Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1833 Part I NEXT-1833 Part III    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1833 Part II
 
 
 
1833
 
 
Franz Bopp: "Vergleichende Grammatik"
 
 
Bopp Franz
 

Franz Bopp, (born Sept. 14, 1791, Mainz, archbishopric of Mainz [Germany]—died Oct. 23, 1867, Berlin, Prussia [Germany]), German linguist who established the importance of Sanskrit in the comparative study of Indo-European languages and developed a valuable technique of language analysis.

 

Franz Bopp
  Bopp’s first important work, Über das Conjugationssystem der Sanskritsprache . . . (1816; “On the System of Conjugation in Sanskrit . . .”), foreshadowed his major achievement. In it he sought to trace the common origin of Sanskrit, Persian, Greek, Latin, and German, a task never before attempted. Concentrating on a historical analysis of the verb, he assembled the first trustworthy materials for a history of the languages compared. In 1820 he extended the study to include the other grammatical parts. Professor of Oriental literature and general philology at the University of Berlin (1821–67), Bopp published a Sanskrit grammar (1827) and a Sanskrit and Latin glossary (1830). His chief activity, however, centred on the preparation of his great work in six parts, Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, Griechischen, Lateinischen, Litthauischen, Altslawischen, Gotischen und Deutschen (1833–52; “Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Old Slavic, Gothic, and German”). In this work he attempted to describe the original grammatical structure of the languages, trace their phonetic laws, and investigate the origin of their grammatical forms. He also produced a number of monographs, including studies of several European language groups, papers on the mistaken relation of the Malayo-Polynesian (Austronesian) and Indo-European languages (1840), and on the accent in Sanskrit and Greek (1854).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1833
 
 
Bradlaugh Charles
 
Charles Bradlaugh, (born September 26, 1833, London, England—died January 30, 1891, London), British radical and atheist, a freethinker in the tradition of Voltaire and Thomas Paine, prominent throughout most of the second half of the 19th century for his championship of individual liberties.
 

Charles Bradlaugh
  Son of a poor legal clerk, Bradlaugh served in the British army (1850–53), followed his father’s occupation for a time, and then became an antireligious lecturer under the name of Iconoclast. In 1860 he took over the editorship of the periodical National Reformer, which was prosecuted (1868–69) for alleged blasphemy and sedition. From 1874 to about 1885 he was closely associated with Annie Besant, an advocate of numerous radical causes. In 1876 the Bristol publisher of Fruits of Philosophy, a birth-control pamphlet by Charles Knowlton, a physician in the United States, was given a light sentence for selling an indecent work. To vindicate their ideas of freedom, Bradlaugh and Besant republished the book in London in 1877 and circulated it aggressively, incurring much more severe penalties. Their indictments were nullified on a technical point, however.
In 1880 Bradlaugh, campaigning as a radical, was elected to the House of Commons. For more than five years, however, he was denied his seat because he asked to be allowed to affirm rather than to take the religious oath of Parliament. During that period he was reelected three times and later offered to take the oath but was forbidden to do so until finally, in January 1886, permission was granted and he was seated. By that time public opinion had swung in his favour, and Bradlaugh himself, who opposed Socialism, appeared increasingly conservative.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 


Caricature from Punch, 1881 – "Mr. Bradlaugh, M.P., The Northampton Cherub"

 
 
 
1833
 
 
Dilthey Wilhelm
 

Wilhelm Dilthey, (born Nov. 19, 1833, Biebrich, near Wiesbaden, Nassau—died Oct. 1, 1911, Seis am Schlern, near Bozen, South Tirol, Austria-Hungary), German philosopher who made important contributions to a methodology of the humanities and other human sciences. He objected to the pervasive influence of the natural sciences and developed a philosophy of life that perceived man in his historical contingency and changeability. Dilthey established a comprehensive treatment of history from the cultural viewpoint that has been of great consequence, particularly to the study of literature.

 

Wilhelm Dilthey
  Dilthey was the son of a Reformed Church theologian. After he finished grammar school in Wiesbaden, he began to study theology, first at Heidelberg, then at Berlin, where he soon transferred to philosophy. After completing exams in theology and philosophy, he taught for some time at secondary schools in Berlin but soon abandoned this to dedicate himself fully to scholarly endeavours. During these years he was bursting with energy, and his investigations led him into diverse directions. In addition to extensive studies on the history of early Christianity and on the history of philosophy and literature, he had a strong interest in music, and he was eager to absorb everything that was being discovered in the unfolding empirical sciences of man: sociology and ethnology, psychology and physiology. Hundreds of reviews and essays testify to an almost inexhaustible productivity.

