Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1832 Part I NEXT-1832 Part III    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

Goethe in the Roman Campagna (1786) by Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1832 Part II
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Bancroft Hubert Howe
 

Hubert Howe Bancroft, (born May 5, 1832, Granville, Ohio, U.S.—died March 2, 1918, Walnut Creek, Calif.), historian of the American West who collected and published 39 volumes on the history and peoples of western North America. His work remains one of the great sources of information on the West.

 

Hubert Howe Bancroft
  Born into a sternly religious and hard-working family, Bancroft abandoned formal education at age 16, after a brief enrollment in a local academy. His father went to California to pan for gold in 1850, and Bancroft followed him two years later. By 1856 he had opened a bookshop in San Francisco and had traveled extensively, both in America and in Europe. His firm became the largest bookselling business in the West. In 1859 he began to collect materials on California, such as books, maps, newspapers, and manuscripts, and soon expanded his interest to include western America from Panama to Alaska. His collection eventually included some 60,000 volumes. Bancroft believed that writing history was “among the highest of human occupations,” and about 1870 he conceived the idea of producing an encyclopaedic history of the American West. Eventually using a total of more than 600 collaborators (the majority of whom were relatively untrained) to index the massive documentation and work on special projects, Bancroft amassed the largest collection of information on the American West. To himself Bancroft assigned the task of writing The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America (1875–76), a five-volume description of indigenous ethnic groups, a work still useful to anthropologists. After these five volumes and the next 28 on the settlement and history of the Western states, Bancroft wrote an additional five volumes on the history of California between 1769 and 1848, including the settling of San Francisco and a defense of vigilante committees in the West; the latter is considered one of his best monographs.
 
 
The 39th volume in the set is Literary Industries (1890), his autobiography. Although Bancroft claimed to have written the entire series, other writers contributed, most notably Frances Auretta Fuller Victor, who wrote several volumes on the history of the Western states. Through an extensive publicity campaign, Bancroft achieved a gross return of more than $1,000,000. His other writings include The New Pacific (1898), in which he argued in favour of U.S. imperialism in the West.

Although Bancroft’s work is marred by a general lack of careful scholarship and editing, his library—which he sold to the University of California at Berkeley for $250,000 on November 25, 1905—made available to scholars a great amount of historical material, with a broad emphasis on cultural and social interchange in the origin and development of nations. Despite his frequent failure to identify his helpers, their contribution serves as a model for cooperative writing in large projects of historical research. Bancroft’s histories are still considered a generally accurate and valuable source on the history of the Far West.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1832
 
 
Bentham Jeremy, (born February 15, 1748, London, England—died June 6, 1832, London), English philosopher, economist, and theoretical jurist, the earliest and chief expounder of utilitarianism.
 
 

Jeremy Bentham
 
 
see also: Jeremy Bentham
 
 
     
  IDEAS that Changed the World

Myths and Legends
History of Religion
History of Philosophy
     
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Champollion Jean-François, Fr. archeologist who found clue to Egyptian writing in Rosetta Stone, d. (b. 1790)
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Fowler Thomas
 

Thomas Fowler (1 September 1832 – 20 November 1904), was an English academic and academic administrator, acting as President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford.

 
Early life
Fowler was born 1832 in Burton upon Stather, Lincolnshire, son of William Henry Fowler and his wife, Mary Anne Welch. He was educated at King William's College on the Isle of Man, and obtained a Postmastership (undergraduate) at Merton College, Oxford. In 1852, he took a second class in Classical moderations and a first class in mathematics, but he bettered that position in the final schools by taking a first class in classics followed by a first in mathematics in 1854.
 
 

Thomas Fowler
  Academic career
In 1855, Fowler was elected to a Fellowship in Lincoln College, Oxford and was forthwith appointed tutor. In 1858, he obtained the Denyer Theological Prize for an essay on "The Doctrine of Predestination according to the Church of England"; he was appointed a Select Preacher in 1872–74, but moved away from theology. In 1862, he held the office of Junior Proctor, and in 1873 he was selected Professor of Logic, and held that chair until 1889. He officiated as a public examiner in the classical school on many occasions between 1864 and 1879, and took part in the general business of Oxford University, holding office in connection the Oxford University Press, the Museum, the Common University Fund, and occupying for many years a seat in the Hebdomadal Council.

Fowler was a junior contemporary of men like Benjamin Jowett, Arthur Stanley, Goldwin Smith, Mark Pattison, whom he might have succeeded as Rector of Lincoln, John Matthias Wilson, whom he succeeded as President of Corpus, and Dr Henry Liddell, sometime Dean of Christ Church. He belonged to their school of University politics, on the Liberal side in the conflicts of the time, and he took part in the struggle for the abolition of University tests.

He enjoyed university business, and was not a profound and original thinker. He had the gift of writing lucid and scholarly English. His works included two volumes on Deductive and Inductive Logic respectively, which have passed through many editions, and are, in the main, a reproduction for Oxford use of the logical system of John Stuart Mill; an elaborate edition of Francis Bacon's Novum Organon, with introduction and notes' an edition of Locke's Conduct of the Understanding; monographs on John Locke, Bacon and Shaftesbury and Hutcheson; Progressive Morality, an Essay in Ethics; and The Principles of Morality, an important and original work, which incorporates as much of the thought of J. M. Wilson as Wilson ever managed to put on paper. The work is Fowler's own, but it was largely inspired by Wilson, and in some few parts it was written by him.

In 1886, he was awarded a Bachelor and Doctor of Divinity.

 
 
President of Corpus
In 1881, Fowler was elected, rather unexpectedly, to succeed Professor John Matthias Wilson as President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He wrote its history in a well-researched volume displaying much patient research which was published by the Oxford Historical Society. He was Vice-Chancellor from 1899 to 1901. His health then failed, and he died unmarried at 12.30 p.m. on 21 November 1904, in his 73rd year.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1832
 
 
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
 

Karl Christian Friedrich Krause (May 6, 1781 – September 27, 1832) was a German philosopher, born at Eisenberg, in Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. His philosophy, known as "Krausism", was very influential in Restoration Spain.

 


Karl Christian Friedrich Krause

  Education and life
Educated at first at Eisenberg, he proceeded to the nearby University of Jena, where he studied philosophy under professors Friedrich W. Schelling, G. W. F. Hegel and Johann Gottlieb Fichte and became privatdozent in 1802. In the same year, with characteristic imprudence, he married a wife without dowry.

Two years later, lack of pupils compelled him to move to Rudolstadt and later to Dresden, where he gave lessons in music.

