Malthus's principle that population increased faster than resources unless checked, Ricardo's "iron law of wages" and Bentham's doctrine that people did what was pleasant and would tend to claim relief rather than working.

 
The Amendment Act was passed two years after the 1832 Reform Act extended the franchise to the middle-classes. Some historians have argued that this was a major factor in the PLAA being passed. Parliament radicals such as Cobbett defended the right of the poor to relief, and the legislation was widely opposed by press (notably The Times). Chadwick was unsatisfied by the law that resulted from his report.

The importance of the Poor Law declined with the rise of the welfare state in the 20th century. In 1948, the PLAA was repealed by the National Assistance Act 1948, which created the National Assistance Board to act as a residual relief agency.

 
1832 Royal Commission's findings
The Royal Commission's findings, which had probably been predetermined, were that the old system was badly and expensively run. The Commission's recommendations were based on two principles.

The first was less eligibility – conditions within workhouses should be made worse than the worst conditions outside of the workhouse so that workhouses served as a deterrent: only the most needy would consider entering them.

The other was the "workhouse test", that relief should only be available in the workhouse. Migration of rural poor to the city to find work was a problem for urban ratepayers under this system, since it raised their poor rates.

When the Act was introduced, however, it had been partly watered down. The workhouse test and the idea of "less eligibility" were never mentioned, and the recommendation of the Royal Commission – that 'outdoor relief' (relief given outside of a workhouse) should be abolished – was never implemented. Policy officially changed after the passing of the Outdoor Labour Test Order which "allowed" outdoor relief.

  Doctrines
Malthusianism

An Essay on the Principle of Population by Malthus set out the influential doctrine that population growth was geometric, and unless checked, increased faster than the ability of a country to feed its population. This pressure explained the existence of poverty, which he justified theologically as a force for self-improvement and abstention. As a political moralist he opposed the old poor laws as self-defeating, removing the pressure of want from the poor while leaving them free to increase their families, thus leading to an unsustainable increase in population. His views were influential and hotly debated without always being understood, and opposition to the old Poor Law which peaked between 1815 and 1820 was described by both sides as "Malthusian".

Of those serving on the Commission, the economist Senior identified his ideas with Malthus while adding more variables, and Bishop John Bird Sumner as a leading Evangelical was more persuasive than Malthus himself in incorporating the Malthusian principle of population into the Divine Plan, taking a less pessimistic view and describing it as producing benefits such as the division of property, industry, trade and European civilisation.

 
 
Iron law of wages
David Ricardo's "iron law of wages" held that aid given to poor workers under the old Poor Law had the effect of undermining the wages of other workers, so that the Roundsman System and Speenhamland system led employers to reduce wages, and needed reform to help workers who were not getting such aid.
  Utilitarianism
Edwin Chadwick, a major contributor to the Commission's report, developed Jeremy Bentham's theory of utilitarianism, the idea that the success of something could be measured by whether it secured the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. This idea of utilitarianism underpinned the Poor Law Amendment Act.
 
 
Chadwick believed that a central authority was needed to maintain standards and that the poor rate would reach its 'correct' level when the workhouse was seen as a deterrent and fewer people claimed relief. Bentham believed that "the greatest good for the greatest number" could only be achieved when wages found their true levels in a free-market system. Ironically the Poor Law Amendment Act meant greater state intervention.

Bentham's argument that people chose pleasant options and would not do what was unpleasant provided a rationale for making relief unpleasant so that people would not claim it, "stigmatising" relief so that it became "an object of wholesome horror".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 

 
 
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