Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1834 Part II NEXT-1834 Part IV    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1834 Part III
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Perov Vasily
 

Vasily Grigorevich Perov (Russian: Васи́лий Григо́рьевич Перо́в; real name Vasily Grigorevich Kridener (Криденер); 2 January 1834 (21 December 1833 Old Style) – 10 June (29 May Old Style) 1882) was a Russian painter and one of the founding members of Peredvizhniki, a group of Russian realist painters.

 

Vasily Perov. Self-Portrait (1851).
  Life and career
Vasily Perov was born 2 January 1834 (21 December 1833 Old Style) in Tobolsk, being the illegitimate son of procurator, baron Grigory Karlovich Kridener. After completing a course at Arzamas uezd school, he was transferred to the Alexander Stupin art school also located in Arzamas. In 1853 he was admitted to the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, where he learned from several renowned artists. In 1856 he was awarded with a minor silver medal for his sketch of a boy's head, presented to the Imperial Academy of Arts. Later the Academy gave him many other awards: in 1857 a major silver medal for Commissary of Rural Police Investigating, a minor golden medal for the Scene on a Grave and the Son of a Dyak Promoted to First Rank, and in 1861 a major golden medal for Sermon in a Village.
After receiving the right to a state-paid trip abroad together with a golden medal, in 1862 Perov went to Western Europe, visiting several German cities, and then Paris. During this time he created paintings depicting scenes from European street life, such as the Vendor of statuettes, the Savoyard, the Organ-Grinder in Paris, the Musicians and the Bystanders, and the Paris Ragpickers.

Returning to Moscow early, from 1865 to 1871 Perov created his masterpieces The Queue at The Fountain, A Meal in the Monastery, Last Journey, Troika, the Lent Monday, Arrival of a New Governess in a Merchant House, the Drawing Teacher, A Scene at the Railroad, the Last Tavern at Town Gate, the Birdcatcher, the Fisherman, and the Hunters at Rest.

 
 
In 1866 he received the title of an academician, and in 1871 the position of a Professor at Moscow School of Arts, Sculpture and Architecture. It was around this period that he joined the Peredvizhniki.

Perov died on 10 June (29 May Old Style), 1882 in the village Kuzminki (now part of Moscow) from tuberculosis. His body was interred at the Donskoe Cemetery.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 

Vasily Perov. Troika. Apprentices Fetch Water, 1866
 
 
 
     
 
Vasily Perov
 
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
 

Frederic Auguste Bartholdi (2 August 1834 – 4 October 1904) was a French sculptor who is best known for designing the Statue of Liberty.

 

Frederic Auguste Bartholdi
  Life and career
Born in Colmar, in the Haut-Rhin departement of France, to Jean Charles Bartholdi (1791–1836) and Augusta Charlotte Bartholdi (née Beysser; 1801–1891), Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi was the youngest of their four children, and one of only two to survive infancy, along with the oldest brother, Jean-Charles, who became a lawyer and editor.

When Bartholdi's father died, his mother moved the family to Paris, while still maintaining ownership and visiting their house in Alsace, which later became the Bartholdi Museum.
He attended the Lycee Louis-le-Grand in Paris, and received a BA in 1852.

He then went on to study architecture at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts as well as painting under Ary Scheffer in his studio in the Rue Chaptal, now the Musée de la Vie Romantique. Later, Bartholdi turned his attention to sculpture, which afterward exclusively occupied him.

Bartholdi served in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 as a squadron leader of the National Guard, and as a liaison officer to General Giuseppe Garibaldi, representing the French government and the Army of the Vosges. In 1875, he joined the Freemasons Lodge Alsace-Lorraine in Paris. In 1871, he made his first trip to the United States, to select the site for the Statue of Liberty, the creation of which would occupy him after 1875.

On December 15, 1875, Bartholdi married Jeanne-Emilie Baheux Puysieux in Newport, Rhode Island. They had no children.

 
 
Bartholdi was one of the French commissioners in 1876 to the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. There he exhibited bronze statues of "The Young Vine-Grower", "Génie Funèbre", "Peace" and "Genius in the Grasp of Misery", for which he received a bronze medal.

Bartholdi, who received the rank of Commander of the Legion of Honor in 1886, died of tuberculosis in Paris on 4 October 1904.

 
 
The Statue of Liberty
The work for which Bartholdi is most famous is Liberty Enlightening the World, better known as the Statue of Liberty.

Soon after the establishment of the French Third Republic, the project of building some suitable memorial to show the fraternal feeling existing between the republics of the United States and France was suggested, and in 1874 the Union Franco-Americaine (Franco-American Union) was established by Edouard de Laboulaye.
 
Bartholdi's hometown in Alsace, having first lost independence and passing under French control, had just passed into German control in the Franco-Prussian War.
These troubles in his ancestral home of Alsace are purported to have further influenced Bartholdi's own great interest in independence, liberty, and self-determination.

Bartholdi subsequently joined this group, among whose members were Laboulaye, Paul de Rémusat, William Waddington, Henri Martin, Ferdinand Marie de Lesseps, Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, Oscar Gilbert Lafayette, François Charles Lorraine, Louis François Lorraine, and Bartholdi himself.

The plan of Bartholdi having been approved, the Union Franco-Americaine raised more than 1 million francs throughout France for the building of the statue.

In 1879, Bartholdi was awarded design patent U.S. Patent D11,023 for the Statue of Liberty.

 
The Statue of Liberty
 
 
This patent covered the sale of small copies of the statue. Proceeds from the sale of the statues helped raise modest but insufficient money to build the full statue.

While funding for the statue continued to be a problem for years, the idea was compelling enough to survive, and finally funding was completed in some large blocs from within the Union Franco-Americane and their organized efforts with other connections.
 
 
On 4 July 1880, the statue was formally delivered to the American minister in Paris, the event being celebrated by a great banquet.

Before starting his commission, Bartholdi had traveled to the United States and personally selected Bedloe's Island in New York Harbor as the site for the statue.

The United States agreed to responsibility for funding the building of the pedestal, with about $300,000 being raised.

In October 1886, the structure was officially presented both to the nation and to all aspirers to liberty within the world, as the joint gift of the French and American people.

The statue is 151 feet and 1 inch high, and the top of the torch is at an elevation of 305 feet 1 inch from mean low-water mark.

It was the largest work of its kind that had ever been completed up to that time, and was the tallest structure in New York City until the Empire State building topped it in 1929.

It was rumored in France that the face of the Statue of Liberty was modeled after Bartholdi's mother.

In Paris on the Ile aux Cygnes, there is a replica of the Statue of Liberty which faces west supposedly in alignment with the Statue of Liberty in New York.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Statue of the Marquis de Lafayette in Union Square, Manhattan, New York City
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Degas Edgar
 
Edgar Degas, in full Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas later Degas (born July 19, 1834, Paris, France—died September 27, 1917, Paris), French painter, sculptor, and printmaker who was prominent in the Impressionist group and widely celebrated for his images of Parisian life.
 
Degas’s principal subject was the human—especially the female—figure, which he explored in works ranging from the sombre portraits of his early years to the studies of laundresses, cabaret singers, milliners, and prostitutes of his Impressionist period. Ballet dancers and women washing themselves would preoccupy him throughout his career. Degas was the only Impressionist to truly bridge the gap between traditional academic art and the radical movements of the early 20th century, a restless innovator who often set the pace for his younger colleagues. Acknowledged as one of the finest draftsmen of his age, Degas experimented with a wide variety of media, including oil, pastel, gouache, etching, lithography, monotype, wax modeling, and photography. In his last decades, both his subject matter and technique became simplified, resulting in a new art of vivid colour and expressive form, and in long sequences of closely linked compositions. Once marginalized as a “painter of dancers,” Degas is now counted among the most complex and innovative figures of his generation, credited with influencing Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, and many of the leading figurative artists of the 20th century.
 
