Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1832 Part III NEXT-1833 Part I    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

Engraving by J. M. Butler based on a sketch by Dr. Kane - Arctic Explorations, by Elisha Kent Kane
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1832 Part IV
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Wundt Wilhelm
 

Wilhelm Wundt, (born August 16, 1832, Neckarau, near Mannheim, Baden [Germany]—died August 31, 1920, Grossbothen, Germany), German physiologist and psychologist who is generally acknowledged as the founder of experimental psychology.

 

Wilhelm Wundt
  Wundt earned a medical degree at the University of Heidelberg in 1856. After studying briefly with Johannes Müller, he was appointed lecturer in physiology at the University of Heidelberg, where in 1858 he became an assistant to the physicist and physiologist Hermann von Helmholtz. There he wrote Beiträge zur Theorie der Sinneswahrnehmung (1858–62; “Contributions to the Theory of Sense Perception”). It was during this period, in 1862, that Wundt offered the first course ever taught in scientific psychology. Until then, psychology had been regarded as a branch of philosophy and, hence, to be conducted primarily by rational analysis. Wundt instead stressed the use of experimental methods drawn from the natural sciences. His lectures on psychology were published as Vorlesungen über die Menschen und Thierseele (1863; “Lectures on the Mind of Humans and Animals”). He was promoted to assistant professor of physiology in 1864.

Bypassed in 1871 for the appointment to succeed Helmholtz, Wundt then applied himself to writing a work that came to be one of the most important in the history of psychology, Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie, 2 vol. (1873–74; 3 vol., 6th ed., 1908–11; Principles of Physiological Psychology).
 
 
The Grundzüge advanced a system of psychology that sought to investigate the immediate experiences of consciousness, including sensations, feelings, volitions, and ideas; it also contained the concept of apperception, or conscious perception. The methodology prescribed was introspection, or conscious examination of conscious experience.
 
 

Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind
 
 

In 1874 Wundt went to the University of Zürich for a year before embarking on the most productive phase of his career, as professor at the University of Leipzig (1875–1917). There, in 1879, he established the first psychological laboratory in the world, and two years later he founded the first journal of psychology, Philosophische Studien (“Philosophical Studies”). Wundt’s most important later works include Grundriss der Psychologie (1896; “Outline of Psychology”) and Völkerpsychologie, 10 vol. (1900–20; “Ethnic Psychology”).

Encyclopćdia Britannica
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Nicolas Carnot (Carnot Sadi), Fr. physicist, pioneered in the Second Law of Thermodynamics, d. (b. 1796)
 
 

Sadi Carnot
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Crookes William
 

Sir William Crookes, (born June 17, 1832, London, Eng.—died April 4, 1919, London), British chemist and physicist noted for his discovery of the element thallium and for his cathode-ray studies, fundamental in the development of atomic physics.

 

Sir William Crookes
  After studying at the Royal College of Chemistry, London, Crookes became superintendent of the meteorological department at Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford, in 1854, and the following year gained a post at the College of Science in Chester, Cheshire. Having inherited a large fortune from his father, he devoted himself from 1856 entirely to scientific work of various kinds at his private laboratory in London. His researches on electrical discharges through a rarefied gas led him to observe the dark space around the cathode, now called the Crookes dark space. He demonstrated that cathode rays travel in straight lines and produce phosphorescence and heat when they strike certain materials. He invented many devices to study the behaviour of cathode rays, but his theory of radiant matter, or a fourth state of matter, proved incorrect in many respects. With the introduction of spectrum analysis by R.W. Bunsen and G.R. Kirchhoff, Crookes applied the new technique to the study of selenium compounds. In 1861 he discovered thallium in some seleniferous deposits. He continued work on that new element, isolated it, studied its properties, and in 1873 determined its atomic weight.
During his studies of thallium, Crookes discovered the principle of the Crookes radiometer, a device that converts light radiation into rotary motion. The principle of this radiometer has found numerous applications in the development of sensitive measuring instruments. Crookes was knighted in 1897.

Encyclopćdia Britannica

 
 
 
1832
 
 
Baron Cuvier Georges, Fr. naturalist, founder of comparative anatomy, d. (b. 1769)
 
 

Georges, Baron Cuvier
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Faraday Michael proposes pictorial representation of electric and magnetic lines of force
 
 
 
1832
 
 
The first French railroad line, from St. Etienne to Andrezieux (opened 1828), begins to carry passengers
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Manufacture of friction matches well established in Europe
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Hayes Isaac Israel
 

Isaac Israel Hayes, (born March 5, 1832, Chester county, Pa., U.S.—died Dec. 17, 1881, New York, N.Y.), American physician and Arctic explorer who sought to prove the existence of open seas around the North Pole.

 

Isaac Israel Hayes
  After receiving his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania (1853), Hayes volunteered to serve as surgeon with Elisha Kent Kane’s Arctic expedition, which planned to search for Sir John Franklin, the English explorer whose ships were lost in the Canadian Arctic in 1845. On May 31, 1853, Kane’s expedition sailed from New York City on the Advance.

It spent the following winter icebound in Kane Basin off northwestern Greenland. During this time Hayes made several expeditions to nearby Ellesmere Island in the Canadian North, where in May 1854 he explored the region known as Grinnell Land. His attempt to reach the west coast of Greenland at Upernavik (August 1854) became the subject of his book, An Arctic Boat Journey (1860).

Commanding the schooner United States, Hayes sailed again for the Arctic in July 1860. He wintered somewhat south of the point where the Advance had been icebound and in the spring of 1861 began to sledge northward. It is almost certain that he reached only slightly beyond 80° N, and the “open polar sea” that he believed he observed was, in actuality, Kennedy Channel, which separates Greenland from Ellesmere Island. He made a third voyage to the Arctic in 1869.