In 1805 his ideal of a universal world-society led him to join the Freemasons, whose principles seemed to tend in the direction he desired. He published two books on Freemasonry, Die drei ältesten Kunsturkunden der Freimaurerbrüderschaft and Höhere Vergeistigung der echt überlieferten Grundsymbole der Freimaurerei in zwölf Logenvorträgen, but his opinions attracted opposition from the Masons.

He lived for a time in Berlin and became a privatdozent, but was unable to obtain a professorship. He therefore proceeded to Göttingen where he taught Arthur Schopenhauer and afterwards to Munich, where he died of apoplexy at the very moment when the influence of Franz von Baader had at last obtained a position for him.

 
 
Philosophy
One of the so-called philosophers of identity, Krause endeavoured to reconcile the ideas of a God known by faith or conscience and the world as known to sense. God, intuitively known by conscience, is not a personality (which implies limitations), but an all-inclusive essence (Wesen), which contains the universe within itself. This system he called panentheism, a combination of monotheism and pantheism. His theory of the world and of humanity is universal and idealistic.

In many ways following the general outline of Schelling's Philosophy of Nature, he argued that the world itself and mankind, its highest component, constitute an organism (Gliedbau), and the universe is therefore a divine organism (Wesengliedbau). The process of development is the formation of higher unities, and the last stage is the identification of the world with God. The form which this development takes, according to Krause, is Right or the Perfect Law.

Right is not the sum of the conditions of external liberty but of absolute liberty, and embraces all the existence of nature, reason and humanity. It is the mode, or rationale, of all progress from the lower to the highest unity or identification. By its operation the reality of nature and reason rises into the reality of humanity. God is the reality which transcends and includes both nature and humanity. Right is, therefore, at once the dynamic and the safeguard of progress.

Ideal society results from the widening of the organic operation of this principle from the individual man to small groups of men, and finally to mankind as a whole. The differences disappear as the inherent identity of structure predominates in an ever-increasing degree, and in the final unity Man is merged in God.

  Influence and works
The comparatively small area of Krause's influence was due partly to him being overshadowed by Schelling and Hegel, and partly to two intrinsic defects.

The spirit of his thought is mystical and by no means easy to follow, and this difficulty is accentuated, even to German readers, by the use of artificial terminology. He makes use of Germanized foreign terms which are unintelligible to the ordinary man.

His principal works are (beside those quoted above): Entwurf des Systems der Philosophie (1804); System der Sittenlehre (1810); Das Urbild der Menschheit (1811); and Vorlesungen über das System der Philosophie (1828). He left behind him at his death a mass of unpublished notes, part of which has been collected and published by his disciples Heinrich Ahrens (1808–1874), Krause's son-in-law Hermann von Leonhardi (1809-1875), Guillaume Tiberghien (1819-1901) and others.

Krausism became particularly influential in Spain in the 19th century, where Krause's ideas were introduced by Julian Sanz del Rio, an academic based in Madrid. Spanish Krausists combined an emphasis on scientific rationalism and a liberal commitment to individual freedom and opposition to privilege and arbitrary power with Christian spirituality.

Spanish intellectuals influenced by Krause included Francisco Giner de los Ríos and Gumersindo de Azcárate. In addition Kraus's influence extended to Latin America, where his work made an impact on Hipólito Yrigoyen, José Batlle y Ordóñez and Juan José Arévalo. Richard Gott has argued that Kraus influenced José Martí, Fidel Castro (through Martí and other Cuban thinkers), and Che Guevara (through the influence of Yrigoyen).

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1832
 
 
Final volume of B. G. Niebuhr's (Niebuhr Barthold Georg) epoch-making "Roman History" published
 
 
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Rask Rasmus
 

Rasmus Rask, in full Rasmus Kristian Rask (born Nov. 22, 1787, Braendekilde, Den.—died Nov. 14, 1832, Copenhagen), Danish language scholar and a principal founder of the science of comparative linguistics.

 

Rasmus Rask
  In 1818 he first showed that, in their consonant sounds, words in the Germanic languages vary with a certain regularity from their equivalents in the other Indo-European languages, e.g., the English father, acre, and the Latin pater, ager. What Rask observed proved to be the basis of a fundamental law of comparative linguistics (Grimm’s law), enunciated in 1822 by Jacob Grimm. Rask began his long association with the University of Copenhagen as assistant keeper of the library in 1808, and in 1811 he published the first systematic grammar of Old Norse, published in an English translation in 1843. During a stay in Iceland that he spent in mastering the language and studying the literature, manners, and customs (1813–15), he wrote the work on which his fame rests, Undersøgelse om det gamle Nordiske eller Islandske Sprogs Oprindelse (1818; Investigation of the Origin of the Old Norse or Icelandic Language). It was primarily an examination and comparison of the Scandinavian languages with Latin and Greek. Rask was the first to indicate that the Celtic languages, which include Breton, Welsh, and Irish, belong to the Indo-European family and also stated that Basque and Finno-Ugric do not. He established the relationship of Old Norse to Gothic and of Lithuanian to Slavic, Greek, and Latin.

Although he turned his attention mainly to Indic languages around 1816, he published the first Anglo-Saxon grammar in 1817 and edited two major works of Icelandic literature, the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda (1818).
 
 
In 1816 he began travels that took him to Stockholm, St. Petersburg, and finally Iran. The Persian manuscripts he collected remain among the national treasures of Denmark. In 1820 he continued on to India and Ceylon. When he returned to Copenhagen in May 1823, he brought with him many manuscripts in Pāli, Sinhalese, and other languages. Subsequently, Rask was appointed professor of literary history (1825), university librarian (1829), and professor of Oriental languages (1831). His later works include grammars of Spanish (1824), Frisian (1825), and other languages. Over his lifetime Rask had mastered 25 languages and dialects and is reputed to have studied twice as many.

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1832
 
 
Stephen Leslie
 

Sir Leslie Stephen, (born Nov. 28, 1832, London—died Feb. 22, 1904, London), English critic, man of letters, and first editor of the Dictionary of National Biography.

 

Sir Leslie Stephen
  A member of a distinguished intellectual family, Stephen was educated at Eton, at King’s College, London, and at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he was elected to a fellowship in 1854 and became junior tutor in 1856. He was ordained in 1859, but his philosophical studies, combined probably with the controversy that followed the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859), caused him to lose his faith; in 1862 he resigned his tutorship and two years later left Cambridge to live in London.

Through his brother, James Fitzjames Stephen, a contributor to the Saturday Review, Stephen gained entry to the literary world, contributing to many periodicals. From 1871 to 1882 he edited The Cornhill Magazine, for which he wrote literary criticism (republished in the three series of Hours in a Library, 1874–79). Stephen was one of the first serious critics of the novel. Thomas Hardy, Robert Louis Stevenson, Edmund Gosse, and Henry James were among those whom Stephen, as an editor, encouraged.

