Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st
Baronet, original name Edward Coley Burne Jones (born Aug. 28, 1833,
Birmingham, Eng.—died June 17, 1898, London), one of the leading
painters and designers of late 19th-century England, whose romantic
paintings using medieval imagery were among the last manifestations
of the Pre-Raphaelite style. More long-lasting is his influence as a
pioneer of the revival of the ideal of the “artist-craftsman,” so
influential to the development of 20th-century industrial design.
Sir Edward Coley
Burne-Jones was educated at Exeter
College, Oxford, where he met his future collaborator, the
artist-poet William Morris, then a fellow divinity student. His
meeting with the artist Dante Gabriel Rossetti in 1856 marked a
turning point in his career, and he left Oxford without graduating.
Morris and he then settled in London, working under Rossetti’s
Burne-Jones’s vivid imagination
delighted in the stories of medieval chivalry, as is seen in his
“King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid” (1884) and “Merlin and Nimue”
(1858–59). Stylistically, such works owe much to Rossetti’s
illustrations, but more often his own dreamworld drew inspiration
from the melancholy, attenuated figures of the 15th-century Italian
painters Filippino Lippi and Sandro Botticelli, suffusing them with
a mood of romantic mysticism. His first big success came with an
exhibition in 1877, which included oils such as “Days of Creation,”
“The Beguiling of Merlin” (1872–77), and “The Mirror of Venus”
(1867–77). From that date until his death, he was increasingly
considered to be among the great painters of England. In 1894 he
received a baronetcy.
After his death, Burne-Jones’s
influence was felt far less in painting than in the field of
decorative design, particularly in that of ecclesiastical stained
glass. He executed reliefs in metals, tiles, and gesso, decorations
for pianos and organs, and cartoons for tapestries. Among the latter
may be noted the “Adoration of the Magi” (Exeter College Chapel,
Oxford). Besides several illustrations to other books printed by
William Morris’ prestigious Kelmscott Press, he made 87 designs for
the Kelmscott Chaucer of 1896, considered to be among the world’s
finest printed books.
Edward Coley Burne-Jones. The Last sleep of Arthur in
Felicien Rops, (born
July 7, 1833, Namur, Belgium—died August 22, 1898,
Essonnes, France), Belgian painter and graphic artist
remembered primarily for his prints.
Rops attended the
University of Brussels. His early work on student
periodicals attracted the attention of publishers,
and he began to produce illustrations, contributing
some of his finest lithographs to the satirical
journal Uylenspiegel in 1859–60. About 1860 he went
to Paris, where he worked in the studio of
Henri-Alfred Jacquemart. Returning to Brussels, he
founded the short-lived International Society of
Etchers. In 1865 he produced his famous “Absinthe
Drinker” and in 1871 “Lady with the Puppet.”
After 1874 Rops
lived in Paris, where he became a friend of the poet
Charles Baudelaire. Devoting himself principally to
illustrating books, he also published Cent croquis
pour réjouir les honnêtes gens (“One Hundred
Sketches to Delight Solid Citizens”). Among his
notable book illustrations are those for Légendes
flamandes (“Flemish Legends”), by C. de Coster;
Jeune France (“Young France”), by Théophile Gautier;
Les Diaboliques (Weird Women), by Barbey d’Aurevilly;
Zadig, by Voltaire; and the poems of Stéphane
Mallarmé. He joined the revolutionary art society of
Les Vingt formed at Brussels in 1884.
Many of Rops’s
etchings are erotic or pornographic in tone and
depict an imaginary underworld or subjects of social
decadence. Despite his peculiarities, Rops was a
printmaker of brilliant technique and original
content whose handling of dry point (etching
directly on the plate) marks him as one of the
masters of the medium.
He was also one of the first
modern etchers to revive the neglected medium of soft-ground
etching, in which the etching ground is melted into and
mixed with tallow, producing the effect of lines drawn with
a soft pencil or chalk.
Ferdinand Herold, in full
Louis-Joseph-Ferdinand Hérold (born Jan. 28, 1791,
Paris—died Jan. 19, 1833, Paris), French composer of early
romantic operas who stands midway between D.-F.-E. Auber and
Jacques Offenbach in the development of the opéra comique.
Hérold studied under C.-S.
Catel and E.-N. Méhul and won the Prix de Rome in 1812.
was court pianist in Naples, where he produced his first
opera, La gioventù di Enrico V (1815; The Youth of Henry V).
On his return to Paris he collaborated with François Boieldieu in the opera Charles de France (1816) and produced
12 light operas at the Opéra-Comique between 1817 and 1830.