His observations from that venture were detailed in The Land of Desolation (1871, 1872).

Encyclopćdia Britannica
 
 

Engraving by J. M. Butler based on a sketch by Dr. Kane - Arctic Explorations, by Elisha Kent Kane, published in Philadelphia in 1856 "Life In The Brig: Second Winter"
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Hungarian mathematician Janos Bolyai publishes his system of non-Euclidean geometry
 
 
Bolyai Janos
 
Janos Bolyai, (born December 15, 1802, Kolozsvár, Hungary [now Cluj, Romania]—died January 27, 1860, Marosvásárhely, Hungary [now Târgu Mureş, Romania]), Hungarian mathematician and one of the founders of non-Euclidean geometry— a geometry that differs from Euclidean geometry in its definition of parallel lines.
 

Janos Bolyai
  The discovery of a consistent alternative geometry that might correspond to the structure of the universe helped to free mathematicians to study abstract concepts irrespective of any possible connection with the physical world.

By the age of 13, Bolyai had mastered calculus and analytic mechanics under the tutelage of his father, the mathematician Farkas Bolyai. He also became an accomplished violinist at an early age and later was renowned as a superb swordsman. He studied at the Royal Engineering College in Vienna (1818–22) and served in the army engineering corps (1822–33).

The elder Bolyai’s preoccupation with proving Euclid’s parallel axiom infected his son, and, despite his father’s warnings, János persisted in his own search for a solution. In the early 1820s he concluded that a proof was probably impossible and began developing a geometry that did not depend on Euclid’s axiom. In 1831 he published “Appendix Scientiam Spatii Absolute Veram Exhibens” (“Appendix Explaining the Absolutely True Science of Space”), a complete and consistent system of non-Euclidean geometry as an appendix to his father’s book on geometry, Tentamen Juventutem Studiosam in Elementa Matheseos Purae Introducendi (1832; “An Attempt to Introduce Studious Youth to the Elements of Pure Mathematics”).
A copy of this work was sent to Carl Friedrich Gauss in Germany, who replied that he had discovered the main results some years before. This was a profound blow to Bolyai, even though Gauss had no claim to priority since he had never published his findings. Bolyai’s essay went unnoticed by other mathematicians.
In 1848 he discovered that Nikolay Ivanovich Lobachevsky had published an account of virtually the same geometry in 1829.

 
 
Although Bolyai continued his mathematical studies, the importance of his work was unrecognized in his lifetime. In addition to work on his non-Euclidean geometry, he developed a geometric concept of complex numbers as ordered pairs of real numbers.

Encyclopćdia Britannica

 
 
 
1832
 
 
Koenig Rodolph
 

Karl Rudolph Koenig (German: Rudolf Koenig; November 26, 1832 – October 2, 1901), known by himself and others as Rudolph Koenig, was a German physicist, chiefly concerned with acoustic phenomena.

 

Karl Rudolph Koenig
  Biography
Koenig was born in Königsberg (Province of Prussia), and studied at the University of Königsberg in his native town.

About 1852 he went to Paris, and became apprentice to the famous violin-maker, Jean Baptiste Vuillaume (1798-1875), and some six years later he started business on his own account. He called himself a "maker of musical instruments," but the instrument for which his name is best known is the tuning fork. Koenig's work speedily gained a high reputation among physicists for accuracy and general excellence. From this business Koenig derived his livelihood for the rest of his life. One of his last catalogs had 262 different items.

He was, however, very far from being a mere tradesman. Acoustical research was his real interest, and to that he devoted all the time and money he could spare from his business. In the 1860s, the Koenig sound analyzer revolutionized musical and scientific worlds by demonstrated visually that musical notes and voices were in fact made up of simple sounds.[1] An exhibit which he sent to the London Exhibition of 1862 gained a gold medal, and at the Philadelphia Exposition at 1876 great admiration was expressed for a tonometric apparatus of his manufacture. This consisted of about 670 tuning-forks, of as many different pitches, extending over four octaves, and it afforded a perfect means for testing, by enumeration of the beats, the number of vibrations producing any given note and for accurately tuning any musical instrument.

 
 
An attempt was made to secure this apparatus for the University of Pennsylvania, and Koenig was induced to leave it behind him in America on the assurance that it would be purchased; but, ultimately, the money not being forthcoming, the arrangement fell through, to his great disappointment.
 
 

Sound analyser with 8 resonator balls, by Koenig, 1880, Teylers Instrument Room
 
 
Some of the forks he disposed of to the University of Toronto and the remainder he used as a nucleus for the construction of a still more elaborate tonometer. While the range of the old apparatus was only between 128 and 4096 Hz, the lowest fork of the new one vibrated at only 16 Hz, while the highest gave a sound too high to be perceptible to the human ear.
 
 
Koenig will also be remembered as the inventor and constructor of many other beautiful pieces of apparatus for the investigation of acoustical problems, among which may be mentioned his wave-sirens, the first of which was shown at Philadelphia in 1876. His original work dealt, among other things, with Wheatstone's sound-figures, the characteristic notes of the different vowels, a manometric flame apparatus, a vibration microscope, among others; but perhaps the most important of his researches are those devoted to the phenomena produced by the interference of two tones, in which he disputed the views of Helmholtz as to the existence of summation and difference tones.

He died in Paris.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Koenig's manometric flame apparatus (1862), used to visualize sound waves. Air pressure from an acoustic phone altered the flame provided by a Bunsen gas flame, which was amplified by a rotating mirror and recorded
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
 

Nils A. E. Nordenskjold, Swedish explorer of Spitzbergen and Greenland, Northeast Passage, (1832-1901).