His greatest learned work was History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century (1876). His philosophical study The English Utilitarians (1900) was somewhat less successful, though it is still a useful source.

 
 


Julia Duckworth (née Jackson), Stephen's second wife,
and mother of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell.
Photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron

 
His philosophical contribution to the rationalist tradition, Science of Ethics (1882), attempted to wed evolutionary theory to ethics, and An Agnostic’s Apology appeared in 1893. Stephen’s most enduring legacy, however, is the Dictionary of National Biography, which he edited from 1882 to 1891; he edited the first 26 volumes and contributed 378 biographies. In recognition of this service to letters he was knighted in 1902. Stephen’s English Literature and Society in the Eighteenth Century (1904) was a pioneer work in the sociological study of literature. Stephen was shy and given to silence, the more so after the death in 1875 of his first wife, Harriet Marian (“Minny”), the second daughter of William Makepeace Thackeray. In 1878 he married Julia Jackson, a widow, and among their four children were the painter Vanessa Bell and the novelist Virginia Woolf.

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Virginia Woolf with her father, Sir Leslie Stephen
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
 

Herbert Alfred Vaughan (1832–1903) was an English prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Westminster from 1892 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1893. He was the founder in 1866 of St Joseph's Foreign Missionary College, known as Mill Hill Missionaries. He also founded the Catholic Truth Society. In 1871 Vaughan led a group of priests to the United States to form a mission society whose purpose was to minister to freedmen. In 1893 the society reorganized to form the US-based St. Joseph Society of the Sacred Heart, known as the Josephite Fathers. Vaughan also founded St. Bede's College, Manchester. As Archbishop of Westminster, he led the capital campaign and construction of Westminster Cathedral.

 
Early life and education
Herbert Vaughan was born at Gloucester, the eldest son of Lieutenant-Colonel John Francis Vaughan, of an old recusant (Roman Catholic) family, the Vaughans of Courtfield, Herefordshire. His mother, Eliza Rolls from The Hendre, Monmouthshire, was a Catholic convert and intensely religious. All five of the Vaughan daughters became nuns, while six of the eight sons received Holy Orders and became priests. Three were later called as bishops in addition to Herbert: Roger became Archbishop of Sydney, Australia; Francis became Bishop of Menevia, Wales; John became titular bishop of Sebastopolis and auxiliary bishop in Salford, England.

Herbert Vaughan studied for six years at Stonyhurst College, then with the Benedictines at Downside Abbey, near Bath, England; and finally at the Jesuit school of Brugelette, Belgium. The latter was later relocated to Paris, France.

In 1851 Vaughan went to Rome, in the Papal States of Italy. He had two years of study at the Accademia dei nobili ecclesiastici, where he became a friend and disciple of Henry Edward Manning. Manning, a Catholic convert, became the second Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster following the restoration of the Catholic hierarchy in Great Britain in 1850.

 
 

Herbert Alfred Vaughan
  Career
Vaughan received Holy Orders at Lucca in 1854. On his return to England, he became Vice-President of St Edmund's College, at that time the chief seminary in the south of England for candidates for the priesthood. Since childhood, Vaughan had been filled with zeal for foreign missions. He decided to found a great English missionary college to fit young priests for the work of evangelizing non-Christians abroad. With this goal, he made a fund-raising trip to America in 1863, from which he returned with £11,000.

He succeeded in opening St Joseph's Foreign Missionary College, Mill Hill Park, London, in 1869. Vaughan also became proprietor of The Tablet, and used its columns to proclaim his message. In 1871 after the American Civil War, Vaughan led a group of priests to the US to establish a mission society to minister to freedmen in the South. In 1893 the society, based in Baltimore, Maryland, reorganized as an American institution. Among its founders was the first African-American Catholic priest trained and ordained in the US, Charles Uncles.

In 1872 Vaughan was consecrated as the second Bishop of Salford; during his tenure he established St Bede's College. In 1892 Vaughan succeeded Manning as Archbishop of Westminster, receiving the cardinal's hat in 1893.

Vaughan was a man of different type from his predecessor; he had none of the ultramontane Manning's intellectual finesse or his ardor for social reform. Vaughan was an ecclesiastic of remarkably fine presence and aristocratic leanings, intransigent in theological policy, and in personal character simply devout.

 
 
It was due to this theological "purity" that Vaughan assisted in scuttling an opportunity for rapprochement between Rome and the Church of England that was put into motion by a high-church Anglican, Charles Wood, 2nd Viscount Halifax and a French priest, Ferdinand Portal. Through the efforts of Vaughan and Archbishop of Canterbury Edward White Benson, this early form of ecumenism was put down. It culminated with the condemnation of Anglican Orders by Pope Leo XIII in his bull, Apostolicae Curae.
 
 

Cardinal Vaughan's tomb
 
 
It was Vaughan's most cherished ambition to see an adequate Westminster Cathedral. He worked untiringly to secure subscriptions for a capital campaign, with the result that the foundation stone for the cathedral was laid in 1895. When Vaughan died in 1903 at the age of 71, the building was so far complete that a Requiem Mass was said there. His body was interred at the cemetery of St. Joseph's College, the headquarters of the Mill Hill Missionaries in North London but it was later moved to the Cathedral.

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1832
 
 
White Andrew Dickson
 

Andrew Dickson White, (born November 7, 1832, Homer, New York, U.S.—died November 4, 1918, Ithaca, New York), American educator and diplomat, founder and first president of Cornell University, Ithaca.

 

Andrew Dickson White
  After graduating from Yale in 1853, White studied in Europe for the next three years, serving also as attaché at the U.S. legation at St. Petersburg, Russia, in 1854–55. He returned to the United States to become professor of history and English literature at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. In 1865 White’s dream of a state university for New York—based on liberal principles with reference to religion, coeducation, race, and the teaching of science unhampered by religious dogma—was realized when Cornell University was chartered. As Cornell’s first president (1868), White devoted his energies and much of his wealth for the next 17 years to assure its success and future growth.

White served on numerous government commissions and was U.S. minister to Germany (1879–81) and Russia (1892–94) and ambassador to Germany (1897–1902). In 1899 he was president of the U.S. delegation at the Hague Peace Conference. His published works include A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (1896) and Seven Great Statesmen in the Warfare of Humanity with Unreason (1910).

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1832
 
 
Alcott Louisa May
 

Louisa May Alcott, (born Nov. 29, 1832, Germantown, Pa., U.S.—died March 6, 1888, Boston, Mass.), American author known for her children’s books, especially the classic Little Women.