In 1864 he took his doctorate at Berlin and obtained the right to lecture. He was appointed to a chair at the University of Basel in 1866; appointments to Kiel, in 1868, and Breslau, in 1871, followed. In 1882 he succeeded R.H. Lotze at the University of Berlin, where he spent the remainder of his life.
During these years Dilthey led the quiet life of a scholar, devoid of great external excitement and in total dedication to his work. He searched for the philosophical foundation of what he first and rather vaguely summarized as the “sciences of man, of society, and the state,” which he later called Geisteswissenschaften (“human sciences”)—a term that eventually gained general recognition to collectively denote the fields of history, philosophy, religion, psychology, art, literature, law, politics, and economics.

 
 
In 1883, as a result of these studies, the first volume of his Einleitung in die Geisteswissenschaften (“Introduction to Human Sciences”) appeared. The second volume, on which he worked continually, never did appear. This introductory work yielded a series of important essays; one of these—his “Ideen über eine beschreibende und zergliedernde Psychologie” (1894; “Ideas Concerning a Descriptive and Analytical Psychology”)—instigated the formation of a cognitive (Verstehen), or structural, psychology. During the last years of his life, Dilthey resumed this work on a new level in his treatise Der Aufbau der geschichtlichen Welt in den Geisteswissenschaften (1910; “The Structure of the Historical World in the Human Sciences”), which was also left unfinished.
 
 
Opposed to the trend in the historical and social sciences to approximate the methodological ideal of the natural sciences, Dilthey tried to establish the humanities as interpretative sciences in their own right. In the course of this work he broke new philosophical ground by his study of the relations between personal experience, its realization in creative expression, and the reflective understanding of this experience; the interdependence of self-knowledge and knowledge of other persons; and, finally, the logical development from these to the understanding of social groups and historical processes.

The subject matter of the historical and social sciences is the human mind, not as it is enjoyed in immediate experience nor as it is analyzed in psychological theory, but as it manifests or “objectifies” itself in languages and literatures, actions, and institutions.

Dilthey emphasized that the essence of human beings cannot be grasped by introspection but only from a knowledge of all of history; this understanding, however, can never be final because history itself never is: “The prototype ‘man’ disintegrates during the process of history.” For this reason, his philosophical works were closely connected to his historical studies.
  From these works later arose the encompassing scheme of his Studien zur Geschichte des deutschen Geistes (“Studies Concerning the History of the German Mind”); the notes for this work make up a complete coherent manuscript, but only parts have been published.

Dilthey held that historical consciousness—i.e., the consciousness of the historical relativity of all ideas, attitudes, and institutions—is the most characteristic and challenging fact in the intellectual life of the modern world. It shakes all belief in absolute principles, but it thereby sets people free to understand and appreciate all the diverse possibilities of human experience. Dilthey did not have the ability for definitive formulation; he was suspicious of rationally constructed systems and preferred to leave questions unsettled, realizing that they involved complexity. For a long time, therefore, he was regarded primarily as a sensitive cultural historian who lacked the power of systematic thought. Only posthumously, through the editorial and interpretative work of his disciples, did the significance of the methodology of his historical philosophy of life emerge.

Otto Friedrich Bollnow

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1833
 
 
Fawcett Henry
 

Henry Fawcett (26 August 1833 – 6 November 1884) was a blind British academic, statesman and economist.

 

Henry Fawcett
  Background and education
Fawcett was born in Salisbury, and educated at King's College School and the University of Cambridge: entering Peterhouse in 1852, he migrated to Trinity Hall the following year, and became a fellow there in 1856, the year he graduated BA as 7th Wrangler. In 1858, when he was 25, he was blinded in a shooting accident. Despite his blindness, he continued with his studies, especially in economics. He was able to enter Lincoln's Inn but decided against a career as a barrister and took his name off their books in 1860.

Academic career
Two years later, Fawcett reportedly attended the 1860 Oxford evolution debate, during which he was asked whether he thought Bishop Samuel Wilberforce had actually read the Origin of Species. Reportedly, Fawcett replied loudly, "Oh no, I would swear he has never read a word of it". Ready to recriminate, Wilberforce swung round to him scowling, but stepped back and bit his tongue on noting that the speaker was the blind economist. At the next meeting (in September 1861) of the British Association in Manchester, Fawcett defended the logic behind Charles Darwin's theories. This significantly affected its acceptance. In 1863 Fawcett published his Manual of Political Economy. In the same year he became Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge. He made himself a recognised authority on economics, his works on which include The Economic Position of the British Labourer (1865) and Labour and Wages. In 1883 he was elected Rector of Glasgow University.
 