 

Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiold by Axel Jungstedt 1902
  Adolf Erik, Baron Nordenskiöld, in full Nils Adolf Erik, Baron Nordenskiöld (born November 18, 1832, Helsinki, Finland—died August 12, 1901, Dalbyö, Sweden), Swedish geologist, mineralogist, geographer, and explorer who sailed from Norway to the Pacific across the Asiatic Arctic, completing the first successful navigation of the Northeast Passage.

In 1858 Nordenskiöld settled in Stockholm, joined an expedition to the Arctic island of Spitsbergen, between Norway and Greenland, and became professor and curator of mineralogy at the Swedish State Museum.

He returned to Spitsbergen again in 1861 and led his own expeditions there in 1864, 1868, and 1872–73, adding to geologic knowledge of the area. In 1870 he also led an expedition to western Greenland to study the inland ice.

Before attempting to cross the Northeast Passage, Nordenskiöld made preliminary voyages in 1875 and 1876, on which he penetrated the Kara Sea, north of Siberia, to the mouth of the Yenisey River.

Sailing from Tromsř, Norway, aboard the steam vessel Vega on July 21, 1878, he reached Cape Chelyushkin, Siberia, roughly the midpoint of his journey, on August 19. From the end of September until July 18, 1879, the ship was frozen in near the Bering Strait.

Resuming its course, the Vega reached Port Clarence, Alaska, on July 22 and returned to Europe by way of Canton (China), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and the Suez Canal. When Nordenskiöld reached Stockholm on April 24, 1880, he was created a baron by King Oscar.

 
 
In 1883, while returning from western Greenland, where he penetrated far into the inland ice, he became the first to break through the great sea ice barrier of the southeast Greenland coast.

Nordenskiöld also made notable contributions in the field of cartography.

Encyclopćdia Britannica

 
 

Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiold
  Expeditions

- In 1858, 1861, and 1864 he went with expeditions to Spitsbergen, and in 1868 he went in a small vessel farther north than any vessel had ever been in the Eastern hemisphere.

In 1861 he took part in Torell's second Spitsbergen expedition and in 1864 he led the expedition promoted by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

- In 1870, he visited Greenland and in 1871 went again to Spitsbergen and stayed there all winter, nearly starving to death.

- In the expeditions of 1872 and 1875, he headed a well-organized expedition in the iron steamer Sofia, and reached the highest northern latitude (+81° 42 min) then attained in the eastern hemisphere.

- In 1875, he went to the Yenisei River in Siberia, in a small vessel, which he sent back while he went up the river and returned home by land.

The next year he went to the United States and was a juror at the Centennial Exhibition.
 
 
 
- In 1878 he sailed around the north coast of Asia, returning home by way of the Bering Strait, being the first to make the whole length of the Northeast passage. This he accomplished in the voyage of the Vega, navigating for the first time the northern coasts of Europe and Asia. Starting from Karlskrona on 22 June 1878, the Vega doubled Cape Chelyuskin in the following August, and after being frozen in at the end of September near the Bering Strait, completed the voyage successfully in the following summer.
 
 

Journey of 1878-1879 around Eurasia
 
 
- In 1882–1883 – 2nd Dickson Expedition ("Den andra Dicksonska Expeditionen till Grönland", he took the vessel "Sofia" to the Disko Bay where, together with three Saami, he made an expedition to the inland ice sheet. He expected the interior of Greenland to be ice-free and perhaps covered in forests. Nordenskiöld quickly had to give up due to technical problems, but the Saami penetrated 230 kilometres eastward before returning. On the east coast of Greenland, the expedition penetrated the great ice barrier—as the first after 300 years of attempts—and landed at Ammasalik (Kung Oscars Hamn) 65° 37' N, i.e., only slightly to the north of where Wilhelm August Graah was forced to turn his Umiak expedition round in 1830.
 
 

Return of Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld with the Vega to Stockholm on April 24, 1880
 
 
 
Reaching for the Pole
 
 
As it became clear that the Arctic ice did not hide an open sea, attempts to reach the Pole were made on foot. In 1827 Edward Parry sailed to Svalbard and headed north with two small boats which could be set on runners and towed as sledges. The ice surface was rougher than expected, however, and to make matters worse, the ice was drifting south nearly as fast as the men progressed northward. After struggling for 680 miles (1100 kilometers), they had reached only 82 45'N. By July 22, the Pole was still 500 miles (800 kilometers) distant, and Parry had to admit defeat.

The next serious attempt on the Pole was made by the British Arctic Expedition of 1875—76, commanded by George Nares, who took the steam sloop Alert and the steam whaler Discovery to what is now known as Nares Strait, between Greenland and Ellesmere Island.

Nares sent out sledging parties to explore and survey the northern coast, and one of his teams, led by A. H. Markham, crossed rough hummocky ice and deep powdery snow to reach a new furthest north of 83°20'N off Cape Joseph Henry. At the end of the first year a serious outbreak of scurvy forced Nares to return. The expedition had failed in its declared aim, but it had succeeded in gathering valuable geological and natural history collections.
 
 

Nares George Strong

Vice-Admiral Sir George Strong Nares (24 April 1831–15 January 1915) was a British naval officer and Arctic explorer. He commanded the first ship to pass through the Suez Canal, the Challenger Expedition and the British Arctic Expedition. He was highly thought of as a leader and scientific explorer. In later life he worked for the Board of Trade and as Acting Conservator of the River Mersey, and died in 1915 aged 83.