 

Louisa May Alcott
  A daughter of the transcendentalist Bronson Alcott, Louisa spent most of her life in Boston and Concord, Massachusetts, where she grew up in the company of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Theodore Parker, and Henry David Thoreau. Her education was largely under the direction of her father, for a time at his innovative Temple School in Boston and, later, at home. Alcott realized early that her father was too impractical to provide for his wife and four daughters; after the failure of Fruitlands, a utopian community that he had founded, Louisa Alcott’s lifelong concern for the welfare of her family began. She taught briefly, worked as a domestic, and finally began to write.

Alcott produced potboilers at first and many of her stories—notably those signed “A.M. Barnard”—were lurid and violent tales. The latter works are unusual in their depictions of women as strong, self-reliant, and imaginative. She volunteered as a nurse after the American Civil War began, but she contracted typhoid from unsanitary hospital conditions and was sent home. She was never completely well again. The publication of her letters in book form, Hospital Sketches (1863), brought her the first taste of fame. Alcott’s stories began to appear in The Atlantic Monthly, and, because family needs were pressing, she wrote the autobiographical Little Women (1868–69), which was an immediate success. Based on her recollections of her own childhood, Little Women describes the domestic adventures of a New England family of modest means but optimistic outlook.

 
 
The book traces the differing personalities and fortunes of four sisters as they emerge from childhood and encounter the vicissitudes of employment, society, and marriage. Little Women created a realistic but wholesome picture of family life with which younger readers could easily identify. In 1869 Alcott was able to write in her journal: “Paid up all the debts…thank the Lord!” She followed Little Women’s success with further domestic narratives drawn from her early experiences: An Old-Fashioned Girl (1870); Aunt Jo’s Scrap Bag, 6 vol. (1872–82); Little Men (1871); Eight Cousins (1875); Rose in Bloom (1876); and Jo’s Boys (1886).

Except for a European tour in 1870 and a few briefer trips to New York, she spent the last two decades of her life in Boston and Concord, caring for her mother, who died in 1877 after a lengthy illness, and her increasingly helpless father. Late in life she adopted her namesake, Louisa May Nieriker, daughter of her late sister, May. Her own health, never robust, also declined, and she died in Boston two days after her father’s death.

Alcott’s books for younger readers have remained steadfastly popular, and the republication of some of her lesser-known works late in the 20th century aroused renewed critical interest in her adult fiction. A Modern Mephistopheles, which was published pseudonymously in 1877 and republished in 1987, is a Gothic novel about a failed poet who makes a Faustian bargain with his tempter. Work: A Story of Experience (1873), based on Alcott’s own struggles, tells the story of a poor girl trying to support herself by a succession of menial jobs. The Gothic tales and thrillers that Alcott published pseudonymously between 1863 and 1869 were collected and republished as Behind a Mask (1975) and Plots and Counterplots (1976), and an unpublished Gothic novel written in 1866, A Long Fatal Love Chase, was published in 1995.

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1832
 
 
Alger Horatio
 

Horatio Alger, also called Horatio Alger, Jr. (born Jan. 13, 1832, Chelsea, Mass., U.S.—died July 18, 1899, Natick, Mass.), one of the most popular American authors in the last 30 years of the 19th century and perhaps the most socially influential American writer of his generation.

 

Horatio Alger, Jr.
  Alger was the son of a Unitarian minister, Horatio Alger, Sr., who tutored him in reading from the age of six. The young Alger showed an interest in writing, and at Harvard University he distinguished himself in the classics and graduated in 1852 with Phi Beta Kappa honours. After leaving Harvard, Alger worked as a schoolteacher and contributed to magazines. In 1857 he enrolled in the Harvard Divinity School, from which he took his degree in 1860. He then took a seven-month tour of Europe and returned to the United States shortly after the outbreak of the American Civil War. During the war he was rejected for army service.

Alger was ordained in 1864, and he accepted the pulpit of a church in Brewster, Mass., but he was forced to leave in 1866 following allegations of sexual activities with local boys. In that year he moved to New York City, and, with the publication and sensational success of Ragged Dick; or, Street Life in New York with the Bootblacks (serialized in 1867, published in book form in 1868), the story of a poor shoeshine boy who rises to wealth, Alger found his lifelong theme. In the more than 100 books that he would write over 30 years, Alger followed the rags-to-riches formula that he had hit upon in his first book.
The success of Ragged Dick led Alger to actively support charitable institutions for the care of foundlings and runaway boys.

 
 
It was in this atmosphere that Alger wrote stories of boys who rise from poverty to wealth and fame, stories that were to make him famous and contribute the “Alger hero” to the American language. In a steady succession of books that are almost alike except for the names of their characters, he preached that by honesty, cheerful perseverance, and hard work, the poor but virtuous lad would have his just reward—though the reward is almost always precipitated by a stroke of good luck. Alger’s novels had enormous popular appeal at a time when great personal fortunes were being made and seemingly unbounded opportunities for advancement existed in the United States’ burgeoning industrial cities. Alger’s most popular books were the Ragged Dick, Luck and Pluck, and Tattered Tom series. His books sold over 20 million copies, even though their plots, characterizations, and dialogue were consistently and even outrageously bad.

By the mid-1890s his health was waning, and Alger settled in Natick, Mass., with his sister Olive and her husband. He died there a few years later.

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1832
 
 
Arnold Edwin
 

Sir Edwin Arnold (10 June 1832 – 24 March 1904) was an English poet and journalist, who is most known for his work, The Light of Asia.

 

Sir Edwin Arnold
  Sir Edwin Arnold, (born June 10, 1832, Gravesend, Kent, Eng.—died March 24, 1904, London), poet and journalist, best known as the author of The Light of Asia (1879), an epic poem in an elaborately Tennysonian blank verse that describes, through the mouth of an “imaginary Buddhist votary,” the life and teachings of the Buddha.

Pearls of the Faith (1883), on Islam, and The Light of the World (1891), on Christianity, were less successful.

After leaving the University of Oxford, Arnold was a schoolteacher in Birmingham before becoming principal of the British government college at Poona (Pune), India, in 1856.

He returned to England in 1861 to join the staff of the Daily Telegraph, where he was chief editor from 1873 to 1889. He published several volumes of shorter poems as well as translations of Indian verse and a good deal of prose travel writing.

The essays collected in Japonica (1892) were an important contribution to the late 19th-century “cult of Japan” in Britain, as were his adaptations of Japanese poetry in The Tenth Muse (1895) and his Japanese play Adzuma (1893). He was knighted in 1888.

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1832
 
 
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
 

Le Colonel Chabert (English: Colonel Chabert) is an 1832 novella by French novelist and playwright Honoré de Balzac (1799–1850). It is included in his series of novels (or Roman-fleuve) known as La Comédie humaine (The Human Comedy), which depicts and parodies French society in the period of the Restoration (1815–1830) and the July Monarchy (1830–1848). This novella, originally published in Le Constitutionnel, was adapted for six different motion pictures, including two silent films.