 

Edgar Degas. Self-portrait, 1855
  Beginnings
Born in Paris just south of Montmartre, Degas always remained a proud Parisian, living and working in the same area of the city throughout his career. Though detailed knowledge of his middle-class family is limited, it is known that they maintained the outward forms of polite society and that they were related to minor aristocracy in Italy and to the business community in New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S. The family was also prosperous enough to send Degas in 1845 to a leading boys’ school, the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, where he received a conventional classical education.

Music featured prominently in the Degas home, where the artist’s mother sang opera arias and his father arranged occasional recitals, one of which is represented in Degas’s painting of 1872, Lorenzo Pagans and Auguste De Gas. The artist’s mother died when he was 13 years old, leaving three sons and two daughters to be brought up by his father, a banker by profession.

Knowledgeable about art but conservative in his preferences, Degas’s father helped to develop his son’s interest in painting and in 1855 encouraged him to register at the École des Beaux-Arts under the supervision of Louis Lamothe, a minor follower of J.-A.-D. Ingres. Surviving works from this period show Degas’s aptitude for drawing and his attention to the historical precedents he viewed in the Louvre. He also began his first solemn explorations of the self-portrait.
 
 
In 1856 Degas surprisingly abandoned his studies in Paris, using his father’s funds to embark on a three-year period of travel and study in Italy, where he immersed himself in the painting and sculpture of antiquity, the trecento, and the Renaissance. Staying first with relatives in Naples, he later worked in Rome and Florence, filling notebooks with sketches of faces, historic buildings, and the landscape, and with hundreds of rapid pencil copies from frescoes and oil paintings he admired. Among these were copies after Giotto, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Titian, artists who were to echo through his compositions for decades; the inclusion of less-expected works, however, such as those by Sir Anthony Van Dyck and Frans Snyders, hinted at wider interests. The same sketchbooks include written notes and reflections, as well as drafts for his own figure-based paintings in a variety of eclectic styles. Together they suggest a literate and serious young artist with high ambitions, but one who still lacked direction.
 
 

Edgar Degas. Self-Portrait, 1855
  Colour and line
From his beginnings, Degas seemed equally attracted to the severity of line and to the sensuous delights of colour, echoing a historic tension that was still much debated in his time. In Italy he consciously modeled some drawings on the linear restraint of the Florentine masters, such as Michelangelo, although he gradually acknowledged the lure of the Venetian painters, such as Titian, and their densely hued surfaces.

Characteristically, the young Degas developed a near reverence for Ingres, the 19th-century champion of Classical line, while almost guiltily imitating Eugène Delacroix, who was the leading proponent of lyrical colour in the century and considered to be Ingres’s antithesis. Many of the pictures of Degas’s maturity grew out of a confrontation between these impulses, which arguably found resolution in the vigorously drawn and brilliantly coloured pastels of his later years.

Returning to Paris in April 1859, Degas attempted to launch himself through the established art-world channels of the day, though with little success. He painted large portraits of family members and grandiose, historically inspired canvases such as The Daughter of Jephthah and Semiramis Building Babylon, intending to submit them to the annual state-sponsored Salon.

Each work was painstakingly prepared in drawings that still rank among the most beautiful of his career, but he found the paintings themselves difficult to complete to his satisfaction. Perhaps humbled by his exposure to the Italian masters, Degas scraped down and reworked parts of his own canvases, initiating a habit of technical self-criticism that was to last a lifetime.

 
 
In 1865 his more simply executed Scene of War in the Middle Ages was accepted by the Salon jury, but it remained almost unnoticed in the thronged exhibition halls. The following year his dramatic painting Scene from the Steeplechase: The Fallen Jockey was again met with indifference, despite its startlingly close-up view of a contemporary horse race that seems, in retrospect, like the public announcement of a transformation in his art.
 
 

Edgar Degas. Degas in a Green Jacket, 1856
  Realism and Impressionism
Degas’s transition to modern subject matter, evident in Scene from the Steeplechase, was a long and gradual one, not an overnight conversion. Before he left Italy, he had made drawings of street characters and paintings of fashionable horse-riders, but always on a small scale. In Paris in the early 1860s, his pictures of French racing events broke new ground both for their decidedly contemporary subject matter and for their surprising viewpoints and bold colours, which preceded the canvases of similar scenes by his renowned contemporary Édouard Manet.

Degas’s portraits, too, at this time became less remote and more actively engaged with the top-hatted, restless world in which he lived. When he met Manet around 1862, Degas developed an affectionate but pointed rivalry with the slightly older man and soon shared something of Manet’s oppositional stance toward the artistic establishment and its traditional subject matter. Degas’s notebooks from these years teem with contrary possibilities for the direction of his art, as sketches of the countryside follow glimpses of theatrical performances, and studies from objects in the Louvre are interspersed among topical caricatures.

After mid-decade he abandoned historical themes, sending a portrait of a current ballet star at the Paris Opéra, Eugénie Fiocre, to the Salon of 1868; he would soon reject such official exhibitions altogether.
 
 

By 1870 Degas was a familiar figure in independent art circles in Paris, at home with Realists such as James Tissot and Henri Fantin-Latour, acquainted with the vanguard critics Edmond Duranty and Champfleury, and involved as an occasional but forceful presence at the Café Guérbois, where avant-garde artists such as Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, and Claude Monet would also meet. He was famously opinionated, supporting these radical artists’ shared belief that painting should engage with the sights and subjects of the modern world. As part of his own process of engaging with modernity, he self-consciously aligned himself with Realist novelists such as Émile Zola and Edmond and Jules Goncourt, drafting illustrations for their novels and briefly adopting a similar social descriptiveness.

 
 
Like most of the future Impressionists, Degas lightened his palette and adopted more abrupt, simplified compositions during this period, partly under the influence of Japanese prints, which were very popular among contemporary artists. But, unlike his colleagues, who were experimenting with painting en plein-air, Degas affected disdain toward the improvised outdoor landscape studies for which many of the Impressionists became known. Although he clung to the habit of drawing in preparation for his pictures and insisted on working in the studio rather than outdoors, in 1869 Degas did experiment in private with a series of pastel landscapes executed on the Normandy coast. While he is not generally associated with them, he would turn to other rural subjects on several occasions in later life. Degas’s advancing self-confidence at this date, boosted by the first signs of public recognition, is palpable in his letters and the range of his technical accomplishment.

The early 1870s were critical in defining Degas’s personal and artistic trajectory, as they were for the other artists who would be known as the Impressionists. Between 1870 and 1873 he painted a pioneering group of ballet rehearsal and performance scenes, such as his Dance Class of 1871, finding eager buyers for many of them and soon becoming identified with their theme. The dance allowed Degas to test his skills in a daring new context: the world of the Paris Opéra was surrounded by sexual intrigue as well as high glamour and had previously been the province of popular illustrators. Degas built on his knowledge of past art, but he cleverly directed it at audiences of his own day in his choice of subject matter; his views of backstage activity are conspicuously casual and occasionally scurrilous. In 1874 he was one of the leading organizers of the first Impressionist exhibition (which he called “a salon of Realists”), showing his signature repertoire of dancers, horse races, and women ironing.
  Astonishingly, these developments coincided with or followed the terrible months of the Franco-German War, when Paris was besieged and Degas and several of his colleagues enlisted in the National Guard to defend the city. Escaping the worst horrors of the Commune, Degas left in 1872 for a protracted visit to his relatives in New Orleans, where he pursued his experiments in family portraiture in spectacular works such as the Cotton Market at New Orleans (1873).