Family
He was born on 24 April 1831, the third son and sixth child of Commander William Henry Nares, a British naval officer, and Elizabeth Rebecca Gould, at Llansenseld, near Abergavenny in Monmouthshire. He was baptised at the church of St Bridget, Llansanffraid on 22 May. He married Mary Grant, the eldest daughter of a Portsmouth banker, on 22 June 1858. They had four sons and six daughters. His two youngest sons, George Edward Nares (lieutenant, d. 1905) and John Dodd Nares (vice-admiral, d. 1957) entered the Royal Navy.

 

Sir George Strong Nares
  Education and early service in the Royal Navy
He was educated at the Royal Naval School in New Cross, and in 1845 joined the Royal Navy aboard Canopus, an old battleship captured from the French. Following a posting to Havannah on the Australian station in 1848 during which he served as both midshipman and mate, he returned in 1851 and passed his lieutenant's exam in 1852.

First Arctic experience
While returning to England in Havannah in 1851, Nares had met Commander George Henry Richards, a future Hydrographer of the Navy, who had suggested he apply to Sir Edward Belcher for a place on his search for Sir John Franklin. Nares was accepted as the second mate of Resolute, and thus gained valuable early experience of the Arctic during the 1852-1854 expedition.

Gunnery specialist
In 1854 Nares received his promotion to lieutenant and specialised as a gunnery officer. He joined the new battleship Conqueror in 1854, including service in the Mediterranean during the Crimean War. During this time he was loaned to the Aetna-class ironclad floating battery Glatton under the command of Captain Arthur Cumming. Glatton arrived in the Black Sea too late to see action.

Cadet instructor and author
He served as a lieutenant in charge of training cadets in Illustrious, and from 1859, in her successor, Britannia.

 
 

During this time he wrote the best-selling book The Naval Cadet's Guide, which was also republished under the title Seamanship, and was regarded as the best manual of its day. He was promoted to commander in 1862 and took command of the training ship Boscawen in September 1863.

 
Surveyor
His next ship was the ageing 4-gun wooden paddle sloop Salamander, which he commanded from 1865. Although he had served in the steam-assisted Conqueror over ten years previously, this was his first paddle steamer, and in a further departure, she was employed in surveying duties on the east coast of Australia. His duties involved keeping the communications between Sydney and Cape York in the furthest north point of Queensland open. On the long journeys between he conducted surveys of the Great Barrier Reef. The county of Nares in Queensland was named after him. His next appointment was to the brand new Philomel-class gunvessel Newport, which he commissioned and took to the Mediterranean for survey work, including a survey of the Gulf of Suez, accessed by the newly opened Suez Canal.

The Suez Canal opened in November 1869, and although the French Imperial yacht L'Aigle was officially the first vessel to pass through the canal, Newport, commanded by Nares, actually passed through it first. On the night before the canal was due to open, Nares navigated his vessel, in total darkness and without lights, through the mass of waiting ships until it was in front of L'Aigle. When dawn broke the French were horrified to find that the Royal Navy was now first in line and that it would be impossible to pass them. Nares received both an official reprimand and an unofficial vote of thanks from the Admiralty for his actions in promoting British interests and for demonstrating such superb seamanship.

In recognition of his work in the Gulf of Suez, Nares was promoted to the rank of captain in 1869. He commissioned Shearwater in 1871 for the Red Sea, and on the outward voyage the ship conducted studies of the water currents in the Straits of Gibraltar for William Benjamin Carpenter, a biologist who believed that density differences between water masses generated ocean currents.

  Challenger expedition
Charles Wyville Thomson and the Royal Society of London obtained the corvette Challenger from the Royal Navy for a 3-year expedition of scientific discovery. Although much of the world was well charted, this extended only to the coastlines and to very shallow depths - largely depths significant to the safe navigation of ships. There was a widely held consensus that the oceans were in parts very deep, but almost nothing was known of the make up of the deep oceans, the submarine landscape, nor the life contained within the deep ocean. Challenger was equipped to measure much of this, being loaded with specimen jars, chemical apparatus, trawls and dredges, thermometers and water sampling bottles, sounding leads and devices to collect sediment from the sea bed.

Great lengths of rope were provided to allow the sounding of deep oceans, and of Italian hemp alone she carried a total length of 181 miles (291 km).

Nares was given command of the Challenger Expedition, a recognition of his experience in this field, but also of his scientific approach to surveying and exploration. His work with William Carpenter in Shearwater had been a key factor in the choice of commanding officer. His officers were all naval surveyors, and the team of civilian scientists, led by Charles Wyville Thomson.

Challenger spent a year in the Atlantic and after turning east in early 1874 she turned south in the Indian Ocean, visiting the Prince Edward, Kerguelen, and Heard islands. She reached as far south as 66°40' S 78°22' E before reaching the ice pack. In the process she became the first steam vessel to cross the Antarctic Circle.

Not all similar expeditions had been so successful, and in particular the easy relations between the scientific gentlemen and the naval officers was a testament to the sure leadership of George Nares.

 
 

It was therefore a measure of his success as the commander of a scientific expedition that he was recalled in November 1874 to lead a similar but more arduous expedition at the opposite end of the earth.

 

A George Nares's expedition of 1875-76 made enormous demands on the physical and mental strength of his team. Albert Markham and his men (shown here in a picture painted by Markham himself) reached a new "furthest north," dragging their sledge Marco Polo over ridges of ice 30 feet (10 meters) high. Some never recovered from the experience.
 
