Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1832 Part IV NEXT-1833 Part II    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

Portrait of Muhammad Ali Pasha in the Cairo Citadel museum
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1833 Part I
 
 
 
1833
 
 
Gordon Charles George
 

Charles George Gordon, byname Chinese Gordon (born Jan. 28, 1833, Woolwich, near London, Eng.—died Jan. 26, 1885, Khartoum, Sudan), British general who became a national hero for his exploits in China and his ill-fated defense of Khartoum against the Mahdists.

 


Charles George Gordon

  Gordon, the son of an artillery officer, was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Royal Engineers in 1852. During the Crimean War (1853–56) he distinguished himself by his reckless bravery in the siege trenches outside Sevastopol. He was promoted to captain in 1859 and volunteered the following year to join the British forces that were fighting the Chinese in the “Arrow” War. He was present at the occupation of Beijing (October 1860) and personally directed the burning of the Chinese emperor’s summer palace.

In May 1862 Gordon’s corps of engineers was assigned to strengthen the bulwarks of the European trading centre of Shanghai, which was threatened by the insurgents of the Taiping Rebellion. A year later he became commander of the 3,500-man peasant force, known as the “Ever-Victorious Army,” raised to defend the city. During the next 18 months Gordon’s troops played an important, though not a crucial, role in suppressing the Taiping uprising. He returned in January 1865 to England, where an enthusiastic public had already dubbed him “Chinese Gordon.”
For the next five years he was commander of the Royal Engineers at Gravesend, Kent; he spent his spare time developing his own unorthodox, mystical brand of Christianity and engaging in philanthropic activity among poor youths.
 
 
In 1873 the khedive Ismāʿīl Pasha of Egypt, who regularly employed Europeans, appointed Gordon governor of the province of Equatoria in the Sudan.
 
 

General Gordon in Egyptian uniform
  In Equatoria, from April 1874 to December 1876, Gordon mapped the upper Nile River and established a line of stations along the river as far south as present-day Uganda. After a brief stay in England, he resumed service under the khedive as governor-general of the Sudan. Gordon established his ascendancy over this vast area, crushing rebellions and suppressing the slave trade. Ill health forced him to resign and return to England in 1880; over the next two years he served in India, China, Mauritius, and Cape Colony (in Southern Africa).

In 1884 Gordon was again sent to the Sudan by the British government to evacuate Egyptian forces from Khartoum, which was threatened by the Mahdists, followers of Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdī.

Reappointed governor-general, Gordon arrived in Khartoum in February. Khartoum came under siege a month later, and on Jan. 26, 1885, the Mahdists broke into the city and killed Gordon and the other defenders.

The British public reacted to his death by acclaiming “Gordon of Khartoum” a martyred warrior-saint and by blaming the government for failure to relieve the siege. However, some biographers, such as the noted Lytton Strachey, have suggested that Gordon, in defiance of his government’s orders, had deliberately refused to evacuate Khartoum, even though evacuation was still possible until late in the siege.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 

George W. Joy's portrayal of Gordon's death
 
 
 
1833
 
 
Prince Otto, second son of King Louis I of Bavaria (Louis I, King of Bavaria), arrives in Nauplia to occupy the newly erected throne of Greece as King Otto (1832-1862)
 
 
Otto of Greece
 

Otto, also called Otto von Wittelsbach (born June 1, 1815, Salzburg, Austria—died July 26, 1867, Bamberg, Bavaria [Germany]), first king of the modern Greek state (1832–62), who governed his country autocratically until he was forced to become a constitutional monarch in 1843. Attempting to increase Greek territory at the expense of Turkey, he failed and was overthrown.