Over this same period he began to describe a deterioration in his eyesight, complaining of intolerance to bright light and wondering if he might soon be blind.

The pictures Degas showed at the series of eight Impressionist exhibitions, held between 1874 and 1886, revealed him at his most inventive. Whereas the paintings of Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley, Paul Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, Camille Pissarro, and Pierre-Auguste Renoir were largely concerned with the landscape or with figures of rural toil and urban glamour, Degas specialized in startling and enigmatic scenes of Parisian life.

Visitors were frequently disconcerted by his images of popular entertainment or back-street squalor, depicted with a sharp eye for the topical gesture and heightened by a radical use of perspective, which embodied the extreme viewpoints of a newly mobile society. Already famed for his dry humour, Degas seemed to tease his viewers by opting for ambiguity, revealing a glamorous nightclub singer in all her awkwardness, while elevating a tired laundress to near-Classical grandeur.

Degas was seen as the leader of a more traditionally skilled faction within the group, and his pictures were sought out by collectors. Critics approvingly pointed out that his work was grounded in a knowledge of the Old Masters and a firm line, qualities they found lacking in some of Degas’s peers.

 
 

Edgar Degas. Self Portrait
1863
Museu Calouste Gulbenkian
  A versatile technician
For much of his long working life, Degas was attracted to the pleasures and difficulties of the artist’s materials. His drawings include examples in pen, ink, pencil, chalk, pastel, charcoal, and oil on paper, often in combination with each other, while his paintings were carried out in watercolour, gouache, distemper, metallic pigments, and oils, on surfaces including card, silk, ceramic, tile, and wood panel, as well as widely varied textures of canvas. There was something contradictory about much of this activity: Degas invoked the techniques of the Old Masters while creating anarchic methods of his own. He effectively developed the black-and-white monotype as an independent medium, for example, sometimes with an added layer of pastel or gouache, as in Dancer with a Bouquet Bowing (1877). The results can be exhilarating, notably when the effects of light and texture are subtly expressive of the chosen subject, but he soon tired of the technique. The late 1870s marked the height of Degas’s graphic experimentation, after which he moved away from printmaking to concentrate on enriching his use of pastel. Between 1890 and 1892 he briefly returned to monotype, perfecting a new colour procedure in a dazzling series of landscapes, many—like Wheatfield and Green Hill—with pastel embellishments.

By the early 1880s the variety of Degas’s exhibited art seemed endless, encompassing portraits and theatre scenes, pastels of women at their toilette and of notorious criminals, and series of drawings and prints. During this period Degas began to experiment with making pictures as charcoal drawings on tracing paper and retracing them several times before adding pastel to produce a “family” of related compositions, analogous to the series paintings of Monet.

 
 
Such sequences were deeply challenging artistic exercises, allowing him to move beyond subject matter and to manipulate the finest nuance of gesture or detail, while seeming to elevate the fundamentals of picture-making—colour, form, and composition—to a newly independent level. For some years Degas had also been quietly exploring the medium of sculpture, using wax and other materials to make modest statuettes of horses and a group of figures that culminated in the tantalizingly lifelike wax sculpture, The Little Dancer Aged 14. Shown at the Impressionist exhibition of 1881, this work carried the possibilities of visual realism to new extremes by incorporating an actual, reduced-scale tutu, ballet slippers, a human hair wig, and a silk ribbon.
 
 

Edgar Degas.
Self-portrait (photograph),
c. 1895
  Final years
In 1884 Degas reached the age of 50 and confessed to his friends that he felt some disillusionment about his career. Already known for his abrasiveness toward visitors during working hours, he became notorious for his single-minded dedication to the making of art and for his hostility to journalists and the merely curious. The next decade was one of continuous invention, as he gradually refined his artistic ambitions and shed the preoccupations of his middle years. He abandoned many of the topical themes of the 1870s—the café-concerts, shop scenes, and brothels, for example—and replaced them with a new phase of concentration on the human figure in intimate, if more indistinct, settings. After a controversial sequence of pastels in the 1886 Impressionist exhibition, which showed women bathing and drying themselves indoors and in the open air, Degas produced hundreds of obsessive studies of the nude female form on paper and canvas or in wax and clay. While some of the earlier scenes had been considered voyeuristic and the models identified as prostitutes, these later figures avoid easy classification. The figure in The Morning Bath (c. 1892–95) is almost monumental in the manner of the antique sculpture he admired, while others seem overtly sensual or burdened by their massiveness.
 
 
The second great subject of Degas’s later years was the dancer, now infrequently on stage or in compromising situations, but rather more often waiting in the wings. He hired models to pose in his studio for both his ballet and bathing scenes, often freely improvising his settings or utilizing familiar props. Though they never became abstract in any sense that Degas would have understood, the works of this period moved significantly away from the urban context that had formerly inspired him. His late pictures of dancers are essentially engagements with the human form, at times in rhythmic relationships with each other’s bodies, and at times expressing a forceful individual presence. In a large oil painting of around 1900, Dancers at the Barre, for example, Degas created a vital equilibrium between the energy of the two women in a tense composition of verticals and diagonals and of green skirts and orange walls.
 
 
In such works Degas seemed to be confronting the beginnings of a new art, where documentary description counts for little and the preoccupations with structure and expression of the early 20th century are spelled out. As in his nude studies, his pastels of dancers were sometimes lightly tinted over an energetic charcoal drawing, or were otherwise densely built up in crusty layers of brilliant, unnatural hue. The old dialogue between colour and line continued, but in an emphatically modern idiom. A fascination with varied techniques haunted Degas to the end, resurfacing in dramatic and occasionally bizarre late canvases that involved finger-painting, glazes of contrasting colour, and heavily impastoed surfaces.

The audacity of Degas’s art during this period was often at odds with the narrowness of his life. In 1890 he took over a large studio on the rue Victor Massé, later moving into an adjoining apartment that was to remain his home until 1912. He never married but was a fiercely loyal friend, counting among his intimates a number of women, including Mary Cassatt. Degas enjoyed society on his own terms, dining out within a trusted circle and regaling families such as Ludovic and Louise Halévy with his trenchant opinions and humorous aphorisms on art, literature, and politics. His letters from these years are typically brief and businesslike, but occasionally allow glimpses of a melancholy, strong-willed personality. Degas relished the company of the young, from small children to the new generation of writers and artists who increasingly sought him out. With the flamboyant artist Paul Gauguin, for example, he exchanged both ideas and works of art, learning much from the younger man’s views on colour while also prompting Gauguin to make experimental prints and boldly drawn figure compositions. Degas himself remained sombre in appearance, wearing a dark suit and top hat on formal occasions and remaining aloof from the mores of bohemianism.

Despite many myths about Degas’s later years, some encouraged by the artist himself, he did not (until the very end) retreat from the art world, but rather he promoted his work energetically and closely followed the careers of perceived rivals such as Monet and Cézanne. In 1892 he staged a much-noted exhibition of his landscape monotypes at the Durand-Ruel Gallery, partly as a riposte to Monet’s gathering fame and the recent success of Pissarro’s and Cassatt’s own prints. Becoming an avid collector, he also acquired the art of many of his contemporaries, as well as hundreds of drawings and paintings by his lifelong idols, Delacroix and Ingres.

  And, while he remained loyal to his Montmartre studio when his contemporaries painted abroad or in their country retreats, he also traveled regularly through France, Switzerland, and Italy (his last visit was in 1906, at the age of 72) to visit acquaintances and make occasional landscapes.

His world began to narrow at the turn of the 20th century, however, partly because of his reactionary views and violently anti-Semitic response to the Dreyfus Affair, which alienated many of his friends. His declining health also began to preoccupy him; although Degas never went completely blind, a complex of eye troubles obliged him to wear dark glasses outdoors and take frequent rests from work. (His emphasis on the strikingly simplified yet eloquent forms of his final decades was partly linked to his declining sight.)