 
Plot summary
Colonel Chabert marries Rose Chapotel, a prostitute. Colonel Chabert then becomes a French cavalry officer who is held in high esteem by Napoleon Bonaparte. After being severely wounded in the Battle of Eylau (1807), Chabert is recorded as dead and buried with other French casualties. However, he survives and after extricating himself from his own grave is nursed back to health by local peasants. It takes several years for him to recover. Returning to Paris he discovers his widow has married the social climber Count Ferraud, and has liquidated all of Chabert's belongings. Seeking to regain his name and monies that were wrongly given away as inheritance, he hires Derville, an attorney, to win back his money and his honor. Derville, who also represents the Countess Ferraud, warns Chabert against accepting a settlement bribe from the Countess. In the end, Chabert walks away empty-handed and spends the rest of his days at a hospice.

Themes
In Le Colonel Chabert Balzac juxtaposes two world-views: the Napoleonic value-system, founded on honour and military valour; and that of the Restoration. Chabert was not killed at the Battle of Eylau, though it was thought that he was. He struggles back to life but cannot reclaim his identity. His “widow”, who is actually his wife, and who fittingly was a prostitute in her early adult years, is now the Comtesse Ferraud, married (or so it would seem) to an important Restoration nobleman and politician.

 
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
 
 
She repudiates her “former” husband (just as Ferraud, in changed political circumstances, would now be happy to repudiate her). All that matters in the modern era is social rank based upon the possession of money, especially inherited wealth.

This theme of the trenchant purity of the military way of life is something to which Balzac returns in La Rabouilleuse, but there the subject is treated quite differently.

Colonel Chabert is being discussed in detail in Los enamoramientos (The Infatuations) by Javier Marías. It also was read and discussed by the eponymous character in Austerlitz by W. G. Sebald,

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
     
 
Honore de Balzac

"Father Goriot"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

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1832
 
 
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
 

Bjornstjerne Martinius Bjornson, (born December 8, 1832, Kvikne, Norway—died April 26, 1910, Paris, France), poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, editor, public speaker, theatre director, and one of the most prominent public figures in the Norway of his day. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1903 and is generally known, together with Henrik Ibsen, Alexander Kielland, and Jonas Lie, as one of “the four great ones” of 19th-century Norwegian literature. His poem “Ja, vi elsker dette landet” (“Yes, We Love This Land”) is the Norwegian national anthem.

 

Bjornstjerne Martinius Bjornson
  Bjornson, the son of a pastor, grew up in the small farming community of Romsdalen, which later became the scene of his country novels. From the start his writing was marked by clearly didactic intent; he sought to stimulate national pride in Norway’s history and achievements and to present ideals. For the first 15 years of his literary career he drew his inspiration from the sagas and from his knowledge of contemporary rural Norway. He exploited these two fields in what he described as his system of “crop rotation”: saga material was turned into plays, contemporary material into novels or peasant tales.

Both stressed those links that bound the new Norway to the old; both served to raise the nation’s morale. The early products of this system were the peasant tale Synnøve solbakken (1857; Trust and Trial, Love and Life in Norway, and Sunny Hill), the one-act historical play Mellem slagene (1857; “Between the Battles”), and the tales Arne (1858) and En glad gut (1860; The Happy Boy) and the play Halte-Hulda (1858; “Lame Hulda”).

In 1857–59 he was Ibsen’s successor as artistic director at the Bergen Theatre. He married the actress Karoline Reimers in 1858 and also became the editor of the Bergenposten. Partly because of his activity with this paper, the Conservative representatives were defeated in 1859 and the path was cleared for the formation of the Liberal Party a short time later.

After traveling abroad for three years, Bjørnson became director of the Christiania Theatre, and, from 1866 to 1871, he edited the Norsk Folkeblad. During this same time there also appeared the first edition of his Digte og sange (1870; Poems and Songs) and the epic poem Arnljot Gelline (1870).

 
 
Bjørnson’s political battles and literary feuds took up so much of his time that he left Norway in order to write. The two dramas that brought him an international reputation were thus written in self-imposed exile: En fallit (1875; The Bankrupt) and Redaktøren (1875; The Editor). Both fulfilled the then current demand on literature (stipulated by the Danish writer and critic Georg Brandes) to debate problems, as did the two dramas that followed: Kongen (1877; The King) and Det ny system (1879; The New System). Of his later works, two novels are remembered, Det flager i byen og på havnen (1884; The Heritage of the Kurts) and På Guds veje (1889; In God’s Way), as are a number of impressive dramas, including Over Ævne I og II (1883 and 1895; Beyond Our Power and Beyond Human Might). The first of the novels deals critically with Christianity and attacks the belief in miracles, whereas the second deals with social change and suggests that such change must begin in the schools. Paul Lange og Tora Parsberg (1898) is concerned with the theme of political intolerance.

Later in life, Bjørnson came to think of himself as a Socialist, working tirelessly in behalf of peace and international understanding. Bjørnson enjoyed worldwide fame, his plays were influential in establishing social realism in Europe, and he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1903. Nonetheless, his international reputation has diminished in comparison with that of Ibsen.

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1832
 
 
Busch Heinrich
 

Heinrich Christian Wilhelm Busch (15 April 1832 – 9 January 1908) was a German humorist, poet, illustrator and painter. He published comic illustrated cautionary tales from 1859, achieving his most notable works in the 1870s. Busch's illustrations used wood engraving, and later, zincography.

Busch drew on contemporary parochial and city life, satirizing Catholicism, Philistinism, strict religious morality and bigotry. His comic text was colourful and entertaining, using onomatopoeia, neologisms and other figures of speech, and led to some work being banned by the authorities.



A scene from Max and Moritz

Busch was influential in both poetry and illustration, and became a source for future generations of comic artists. The Katzenjammer Kids was inspired by Busch's Max and Moritz, one of a number of imitations produced in Germany and the United States. The Wilhelm Busch Prize and the Wilhelm Busch Museum help maintain his legacy. His 175th anniversary in 2007 was celebrated throughout Germany. Busch remains one of the most influential poets and artists in Western Europe.

 

Heinrich Christian Wilhelm Busch
  Wilhelm Busch, (born April 15, 1832, Wiedensahl, Hanover [Germany]—died Jan. 9, 1908, Mechtshausen bei Seesen, Ger.), German painter and poet, best known for his drawings, which were accompanied by wise, satiric, doggerel verse. His Bilderbogen (pictorial broadsheets) can be considered precursors of the comic strip.