 

Otto of Greece
  The second son of King Louis I of Bavaria, Otto was chosen king of Greece by the great powers at the conference of London in May 1832. The Greek National Assembly confirmed his selection in August 1832, and he arrived in Greece on Feb. 6, 1833, accompanied by several Bavarian advisers. He instituted a new legal code and organized a regular army, but the Bavarians’ absolutist rule and heavy taxation led to discontent, which was appeased by the resignation of Otto’s chancellor, Joseph Ludwig von Armansperg, in 1837. After failing to annex Crete (Modern Greek: Kríti) in 1841, an attempt that alienated Great Britain, the Greeks staged a revolt in 1843. Otto, a Roman Catholic in an Eastern Orthodox country, was forced to grant a constitution specifying that his eventual successor be Orthodox. A Greek oligarchy now replaced the former Bavarian one. The king toyed with the “Great Idea,” the reestablishment of the former Byzantine Empire with its capital at Constantinople, but his intervention against Turkey in the Crimean War (1853–56) merely provoked a Franco-British occupation of Piraeus, and he failed to gain any additional territory for Greece. Otto’s backing of Austria in the Italian War of Independence (1859) further damaged his prestige and added to the sense that Otto’s primary loyalties were not to Greece. He was finally deposed in a revolt on Oct. 23, 1862, and returned to Bavaria.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 


A romantic portrayal of Otto in front of ancient Greek ruins, by Gottlieb Bodmer.

 
 

King Otto and Queen Amalia on a ride through Athens
 
 
 
Amalia of Oldenburg
 

Amalia of Oldenburg (Greek: Αμαλία; 21 December 1818 – 20 May 1875) was queen consort of Greece from 1836 to 1862 as the spouse of King Otto (1815–1867).

 
As the daughter of Duke Paul Frederick Augustus of Oldenburg (later Grand Duke of Oldenburg), she was born a duchess of Oldenburg, though that title was never used in Greece.

When she arrived in Greece in 1837, she at first won the hearts of the Greeks with her refreshing beauty. After the Queen became more politically involved, however, she became the target of harsh attacks — and her image suffered further as she proved unable to provide an heir. She and her husband were expelled from Greece in 1862, after an uprising. She spent the rest of her years in exile in Bavaria.

 
 

Amalia of Oldenburg
  Early life
Duchess Amalia Maria Frederica was born on 21 December 1818 in Oldenburg, capital of the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg. She was the first child of Duke Paul Frederick Augustus of Oldenburg (later Grand Duke of Oldenburg) and his first wife, Princess Adelheid of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym.

Marriage
On 22 December 1836, Duchess Amalia of Oldenburg married King Otto of Greece in Oldenburg. Born as the second son of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, Prince Otto of Bavaria had been appointed king of the newly created Kingdom of Greece in 1833.

Queen of Greece
In the early years of the new monarchy, Queen Amalia, with her beauty and vivaciousness, brought a spirit of smart fashion and progress to the impoverished country.

She laboured actively towards social improvement and the creation of gardens in Athens, and at first won the hearts of the Greeks with her refreshing beauty. The town of Amaliada in Elis, and the village of Amaliapolis in Magnesia, were named for the Queen. She was also the first to introduce the Christmas tree to Greece.

Political activity
As King Otto and his Bavarian advisers became more enmeshed in political struggles with Greek political forces, the Queen became more politically involved, also.

 
 
She became the target of harsh attacks when she became involved in politics - and her image suffered further as she proved unable to provide an heir. She also remained a Protestant in an almost universally Orthodox country, throughout her husband's reign.
 
 
Fashion influence (Amalia dress)
When she arrived in Greece as a queen in 1837, she had an immediate impact on social life and fashion. She realized that her attire ought to emulate that of her new people, and so she created a romantic folksy court dress, which became a national Greek costume still known as the Amalía dress. It follows the Biedermeier style, with a loose-fitting, white cotton or silk shirt, often decorated with lace at the neck and handcuffs, over which a richly embroidered jacket or vest is worn, usually of dark blue or claret velvet. The skirt was ankle-length, unpressed-pleated silk, the color usually azure. It was completed with a soft cap or fez with a single, long, golden silk tassel, traditionally worn by married women, or with the kalpaki (a toque) of the unmarried woman, and sometimes with a black veil for church.