In an unusual move for an artist of his renown, Degas gave up work in old age after being obliged to move from his last studio in 1912. Suffering from reduced sight and hearing, he surrounded himself with pictures he had made and collected, retreating into his memories. His reputation in France and beyond grew steadily, with his work reaching prices of unprecedented heights and beginning to enter major museums.

With his cooperation, dealers such as Paul Durand-Ruel and Ambroise Vollard placed pictures from all periods with leading collectors, among them the American Louisine Havemeyer, the Russian Shchukin family, and the German Count Harry Kessler. Degas was idolized by artists of several early 20th-century persuasions—including Suzanne Valadon, Walter Richard Sickert, Maurice Denis, Georges Rouault, Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, and Edward Hopper—who visited his studio or emulated him from afar.

It was not until after Degas’s death in 1917, however, that the wealth of his output was revealed in a succession of vast public sales in the war-shocked Paris of 1918 and 1919. Thousands of his previously unexhibited works on paper and canvas were sold, and some of the later, less naturalistic examples distressed even his most loyal admirers.
Certain aspects of his achievement gained prominence for the first time, principally the wide range of his printmaking.

Also surprising was the extent of his collection of pictures by El Greco, Ingres, Delacroix, Manet, Gauguin, and Cézanne. In the early 1920s, when the first series of posthumous bronze casts were unveiled in Europe and the United States, Degas’s sculpture provided a further revelation to the art world.

 
 
Assessment
Degas’s greatness is summarized in his ability to explore the language of art—its technical and tactile complexity, its refinement as well as its implicit energy—to a more extreme degree than any of his contemporaries, yet without losing sight of his subject of the human animal in its most public and private moments. He combined a Romantic sensibility with a Classical command of his means, fusing sensuality with unsparing observation and an insistence on visual structure. More than any of the other Impressionists, Degas’s art has long been simplified or over-categorized: in reality, the evolution from the gloomy academicism of his youth to the full-blooded social realism of the 1870s, and then to the pyrotechnical, defiant breadth of his last two- and three-dimensional work, is one of the most awe-inspiring of the modern period. In a single lifetime, Degas abandoned the certainties of a state-controlled, historical culture for an art of individual crisis, even approaching the nihilism of the following generation.

Degas’s reputation has followed an unusual trajectory, rising steeply in his maturity but suffering from the angry retreat of his old age, and from the preference for nonfigurative modes in the new century. Though respected in subsequent decades, he was sidelined by formalist criticism and relegated too often to the role of mere social commentator. The 1960s and ’70s saw the beginnings of a major reevaluation of Degas’s significance, with specialist publications on his portraits, drawings, prints, monotypes, notebooks, and sculpture, and a growing wave of popular exhibitions. His imagery became a battleground for feminist critics, who centred on the artist’s alleged misogyny and the perceived prurience of his brothel and backstage scenes. More recently, the self-consciously elusive quality of much of Degas’s depiction has been increasingly acknowledged, as well as his underestimated shift away from topicality in later years. Such debates and discoveries continue to attract vast crowds and to stimulate curators, academics, and practicing artists, suggesting that Degas’s full stature has yet to be fully measured.

Richard J. Kendall

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 


Edgar Degas. Madame Valpincon with Chrysanthemums
1865
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Manhattan

 
 
 
     
  Edgar Degas

Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
 
The Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian is an 1834 painting by Ingres Jean-Auguste-Dominique . It shows the death of Saint Symphorian, the first Christian martyr in Gaul. It is now in Autun Cathedral.
 
History
It had been commissioned in 1824 and Ingres had begun work that year, producing nearly 200 preparatory drawings. Ingres wished to present it as his masterpiece and as the result of wide research, but it was a critical failure when it was exhibited at the 1834 Salon, leading the artist to abandon exhibiting at the Salon and to refuse any public commissions. He went into self-imposed exile in Rome by accepting the post of the French Academy in Rome.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 

Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
 
 

Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian" (detail)
 
 

Ingres: Study for the Martyrdom of St. Symphorian
 
 

Ingres: Study for the Martyrdom of St. Symphorian
 
 

Ingres: Study for the Martyrdom of St. Symphorian
 
 

Ingres: Study for the Martyrdom of St. Symphorian
 
 

Ingres: Study for the Martyrdom of St. Symphorian
 
 
 
     
 
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
 
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Whistler James McNeill
 
James McNeill Whistler, in full James Abbott McNeill Whistler (born July 11, 1834, Lowell, Massachusetts, U.S.—died July 17, 1903, London, England), American-born artist noted for his paintings of nocturnal London, for his striking and stylistically advanced full-length portraits, and for his brilliant etchings and lithographs.
 

James McNeill Whistler. Portrait of Whistler with Hat (1858), Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
  An articulate theorist about art, he did much to introduce modern French painting into England. His most famous work is Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 1: The Artist’s Mother (1871–72; popularly called Whistler’s Mother.

Early years

James Abbott McNeill Whistler was born of Scottish-Irish ancestry. As a boy he spent some time in Russia at St. Petersburg, where his father was a civil engineer; after a short stay in England en route, he was back in the United States by 1849. He attended the United States Military Academy at West Point, but he soon abandoned the army for art.

Like many of his compatriots he was fascinated by Paris, where he arrived in 1855 to study painting and soon adopted a Bohemian lifestyle.

He was drawn to the French modern movement, responding to the realism associated with the painters Gustave Courbet, Henri Fantin-Latour, and François Bonvin, all of whom he knew. The realistic streak in his art may be seen in such early works as Self-Portrait (c. 1857–58) and the Twelve Etchings from Nature (1858).

During the 1860s Whistler moved between England and Paris; he also visited Brittany (1861) and the coast near Biarritz (1862), where he painted with Courbet and evinced that love of the sea that was to mark a number of his later small oil studies and watercolours.

 
 
In 1863 Whistler settled in London, where he found congenial themes on the River Thames, and the etchings that he did of such subjects garnered praise from the poet and critic Charles Baudelaire when they were exhibited in Paris.
 
 
The move to London
Whistler won considerable success in Paris when Symphony in White, No. 1: The White Girl (1862) was shown at the Salon des Refusés in 1863. This famous painting shows that if he was an exponent of realism, he was also attracted by the Pre-Raphaelite movement, which had begun in England in 1848.

One of his chief claims to fame was his delight in the Japanese arts—then an avant-garde taste that, significantly, was to have many followers in his own country. Paintings such as Rose and Silver: La Princesse du Pays de la Porcelaine (1864) and Caprice in Purple and Gold, No. 2: The Golden Screen (1864) indicate his interest in the picturesque rather than the formal aspects of this style. Symphony in Grey and Green: The Ocean (1866–67), the result of a trip to Valparaíso, Chile, was, however, more Eastern in mood: the signature on this work is painted in an Eastern fashion. This style received its finest expression in Old Battersea Bridge: Nocturne—Blue and Gold (1872–75). His appreciation of East Asian art was complemented by one for earthenware Tanagra figurines from Hellenistic Greece, and their elegant forms influenced his figure painting and drawing; both the Asian and Hellenistic strains were blended in Six Projects, a series of highly coloured sketches.

The 1860s and ’70s were especially creative for Whistler. It was then that he began to give musical titles to his paintings, using words such as symphony and harmony. In doing so he revealed a dependence on the theory of art for art’s sake, which esteemed music as the most abstract of the arts, and on the belief in the “correspondences” between the arts associated with Baudelaire and the French poet Théophile Gautier. It should be emphasized, however, that Whistler was not a lover of music for its own sake. During this period he started to paint his nocturnes—scenes of London, especially of Chelsea, that have poetic intensity and a fin de siècle flavour. These were based on memory or on pencil sketches. For them he evolved a special technique by which paint, in a very liquid state he called a sauce, was stroked onto the canvas in fast sweeps of the brush, somewhat in the manner of Japanese calligraphy.