 
British Arctic Expedition
Because of his previous experience in the Arctic, he was summoned from this assignment to take charge of another Arctic voyage in search of the North Pole in Discovery and Alert in 1875, the British Arctic Expedition. On this expedition, Nares became the first explorer to take his ships all the way north through the channel between Greenland and Ellesmere Island—now named Nares Strait in his honor—to the Lincoln Sea. Up to this time, it had been a popular theory that this route would lead to the supposed Open Polar Sea, an ice-free region surrounding the pole, but Nares found only a wasteland of ice. A sledging party under Albert Hastings Markham set a new record farthest north of 83° 20' 26"N, but overall the expedition was a near-disaster.
The men suffered badly from scurvy and were hampered by inappropriate clothing and equipment. Realizing that his men could not survive another winter in the ice, Nares hastily retreated southward with both his ships in the summer of 1876. Nares wrote an account of the expedition, Narrative of a Voyage to the Polar Sea during 1875-6 H. M. Ships "Alert" and "Discovery" and published by Sampson, Low, Searle & Rivington of London.

Nares was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1876, received the founder's medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1877 and was awarded the Gold medal from Société de Géographie in 1879. These scientific awards were matched by an appointment as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1876.

  Later Royal Naval career
In 1878 he was appointed in command of Alert, his ship from the Arctic expedition, in which he surveyed the Strait of Magellan.

 He left the ship on 11 March 1879, and from 1879 to 1896 was employed in the harbour department of the Board of Trade.

During this period he retired from the Royal Navy, on 24 April 1886.

He was promoted on the retired list twice, firstly in 1887 to rear-admiral, and secondly in 1892 to vice-admiral.

Later work
After leaving the Board of Trade in 1896 he became a conservator of the River Mersey, a post which he held until 1910.

He was a member of the ship committee for Scott's Antarctic expedition.

His wife Mary died in 1905.

Death
Nares died at home aged 83 at Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, on 15 January 1915 and was buried in Long Ditton churchyard on 19 January.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Nordenskjold and the Northeast Passage
 
Another man to make an attempt on the Pole was Nils Nordenskjold, a Swedish-trained chemist and geologist, and the first great scientist-explorer of the Arctic. The attempt, however, was unsuccessful, and Nordenskjold is best remembered today as the man who succeeded in taking a ship the full extent of the Northeast Passage, following a coastline that had been charted by the Great Northern Expedition of 1733—42.



Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiold with the Vega  by Georg von Rosen (1886)

Nils Nordenskjold, of Swedish ancestry, although Finnish by birth, combined courage and resourcefulness with a scientific training - making him a first-rate Arctic explorer. His voyage through the Northeast Passage was a demonstration of polar exploration at its best - the expedition was so well planned and executed as to make it seem easy.


He and a multinational team of scientists set off on their voyage in the 300-ton steam-sailing ship Vega in July 1878, carrying supplies for two years. They reached the mouth of the Lena River by late August without encountering any problems. During September, however, navigation became increasingly difficult due to fog and snow, and just before Cape Dezhnev they ran into heavy ice. Tantalizingly close to the end of their journey, the ship's company had to resign themselves to spending a winter in Siberia. It was not until July 1879 that they broke through the ice and, within two days, had passed Cape Dezhnev and fulfilled their task.
 
 
 
 
Nansen and the Fram
 
Further explorations of the Arctic region were made by the Norwegian Fridtjof Nansen. A zoologist by training, he combined a scientific mind with physical strength and practical skills which stood him in good stead in his expeditions into the frozen Arctic. He also received the encouragement of the veteran Nordenskjold.

Following a crossing of Greenland on foot in 1888, Nansen embarked on his North Polar Expedition of 1893-96. This was a bold attempt to demonstrate that a transpolar current moved across the Arctic from Siberia to the Norwegian Sea. The Fram was built to resist ice-pressure and Nansen sailed her round the coast of Siberia before putting her into the ice in September 1893, just north of the New Siberian Islands. She proceeded to drift in a generally westerly direction, while the men on board monitored ice and weather conditions, and measured, with painstaking accuracy, the depth, temperature, and salinity of the water through holes in the ice. Nansen found the Arctic Basin far deeper than he had anticipated. The scientific reports from this expedition, which filled six large volumes, gave the first picture of circulation in a frozen ocean.
 
 

In Fridtjof Nansen Nordenskjold recognized a worthy disciple. Nansen succeeded, where Nordenskjold had failed, in crossing Greenland from east to west in 1888
 
 
Nansen's bid for the Pole
 
Nansen himself, accompanied by Hjalmar Johansen, left the Fram early in 1895 in an attempt to walk to the North Pole. They took three sledges, pulled by dogs, adopting the tactic of killing off the weakest dog every few days to feed to the rest. By mid-April, however, they were forced to abandon their attempt and turn south again, reaching Franz Josef Land in July. Here they spent the winter, building a stone hut and laying in supplies of meat. When the spring came they started to travel southward, in kayaks, along the coast, intending to head across the sea to Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Fortunately, they met the Englishman Frederick Jackson on April 13, 1896 (the very day that the Fram was breaking free from the ice north of Spitsbergen), and were given a welcome lift to Tromso, where they were reunited with the rest of their party.
 
 

Peary and Cook fought a long and hard war of words for the honor of being first to the Pole. Initially, Cook won the media battle, with his gallant message of congratulation to Peary, to which Peary responded by calling him a liar; the public disliked Peary's arrogance and were sceptical of his claims. Scientific opinion, however, subsequently came down on the side of Peary.
 
 
Robert Peary
 
Robert Peary trained with the US Coast and Geodetic Survey before joining the Civil Engineering Corps of the US Navy. He organized and led six Arctic expeditions between 1891 and 1909, each time pushing further north, via Smith Sound and Nares Strait. His explorations settled the question of Greenland's northern limits, showing it to be an island.
Peary was driven by the desire to be the first man at the Pole, an ambition which he apparently achieved at his third attempt, on April 6, 1909. Earlier in 1909 relaying support parties of 24 men, 19 sledges, and 133 dogs advanced from
a land base at Cape Columbia to clear a trail, erect camps, and lay stores. This enabled Peaty and his Inuit companions to have an easy march up to the forward point, saving their energies and supplies for the final dash for the Pole. Following the departure of the final support party, Peaty sped over the 150 miles (250 kilometers) to the Pole, and the 485 miles (780 kilometers) back to base, allegedly covering the whole distance in 16 days.