 
Political career
After repeated defeats as a Liberal Party candidate, Fawcett was elected Member of Parliament for Brighton in 1865. He held this seat until 1874, and thereafter represented Hackney between 1874 and 1884. He campaigned for women's suffrage. In 1880 he was appointed Postmaster-General by William Ewart Gladstone and sworn of the Privy Council. He had a particular interest in encouraging saving through the Post Office Savings Bank. He introduced the savings stamp which allowed people to save pennies at a time to build up the minimum account limit of a shilling. He pushed through parliament an act to allow savers to convert their post office savings to government stock and he developed the post office's life insurance and annuities schemes. He introduced many other innovations, including parcel post, postal orders, and licensing changes to permit payphones and trunk lines.
 
 

Henry Fawcett and Millicent Garrett Fawcett by Ford Madox Brown,
1872, National Portrait Gallery, London.
 
 
Family
Through his campaigning for women's suffrage, Fawcett met Elizabeth Garrett, to whom he proposed in 1865. She rejected the proposal to concentrate on becoming a doctor at a time when women doctors were extremely rare. However, in 1867 Fawcett married her younger sister Millicent Garrett. They had one child, Philippa Fawcett. Fawcett's career was cut short by his premature death from pleurisy in November 1884, aged 51. There are statues of him in Salisbury Market Square and in Victoria Embankment Gardens near Charing Cross in central London. The latter is by the eminent female sculptor Mary Grant. Sir Leslie Stephen wrote a biography of him, Life of Henry Fawcett, in 1885.

He is buried in Trumpington Extension Cemetery, Cambridge where several members of the family of Charles Darwin are also buried, including Sir George Darwin, Lady Maud, and Gwen Raverat.

He is listed amongst the important British Reformers on the "Reformers Memorial" in the centre of the eastmost oval section in Kensal Green Cemetery.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1833
 
 
Feuerbach Anselm, Ger. jurist and criminal law reformer, d. (b. 1775)
 
 

Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach
 
 
see also: Ludwig Feuerbach
 
 
 
1833
 
 
Furness Horace Howard
 
Horace Howard Furness, (born November 2, 1833, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died August 13, 1912, Wallingford), American compiler, with his son and others, of variorum editions of 20 of Shakespeare’s plays.
 

Horace Howard Furness
  Furness graduated from Harvard in 1854 and was admitted to the bar in 1859, but he soon devoted himself to the study of Shakespeare. Having accumulated a collection of illustrative material of great richness and extent, he brought out in 1871 the first volume (Romeo and Juliet) of the variorum edition, designed to represent and summarize the textual, critical, and annotative conclusions of the best authorities. Succeeding volumes appeared at regular intervals until the posthumous Cymbeline in 1913. Furness was conservative in his methods but sound in his judgments, and he combined erudition with common sense and humour. His wife, Helen Kate Furness (1837–83), compiled A Concordance to Shakespeare’s Poems (1874); and his son and namesake (1865–1930) was a partner in and successor to his father’s work and edited his Letters (1922).

Furness’ collection is now the Horace Howard Furness Memorial Library, a section of the Department of Special Collections of the University of Pennsylvania Library.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1833
 
 
Ingersoll Robert Green
 

Robert G. Ingersoll, (born Aug. 11, 1833, Dresden, N.Y., U.S.—died July 21, 1899, Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.), American politician and orator known as “the great agnostic” who popularized the higher criticism of the Bible, as well as a humanistic philosophy and a scientific rationalism.

 

Robert G. Ingersoll
  Although he had little formal education, Ingersoll was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1854, and he subsequently enjoyed a lucrative law practice in Peoria, Ill., New York City, and Washington, D.C. After service in the American Civil War (1861–65), he became a staunch Republican, serving as Illinois attorney general (1867–69) and as a party spokesman in presidential campaigns. In spite of his outstanding contribution to his political party, his unorthodox religious views deterred Republican administrations from appointing him to the Cabinet or to the diplomatic posts that he desired. Nationally known as a lecturer, Ingersoll was in great demand and received as much as $3,500 for a single evening’s performance, in which with brilliant oratory and wit he sought to expose the orthodox superstitions of the times.

Ingersoll’s principal lectures and speeches, published as Some Mistakes of Moses (1879) and Why I Am Agnostic (1896), are found in The Works of Robert G. Ingersoll, 12 vol. (1902), edited by Clinton P. Farrell.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1833
 
 
More Hannah, Eng. religious writer, d. (b. 1745)
 
 

Hannah More
 
 
see also: Hannah More
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1833
 
 
Edward Bouverie Pusey begins his association with the Oxford Movement
 
 
Pusey Edward Bouverie
 

Pusey, in full Edward Bouverie Pusey (born August 22, 1800, Pusey, Berkshire, England—died September 16, 1882, Ascot Priory, Berkshire), English Anglican theologian, scholar, and a leader of the Oxford movement, which sought to revive in Anglicanism the High Church ideals of the later 17th-century church.