From the 1870s onward he was preoccupied by the problems of portrait painting, creating a number of masterpieces, Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 1: The Artist’s Mother, Miss Cicely Alexander: Harmony in Grey and Green (1873), Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 2: Thomas Carlyle (1873), and Symphony in Flesh Colour and Pink: Mrs. Frederick R. Leyland, among others.

  These are paintings that underline his Aestheticism, his liking for simple forms and muted tones, and his attraction to the work of the 17th-century Spanish painter Diego Velázquez.

Whistler touched the artistic life of his time at many points. He engaged in decorative work, as was shown by the stand he executed for the 1878 Paris exhibition (his collaborator was the architect Edward Godwin) and later his frieze for the Grosvenor Gallery in London. Above all he painted the famous Peacock Room (begun 1876) for No. 49 Prince’s Gate, London, the house of F.R. Leyland, a Liverpool shipping magnate. The decoration failed to please his patron, who felt Whistler had exceeded his commission, particularly in painting over some antique leather. The room was moved in 1919 to the Freer Gallery of Art. Whistler was also a force in book design.

During these years in London he came to know many of the most interesting artists of the day—such as Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Albert Moore—and he was a high priest of bohemianism, living for long with Jo Hiffernan, an Irish woman who served as a model to Courbet as well as to Whistler. Although often short of money, he entertained considerably and was already becoming one of the most talked-of men in London.

A change occurred in his life in 1877 when he brought a libel suit against John Ruskin, the celebrated writer on aesthetics, for the latter’s attack on Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1874). He won the case but received damages of only a farthing (the least valuable coin of the realm). The need to pay substantial costs occasioned his bankruptcy in 1879, and he was forced to move out of his charming home, the White House in Chelsea. He went to Venice with his mistress, Maud Franklin. He remained there for 14 months and soon became a centre of attraction among the many foreign artists who congregated in the city.

He seldom painted in oils there, however, and spent most of his time producing pastels and watercolours, exquisite in their colouring. He had arrived with a commission to execute a series of etchings for the Fine Art Society. In all he made just more than 50 etchings of Venetian subjects, which are among the most striking graphic works of the time.

His etchings won him success in London when exhibited upon his return in 1880 and in 1883. He continued to paint portraits—those of Pablo de Sarasate, Lady Archibald Campbell, Théodore Duret, and Robert, Count de Montesquiou-Fezensac are among the finest—but with increasing difficulty, as he was obsessed by the problem of achieving perfection.

 
 

James McNeill Whistler. Arrangement in Gray: Portrait of the Painter (self portrait, c. 1872), Detroit Institute of Arts
  The challenge of his final period
Whistler faced many problems in later years. He may have felt that he was out of step with modern movements. For instance, by the 1890s Impressionism was a dominant style, but he himself, though keen on painting after nature, never used the radiant colours or technique of the Impressionists. He was happiest in painting small studies of townscape and seascape that reflect the influence of the 19th-century French painter Camille Corot. He made many etchings and lithographs, but—significantly at a time when colour lithographs were becoming popular—only three or four of his were in colour. His black-and-white lithographs, however, are delightful. After his return from Venice, Whistler became a great figure in London life, seeking publicity and winning points against Oscar Wilde in controversy. In 1888 he married Beatrix Godwin, and he and his wife spent much time in Paris on the Left Bank. When Beatrix Whistler died in 1896, Whistler was deeply upset, and his final years were sad. Although he kept in touch with his contemporaries and ran an art school in Paris, his productive period was over.

In the early 1900s many excellent judges of art considered Whistler to be one of the leading painters of the day. Within a relatively short time, however, the reputation of this versatile artist suffered a decline, and only in the last decades of the 20th century did his reputation begin to recover.

Denys Sutton

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
 


James McNeill Whistler. Variations in Flesh Colour and Green: The Balcony

 
 
 
     
 
James McNeill Whistler
 
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Morris William
 

William Morris, (born March 24, 1834, Walthamstow, near London, Eng.—died Oct. 3, 1896, Hammersmith, near London), English designer, craftsman, poet, and early socialist, whose designs for furniture, fabrics, stained glass, wallpaper, and other decorative arts generated the Arts and Crafts movement in England and revolutionized Victorian taste.

 

William Morris by Frederick Hollyer,
1887
  Education and early career
Morris was born in an Essex village on the southern edge of Epping Forest, a member of a large and well-to-do family. From his preparatory school, he went at age 13 to Marlborough College. A schoolfellow described him at this time as “a thick-set, strong-looking boy, with a high colour and black curly hair, good-natured and kind, but with a fearful temper.” Morris later said that at Marlborough he learned “next to nothing…for indeed next to nothing was taught.” As in later life, he learned only what he wanted to learn.

In 1853 Morris went to Exeter College at the University of Oxford, where he met Edward Jones (later the painter and designer Burne-Jones), who was to become his lifelong friend. Both Morris and Jones became deeply affected by the Oxford movement within the Church of England, and it was assumed that they would become clergymen. Nevertheless, it was the writings of art critic John Ruskin on the social and moral basis of architecture (particularly the chapter “On the Nature of Gothic” in The Stones of Venice) that came to Morris “with the force of a revelation.” After taking a degree in 1856, he entered the Oxford office of the Gothic Revivalist architect G.E. Street. In the same year he financed the first 12 monthly issues of The Oxford and Cambridge Magazine, where many of those poems appeared that, two years later, were reprinted in his remarkable first published work, The Defence of Guenevere and Other Poems.

 
 
Visits with Street and Burne-Jones to Belgium and northern France, where he first saw the 15th-century paintings of Hans Memling and Jan and Hubert Van Eyck and the cathedrals of Amiens, Chartres, and Rouen, confirmed Morris in his love of medieval art. It was at this time that he came under the powerful influence of the Pre-Raphaelite painter and poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti, who persuaded him to give up architecture for painting and enrolled him among the band of friends who were decorating the walls of the Oxford Union with scenes from Arthurian legend based on Le Morte Darthur by the 15th-century English writer Sir Thomas Malory. Only one easel painting by Morris survives: La Belle Iseult, or Queen Guenevere (1858). His model was Jane Burden, the beautiful, enigmatic daughter of an Oxford groom. He married her in 1859, but the marriage was to prove a source of unhappiness to both. Morris appears at this time, in the memoirs of the painter Val Prinsep, as “a short square man with spectacles and a vast mop of dark hair.” It was observed “how decisive he was: how accurate, without any effort or formality: what an extraordinary power of observation lay at the base of many of his casual or incidental remarks.” From 1856 to 1859 Morris shared a studio with Burne-Jones in London’s Red Lion Square, for which he designed, according to Rossetti, “some intensely medieval furniture.”
 
 

William Morris self-portrait, 1856
  After his marriage, Morris commissioned his friend the architect Philip Webb, whom he had originally met in Street’s office, to build the Red House at Bexleyheath (so called because it was built of red brick when the fashion was for stucco villas). It was during the furnishing and decorating of this house by Morris and his friends that the idea came to them of founding an association of “fine art workmen,” which in April 1861 became the firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Company, with premises in Red Lion Square. The other members of the firm were Ford Madox Brown, Rossetti, Webb, and Burne-Jones. At the International Exhibition of 1862 at South Kensington they exhibited stained glass, furniture, and embroideries.