In 1859, after study at academies in Düsseldorf, Antwerp, and Munich, Busch began to contribute his series of comic sketches to Fliegende Blätter and Münchener Bilderbogen, the leading German weeklies.

These were followed by his continuous pictorial narratives with short verse-texts, including Max und Moritz, Der heilige Antonius von Padua, Die fromme Helene, Hans Huckebein, Dideldum!, and Herr und Frau Knopp.

By 1910 more than half a million copies of Max und Moritz (which was the forerunner of “The Katzenjammer Kids”) had been printed in German, and his works had been translated into many languages.

Busch’s work continues to be popular, and his writings are widely quoted in German-speaking countries. His style, copied by innumerable artists, was remarkable for its extreme simplicity. With a few rapid scrawls he conveyed the most complex contortions and the most transitory movement.

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1832
 
 
Carroll Lewis
 

Jewis Carroll, pseudonym of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (born Jan. 27, 1832, Daresbury, Cheshire, Eng.—died Jan. 14, 1898, Guildford, Surrey), English logician, mathematician, photographer, and novelist, especially remembered for Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and its sequel, Through the Looking-Glass (1871). His poem The Hunting of the Snark (1876) is nonsense literature of the highest order.

 

Jewis Carroll
  Dodgson was the eldest son and third child in a family of seven girls and four boys born to Frances Jane Lutwidge, the wife of the Rev. Charles Dodgson. He was born in the old parsonage at Daresbury. His father was perpetual curate there from 1827 until 1843, when he became rector of Croft in Yorkshire—a post he held for the rest of his life (though later he became also archdeacon of Richmond and a canon of Ripon cathedral). The Dodgson children, living as they did in an isolated country village, had few friends outside the family but, like many other families in similar circumstances, found little difficulty in entertaining themselves. Charles from the first showed a great aptitude for inventing games to amuse them. With the move to Croft when he was 12 came the beginning of the “Rectory Magazines,” manuscript compilations to which all the family were supposed to contribute. In fact, Charles wrote nearly all of those that survive, beginning with Useful and Instructive Poetry (1845; published 1954) and following with The Rectory Magazine (c. 1850, mostly unpublished), The Rectory Umbrella (1850–53), and Mischmasch (1853–62; published with The Rectory Umbrella in 1932).

Meanwhile, young Dodgson attended Richmond School, Yorkshire (1844–45), and then proceeded to Rugby School (1846–50). He disliked his four years at public school, principally because of his innate shyness, although he was also subjected to a certain amount of bullying; he also endured several illnesses, one of which left him deaf in one ear.

 
 
After Rugby he spent a further year being tutored by his father, during which time he matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford (May 23, 1850). He went into residence as an undergraduate there on Jan. 24, 1851.

Dodgson excelled in his mathematical and classical studies in 1852; on the strength of his performance in examinations, he was nominated to a studentship (called a scholarship in other colleges). In 1854 he gained a first in mathematical Finals—coming out at the head of the class—and proceeded to a bachelor of arts degree in December of the same year. He was made a “Master of the House” and a senior student (called a fellow in other colleges) the following year and was appointed lecturer in mathematics (the equivalent of today’s tutor), a post he resigned in 1881. He held his studentship until the end of his life.

 
 

Photo of Alice Liddell taken by Lewis Carroll (1858)
  As was the case with all fellowships at that time, the studentship at Christ Church was dependent upon his remaining unmarried, and, by the terms of this particular endowment, proceeding to holy orders. Dodgson was ordained a deacon in the Church of England on Dec. 22, 1861. Had he gone on to become a priest he could have married and would then have been appointed to a parish by the college. But he felt himself unsuited for parish work and, though he considered the possibility of marriage, decided that he was perfectly content to remain a bachelor.

Dodgson’s association with children grew naturally enough out of his position as an eldest son with eight younger brothers and sisters. He also suffered from a bad stammer (which he never wholly overcame, although he was able to preach with considerable success in later life) and, like many others who suffer from the disability, found that he was able to speak naturally and easily to children. It is therefore not surprising that he should begin to entertain the children of Henry George Liddell, dean of Christ Church.

Alice Liddell and her sisters Lorina and Edith were not, of course, the first of Dodgson’s child friends. They had been preceded or were overlapped by the children of the writer George Macdonald, the sons of the poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson, and various other chance acquaintances. But the Liddell children undoubtedly held an especially high place in his affections—partly because they were the only children in Christ Church, since only heads of houses were free both to marry and to continue in residence.

 
 
Properly chaperoned by their governess, Miss Prickett (nicknamed “Pricks”—“one of the thorny kind,” and so the prototype of the Red Queen in Through the Looking-Glass), the three little girls paid many visits to the young mathematics lecturer in his college rooms. As Alice remembered in 1932, they

used to sit on the big sofa on each side of him, while he told us stories, illustrating them by pencil or ink drawings as he went along . . . . He seemed to have an endless store of these fantastical tales, which he made up as he told them, drawing busily on a large sheet of paper all the time. They were not always entirely new. Sometimes they were new versions of old stories; sometimes they started on the old basis, but grew into new tales owing to the frequent interruptions which opened up fresh and undreamed-of possibilities.

On July 4, 1862, Dodgson and his friend Robinson Duckworth, fellow of Trinity, rowed the three children up the Thames from Oxford to Godstow, picnicked on the bank, and returned to Christ Church late in the evening: “On which occasion,” wrote Dodgson in his diary, “I told them the fairy-tale of Alice’s Adventures Underground, which I undertook to write out for Alice.” Much of the story was based on a picnic a couple of weeks earlier when they had all been caught in the rain; for some reason, this inspired Dodgson to tell so much better a story than usual that both Duckworth and Alice noticed the difference, and Alice went so far as to cry, when they parted at the door of the deanery, “Oh, Mr. Dodgson, I wish you would write out Alice’s adventures for me!” Dodgson himself recollected in 1887

how, in a desperate attempt to strike out some new line of fairy-lore, I had sent my heroine straight down a rabbit-hole, to begin with, without the least idea what was to happen afterwards.

 
 

Jewis Carroll
  Dodgson was able to write down the story more or less as told and added to it several extra adventures that had been told on other occasions. He illustrated it with his own crude but distinctive drawings and gave the finished product to Alice Liddell, with no thought of hearing of it again. But the novelist Henry Kingsley, while visiting the deanery, chanced to pick it up from the drawing-room table, read it, and urged Mrs. Liddell to persuade the author to publish it. Dodgson, honestly surprised, consulted his friend George Macdonald, author of some of the best children’s stories of the period. Macdonald took it home to be read to his children, and his son Greville, aged six, declared that he “wished there were 60,000 volumes of it.”
Accordingly, Dodgson revised it for publication. He cut out the more particular references to the previous picnic (they may be found in the facsimile of the original manuscript, later published by him as Alice’s Adventures Underground in 1886) and added some additional stories, told to the Liddells at other times, to make up a volume of the desired length. At Duckworth’s suggestion he got an introduction to John Tenniel, the Punch magazine cartoonist, whom he commissioned to make illustrations to his specification. The book was published as Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland in 1865. (The first edition was withdrawn because of bad printing, and only about 21 copies survive—one of the rare books of the 19th century—and the reprint was ready for publication by Christmas of the same year, though dated 1866.)