 

Edward Bouverie Pusey
  In 1823 Pusey was elected to a fellowship at Oriel College, where he met the churchmen John Keble and John Henry Newman (later Cardinal Newman), with whom he subsequently shared leadership of the Oxford movement. After studying theology and Oriental languages in Germany, he was nominated Regius Professor of Hebrew at Oxford by the duke of Wellington.

Pusey’s association with the Oxford movement began in 1833. He contributed a tract on fasting to Tracts for the Times in 1834, and a year later he wrote for the series an extensive tract on baptism. The hostility of university authorities was aroused in 1843 by his sermon asserting the doctrine of the real presence in the Eucharist, and he was suspended from university preaching for two years. The ensuing notoriety substantially helped the sale of the tracts. Newman, who edited them, wrote of Pusey: “He at once gave us a position and a name.”

Pusey was known as a warmhearted, sincere, and humble man, whose activities included the building of St. Saviour’s Church, Leeds, at his own expense (1842–45) and service to the sick during the cholera epidemic of 1866. In 1845 he helped found in London the first Anglican sisterhood, which revived monastic life in the Anglican church.

 
 
Conservative in his biblical criticism, he subscribed to the principle of revelation as interpreted by the historical authority of the church and opposed the use of philosophical systems in constructing a theology. His many books include The Doctrine of the Real Presence (1855) and The Real Presence (1857) as well as scholarly works, such as The Minor Prophets, with a Commentary (1860) and Daniel the Prophet (1864). Pusey House, Oxford, founded by his friends two years after his death, preserves his library and some personal effects.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1833
 
 
Pushkin Aleksandr Sergeyevich: "Eugene Onegin" (Was published in serial form between 1825 and 1832. The first complete edition was published in 1833, and the currently accepted version is based on the 1837 publication.)
 
 
see also: Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
 
 
 
     
  Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin

"The Bronze Horseman" 
Illustration by Alexandre Benois
"Eugene Onegin"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1833
 
 
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
 

Pedro Antonio de Alarcon y Ariza, (born March 10, 1833, Guadix, Spain—died July 10, 1891, Valdemoro), writer remembered for his novel El sombrero de tres picos (1874; The Three-Cornered Hat).

 

Pedro Antonio de Alarcon y Ariza
  Alarcón had achieved a considerable reputation as a journalist and poet when his play El hijo pródigo (“The Prodigal Son”) was hissed off the stage in 1857. The failure so exasperated him that he enlisted as a volunteer in the Moroccan campaign of 1859–60. The expedition provided the material for his eyewitness account Diario de un testigo de la guerra de Africa (1859; Diary of a Witness), a masterpiece in its way as a description of campaigning life. On his return Alarcón became editor of the anticlerical periodical El Látigo, but in the years 1868–74 he ruined his political reputation by rapid changes of position. His literary reputation, however, steadily increased. El sombrero de tres picos, a short novel inspired by a popular ballad, is notable for its skillful construction and pointed observation and is a masterpiece of the costumbrismo literary genre.

Manuel de Falla based his ballet of the same title on the story, and Hugo Wolf wrote an opera so titled. Alarcón’s other major novels are El final de Norma (1855; The Last Act of Norma), El escándalo (1875; “The Scandal”), and El niño de la bola (1880; The Infant with the Globe).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
     
  Western Literature

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1833
 
 
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
 
Eugénie Grandet is an 1833 novel by Honoré de Balzac about miserliness, and how it is bequeathed from the father to the daughter, Eugénie, through her unsatisfying love attachment with her cousin. As is usual with Balzac, all the characters in the novel are fully realized. Balzac conceived his ambitious project, The Human Comedy, while writing Eugénie Grandet and incorporated it into the Comédie by revising the names of some of the characters in the second edition, which he also dedicated to Maria Du Fresnay, his then-lover and mother of his daughter Marie-Caroline Du Fresnay, and, as was proved later on, the "real" Eugénie Grandet.
 