Among his other operas are Vendôme en Espagne (with Auber,
1823), Zampa (1831), and Le Pré aux clercs (1832; The Field
His ballets include La Fille mal gardée (1828;
The Unguarded Maiden) and La Belle au bois dormant (1829;
The Sleeping Beauty).
Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April
1897) was a German composer and pianist. Born in Hamburg into a
Lutheran family, Brahms spent much of his professional life in
Vienna, Austria. In his lifetime, Brahms's popularity and influence
were considerable. He is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian
Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the "Three Bs", a comment
originally made by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow.
(born May 7, 1833, Hamburg [Germany]—died April 3, 1897,
Vienna, Austria-Hungary [now in Austria]), German composer
and pianist of the Romantic period, who wrote symphonies,
concerti, chamber music, piano works, choral compositions,
and more than 200 songs.
Brahms was the great master of
symphonic and sonata style in the second half of the 19th
He can be viewed as the protagonist of the
Classical tradition of Joseph Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven
in a period when the standards of this tradition were being
questioned or overturned by the Romantics.
The Études by
are three sets of solo studies for the piano. There are
twenty-seven overall, comprising two separate
collections of twelve, numbered Opus 10 and 25, and a
set of three without opus number.
my life I have never again been able to find such a
beautiful melody."—Chopin, on Op. 10, No. 3
Chopin's Études are the foundation of a new style of
piano playing that was radical and revolutionary the
first time they appeared. They are some of the most
challenging and evocative pieces of all the works in
concert piano repertoire. Because of this, the music
remains popular and often performed in both concert
and private stages. Some are so popular they have
been given nicknames; arguably the most popular of
all is Op. 10, No. 3, sometimes identified by the
names "Tristesse" (Sadness) or "Farewell" (L'Adieu),
as well as the Revolutionary Étude (Op. 10, No. 12).
Although no nicknames are of Chopin's original
creation, they create interesting pretext and
encourage the imagination to fabricate epic works
embodied by these studies.
études were published during Chopin's lifetime; Opus
10, the first group of twelve, were composed between
1829 and 1832, and were published in 1833, in
France, Germany, and England. The twelve études of
Opus 25 were composed at various times between 1832
and 1836, and were published in the same countries
in 1837. The final three, part of a series called "Méthode
des méthodes de piano" compiled by Moscheles and
Fétis, were composed in 1839, without an assigned
opus number. They appeared in Germany and France in
November 1840, and England in January 1841.
Accompanying copies of these important early
editions, there are usually several manuscripts of a
single étude in Chopin's own hand, and additional
copies made by his close friend, Jules Fontana,
along with editions of Carl Mikuli, Chopin's
The first études of
the Opus 10 set were written when Chopin was still
in his teens. They rank alongside the early works of
Mendelssohn as rare examples of extremely youthful
compositions that are regarded as both innovative
and worthy of inclusion in the standard canon.
Chopin's études elevated the musical form from
purely utilitarian exercises to great artistic
masterpieces. At a concert in which Chopin performed
his opus 25, Robert Schumann said "À la Chopin".
Although sets of exercises for piano had been common
from the end of the 18th century (Muzio Clementi, J.
B. Cramer, Ignaz Moscheles, and Carl Czerny were
composers of the most significant), Chopin's not
only presented an entirely new set of technical
challenges, but were the first to become a regular
part of the concert repertoire.
His études combine musical substance and technical
challenge to form a complete artistic form. They are
often held in high regard as the product of mastery
of combining the two.
His effect on contemporaries such as Franz Liszt was
apparent, based on the revision Liszt made to his
series of concert études after meeting Chopin.
Contemporary Polish musicologist Tadeusz A.
Zielinski wrote, on opus 10, that "not only did they
become an orderly demonstration of a new piano style
and the formulas peculiar to it, but also an
artistic ennoblement of this style."
Chopin's Études are
not without modern influence as well. Several have
lodged themselves in popular music, movies, or
Études Op. 10
The first set of Études was published in 1833
(although some had been written as early as 1829).
Chopin was twenty-three years old and already famous
as a composer and pianist in the salons of Paris,
where he made the acquaintance of Franz Liszt.