The book was a slow but steadily increasing success, and by the following year Dodgson was already considering a sequel to it, based on further stories told to the Liddells.

 
 
The result was Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There (dated 1872; actually published December 1871), a work as good as, or better than, its predecessor.

By the time of Dodgson’s death, Alice (taking the two volumes as a single artistic triumph) had become the most popular children’s book in England: by the time of his centenary in 1932 it was one of the most popular and perhaps the most famous in the world.

There is no answer to the mystery of Alice’s success. Many explanations have been suggested, but, like the Mad Hatter’s riddle (“The riddle, as originally invented, had no answer at all”), they are no more than afterthoughts.

 
 
The book is not an allegory; it has no hidden meaning or message, either religious, political, or psychological, as some have tried to prove; and its only undertones are some touches of gentle satire—on education for the children’s special benefit and on familiar university types, whom the Liddells may or may not have recognized. Various attempts have been made to solve the “riddle of Lewis Carroll” himself; these include the efforts to prove that his friendships with little girls were some sort of subconscious substitute for a married life, that he showed symptoms of jealousy when his favourites came to tell him that they were engaged to be married, that he contemplated marriage with some of them—notably with Alice Liddell. But there is little or no evidence to back up such theorizing. He in fact dropped the acquaintance of Alice Liddell when she was 12, as he did with most of his young friends. In the case of the Liddells, his friendship with the younger children, Rhoda and Violet, was cut short at the time of his skits on some of Dean Liddell’s Christ Church “reforms.” For besides children’s stories, Dodgson also produced humorous pamphlets on university affairs, which still make good reading. The best of these were collected by him as Notes by an Oxford Chiel (1874).

Besides writing for them, Dodgson is also to be remembered as a fine photographer of children and of adults as well (notable portraits of the actress Ellen Terry, the poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson, the poet-painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and many others survive and have been often reproduced). Dodgson had an early ambition to be an artist: failing in this, he turned to photography. He photographed children in every possible costume and situation, finally making nude studies of them. But in 1880 Dodgson abandoned his hobby altogether, feeling that it was taking up too much time that might be better spent. Suggestions that this sudden decision was reached because of an impurity of motive for his nude studies have been made, but again without any evidence.

  Before he had told the original tale of Alice’s Adventures, Dodgson had, in fact, published a number of humorous items in verse and prose and a few inferior serious poems. The earliest of these appeared anonymously, but in March 1856 a poem called “Solitude” was published over the pseudonym Lewis Carroll.
Dodgson arrived at this pen name by taking his own names Charles Lutwidge, translating them into Latin as Carolus Ludovicus, then reversing and retranslating them into English. He used the name afterward for all his nonacademic works. As Charles L. Dodgson, he was the author of a fair number of books on mathematics, none of enduring importance, although Euclid and His Modern Rivals (1879) is of some historical interest. His humorous and other verses were collected in 1869 as Phantasmagoria and Other Poems and later separated (with additions) as Rhyme? and Reason? (1883) and Three Sunsets and Other Poems (published posthumously, 1898). The 1883 volume also contained The Hunting of the Snark, a narrative nonsense poem that is rivalled only by the best of Edward Lear.

Later in life, Dodgson had attempted a return to the Alice vein but only produced Sylvie and Bruno (1889) and its second volume, Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (1893), which has been described aptly as “one of the most interesting failures in English literature.”

This elaborate combination of fairy-tale, social novel, and collection of ethical discussions is unduly neglected and ridiculed. It presents the truest available portrait of the man. Alice, the perfect creation of the logical and mathematical mind applied to the pure and unadulterated amusement of children, was struck out of him as if by chance; while making full use of his specialized knowledge, it transcends his weaknesses and remains unique.

Roger Lancelyn Green

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
     
  Lewis Carroll

Lewis Carroll - photographer
"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
     
 
 
     
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1832
 
 
Crabbe George, English poet, d. (b. 1754)
 
 


Monument to poet George Crabbe in St. James Church, Trowbridge, Wiltshire, England.

The inscription reads:

SACRED to the memory of THE REVd G. CRABBE L.L.B.
who died on the 3rd of February 1832
in the 78th year of his age
and the 18th year of his services as rector of this parish.
Born in humble life, he made himself what he was; breaking through the obscurity of his birth by the force of his genius; yet he never ceased to feel for the less fortunate; entering, as his works can testify, into the sorrows and wants of the poorest of his parishioners, and so discharging the duties of a pastor and a magistrate as to endear himself to all around him, as a writer he cannot be better described than in the words of a great poet, his contemporary, "tho' nature's sternest painter, yet her best".

This monument was erected by some of his affectionate friends and parishioners.

 
see also: George Crabbe
 
 
     
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1832
 
 
Casimir Delavigne: "Louis XI"
 
 
Delavigne Casimir
 

Jean-François Casimir Delavigne (4 April 1793 – 11 December 1843) was a French poet and dramatist.

 

Jean-François Casimir Delavigne
  Life and career
Delavigne was born at Le Havre, but was sent to Paris to be educated at the Lycée Napoleon. He read extensively. When, on 20 March 1811 the empress Marie Louise gave birth to a son, named in his cradle as king of Rome, the event was celebrated by Delavigne in a Dithyrambe sur la naissance du roi de Rome, which obtained him a sinecure in the revenue office.

About this time he competed twice for an academy prize, but without success. Inspired by the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, he wrote two impassioned poems, the first entitled Waterloo, the second, Devastation du muse, both written in the heat of patriotic enthusiasm, and teeming with popular political allusions. A third, less successful poem, Sur le besoin de s'unir après le départ des étrangers, was afterwards added. These stirring pieces, termed by him Messéniennes, found an echo in the hearts of the French people.

Twenty-five thousand copies were sold; Delavigne was famous. He was appointed to an honorary librarianship, with no duties to discharge. In 1819 his play Les Vêpres Siciliennes was performed at the Odéon, then just rebuilt; it had previously been refused for the Théâtre Français. On the night of the first representation, which was warmly received, Picard, the manager, is said to have exclaimed, "You have saved us! You are the founder of the second French Theatre."

This success was followed up by the production of the Comédiens (1820), an inferior play, with little plot, and the Paria (1821), which contained some well-written choruses.