Plot summary
Eugénie Grandet is set in the town of Saumur. Eugénie's father Felix is a former cooper who has become wealthy through both business ventures and inheritance (inheriting the estates of his mother-in-law, grandfather-in-law and grandmother all in one year). However, he is very miserly, and he, his wife, daughter and their servant Nanon live in a run-down old house which he is too miserly to repair. His banker des Grassins wishes Eugénie to marry his son Adolphe, and his lawyer Cruchot wishes Eugénie to marry his nephew President Cruchot des Bonfons, both parties eyeing the inheritance from Felix. The two families constantly visit the Grandets to get Felix's favour, and Felix in turn plays them off against each other for his own advantage.

On Eugénie's birthday, in 1819, Felix's nephew Charles Grandet arrives from Paris unexpectedly at their home having been sent there by his father Guillaume. Charles does not realise that his father has gone bankrupt and is planning to take his own life. Guillaume reveals this to his brother Felix in a confidential letter which Charles has carried.

Charles is a spoilt and indolent young man, who is having an affair with an older woman. His father's ruin and suicide are soon published in the newspaper, and his uncle Felix reveals his problems to him. Felix considers Charles to be a burden, and plans to send him off overseas to make his own fortune. However, Eugénie and Charles fall in love with each other, and hope to eventually marry. She gives him some of her own money to help with his trading ventures.

 
Illustration from an 1897 edition
by Daniel Hernández
 
 
Meanwhile, Felix hatches a plan to profit from his brother's ruin. He announces to Cruchot des Bonfons that he plans to liquidate his brother's business, and so avoid a declaration of bankruptcy, and therefore save the family honour. Cruchot des Bonfons volunteers to go to Paris to make the arrangements provided that Felix pays his expenses. The des Grassins then visit just as they are in the middle of discussions, and the banker des Grassins volunteers to do Felix's bidding for free. So Felix accepts des Grassins' offer instead of Cruchot des Bonfons'. The business is liquidated, and the creditors get 46% of their debts, in exchange for their bank bills. Felix then ignores all demands to pay the rest, whilst selling the bank bills at a profit.

By now Charles has left to travel overseas. He entrusts Eugénie with a small gold plated cabinet which contains pictures of his parents.

Later Felix is angered when he discovers that Eugénie has given her money (all in gold coins) to Charles. This leads to his wife falling ill, and his daughter being confined to her room. Eventually they are reconciled, and Felix reluctantly agrees that Eugénie can marry Charles.

In 1827 Charles returns to France. By now both of Eugénie's parents have died. However Charles is no longer in love with Eugénie. He has become very wealthy through his trading, but he has also become extremely corrupt. He becomes engaged to the daughter of an impoverished aristocratic family, in order to make himself respectable. He writes to Eugénie to announce his marriage plans, and to break off their engagement. He also sends a cheque to pay off the money that she gave him.

 
 
Eugénie is heartbroken, especially when she discovers that Charles had been back in France for a month when he wrote to her. She sends back the cabinet.

Eugénie then decides to become engaged to Cruchot des Bonfons on two conditions. One is that she remains a virgin after marriage, and the other is that he agrees to go to Paris to act for her to pay off all the debts due Guillaume Grandet's creditors. Cruchot des Bonfons carries out the debt payment in full. This comes just in time for Charles who finds that his future father-in-law objects to letting his daughter marry the son of a bankrupt. When Charles meets Cruchot des Bonfons, he discovers that Eugénie is in fact far wealthier than he is. During his brief stay at Saumur, he had assumed from the state of their home that his relatives were poor.
Cruchot des Bonfons marries Eugénie hopeful of becoming fabulously wealthy. However, he dies young, and at the end of the book Eugénie is a very wealthy widow of thirty-three having now inherited her husband's fortune. At the end of the novel, although by the standards of the time she should be unhappy - childless and unmarried - she is instead quite content with her lot. She has learned to live life on her own terms, and has also learned of the hypocrisy and shallowness of the bourgeois and that her best friends will come from the lower classes.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
 
     
 
Honore de Balzac

"Father Goriot"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

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1833
 
 
Booth Edwin
 

Edwin Booth, in full Edwin Thomas Booth (born November 13, 1833, near Belair, Maryland, U.S.—died June 7, 1893, New York, New York), renowned tragedian of the 19th-century American stage, best remembered as one of the greatest performers of Shakespeare’s Hamlet. He was a member of a famous acting family; his brother was John Wilkes Booth, the assassin of President Abraham Lincoln.

 

Edwin Thomas Booth
  At 13 years of age Edwin became companion and chaperon to his eccentric father, the actor Junius Brutus Booth (born in London, 1796), who in 1821 had moved to the United States, where he achieved popularity second only to that of the American actor Edwin Forrest.