This dress became the usual attire of all Christian townswomen in both Ottoman Empire-occupied and liberated Balkan lands as far north as Belgrade.

Assassination attempt
In February 1861, a university student named Aristeidis Dosios (son of politician Konstantinos Dosios) unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate the Queen. He was sentenced to death, but the Queen intervened, and he was pardoned and sentenced to life imprisonment. He was hailed as a hero for his attempt by certain factions, but the attempt also provoked among the people spontaneous feelings of sympathy towards the royal couple.

Expulsion
Just over a year later, an uprising took place in Athens while the royal couple were on a visit to the Peloponnese. The Great Powers, who had supported Otto urged them not resist and Otto's reign was at an end. They left Greece aboard a British warship, with the Greek royal regalia that they had brought with them.

 
Type of Amalia dress
 
 
It has been suggested that the King would not have been overthrown had Amalia borne an heir, as succession was also a major unresolved question at the time of uprising. It is also true, however, that the Constitution of 1843 made provision for his succession by his two younger brothers and their descendants.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1833
 
 
Randolph John
 

John Randolph, (born June 2, 1773, Prince George County, Va. [U.S.]—died May 24, 1833, Philadelphia, Pa.), American political leader who was an important proponent of the doctrine of states’ rights in opposition to a strong centralized government.

 

John Randolph
  A descendant of notable colonial families of Virginia as well as of the Indian princess Pocahontas, Randolph distinguished himself from a distant relative by assuming the title John Randolph of Roanoke, where he established his home in 1810.

In 1799 Randolph was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, and he served in that legislative body almost continuously until 1829. His political rise was so rapid that by 1801 he was chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee and leader of the Jeffersonian Republicans in Congress. His debating skill and biting sarcasm made him a feared opponent through the years, and he anticipated the states’-rights theories of John C. Calhoun by passionately defending state sovereignty on every occasion. He thus opposed a national bank, protective tariffs, federally financed internal improvements (such as roads and canals), and federal interference with the institution of slavery—though he freed his own bondsmen in his will. After his failure as manager of the impeachment trial of Supreme Court justice Samuel Chase in 1804–05, in addition to his opposition to President Thomas Jefferson’s efforts to acquire Florida, Randolph drifted away from the Jeffersonian Republican Party. He returned to national prominence in 1820 when he represented Southern planters in resisting the Missouri Compromise, which outlawed slavery in new western territory north of the 36°30′ parallel.

 
 
During those years, when party feelings ran high, Randolph’s denunciation of Henry Clay’s support of John Quincy Adams for the presidency in the disputed election of 1824–25 led him into a duel with Clay from which both emerged unscathed.

He served briefly in the Senate (1825–26) and three years later was a prominent member of the convention that drafted a new Virginia constitution. In 1830 President Andrew Jackson sent him on a special mission to Russia, but ill health forced him to return to the United States after only a few weeks at his post.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1833
 
 
Harrison Benjamin
 

Benjamin Harrison, (born August 20, 1833, North Bend, Ohio, U.S.—died March 13, 1901, Indianapolis, Indiana), 23rd president of the United States (1889–93), a moderate Republican who won an electoral majority while losing the popular vote by more than 100,000 to Democrat Grover Cleveland. Harrison signed into law the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), the first legislation to prohibit business combinations in restraint of trade.

 

Benjamin Harrison
  Early life and career
Harrison was the son of John Scott Harrison, a farmer, and Elizabeth Irwin Harrison and grandson of the ninth president, William Henry Harrison (elected 1840). In 1852 he graduated with distinction from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, and the following year he married Caroline Lavinia Scott (Caroline Harrison), with whom he had two children. In 1854, after two years studying law, Harrison moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, to establish his own practice. Ignoring his father’s contention that “none but knaves should ever enter the political arena,” Harrison found in Indianapolis an inviting arena for his political ambitions, especially in the newly formed Republican Party. He served in the Civil War as an officer in the Union army, finally reaching the rank of brevet brigadier general. Resuming his law practice after the war, Harrison supported the Reconstruction policies of the Radical Republicans. He failed to win the governorship of Indiana in 1876, but in 1881 he was elected to the United States Senate. As senator, Harrison defended the interests of homesteaders and Native Americans against the railroads, supported generous pensions for former soldiers, and fought for civil-service reform and a moderately protective tariff.