Unfortunately, Peaty was not universally believed. Some doubted that he could have traveled so fast; others considered that his navigation had not allowed for ice-drift, while Frederick Cook claimed to have reached the Pole in 1908. Recent re-examination of the evidence, however, appears to support Peary's claim to have been at the Pole on the date shown in his log.
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Scarpa Antonio
 

Antonio Scarpa (9 May 1752 – 31 October 1832) was an Italian anatomist and professor.

 

Antonio Scarpa
  Biography
Scarpa was born to an impoverished family in the frazione of Lorenzaga, Motta di Livenza, Veneto. An uncle, who was a member of the priesthood, gave him instruction until the age of 15, when he passed the entrance exam for the University of Padua. He was a pupil of Giovanni Battista Morgagni and Marc Antonio Caldani. Under the former, he became doctor of medicine on 19 May 1770; in 1772, he became professor at the University of Modena. For a time he chose to travel, visiting Holland, France and England. When he returned to Italy, he was made professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia in 1783, on the strong recommendation of Emperor Joseph II. He remained in that post until 1804, when he stepped down to allow his student Santo Fattori to assume the chair. In May 1791, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on account of being the "Author of some ingenious observations on the Ganglions of the Nerves, on the structure of the organs of hearing and smell, and other subjects of anatomy and Physiology"
In 1805, Napoleon was made King of Italy. He chose to visit the University of Pavia, upon which he inquired as to the whereabouts of Dr. Scarpa. He was informed that the doctor had been dismissed because of his political opinions and his refusal to take oaths, whereupon Dr. Scarpa was restored to his position as the chair. In 1821, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
 
 
During his lifetime he became a rich man, acquiring a collection of valuable paintings and living a wealthy lifestyle. He was a confirmed bachelor, and fathered several sons out of wedlock (whom he favored through nepotism). In his career, he earned a reputation for ruthlessness, destroying his enemies and taxing his favorites to their limits. Toward the end of his life, Antonio Scarpa suffered from a stone in his urinary system. This caused an inflammation of his bladder, which resulted in his death. He died in Pavia on 31 October 1832. After his death, his reputation was bitterly attacked, and even marble stones erected in his memory were defaced. After his death, his assistant Carlo Beolchin performed an autopsy which was documented in an extremely detailed report. As an incredible and questionable[according to whom?] act of homage to the great scientist, the head of the anatomist was removed and exhibited in the Institute of Anatomy. The head is still exhibited at the Museo per la storia dell'Universitŕ di Pavia.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 

Scarpa’s head.
Antonio Scarpa, Saggio…sulle principali mallatti degli occhi. These first edition copper plate illustrations again exemplify Scarpa’s brilliant drawing skills.
 
 

Anatomical drawing by Antonio Scarpa showing muscles of the arm, 1804
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Spurzheim Johann Gaspar, German physician, founder (with Gall Franz Joseph) of phrenology, d. (b. 1776)
 
 

Johann Gaspar Spurzheim
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Vambery Armin
 

Ármin Vámbéry, Arminius Vámbéry born Hermann Bamberger, or Bamberger Ármin (19 March 1832 – 15 September 1913), was a Hungarian Turkolog and traveler. According to Ernst Pawel, a biographer of Theodor Herzl, as well as Tom Reiss, a biographer of Kurban Said, Vámbéry's original last name was Wamberger rather than Bamberger.

 
Early life
Vámbéry was born in the city of Szentgyörgy, in the Kingdom of Hungary(now Svätý Jur in Slovakia), into a poor Jewish family. Despite being raised Jewish, he later on became an atheist. Vámbéry was 1 year old when his father died and the family moved to Dunaszerdahely, Kingdom of Hungary. He attended the school in Dunaszerdahely until the age of twelve and showed a remarkable aptitude for learning languages. He was forced to walk with crutches because of a congenital disorder and eventually had to leave school due to difficult financial circumstances. He worked briefly as a tailor's assistant, but after becoming tutor to the son of the village innkeeper, he was enabled by his friends to enter the "Untergymnasium" of Szentgyörgy.

By the age of sixteen, he had a good knowledge of Hungarian, Latin, French, and German. He was also rapidly acquiring English, the Scandinavian languages, Russian, Serbian, and other Slavic languages.

In 1846, he went to Pressburg (today Bratislava, Hungarian: Pozsony), where he remained three years. Later he studied at Vienna, Kecskemét, and Budapest.

 
 

Arminius Vámbéry, by Mihály Kovács, 1861.
  Travels
Vámbéry was especially attracted by the literature and culture of the Ottoman Empire including Turkey. By the age of twenty, Vámbéry had learned enough Ottoman Turkish to enable him to go, through the assistance of Baron Joseph Eötvös, to Constantinople and establish himself as a private tutor of European languages. He became a tutor in the house of Huseyin Daim Pasha, and, under the influence of his friend and instructor, Ahmet Efendi, became a full Osmanli, serving as secretary to Fuat Pasha. About this time he was elected a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in recognition of his translations of Ottoman historians.