Traveling with his father, whom he endeavoured to keep sane and sober, Edwin absorbed the rudiments of acting in the bombastic style then fashionable. He made his stage debut at the Boston Museum on September 10, 1849, in the part of Tressel to his father’s Richard III in an adaptation of Shakespeare’s play. Two years later in New York City, when his father refused to act one night, Edwin replaced him as Richard III, giving an imitative but creditable performance.

In 1852 Edwin accompanied his father to California and, after his father’s death that year, continued acting. He barnstormed through the California mining towns and, in 1854–55, toured Australia and the Sandwich Islands (now Hawaii) with the actress Laura Keene. His first important appearances as a star were in Boston and New York City in 1857. Younger playgoers flocked to see him, and in 1860, in a series of brilliant performances in New York, he challenged and overcame the dramatic supremacy of the veteran Forrest.

Booth had not yet, however, overcome the unruly temperament inherited from his father.

 
 
His acting was occasionally fuddled by drink. In 1860 he married the actress Mary Devlin, by whom he had one daughter. It was the double shock of Mary’s death in 1863 and his failure to be at her side because he was too drunk to respond to the summons of friends that henceforth made him abstemious.

In 1864 Edwin Booth became comanager of the Winter Garden Theatre in New York. There he and his brothers, Junius Brutus and John Wilkes, appeared together for the only time—on November 25, 1864, playing Brutus, Cassius, and Mark Antony, respectively, in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar. From November 26, 1864, to March 22, 1865, Edwin played Hamlet for 100 consecutive nights. Thereafter he was identified with the part, for which his looks, voice, and bearing suited him. He was slight and dark, with a musical, sympathetic voice and a natural air of reserve. His acting style, quieter than his father’s had been, became increasingly sensitive and subdued.

 
 

John, Edwin, and Junius (Jr) Booth in Julius Caesar.
Edwin Booth c. 1870 as Hamlet: "To be or not to be, that is the question."
Edwin Booth as Iago, c.1870.
 
 
The assassination of President Lincoln by John Wilkes on April 14, 1865, was a blow from which Edwin’s spirit never recovered, causing his withdrawal from the stage until January 1866, when he reappeared at the Winter Garden as Hamlet.

In 1869 Booth married the actress Mary McVicker, whose nervous instability made the marriage unhappy.

In the same year, he opened his own theatre in New York City. His Shakespearean and other productions were beautifully mounted, but his lack of business acumen ultimately cost him his theatre and left him bankrupt at 40. By hard work he recouped his losses, acting from then on under the management of others.

Booth first acted in London in 1861. When he revisited England in 1880, his appearances at London’s Princess Theatre were near failures until Henry Irving, star and manager of the much superior Lyceum Theatre, invited him to costar at the Lyceum in what proved a memorable engagement, the two actors alternating as Othello and Iago.

  In 1882 Booth again played England and the next year toured Germany, where the acclaim given his Hamlet and his Iago and King Lear (considered, after Hamlet, his finest roles) made the German engagement the peak of his career. At home his financial affairs improved permanently when, in 1886, he formed a business and acting partnership with the American actor-manager Lawrence Barrett.

In 1888 Booth founded a club, the Players, in New York City that was intended as a gathering place for actors and eminent men in other professions. He lived at the club in his last years. His farewell stage appearance was as Hamlet in 1891 at the Academy of Music in Brooklyn. To his own and later generations, the nobility of his mature character, his splendid achievement in his art, and his zeal to raise both the moral and social standing of his fellow actors combined to make him one of the great figures of the American stage.

Eleanor Ruggles

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1833
 
 
Browning Robert: "Pauline"
 
 
 
     
  Robert Browning 

"Dramatic Romances"

"The Pied Piper of Hamelin"
     
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1833
 
 
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
 

Sketches by "Boz," Illustrative of Every-day Life and Every-day People (commonly known as Sketches by Boz) is a collection of short pieces Dickens Charles published as a book in 1836, with illustrations by George Cruikshank. The 56 sketches concern London scenes and people, and the whole work is divided into four sections: "Our Parish", "Scenes", "Characters" and "Tales". The material in the first three sections consists of non-narrative pen-portraits, but the last section comprises fictional stories. The sketches were originally published in various newspapers and other periodicals between 1833 and 1836, then issued in instalments under their current title from 1837 to 1839.

 
The History of "Boz"
The sketch "Mr Minns and his Cousin" (originally titled "A Dinner at Poplar Walk"), was the first work of fiction Dickens ever published. It appeared in The Monthly Magazine in December 1833. Although Dickens continued to place pieces in that magazine, none of them bore a signature until August 1834, when "The Boarding House" appeared under the strange pen-name "Boz". A verse in Bentley's Miscellany for March 1837 recalled the public's perplexity about this pseudonym:

"Who the dickens 'Boz' could be
Puzzled many a learned elf,
Till time unveiled the mystery,
And 'Boz' appeared as Dickens's self."