Harrison was a kindly man of stout principle who possessed a keen intellect and a phenomenal memory. He could captivate an audience with stirring oratory and unhinge his opponents with a cold, discerning eye.

 
 
On many occasions he willingly sacrificed valuable political support rather than abandon his convictions—as in 1882, when he opposed the Chinese Exclusion Act on the ground that it would abrogate rights guaranteed to the Chinese by the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. A deeply religious man—he was an elder in the Presbyterian church for 40 years—Harrison was known before, during, and after his years of public service as a man of moral courage.

Nominated for the presidency by the Republicans in 1888, he lost the popular vote by 5,439,853 to Cleveland’s 5,540,309 but won the election by outpolling Cleveland in the electoral college by 233 electoral votes to Cleveland’s 168. Harrison’s victory in the electoral college owed much to lavish spending by his campaign in the crucial swing states of New York and Indiana.

 
 

Inauguration of Benjamin Harrison, March 4, 1889. Cleveland held Harrison's umbrella
 
 

Benjamin Harrison
  Presidency
Harrison’s administration was marked by an innovative foreign policy and expanding American influence abroad. His secretary of state, James G. Blaine, presided over the First International Conference of American States, held in Washington, D.C. (1889–90), which established the International Union of American Republics (later called the Pan-American Union) for the exchange of cultural and scientific information. In addition, Blaine successfully resisted pressure from Germany and Great Britain to abandon American interests in the tripartite protectorate over the Samoan Islands (1889), and he negotiated a treaty with Great Britain to refer to arbitration a long-standing controversy over the hunting of seals in the Bering Sea (1892). The administration also concluded treaties of commercial reciprocity with a number of foreign governments. In February 1893, after an American-led coup toppled Queen Liliuokalani in the Hawaiian Islands, Harrison placed a treaty of annexation before the Senate, but Democrats blocked ratification for the remainder of Harrison’s term.

In 1890 Republicans controlled both houses of Congress, but an economic depression in the agrarian West and South led to pressure for legislation that conservative Republicans normally resisted. The result was an accommodation in which conservatives gained the McKinley Tariff Act (1890), which substantially raised duties on most imports, but yielded to agrarians and reformers in measures such as the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), which outlawed “every contract, combination…or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce,” and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of the same year, which required the government to buy 4.5 million ounces of the metal every month.

 
 
Farmers and debtors in the Free Silver Movement had long advocated a bimetallic (gold and silver) standard for the nation’s currency in the belief that an increase in the amount of money in circulation would raise crop prices and allow for easier debt repayment.

Although the treasury had a surplus at the inception of Harrison’s administration, the “Billion-Dollar Congress” spent such enormous sums on soldiers’ pensions and business subsidies that the surplus soon vanished. Many Americans, particularly farmers, viewed the Republican-controlled White House and Congress as wasteful and too closely aligned with the nation’s wealthy elite. In the congressional elections of 1890, the Democrats recaptured the House of Representatives by a large majority, and during the remaining two years of his term Harrison had little, if any, influence on legislation. He was renominated at the party convention in Minneapolis (1892), but growing populist discontent and several major strikes late in his term—especially the violent steel strike at Homestead, Pennsylvania, in July 1892—largely accounted for his defeat by his old rival, Grover Cleveland, by an electoral vote of 145 to 277. Neither candidate campaigned much, owing in part to Mrs. Harrison’s declining health and her death midway through the campaign.



Harrison and the Billion-Dollar Congress are portrayed as wasting the surplus in this cartoon from Puck.
 