After spending about a year in Constantinople, he published a German-Turkish dictionary in 1858. Later, he also published various other linguistic works. He also learned some twenty other Turkish languages and dialects. Returning to Budapest in 1861, he received a stipend of a thousand florins from the academy, and in the autumn of the same year, disguised as a Sunni dervish, and under the name of Reshit Efendi, he set out from Constantinople. His route lay from Trebizond on the Black Sea to Tehran in Persia, where he joined a band of pilgrims returning from Mecca, spending several months with them traveling across Central Iran (Tabriz, Zanjan, and Kazvin). He then went to Shiraz, through Ispahan, and in June, 1863, he reached Khiva (Central Asia).

 
 
Throughout this time, he succeeded in maintaining his disguise as "Reshit Efendi," so that upon his arrival at Khiva he managed to keep up appearances during interviews with the local khan. Together with his band of travelers, he then crossed Bokhara and arrived at Samarkand. Initially, he aroused the suspicions of the local ruler, who kept him in an audience for a full half-hour. Vámbéry managed to maintain his pretences, and left the audience laden with gifts. Upon leaving Samarkand, Vámbéry began making his way back to Constantinople, traveling by way of Herat. There he took leave of the band of dervishes and joined a caravan to Tehran, and from there, via Trebizond and Erzurum, to Constantinople, arriving there in March 1864.

This was the first successful journey of its kind undertaken by a European; and since it was necessary to avoid suspicion, Vámbéry could not take even fragmentary notes, except by stealth. After a long and perilous journey he arrived back at Pest in May 1864. He went to London to arrange the English language publication of his book about the travels. "Travels in Central Asia" and its Hungarian counterpart "Közép-ázsiai utazás" were published in 1865. Thanks to his travels Vámbéry became an internationally renowned writer and celebrity. He became acquainted with members of British social elite. The Ambassador of Austria in London gave him a letter of recommendation to the Emperor, who received him in an audience and rewarded Vámbéry's international success by granting him professorship in the Royal University of Pest.
 
 

Map of the travel of Armin Vambery in Central Asia
 
 
Vámbéry was one of the Jewish Orientalists, like Kurban Said (Lev Nussimbaum), who assumed Muslim identities and wrote about Muslim life. He converted four times. He was a double agent and a double dealer. He was close to the Ottoman sultans. In 1900-1901 he promised Theodor Herzl to arrange an audience for him with Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamit II, but his real goal was to obtain money from Herzl, and he did not arrange the meeting. The Ottomans were merely using Herzl as a playing card in their negotiations with Maurice Rouvier of France on the consolidation of their debt.

Vámbéry became known also as a publicist, zealously defending English policy in the East as against that of the Russians. He was widely celebrated at his 70th birthday in March 1902, receiving greetings from academic institutions all over Europe. The British King Edward VII appointed him an Honorary Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, his house order, followed by a letter where Vámbéry was appreciated as "so good and constant a friend to England".

 
 

Arminius Vámbéry
  In 2005 the National Archives at Kew, Surrey, made files accessible to the public, and it was revealed that Vámbéry had been employed by the British Foreign Office as an agent and spy whose task it was to combat Russian attempts at gaining ground in Central Asia and threatening the British position on the Indian sub-continent.

He advocated the theory of close Turkic-Hungarian linguistic and ethnic relationship, and his publications on the subject provoked a harsh scientific and public debate in Hungary, remembered as the "Ugric-Turk War". Vámbéry argued that the large number of similarities between Turkic languages and Hungarian pointed to a shared origin of these languages and peoples in Northern Asia. In his opinion Hungarian is a contact language, more precisely a mixed language, and a fruit of the intermingling of early Hungarians with Turkic peoples; as a result of this merger, the Hungarian language got a unique, distinctly dual (Ugric AND Turkic) character. His theory was opposed by followers of the Finno-Ugric theory of the origins of Hungarian, who gradually triumphed in Hungary but not in Turkey. In Turkey, Hungarian and Turkish are still considered as two branches of the same language family, the Ural–Altaic.

Vámbéry knew Bram Stoker and is believed by some biographers to have acted as his consultant on Transylvanian culture. The character of Professor Van Helsing in Stoker's novel, Dracula, is sometimes said to be based on Vámbéry, though there is no real evidence of this supposition.

 
 
In the novel (chapter 23) the professor refers to his "friend Arminius, of Buda-Pesth University".
There is a vampire hunter character in the webcomic Sluggy Freelance named Arminius Vambrey possibly based on this Armin Vambery and his candidacy as inspiration for Abraham Van Helsing.

His son, Rusztem Vambery, briefly served as Hungary's ambassador to the United States after World War II.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1832
 
 
Conway Moncure Daniel
 
Moncure Daniel Conway (March 17, 1832 – November 5, 1907) was an American abolitionist, Unitarian clergyman, and author.
 

Moncure Daniel Conway
  Early life and education
Conway was born of an old Virginia family in Falmouth, Stafford County. His father was a wealthy gentleman farmer, a slaveholder, and county judge whose home, known as the Conway House, still stands in Falmouth at 305 King Street (aka River Road) along the Rappahannock River. Conway's mother was a homemaker and homeopathic physician. Both parents were Methodists, his father having left the Episcopal church, his mother the Presbyterian. Moncure's later opposition to slavery came from his mother [unverified] and from his boyhood experiences. His father and three brothers remained staunchly pro-slavery. As a youth he himself briefly took a pro-slavery position, under the influence of a cousin, the Richmond editor John Moncure Daniel.

He graduated at Dickinson College in 1849, studied law for a year, and then became a Methodist minister in his native state. In 1852, thanks largely to the influence of Ralph Waldo Emerson, his religious and political views underwent a radical change, and he entered the Harvard University school of divinity, where he graduated in 1854. Here he fell under the influence of "transcendentalism", and became an outspoken abolitionist. After graduation from Harvard University, Conway accepted a call to the First Unitarian Church of Washington, D.C., where he was ordained in 1855, but his anti-slavery views brought about his dismissal in 1856.