Dickens took the pseudonym from a nickname he had given his younger brother Augustus, whom he called "Moses" after a character in Oliver Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield. This, "being facetiously pronounced through the nose," became "Boses", which in turn was shortened to "Boz". The name remained coupled with "inimitable" until "Boz" eventually disappeared and Dickens became known as, simply, "The Inimitable".

Illustrations
The popularity of Dickens's writings was enhanced by the regular inclusion of detailed illustrations to highlight key scenes and characters. Each sketch typically featured two black-and-white illustrations, as well as an illustration for the wrapper. The images were created with wood engravings or metal etchings. Dickens worked closely with several illustrators during his career, including George Cruikshank, Hablot Knight Browne (aka "Phiz"), and John Leech. The accuracy of the illustrations was of the utmost importance to Dickens, as the drawings portrayed the characters just as he envisioned them, and gave readers valuable insights about the characters' personalities and motives, as well as the plot.

 
Title page of the second series (1836).
Illustration by George Cruikshank
 
 
Publication
The earliest version of Sketches by Boz was published by John Macrone in two series: the first as a two-volume set in February 1836, just a month before the publication of the first number of The Pickwick Papers (1836–37), and then a "Second Series" in August 1836. After Dickens's fame skyrocketed he purchased the rights to the material from Macrone.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi

 
 
 
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
 
 
 
 
 
     
     
 
     
     
 
     
     
 
     
     
 
     
     
 
     
     
 
     
 
 
 
     
  Charles Dickens

"Great Expectations"
 
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

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1833
 
 
Joseph von Eichendorff (Eichendorff Joseph): "The Wooers" ("Die Freier"), romantic comedy (first performance in 1849)
 
 
see also: Joseph Eichendorff
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1833
 
 
Gordon Adam Lindsay
 

Adam Lindsay Gordon, (born October 19, 1833, Faial, Azores, Portugal—died June 24, 1870, Brighton, Victoria, Australia), one of the first poets to write in a distinctly Australian idiom.

 

Adam Lindsay Gordon monument in Melbourne, by Paul Raphael Montford.
  The son of a retired military officer, Gordon was so wild as a youth that his father sent him from England to South Australia, where he became a horsebreaker and gained a reputation as a fine steeplechase rider.

He began writing sporting verses for Victoria newspapers and served for a year and a half in the South Australian House of Assembly. While in South Australia he published two volumes of poems, Sea Spray and Smoke Drift (1867) and Ashtaroth (1867); neither book had much impact. Early in 1868 Gordon sustained a serious riding injury and suffered the loss of his only child, Annie.

His wife left him later that year. In 1869 he moved to Brighton, near Melbourne, where his wife rejoined him, and there he published a third volume of poetry, Bush Ballads and Galloping Rhymes (1870).

Further misfortune (another serious riding injury and the loss of his claim to a family estate in Scotland) befell him, and he suffered severe depression. The day after Bush Ballads was published, he shot himself on the beach near Brighton.

Gordon’s strong rhythms and homespun philosophy make his poetry memorable. His work eventually was widely accepted, and some of his lines have been adopted into the Australian vernacular.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
     
  Western Literature

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1833
 
 
Kean Edmund, one of England's greatest actors, d. (b. 1787)
 
 

Edmund Kean - Hamlet
 
 
 
1833
 
 
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
 
Essays of Elia is a collection of essays written by Lamb Charles; it was first published in book form in 1823, with a second volume, Last Essays of Elia, issued in 1833 by the publisher Edward Moxon.
 
The essays in the collection first began appearing in The London Magazine in 1820 and continued to 1825. Lamb's essays were very popular and were printed in many subsequent editions throughout the nineteenth century. The personal and conversational tone of the essays has charmed many readers; the essays "established Lamb in the title he now holds, that of the most delightful of English essayists." Lamb himself is the Elia of the collection, and his sister Mary is "Cousin Bridget." Charles first used the pseudonym Elia for an essay on the South Sea House, where he had worked decades earlier; Elia was the last name of an Italian man who worked there at the same time as Charles, and after that essay the name stuck.

American editions of both the Essays and the Last Essays were published in Philadelphia in 1828. At the time, American publishers were unconstrained by copyright law, and often reprinted materials from English books and periodicals; so the American collection of the Last Essays preceded its British counterpart by five years.