Having retired to his law practice in Indianapolis, Harrison, at 62, married his deceased wife’s niece and caretaker, Mary Lord Dimmick; they had one daughter. He emerged briefly to serve as leading counsel for Venezuela in the arbitration of its boundary dispute with Great Britain (1898–99). Harrison was also in much demand as a public speaker, and his series of lectures delivered at Stanford University was published in 1901 as Views of an Ex-President. He died of pneumonia that year at his house in Indianapolis. He was the last Civil War general to serve as president.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1833
 
 
Isabella II proclaimed Queen of Spain, with her mother Maria Christina as regent
 
 
Isabella II
 

Isabella II, (born Oct. 10, 1830, Madrid—died April 9, 1904, Paris), queen of Spain (1833–68) whose troubled reign was marked by political instability and the rule of military politicians. Isabella’s failure to respond to growing demands for a more progressive regime, her questionable private life, and her political irresponsibility contributed to the decline in monarchical strength and prestige that led to her deposition in the Revolution of 1868.

 

Isabella II
  The elder daughter of Ferdinand VII by his fourth wife, María Cristina, Isabella was proclaimed queen on her father’s death in 1833. Her right to succeed to the throne was disputed by supporters of her uncle, Don Carlos, and her accession precipitated civil war (First Carlist War, 1833–39).

During Isabella’s minority (1833–43), her mother and Gen. Baldomero Espartero, a hero of the civil war, acted successively as regents. In 1843 Espartero was deposed by military officers and Isabella was declared of age.

The period of Isabella’s personal rule (1843–68) was characterized by political unrest and a series of uprisings. Her government was dominated by military politicians, most notably Gen. Ramón María Narváez and the somewhat more liberal Gen. Leopoldo O’Donnell. Liberal opposition to the regime’s authoritarianism became increasingly directed at the queen.

Scandalous reports on the private conduct of Isabella, who lived apart from her husband, Francisco de Asís de Borbón, as well as her arbitrary political interference, further damaged the monarchical cause. The abortive uprising of 1866, and the deaths of O’Donnell (1867) and Narváez (1868), weakened her position further.
In the autumn of 1868 a successful revolution drove her into exile.

 
 
Isabella settled in Paris, where in 1870 she abdicated in favour of her eldest surviving son, the future Alfonso XII (1874–85). She returned to Spain for a time after Alfonso’s accession but was unsuccessful in influencing political affairs.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Isabella II with her three youngest daughters
 
 
 
1833
 
 
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna becomes President of Mexico; country threatened by civil war
 
 
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
 

Antonio López de Santa Anna, in full Antonio López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón (born February 21, 1794, Jalapa, Mexico—died June 21, 1876, Mexico City), army officer and statesman who was the storm centre of Mexico’s politics during such events as the Texas revolt (1836) and the Mexican-American War (1846–48).

 

Antonio López de Santa Anna
  The son of a minor colonial official, Santa Anna served in the Spanish army and rose to the rank of captain. He fought on both sides of nearly every issue of the day.

In 1821 he supported Agustín de Iturbide and the war for Mexican independence, but in 1823 he helped overthrow Iturbide. In 1828 he backed Vicente Guerrero for president, only to help depose him later.

Santa Anna gained much prestige in 1829 when he fought against Spain’s attempt to reconquer Mexico, and he became known as the Hero of Tampico.

This surge of glory helped him gain the presidency in 1833 as a Federalist and opponent of the Roman Catholic Church; in actuality, however, he established a centralized state. He remained in power until 1836, when he marched into Texas to quell a rebellion by U.S. settlers there.

During the course of this punitive expedition, Texas declared its independence from Mexico (March 2). Santa Anna, after defeating Texan forces at the Alamo and Goliad, then moved eastward to the San Jacinto River, where he was defeated and captured by Sam Houston on April 21.

He was sent to Washington, D.C., for an interview with President Andrew Jackson, who returned him to Mexico, where he was forced into retirement.

 
 
In 1838, when the French navy seized Veracruz and demanded an indemnity for injuries to French citizens in Mexico, Santa Anna led forces to Veracruz, only to shoot at the ships as they departed. He lost a leg in the skirmish. He gained enough prestige from this event to act as dictator from March to July 1839, while the president was away.
 