This led to commissions to decorate the new churches then being built by G.F. Bodley, notably St. Martin’s-on-the-Hill at Scarborough. The apogee of the firm’s decorative work is the magnificent series of stained-glass windows designed during the next decade by Burne-Jones for Jesus College Chapel, Cambridge, the ceiling being painted by Morris and Webb. The designs for these windows came to Morris uncoloured, and it was he who chose the colours and put in the lead lines. He also designed many other windows himself, for both domestic and ecclesiastical use.
 
 
Two daughters, Jenny and May, were born in 1861 and 1862, and altogether the five years spent at Red House were the happiest of Morris’s life. After a serious attack of rheumatic fever, brought on by overwork, he moved in 1865 to Bloomsbury in London. The greater part of his new house was given over to the firm’s workshops—an arrangement that, combined with her husband’s boisterous manners and Rossetti’s infatuation with her, reduced Jane to a state of neurotic invalidism. Morris’s first wallpaper designs, “Trellis,” “Daisy,” and “Fruit,” or “Pomegranate,” belong to 1862–64; he did not arrive at his mature style until 10 years later, with the “Jasmine” and “Marigold” papers.
 
 

William Morris
  Iceland and socialism
As a poet, Morris first achieved fame and success with the romantic narrative The Life and Death of Jason (1867), which was soon followed by The Earthly Paradise (1868–70), a series of narrative poems based on classical and medieval sources. The best parts of The Earthly Paradise are the introductory poems on the months, in which Morris reveals his personal unhappiness. A sterner spirit informs his principal poetic achievement, the epic Story of Sigurd the Volsung and the Fall of the Niblungs (1876), written after a prolonged study of the sagas (medieval prose narratives) read by Morris in the original Old Norse. The exquisitely illuminated A Book of Verse, telling once more of hopeless love and dedicated to Georgina Burne-Jones, belongs to 1870.

In 1871 Morris and Rossetti took a joint lease on the Elizabethan manor house of Kelmscott in Oxfordshire. In the same year Morris paid his first visit to Iceland, and the journal he kept of his travels contains some of his most vigorous descriptive writing. He returned to Iceland in 1873. The shared tenancy of Kelmscott, however, was never a success, and, after the final breakdown of his health in 1874, Rossetti left the house for good, to Morris’s great relief. The following year the firm was reorganized under his sole proprietorship as Morris & Company. In 1875 Morris also began his revolutionary experiments with vegetable dyes, which, after the removal in 1881 of the firm to larger premises at Merton Abbey in Surrey, resulted in its finest printed and woven fabrics, carpets, and tapestries.

 
 

In 1877 Morris gave his first public lecture, “The Decorative Arts” (later called “The Lesser Arts”), and his first collection of lectures, Hopes and Fears for Art, appeared in 1882. In 1877 he also founded the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings in an attempt to combat the drastic methods of restoration then being carried out on the cathedrals and parish churches of Great Britain.

The Morris family moved into Kelmscott House (named after their country house in Oxfordshire), at Hammersmith, in 1879. Five years later Morris joined Henry Mayers Hyndman’s Democratic (later Social Democratic) Federation and began his tireless tours of industrial areas to spread the gospel of socialism. He was considerately treated by the authorities, even when leading a banned demonstration to London’s Trafalgar Square on “Bloody Sunday” (November 13, 1887), when the police, supported by troops, cleared the square of demonstrators. On this occasion he marched with the playwright George Bernard Shaw at his side. But by this time Morris had quarreled with the autocratic Hyndman Federation and formed the Socialist League, with its own publication, The Commonweal, in which his two finest romances, A Dream of John Ball (1886–87) and News from Nowhere (1890), an idyllic vision of a socialist rural utopia, appeared. Subsequently, he founded the Hammersmith Socialist Society, which held weekly lectures in the coach house next door to Kelmscott House, as well as open-air meetings in different parts of London.

 
 

William Morris by William Blake Richmond
  The Kelmscott Press
The Kelmscott Press was started in 1891, with the printer and type designer Emery Walker as typographic adviser, and between that year and 1898 the press produced 53 titles in 66 volumes.

Morris designed three type styles for his press: Golden type, modeled on that of Nicolas Jenson, the 15th-century French printer; Troy type, a gothic font on the model of the early German printers of the 15th century; and Chaucer type, a smaller variant of Troy, in which The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer was printed during the last years of Morris’s life. One of the greatest examples of the art of the printed book, Chaucer is the most ornate of the Kelmscott publications. Most of the other Kelmscott books were plain and simple, for Morris observed that 15th-century books were “always beautiful by force of the mere typography.”

Death and assessment
A sea voyage to Norway in the summer of 1896 failed to revive Morris’s flagging energies, and he died that autumn after returning home, worn out by the multiplicity of his activities. He was buried in the Kelmscott churchyard beneath a simple gravestone designed by Webb.

Morris is now regarded as a modern and visionary thinker, though he turned away from what he called “the dull squalor of civilization” to romance, myth, and epic.

 
 

Following Ruskin, Morris defined beauty in art as the result of man’s pleasure in his work and asked, “Unless people care about carrying on their business without making the world hideous, how can they care about Art?” To Morris, art included the whole man-made environment.

In his own time William Morris was most widely known as the author of The Earthly Paradise and for his designs for wallpapers, textiles, and carpets. Since the mid-20th century Morris has been celebrated as a designer and craftsman. Future generations may esteem him more as a social and moral critic, a pioneer of the society of equality.

Philip Prichard Henderson

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Troilus and Criseyde, from the Kelmscott Chaucer.
Illustration by Burne-Jones and decorations and typefaces by Morris.
 
 
see also: William Morris
 
 
 
     
 
William Morris
 
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
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1834
 
 
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
 
Le chalet is an opéra-comique in one act by Adam Adolphe  to a French libretto by Eugène Scribe and Mélesville after the singspiel Jery und Bätely by Goethe. The score re-uses material from Adam's Prix de Rome cantata Ariane a Naxos (1825). The text for the singspiel had previously been set to music by Peter Winter, 1790, Johann Friedrich Reichardt, 1801, and Conradin Kreutzer, 1810, and later by Donizetti, 1836, Julius Rietz, 1841, Heinrich Stihl, 1867, and Ingeborg Bronsart, 1873.
 
Performance history
The opera was premiered on 25 September 1834 by the Paris Opéra-Comique at the Salle de la Bourse. The work had a long and successful career at the Opéra-Comique; it reached its 500th performance in 1851, its 1,000th in 1873 and 1,500th in 1922 with Miguel Villabella as Daniel.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 
Adolphe Adam - Le Chalet (1834)
 
Le Chalet, opéra comique in one acts, first performance 25 September 1834, Opéra-Comique, Paris.

Libretto: Eugène Scribe/Anne Honoré Joseph Mélesville, after theSingspiel Jery und Bäteli by Goethe

Air: Elle est à moi! C'est ma compagne (Daniel) 00:00
Couplets: Dans ce modeste et simple asile (Bettly) 03:52
Air: Arrêtons-nous ici! (Max) 07:35
Couplets with chorus: Dans le service de l'Autriche (Max, tenors 1 & 2, basses, a soldier) 12:39
Duo: Prêt à quitter ceux que l'on aime (Bettly, Daniel) 15:27
Duo: Il faut me céder ta maitresse (Max, Daniel) 23:23
Trio et Finale: Soutiens mon bras (Daniel, Max, Bettly, chorus) 29:50

Daniel: Joseph Peyron
Max: Stanislas Staskiewicz
Bettly: Denise Boursijn

Orchestra: Orcheste Lyrique de L'ORTF

Conductor: Albert Wolff

 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Adolphe Adam
     
 
 
     
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1834
 
 
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
 
 
Barnett John
 

John Barnett (July 15, 1802 – April 16, 1890) was an English composer and writer on music.