Critics have traced the influence of earlier writers in Lamb's style, notably Sir Thomas Browne and Robert Burton – writers who also influenced Lamb's contemporary and acquaintance, Thomas De Quincey.

Some of Lamb's later pieces in the same style and spirit were collected into a body called Eliana.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
see also: Charles Lamb
 
 
     
  Western Literature

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1833
 
 
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
 

Outre-Mer: A Pilgrimage Beyond the Sea is a prose collection which was the first major work by American poet Longfellow Henry Wadsworth . The term "outre-mer" is French for "overseas".

 
Overview
In preparation for his employment as a professor of language at his alma mater Bowdoin College, Longfellow traveled to Europe. His stay there may have inspired Outre-Mer. It is his first published literary work.

Outre-Mer is a collection of prose sketches styled on The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. by Washington Irving. Longfellow had met Irving while in Madrid in 1829, and Irving encouraged him to write.

After Longfellow received a professorship at Harvard College, he rented a room in Cambridge, Massachusetts from the widow of Andrew Craigie, the first Apothecary General of the United States, in the summer of 1837. Assuming the young-looking Longfellow was a student at neighboring Harvard, Mrs. Craigie refused to board him. Longfellow convinced her that he was a faculty member, and pointed out that he was the author of Outre-Mer, which she had a copy of. The Craigie House is now the Longfellow House–Washington's Headquarters National Historic Site. When Longfellow first met his wife-to-be Fanny Appleton, she was traveling in Switzerland in 1836 with her family, including her father the industrialist Nathan Appleton.

  After meeting Longfellow, she wrote in her journal that she hoped he would not "pop in on us" though, she admitted "I did like his Outre-Mer".

Publication history and reception

Longfellow, who was experimenting with prose writings, published the first parts of Outre-Mer in pamphlet form in the 1830s. Harper & Brothers published the completed work in two volumes in 1835 without the author's name. Longfellow traveled to Europe shortly afterward, and while in London had an English edition printed, credited only by "An American".

The book was not particularly successful. The indifferent reception, as well as his duties as a Harvard professor, prevented Longfellow from producing significant literary works until 1838, with his poem "A Psalm of Life" and his novel Hyperion.

However, Longfellow's former Bowdoin College classmate Nathaniel Hawthorne enjoyed the work so much that it inspired him to rekindle their acquaintanceship.

Hawthorne also offered Longfellow a copy of his recently published Twice-Told Tales.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
     
 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

"The Song of Hiawatha"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1833
 
 
Morris Lewis
 

Sir Lewis Morris (23 January 1833 – 12 November 1907) was a popular poet of the Anglo-Welsh school.

 

Sir Lewis Morris
  Born in Carmarthen, Carmarthenshire in south-west Wales to Lewis Edward William Morris and Sophia Hughes, he first attended Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School there (1841–47).Then in 1847 he transferred to Cowbridge Grammar School on the appointment to it of the energetically reviving and academically gifted young headmaster, Hugo Harper. There "he gave promise of his future classical scholarship by writing a prize poem on Pompeii". In 1850 he was one of about thirty Cowbridge boys who followed Harper to Sherborne whither the latter was bound on a similar mission of resuscitating a moribund school. Such "swarming" in the wake of a charismatic headmaster was typical of the period. Morris and Harper remained lifelong friends. He studied classics at Jesus College, Oxford, graduating in 1856: the first student in thirty years to obtain first-class honours in both his preliminary and his final examinations.[5] He then became a lawyer. In 1868 he married Florence Pollard. He was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1895, and narrowly missed being appointed Poet Laureate, possibly because of his association with Oscar Wilde. One of his most famous poems is "Love's Suicide".

He is buried at the parish church of Saint Ceinwr in Llangunnor.

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1833
 
 
Nestroy Johann: "Lumpaziva gabundus"
 
 
     
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1833
 
 
George Sand: "Lelia"
 

Lelia, novel by Sand George, published in 1833. It shocked contemporary readers with a heroine who, like Sand herself, was an iconoclastic, intellectual woman who scorned society’s rules.

 
Independent and sensual, Lélia has had many lovers. Now repelled by physical passion, which represents the means by which men dominate women, Lélia tells her sister Pulchérie, a courtesan, that neither celibacy nor love affairs satisfy her.

Pulchérie suggests that Lélia become a courtesan, that she may find fulfillment by giving pleasure to others.

Lélia tries to seduce Sténio, a young poet who is in love with her; she cannot continue, however, and sends Pulchérie in her stead.

As a result of this betrayal, Sténio falls into utter debauchery, and despite attempts to rescue him, he comes to a tragic end.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
see also: George Sand
 
 
     
  Western Literature

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