 

Antonio López de Santa Anna
  Two years later he led a revolt and seized power, which he held until he was driven into exile in 1845.
When war with the United States broke out, Santa Anna contacted U.S. president James Polk, who arranged for a ship to take him to Mexico for the purpose of working for peace.

Santa Anna took charge of the Mexican forces upon his return; but instead of acting for peace, he led his men against the United States until he was routed by U.S. forces under General Winfield Scott.

Santa Anna again retired, moving to Jamaica in 1847 and to New Granada in 1853. Ten years later he sought U.S. support in an attempt to oust the emperor Maximilian, whom the French had placed on the Mexican throne; at the same time, he offered his services to Maximilian. Both proposals were refused. Two years before he died, poor and blind, Santa Anna was allowed to return to his country.

Santa Anna possessed a magnetic personality and real qualities of leadership, but his lack of principles, his pride, and his love of military glory and extravagance, coupled with a disregard for and incompetence in civil affairs, led Mexico into a series of disasters and himself into ill repute and tragedy.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1833
 
 
Whig Party
 

Whig Party, in U.S. history, major political party active in the period 1834–54 that espoused a program of national development but foundered on the rising tide of sectional antagonism. The Whig Party was formally organized in 1834, bringing together a loose coalition of groups united in their opposition to what party members viewed as the executive tyranny of “King Andrew” Jackson. They borrowed the name Whig from the British party opposed to royal prerogatives.

 
Jackson had shattered the National Republican Party with his victories in 1828 and 1832. His war against the Second Bank of the United States and his opposition to nullification in South Carolina, however, allowed Henry Clay to bring fiscal conservatives and southern states’ rights proponents together in a coalition with those who still believed in the National Republican program of a protective tariff and federally financed internal improvements. Members of the Anti-Masonic Movement merged with the Whigs after the demise of the Anti-Masonic Party in the mid-1830s.

Allied almost exclusively by their common dislike of Jackson and his policies—and later by their hunger for office—the Whigs never developed a definitive party program. In 1836 they ran three presidential candidates (Daniel Webster, Hugh L. White, and William Henry Harrison) to appeal to the East, South, and West, respectively, attempting to throw the election into the House of Representatives. In 1840 they abandoned the sectional approach to nominate the military hero William Henry Harrison. The subsequent contest was devoid of issues, Harrison winning on the basis of incessant electioneering by his supporters in the “log cabin” campaign.

After capturing both the White House and Congress in 1840, the Whigs were poised to become the nation’s dominant party and to enact Henry Clay’s nationalistic program. Harrison died within a month of his inauguration, however, and his successor, John Tyler, proceeded to veto major Whig legislation—including re-creation of the Bank of the United States.

  Clay, the nominee in 1844, lost the election when he misgauged the popularity of expansionism and opposed the annexation of Texas. By the late 1840s the Whig coalition was beginning to unravel as factions of “Conscience” (antislavery) Whigs and “Cotton” (proslavery) Whigs emerged. In 1848 the party returned to its winning formula by running a military hero—this time Zachary Taylor—for president. But the Compromise of 1850, fashioned by Henry Clay and signed into law by Millard Fillmore (who succeeded to the presidency on Taylor’s death in 1850), fatally estranged the Conscience Whigs from their party.

Again turning to a former general, the Whigs in 1852 nominated Gen. Winfield Scott. The North and South had become so polarized over the slavery issue that the Whigs were no longer able to make a broad national appeal on the basis of “unalterable attachment to the Constitution and the Union.” Scott collected just 42 electoral votes as many southern Whigs flocked to the banner of the states’ rights oriented Democratic Party.