 

John Barnett
  Life
Barnett was the eldest son of a Prussian Jew named Bernhard Beer, who changed his surname on settling in England as a jeweller. According to some he was a cousin of the composer Giacomo Meyerbeer. Barnett was born at Bedford, and at the age of eleven sang at the Lyceum Theatre stage in London. His good voice led to his being given a musical education, and he soon began writing songs and lighter pieces for the stage.

In 1834 he published a collection of Lyrical Illustrations of the Modern Poets. His opera The Mountain Sylph - with which his name is nowadays most associated - received a warm welcome when produced at the Lyceum on 25 August 1834, as the first modern English opera, and was given over 100 performances, which was an unusual success. It was followed by Fair Rosamond in 1837, and Farinelli in 1839, but Barnett never again achieved the success that he had enjoyed with The Mountain Sylph. Disappointed with his reception as a composer, Barnett retired to the country. He had a large connection as a singing-master at Cheltenham, and published Systems and Singing-masters (1842) and School for the Voice (1844). Barnett wrote several songs for the theatre with the actor, playwright and theatre manager John Baldwin Buckstone, and also some instrumental works, including three string quartets and a violin sonata.

 
 
Amongst his light music is a piece for Concertina and Piano called Spare Moments composed in 1859.

One of his daughters Clara Kathleen Barnett became a singer and composer. His nephew John Francis Barnett (1837–1916) was also a composer.

Although The Mountain Sylph is all but forgotten, it inspired parts of Gilbert and Sullivan's 1882 Savoy Opera, Iolanthe.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
 

The Mountain Sylph is an opera in two acts by John Barnett to a libretto by Thomas James Thackeray, after Trilby, ou le lutin d'Argail by Charles Nodier. It was first produced in London at the Lyceum Theatre in 1834 with great success.

Often (mistakenly) cited as the first through-composed English opera of the 19th century, it was Barnett's only great success on the stage out of some 30 operas and operettas, and was perhaps the most effective work by an English composer in the style of Carl Maria von Weber. Rarely (if ever) performed in the last century, its plot was parodied by W. S. Gilbert in his libretto for the Savoy Opera Iolanthe (1882).

 
 
 
John Barnett - The Mountain Sylph - Overture
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
John Barnett
 
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

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1834
 
 
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
 

Harold en Italie, Symphonie en quatre parties avec un alto principal (English: Harold in Italy, Symphony in Four Parts with Viola Obbligato), Op. 16, is Hector Berlioz's (Berlioz Hector) second symphony, written in 1834.

 
Creation
Niccolò Paganini (1782–1840) encouraged Berlioz (1803–1869) to write Harold en Italie.
The two first met after a concert of Berlioz’s works conducted by Narcisse Girard on 22 December 1833, three years after the premiere of Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique.

Paganini had acquired a superb viola, a Stradivarius—"But I have no suitable music. Would you like to write a solo for viola? You are the only one I can trust for this task."

Berlioz began "by writing a solo for viola, but one which involved the orchestra in such a way as not to reduce the effectiveness of the orchestral contribution."

When Paganini saw the sketch of the allegro movement, with all the rests in the viola part, he told Berlioz it would not do, and that he expected to be playing continuously. They then parted, with Paganini disappointed.

  History
Harold in Italy was premiered on 23 November 1834 with the Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire, Chrétien Urhan playing the viola part, Narcisse Girard conducting. Even though the second movement "March of the Pilgrims" received an encore, this performance contributed to Berlioz's decision to conduct his own music in the future.

Paganini did not hear the work he had commissioned until 16 December 1838; then he was so overwhelmed by it that, following the performance, he dragged Berlioz onto the stage and there knelt and kissed his hand before a wildly cheering audience and applauding musicians. A few days later he sent Berlioz a letter of congratulations, enclosing a bank draft for 20,000 francs.

Franz Liszt prepared a piano transcription (with viola accompaniment) of the work in 1836 (S.472).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 
Berlioz - Harold In Italy
 
John Eliot Gardiner , Orchestre Revolutionnaire et Romantique, Gerard Causse Soloist
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Hector Berlioz
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

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1834
 
 
Boieldieu Francois-Adrien, French composer, d. (b. 1775)
 
 

François-Adrien Boieldieu
 
 
 
 
F. A. BOIELDIEU : SONATA clar. & piano
 
Wilfried Berk, clarinet / clarinette
Elisabeth Berk-Seiz, piano

François-Adrien Boieldieu (16 December 1775, Rouen -- 8 October 1834, Varennes-Jarcy, Essonne) was a French composer, mainly of operas, often called "the French Weber".

Sonata in E flat major / Sonata em Mib majeur
I. Allegro moderato
II. Andantino con variazioni
(first world recording / première enregistrement mondiale)
LP Musik in Herrenhausen (2)
Leuenhagen & Paris

 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Francois-Adrien Boieldieu
 
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

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1834
 
 
Borodin Aleksandr
 

Aleksandr Borodin, in full Aleksandr Porfiryevich Borodin (born Oct. 31 [Nov. 12, New Style], 1833, St. Petersburg, Russia—died Feb. 15 [Feb. 27], 1887, St. Petersburg), major Russian nationalist composer of the 19th century. He was also a scientist notable for his research on aldehydes.

 

Aleksandr Porfiryevich Borodin
  Borodin’s father was a Georgian prince and his mother an army doctor’s wife, and he was reared in comfortable circumstances. His gift for languages and music was evident early on, and as a schoolboy he learned to play the piano, flute, and cello and to compose music. From 1850 to 1856 he studied at the Medico-Surgical Academy, specializing in chemistry, and received a doctorate in 1858. From 1859 to 1862 he studied in western Europe. On his return to Russia he became adjunct professor of chemistry at the Medico-Surgical Academy and full professor in 1864. From this period dates his first major work, the Symphony No. 1 in E-flat Major (1862–67), written as a result of his acquaintance with Mily Balakirev, of whose circle (The Five) he was a member, along with Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Modest Mussorgsky, and César Cui. Borodin began his Symphony No. 2 in B Minor in 1869, when he also began work on his operatic masterpiece, Prince Igor (completed posthumously by Rimsky-Korsakov and Aleksandr Glazunov). Act II of Prince Igor contains the often-played “Polovtsian Dances.” He also found time to write two string quartets, a dozen remarkable songs, the unfinished Symphony No. 3 in A Minor, and his tone poem In the Steppes of Central Asia.

Borodin’s musical work was never more than relaxation from his scientific work. In addition to his research and teaching, he helped found medical courses for women in 1872. In the 1880s pressures of work and ill health left him little time for composition. He died suddenly while at a ball.

 
 
Borodin’s compositions place him in the front rank of Russian composers. He had a strong lyric vein but also was noted for his handling of heroic subjects. He had an unusually fine rhythmic sense and excelled in the use of orchestral colour and in the evocation of distant places. In his symphonies and string quartets—among the finest of the Romantic era—he developed a formal structure in which the musical material of a movement was derived from a single initial motif. His melodies reflect the character of Russian folk melodies, and like other composers of the Russian national school he used striking harmonies unconventional in western European music.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
 
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
 
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor, Overture
Alexander Baturin, Sofya Panova, Ivan Kozlovsky, Maxim Mikhailov, Nadezhda Obukhova,Moscow Orchestra of the Bolshoi Theatre,Alexander Melik-Pashaev
Alexander Borodin : Prince Igor (1941), Volume 1
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Aleksandr Borodin
 
     
 
 
     
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1834
 
 
Elssler Fanny
 

Fanny Elssler (German: Fanny Elßler; 23 June 1810, Gumpendorf – 27 November 1884, Vienna), born Franziska Elßler, was an Austrian ballerina of the Romantic Period.