Later life
On his return to Virginia, his abolitionist stance and his rumoured connection with the attempt to rescue the fugitive slave, Anthony Burns, in Boston, Massachusetts, aroused the bitter hostility of his old neighbours and friends.

 
 
In consequence, he left the state. From 1856 to 1861 he was a Unitarian minister in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he also edited a short-lived liberal periodical called The Dial. After the Civil War broke out, Conway located (in Washington, DC) several dozen of his father's slaves who had fled from Virginia, and escorted them through Maryland—still a slave state—to safety in Yellow Springs, Ohio. He believed the slaves would be safe there due to the town's accepting culture.

While in Cincinnati, Conway married Ellen Davis Dana. Ellen was a member of the Unitarian faith, a feminist and an abolitionist. The couple had four children. Despite the previous tension with his family over slavery issues, Conway nevertheless brought his bride to meet his family. His wife broke a Southern social constraint by hugging and kissing a young slave girl in front of family members. After this, it would take seventeen years before Conway reconciled with his family.

Subsequently he became editor of the Commonwealth in Boston, and wrote The Rejected Stone (1861) and The Golden Hour (1862), both powerful pleas for emancipation. In 1862, after spending more and more time away from his church advancing the abolitionist cause, Conway left its ministry. He had grown dissatisfied with the theological, liturgical, and social conservatism of mainstream Unitarianism. After that, he maintained an uneasy and uncertain relationship with Unitarianism, in America and subsequently in England, until he made a clean break.

In 1863, Conway was asked by American abolitionists to go to London to convince the United Kingdom that the American Civil War was a war of abolition. Under English influence, Conway eventually contacted the Confederate States of America "on behalf of the leading antislavery men of America," offering the preservation of the Confederacy after the war's end in exchange for emancipation of the slaves. His support by his sponsors was quickly and angrily withdrawn. Rather than go back to America, where he no longer felt welcome, he went briefly to Venice in Italy, where he was reunited with his wife and children.
 
 

Photo taken c. 1884 of Moncure D. Conway holding a baby.
  In 1864, he became the minister of the South Place Chapel and leader of the then named South Place Religious Society in Finsbury, London. He also abandoned theism that year after one of his sons died. His thinking continued to move from Emersonian transcendentalism toward a more humanistic "freethought". The South Place congregation and Conway soon left fellowship with the Unitarian Church. For a year from November 1865 Cleveland Hall was leased for Sunday evenings so Conway could "address the working classes." However, the audience consisted of well-dressed lower-middle-class people. Conway remained the leader of South Place until 1886, when Stanton Coit took his place. Under Coit's leadership South Place was renamed to the South Place Ethical Society. However Coit's tenure ended in 1892 in a losing power struggle, and Conway resumed leadership until his death.

Conway was part of radicals Peter and Clementia Taylor's salon at Aubrey House in Campden Hill, West London, and a member of Clementia's "Pen and Pencil Club" at which the work of young writers and artists was read and exhibited. Conway moved to Notting Hill to be near the Taylors at Aubrey House.

In 1868 Conway was one of four speakers at the first open public meeting in support of women's suffrage in Great Britain. Conway's many literary and intellectual friends included Charles Dickens, Robert Browning, Thomas Carlyle, Charles Lyell, and Charles Darwin. In the 1870s and 1880s, he returned on and off to the United States. In 1875, he reconciled with his family. In 1897, Conway and his wife returned from London to New York City. Ellen, terminally ill, wished to die in the United States of America.
She died on Christmas Day.

 
 
As the Spanish American War approached, Conway became disaffected with his countrymen. He moved to France to devote much of the rest of his life to the peace movement and writing. Conway died alone in his Paris apartment on November 15, 1907. The Conway Hall in Holborn, London is named in his honour.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1832
 
 
Carroll Charles of Carrollton, last surviving signer of Declaration of Independence, d. (b. 1737)
 
 

Charles Caroll by Michael Laty.
 
 
 
 
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
 
 
 
Declaration of Independence
 
Annotated text of the engrossed Declaration
   
Introduction
Asserts as a matter of Natural Law the ability of a people to assume political independence; acknowledges that the grounds for such independence must be reasonable, and therefore explicable, and ought to be explained.
In CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
 
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen United States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

Preamble
Outlines a general philosophy of government that justifies revolution when government harms natural rights.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.
Indictment
A bill of particulars documenting the king's "repeated injuries and usurpations" of the Americans' rights and liberties.

Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness of his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these states
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Denunciation
This section essentially finished the case for independence. The conditions that justified revolution have been shown.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

Conclusion
The signers assert that there exist conditions under which people must change their government, that the British have produced such conditions, and by necessity the colonies must throw off political ties with the British Crown and become independent states. The conclusion contains, at its core, the Lee Resolution that had been passed on July 2.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

Signatures

The first and most famous signature on the engrossed copy was that of John Hancock, President of the Continental Congress. Two future presidents, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, and a father and great-grandfather of two other presidents, Benjamin Harrison, were among the signatories. Edward Rutledge (age 26), was the youngest signer, and Benjamin Franklin (age 70) was the oldest signer. The fifty-six signers of the Declaration represented the new states as follows (from north to south):

New Hampshire: Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Matthew Thornton
Massachusetts: Samuel Adams, John Adams, John Hancock, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry
Rhode Island: Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery
Connecticut: Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott
New York: William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris
New Jersey: Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark
Pennsylvania: Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross
Delaware: George Read, Caesar Rodney, Thomas McKean
Maryland: Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton
Virginia: George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton
North Carolina: William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn
South Carolina: Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton
Georgia: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
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