By 1854 most northern Whigs had joined the newly formed Republican Party. To the extent that the party continued to exist, it commanded support only in the border states and from conservatives who refused to take sides in the sectional conflict. Many of the last remaining Whigs found a niche in the Know-Nothing Party during the second half of the 1850s and then backed the Constitutional Union Party as the country split apart in 1860.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1833
 
 
Mehemet Ali is given Egypt and Syria; founds the dynasty that rules Egypt until 1952
 
 
Muhammad Ali dynasty
 

The Muhammad Ali dynasty (Arabic: أسرة محمد علي‎ Usrat Muhammad 'Ali; Albanian: Dinastia e Muhamed (Mehmet) Ali Pashës; Turkish: Mehmet Ali Paşa Hanedanı) was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan, from the 19th to the mid-20th Century. It is named after its progenitor, Muhammad Ali Pasha (Muhammad Ali of Egypt), regarded as the founder of modern Egypt. It was also more formally known as the Alawiyya dynasty (Arabic: الأسرة العلوية‎ al-Usra al-'Alawiyya). Because a majority of the rulers from this dynasty bore the title Khedive, it was often referred to by contemporaries as the 'Khedival dynasty'.

 

Muhammad Ali Pasha by Auguste Couder
  Introduction
Muhammad Ali was an Albanian commander of the Ottoman army that was sent to drive Napoleon's forces out of Egypt, but upon the French withdrawal, seized power himself and forced the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II to recognize him as Wāli, or Governor of Egypt in 1805. Demonstrating his grander ambitions, he took the title of Khedive; however, this was not sanctioned by the Porte.

Muhammad Ali transformed Egypt into a regional power which he saw as the natural successor to the decaying Ottoman Empire. He summed up his vision for Egypt in this way:

"I am well aware that the (Ottoman) Empire is heading by the day toward destruction...On her ruins I will build a vast kingdom...up to the Euphrates and the Tigris."

At the height of his power, Muhammad Ali and his son Ibrahim Pasha's military strength did indeed threaten the very existence of the Ottoman Empire as he sought to supplant the Osman Dynasty with his own.

Ultimately, the intervention of the Great Powers prevented Egyptian forces from marching on Constantinople, and henceforth, his dynasty's rule would be limited to Africa, and Sinai.

Muhammad Ali had conquered Sudan in the first half of his reign and Egyptian control would be consolidated and expanded under his successors, most notably Ibrahim Pasha's son Isma'il I.

 
 
Khedivate and British Occupation
Though Muhammad Ali and his descendants used the title of Khedive in preference to the lesser Wāli, this was not recognized by the Porte until 1867 when Sultan Abdul-Aziz officially sanctioned its use by Isma'il Pasha and his successors. In contrast to his grandfather's policy of war against the Porte, Isma'il sought to strengthen the position of Egypt and Sudan and his dynasty using less confrontational means, and through a mixture of flattery and bribery, Isma'il secured official Ottoman recognition of Egypt and Sudan's virtual independence. This freedom was severely undermined in 1879 when the Sultan colluded with the Great Powers to depose Isma'il in favor of his son Tewfik. Three years later, Egypt and Sudan's freedom became little more than symbolic when the United Kingdom invaded and occupied the country, ostensibly to support Khedive Tewfik against his opponents in Ahmed Orabi's nationalist government. While the Khedive would continue to rule over Egypt and Sudan in name, in reality, ultimate power resided with the British High Commissioner.

In defiance of the Egyptians, the British proclaimed Sudan to be an Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, a territory under joint British and Egyptian rule rather than an integral part of Egypt. This was continually rejected by Egyptians, both in government and in the public at large, who insisted on the "unity of the Nile Valley", and would remain an issue of controversy and enmity between Egypt and Britain until Sudan's independence in 1956.
 

Egypt under Muhammad Ali Dynasty
 
 
Sultanate and Kingdom
In 1914, Khedive Abbas II sided with the Ottoman Empire which had joined the Central Powers in the First World War, and was promptly deposed by the British in favor of his uncle Hussein Kamel. The legal fiction of Ottoman sovereignty over Egypt and Sudan, which had for all intents and purposes ended in 1805, was officially terminated, Hussein Kamel was declared Sultan of Egypt and Sudan, and the country became a British Protectorate. With nationalist sentiment rising, as evidenced by the Revolution of 1919, Britain formally recognized Egyptian independence in 1922, and Hussein Kamel's successor, Sultan Fuad I, substituted the title of King for Sultan. However, British occupation and interference in Egyptian and Sudanese affairs persisted. Of particular concern to Egypt was Britain's continual efforts to divest Egypt of all control in Sudan. To both the King and the nationalist movement, this was intolerable, and the Egyptian Government made a point of stressing that Fuad and his son King Farouk I were "King of Egypt and Sudan".
 