 

Fanny Elssler
  Life
Daughter of Johann Florian Elssler, a second generation employee of Nikolaus I, Prince Esterházy. Both Johann and his brother Josef were employed as copyists to the Prince's Kapellmeister, Joseph Haydn.

Johann was to eventually become valet to Haydn and attended Haydn up to and was present at Haydn's death.

From her earliest years she was trained for the ballet, and made her appearance at the Kärntnertortheater in Vienna before she was 7. She almost invariably danced with her sister Therese, who was 2 years her senior; the sisters studied dancing with Jean-Pierre Aumer and Friedrich Horschelt beginning when Fanny was 9 years old, also traveling to Naples to study with Gaetano Gioja.
After some years' experience together in Vienna, the sisters went in 1827 to Naples.

While there, she had an affair with Leopold, Prince of Salerno, the son of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, which resulted in the birth of a son, Franz.

Their success in Naples, to which Fanny contributed more largely than her sister, led to an engagement in Berlin in 1830. This was the beginning of a series of triumphs for Fanny's personal beauty and skill in dancing.
 
 
After captivating all hearts in Berlin and Vienna, and inspiring the aged statesman Friedrich von Gentz with a remarkable passion, she paid a visit to London, where she received much kindness at the hands of Mr. and Mrs. Grote, who practically adopted the little girl who was born three months after the mother's arrival in England.
 
 

Fanny Elssler as Florinda in the dance La Cachucha from the 1836 Coralli/Gide ballet Le Diable boiteux. Paris, 1836
  In September 1834 Elssler appeared with the Ballet du Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique (today known as the Paris Opera Ballet), a step to which she looked forward with much misgiving on account of Marie Taglioni's supremacy on that stage.

However, Elssler and Taglioni were exceptionally different dancers.

Taglioni was known as a danseur ballonné, represented by the lightness of her leaps and jumps. Elssler, on the other hand, distinguished her dancing with the precision in which she performed small, quick steps. Elssler's type of dancing was known as danse tacquetée.

The results of her performances, however, were another triumph for Elssler, and the temporary eclipse of Taglioni.

Taglioni, although the finer artist of the two, could not for the moment compete with the newcomer's personal fascination.

It was conspicuous in her performance of the Spanish La Cachucha (from the 1836 Coralli/Gide ballet Le Diable boiteux(fr)) that Elssler outshone all rivals. Elssler was not Spanish, but her performances of Cachucha were filled with fire and sensual life.

The poet Théophile Gautier titled her the "pagan" dancer because of her performances in Cachucha.

Her image was often identified with pink satin and black lace as the fleshy, sensuous Spanish dancer.

Elssler did not only possess technical gifts, her ability to perform dramatically was exceptional.
 
 
Her performances of the great Romantic ballets portrayed heightened aspects of their former characters. This earned Elssler a place among the most talented and notable ballerinas of the Romantic ballet period.
 
 

Fanny Elssler as Sarah Campbell in the ballet 'La Gypsy', performed at Her Majesty's Theatre in London in 1839
  In 1840 she sailed with her sister for New York for a tour arranged by Henry Wikoff, and after two years of unmixed success they returned to Europe.

While in New York City, Fanny dined with and was escorted by John Van Buren, son of the President of the United States, Martin Van Buren.

During the following five years Fanny appeared in Germany, Austria, France, England, and Russia.

In 1845, she refused to perform along with her rivals Marie Taglioni, Carlotta Grisi, Fanny Cerrito, and Lucile Grahn in Jules Perrot's Pas de Quatre in London.

In the same year, having amassed a fortune, she retired from the stage and settled near Hamburg.

A few years later her sister Theresa contracted a morganatic marriage with Prince Adalbert of Prussia, and was ennobled under the title of Baroness von Barnim.

Elssler died in Vienna on 27 November 1884.

Theresa was left a widow in 1873, and died on 19 November 1878.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1834
 
 
Konradin Kreutzer: "Das Nachtlager in Granada" ("The Night Camp at Granada")
 
 
Kreutzer Conradin
 

Conradin Kreutzer or Kreuzer (Messkirch in Baden, 22 November 1780 – Riga, 14 December 1849) was a German composer and conductor. His works include the opera for which he is remembered, Das Nachtlager in Granada, and Der Verschwender (Incidental music), both produced in 1834 in Vienna.

 

Conradin Kreutzer
  Kreutzer abandoned his studies in the law (University of Freiburg) and went to Vienna about 1804, where he met Haydn and may have studied with Albrechtsberger, while he tried his hand unsuccessfully at singspielen. He spent 1811-12 in Stuttgart, where at least three of his operas were staged and he was awarded the post of Hofkapellmeister. He was from 1812 to 1816 Kapellmeister to the king of Württemberg. Once he was successful, he became a prolific composer, and wrote a number of operas for the Theater am Kärntnertor, Theater in der Josefstadt and Theater an der Wien Vienna, which have disappeared from the stage and are not likely to be revived.

In 1840 he became conductor of the opera at Cologne. His daughters, Cecilia and Marie Kreutzer, have been sopranos of some renown.

Kreutzer owes his fame almost exclusively to Das Nachtlager in Granada (1834), which kept the stage for half a century in spite of changes in musical taste. It was written in the style of Carl Maria von Weber, and is remarkable especially for its flow of genuine melody and depth of feeling. The same qualities are found in Kreutzer's part-songs for men's voices, which at one time were extremely popular in Germany, and are still listened to with pleasure. Among these Das ist der Tag des Herrn ("The Lord's Day") may be named as the most excellent. His Septet for winds and strings, Op. 62, remains in the chamber music repertory. He was one of the 50 composers who wrote a Variation on a waltz of Anton Diabelli for Part II of the Vaterländischer Künstlerverein (published 1824).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Konradin Kreutzer
 
     
 
 
     
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1834
 
 
Santley Charles
 
Sir Charles Santley (28 February 1834 – 22 September 1922) was an English-born opera and oratorio star with a bravura technique who became the most eminent English baritone and male concert singer of the Victorian era.
 

Charles Santley in Auber's opera Fra Diavolo.
  His has been called 'the longest, most distinguished and most versatile vocal career which history records.'

Santley appeared in many major opera and oratorio productions in Great Britain and North America, giving numerous recitals as well.

Having made his debut in Italy in 1857 after undertaking vocal studies in that country, he elected to base himself in England for the remainder of his life, apart from occasional trips overseas.

One of the highlights of his stage career occurred in 1870 when he led the cast in the first Wagner opera to be performed in London, Der fliegende Holländer, at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.

Santley retired from opera during the 1870s in order to concentrate on the lucrative concert circuit.

Santley also wrote books on vocal technique and two sets of memoirs.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1834
 
 
Ponchielli Amilcare
 

Amilcare Ponchielli, (born August 31 or September 1, 1834, Paderno Fasolaro, near Cremona, Lombardy [Italy]—died January 16, 1886, Milan, Italy), Italian composer, best known for his opera La gioconda (“The Joyful Girl”).

 


Amilcare Ponchielli

  Ponchielli studied at Milan and produced his first opera, I promessi sposi (“The Betrothed”; based on the novel by Alessandro Manzoni), in 1856; its revised version was popular in Italy and abroad.

Between 1873 and 1875 he wrote two ballets and four operas. La gioconda (1876), with a libretto by Arrigo Boito based on Victor Hugo’s Angelo, tyran de Padoue (1835; “Angelo, Tyrant of Padua”), achieved wide success.

Later it was remembered chiefly for its ballet, Dance of the Hours, but it returned to the repertory of Italian opera houses in the 1950s.

From 1881 to 1886 Ponchielli was music director at Bergamo Cathedral; there he wrote several sacred works.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
 
Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
 
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