Subsequently, Chopin dedicated the entire opus to
him – "à mon ami Franz Liszt" (to my friend, Franz
Études Op. 25
Chopin's second set of Études was published in 1837,
and dedicated to Franz Liszt's mistress, Marie
d'Agoult, the reasons for which are a matter of
Op.10/1, C major (Waterfall)
01:48 Etude Op.10/2, a minor (Chromatic)
03:07 Etude Op.10/3, E major (Tristesse)
07:24 Etude Op.10/4, c♯ minor (Torrent)
09:10 Etude Op.10/5, G♭ major (Black keys)
10:40 Etude Op.10/6, e♭ minor
14:13 Etude Op.10/7, C major (Toccata)
15:42 Etude Op.10/8, F major (Sunshine)
17:54 Etude Op.10/9, f minor
20:15 Etude Op.10/10, A♭ major
22:19 Etude Op.10/11, E♭ major (Arpeggio)
24:48 Etude Op.10/12, c minor (Revolutionary)
27:17 Etude Op.25/1, A♭ major (Aeolian harp)
29:37 Etude Op.25/2, f minor (Bees)
30:55 Etude Op.25/3, F major (Cartwheel/Horseman)
32:26 Etude Op.25/4, a minor
33:55 Etude Op.25/5, e minor (Wrong notes)
37:04 Etude Op.25/6, g♯ minor (Thirds)
38:42 Etude Op.25/7, c♯ minor (Cello)
43:49 Etude Op.25/8, D♭ major (Sixths)
44:47 Etude Op.25/9, G♭ major (Butterfly)
45:43 Etude Op.25/10, b minor (Octaves)
50:15 Etude Op.25/11, a minor (Winter wind)
53:45 Etude Op.25/12, c minor (Ocean)
is a German Romantic opera in 3 acts with prologue by
with a libretto by Eduard Devrient, who
also sang the title role at the première which occurred
at the Königliche Hofoper (now Berlin State Opera),
Berlin on 24 May 1833, and went on to become his most
The opera brought the composer
a considerable reputation, although this did not materially
affect his position in Hanover, where he was music director
of the Court Theatre. Like Marschner's other great success,
Der Vampyr, the plot of Hans Heiling makes great use of
supernatural elements. As with several of his operas, Hans
Heiling is based on a folk legend.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Marschner - Overture: Hans Heiling
Overture to the 1829 German Romantic
opera "Hans Heiling" by Heinrich August Marschner (1795-1861). The
plot is based on folk legend and deals with the titular son of the
Queen of the Erdgeister (spirits of the Earth), who falls in love
with a mortal woman. The overture to "Hans Heiling" is unusual in
that it follows a nearly fifteen-minute prologue.
George Alexander Albrecht conducts
the Orchestra of RAI Torino.
The Symphony No. 4
in A major, Op. 90, commonly known as the Italian, is an
orchestral symphony written by German composer
Felix. The work has its origins (such as the
composer's "Scottish/3rd Symphony" and "The Hebrides"
overture) in the tour of Europe which occupied Mendelssohn
from 1829 to 1831.
Its inspiration is the colour and
atmosphere of Italy, where Mendelssohn made sketches but
left the work incomplete:
This is Italy! And now has begun what I have always
thought... to be the sureme joy in life. And I am loving
it. Today was so rich that now, in the evening, I must
collect myself a little, and so I am writing to you to thank
you, dear parents, for having given me all this happiness.
In February he wrote from Rome to his sister Fanny,
The Italian symphony is making great progress. It will be
the jolliest piece I have ever done, especially the last
movement. I have not found anything for the slow movement
yet, and I think that I will save that for Naples.
The Italian Symphony was finished in Berlin on 13 March
1833, in response to an invitation for a symphony from the
London (now Royal) Philharmonic Society; he conducted the
first performance himself in London on 13 May 1833 at a
London Philharmonic Society concert. The symphony's success,
and Mendelssohn's popularity, influenced the course of
British music for the rest of the century. However,
Mendelssohn remained unsatisfied with the composition, which
cost him, he said, some of the bitterest moments of his
career; he revised it in 1834 and even planned to write
alternate versions of the second, third, and fourth
He never published the
symphony, and it appeared in print only in 1851;
thus it is numbered as his 'Symphony No. 4', even
though it was in fact the third he composed.
The piece is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2
bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani and strings. It is in
Allegro vivace (A major)
Andante con moto (D minor)
Con moto moderato (A major)
Presto and Finale: Saltarello (A minor)
The joyful first movement, in sonata form, is followed by an
impression in the sub-dominant key D minor of a religious
procession the composer witnessed in Naples.
movement is a minuet in which French Horns are introduced in
the trio, while the final movement (which is in the minor
key throughout) incorporates dance figurations from the
Roman saltarello and the Neapolitan tarantella.
It is among
the first large multi-movement works to begin in a major key
and end in the tonic minor, another example being Brahms's
first piano trio.
A typical performance lasts about half an hour.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Felix Mendelssohn Symphony n.4
Orchestra di Padova e
Direttore Carlo Goldstein.