 

Portrait of Muhammad Ali Pasha in the Cairo Citadel museum
 
 
Dissolution
The reign of Farouk was characterized by ever increasing nationalist discontent over the British occupation, royal corruption and incompetence, and the disastrous 1948 Arab-Israeli War. All these factors served to terminally undermine Farouk's position and paved the way for the Revolution of 1952. Farouk was forced to abdicate in favor of his infant son Ahmed-Fuad who became King Fuad II, while administration of the country passed to the Free Officers Movement under Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser. The infant king's reign lasted less than a year and on June 18, 1953, the revolutionaries abolished the 5,000 year old monarchy and declared Egypt a republic, ending a century and a half of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty's rule.
 
 

Reigning members of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty (1805–1952)

Wālis, self-declared as Khedives (1805–1867)

Muhammad Ali (9 July 1805 – 1 September 1848)
Ibrahim (reigned as Wāli briefly during his father's incapacity) (1 September 1848 – 10 November 1848)
Abbas I (10 November 1848 – 13 July 1854)
Sa‘id I (13 July 1854 – 18 January 1863)
Isma'il I (18 January 1863 – 8 June 1867)

Khedives (1867–1914)

Isma'il I (8 June 1867 – 26 June 1879)
Tewfik I (26 June 1879 – 7 January 1892)
Abbas II (8 January 1892 – 19 December 1914)

Sultans (1914–1922)

Hussein Kamel (19 December 1914 – 9 October 1917)
Fuad I (9 October 1917 – 16 March 1922)

Kings (1922–1952)

Fuad I (16 March 1922 – 28 April 1936)
Farouk I (28 April 1936 – 26 July 1952)
Prince Mohammed Ali Tewfik (Chairman Council of Regency during Farouk I's minority) (28 April 1936 – 29 July 1937)
Fuad II (26 July 1952 – 18 June 1953)
Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim (Chairman Council of Regency during Fuad II's minority) (26 July 1952 – 18 June 1953)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1833
 
 
President Jackson Andrew moves against the Bank of U.S. (withdrawal of all governmental deposits)
 
 
 
1833
 
 
All German states join the Zollverein (customs union)
 
 
Zollverein
 
Zollverein, ( German: “Customs Union”) German customs union established in 1834 under Prussian leadership. It created a free-trade area throughout much of Germany and is often seen as an important step in German reunification.
 

The growth of the German Zollverein.
 
 
The movement to create a free-trade zone in Germany received great impetus from economists such as Friedrich List, its most active advocate in early 19th-century Germany. In 1818 Prussia enacted a tariff law abolishing all internal customs dues and announced its willingness to establish free trade with neighbouring states. A decade later Prussia signed the first such pact with Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1828 a customs union was set up in southern Germany by Bavaria and Württemberg, joined in 1829 by the Palatinate; also in 1828 the central German states established a similar union, which included Saxony, the Thuringian states, electoral Hesse, and Nassau. In 1834 these were among the 18 states that joined in the Zollverein. Hanover and Oldenburg joined in 1854; the two Mecklenburgs, Schleswig-Holstein, Lauenburg, and Lübeck joined in 1867; and thereby all Germany outside Austria was included except Hamburg and Bremen, which adhered in 1888, 17 years after the establishment of the German Empire.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

German Zollverein, 1834–1919. Blue: Prussia in 1834. Grey: Areas included until 1866. Yellow: Austrian possessions outside the Zollverein. Red: Borders of the 1828 German Confederation.
 
 
 

 
 
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