 
 
The latter piece obtained a longer lease of life than its intrinsic literary merits warranted, on account of the popularity of the political opinions freely expressed in it: so freely expressed, indeed, that the displeasure of the king was incurred, and Delavigne lost his post. But Louis-Philippe of France, willing to gain the people's good wishes by complimenting their favourite, wrote to him as follows:

"The thunder has descended on your house; I offer you an apartment in mine."

Accordingly Delavigne became librarian at the Palais Royal, a position he retained for the rest of his life. It was here that he wrote the École des vieillards (1823), his best comedy, which gained his election to the Académie française in 1825. To this period also belong La Princesse Aurilie (1828), and Marino Faliero (1829), a drama in the romantic style.

 
 
For his success as a writer Delavigne was largely indebted to the nature of the times in which he lived. The Messéniennes had their origin in the excitement resulting from the occupation of France by the allies in 1815. Another crisis in his life and in the history of his country, the revolution of 1830, stimulated him to the production of a second masterpiece, La Parisienne. This song, set to music by Daniel Auber, was on the lips of every Frenchman, and rivalled in popularity the Marseillaise. It was the French national anthem during the July Monarchy. A companion piece, La Varsovienne, was written for the Poles, by whom it was sung on the march to battle. Other works of Delavigne followed each other in rapid succession:

Louis XI (1832)
Les Enfants d'Édouard (1833)
Don Juan d'Autriche (1835)
Une Famille au temps du Luther (1836)
La Popularité (1838)
La Fille du Cid (1839)
Le Conseiller rapporteur (1840)
Charles VI (1843), an opera partly written by his brother Germain Delavigne, music by Fromental Halévy

  In 1843 he left Paris to seek in Italy the health his labors had cost him. At Lyons his strength altogether gave way, and he died on 11 December.

By many of his own time Delavigne was looked upon as unsurpassed and unsurpassable. Every one bought and read his works. But the applause of the moment was gained at the sacrifice of lasting fame. As a writer he had many excellences. He expressed himself in a terse and vigorous style. The poet of reason rather than of imagination, he recognized his own province, and was rarely tempted to flights of fancy beyond his powers. He wrote always as he would have spoken, from sincere conviction.

His Poèsies and his Théâtre were published in 1863. His Œuvres completes (new edition, 1855) contains a biographical notice by his brother, Germain Delavigne, who is best known as a librettist in opera. See also Sainte-Beuve, Portraits littéraires, vol. v.; A Favrot, Étude sur Casimir Delavigne (1894); and F Vuacheux, Casimir Delavigne (1893).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
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1832
 
 
Devrient Ludwig, most celebrated Ger. actor of his time, d. (b. 1784)
 
 

Ludwig Devrient
 
 
 
1832
 
 
Disraeli Benjamin: "Contarini Fleming," autobiographical novel
 
 
 
 
see also: Benjamin Disraeli
 
 
     
  Western Literature

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1832
 
 
Echegaray Jose
 

José Echegaray y Eizaguirre, (born April 19, 1832, Madrid, Spain—died Sept. 4, 1916, Madrid), mathematician, statesman, and the leading Spanish dramatist of the last quarter of the 19th century. Along with the Provençal poet Frédéric Mistral, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1904.

 

José Echegaray y Eizaguirre
  A professor of mathematics in his early life, he entered government service in 1868, holding various positions. He was named minister of finance in 1874 and played a major role in developing the Banco de España.

His first play, El libro talonario (“The Checkbook”), was not produced until 1874, when he was 42; but he had a prolific career, producing an average of two plays a year for the rest of his life. His early work is almost wholly Romantic, but, under the influence of Henrik Ibsen and others, he turned to thesis drama in his later work.

He often displayed his thesis by use of a satiric reversal; in O locura o santidad (1877; Madman or Saint), he showed that honesty is condemned as madness by society. In all his plays his manner is melodramatic.

Though forgotten now, he achieved tremendous popularity in his day because of his fertile imagination, which he almost invariably used to compensate for his lack of dramatic force.

His use of skillfully contrived stage effects, although disastrous in much of his own work, did much to revolutionize the scope of the Spanish theatre.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
     
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1832
 
 
Goethe Johann Wolfgang, the greatest German poet, d. (b. 1749)
 
 

Goethe in the Roman Campagna (1786) by Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein.
 
 
 
     
  Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

"Faust"

Illustrations by Eugene Delacroix and Harry Clarke
     
 
 
     
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1832
 
 
Freneau Philip, "Poet of the American Revolution," d. (b. 1752)
 
 

Philip Freneau
 
 
see also: Philip Freneau
 
 
     
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1832
 
 
Hunt Leigh: "Poetical Works"
 
 
 
 
see also: Leigh Hunt
 
 
     
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1832
 
 
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
 

Tales of the Alhambra is a collection of essays, verbal sketches, and stories by Irving Washington.

 
BackgroundShortly after completing a biography of Christopher Columbus in 1828, Washington Irving traveled from Madrid, where he had been staying, to Granada, Spain. At first sight, he described it as "a most picturesque and beautiful city, situated in one of the loveliest landscapes that I have ever seen." Irving was preparing a book called A Chronicle of the Conquest of Granada, a history of the years 1478–1492, and was continuing his research on the topic. He immediately asked the then-governor of the historic Alhambra Palace as well as the archbishop of Granada for access to the palace, which was granted because of Irving's celebrity status. Aided by a 35-year old guide named Mateo Ximenes, Irving was inspired by his experience to write Tales of the Alhambra. The book combines description, myth and narrations of real historical events, even up through the destruction of some of the palace's towers by the French under Count Sebastiani in 1812, and the further damage caused by an earthquake in 1821. Throughout his trip, Washington filled his notebooks and journals with descriptions and observations though he did not believe his writing would ever do it justice. He wrote, "How unworthy is my scribbling of the place."[3] Irving continued to travel through Spain until he was appointed as secretary of legation at the United States Embassy in London, serving under the incoming minister Louis McLane. He arrived in London by late September 1829.

Publication history
The Alhambra : a series of tales and sketches of the Moors and Spaniards was published in May 1832 in the United States by publishers Lea & Carey and concurrently in England by Henry Colburn. Consisting of a series of essays and short fiction pieces, it was referred to as his "Spanish Sketch Book". Shortly after the book's publication, Irving returned to New York after a 17-year absence from the United States.
In 1851 Irving wrote an "Author's Revised Edition", also titled Tales of the Alhambra.

 
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
 
 
Legacy and influence
The book was instrumental in reintroducing the Alhambra to Western audiences. A plaque now marks the rooms in which Irving stayed while writing some of his book.

Alexander Pushkin's 1834 tale in verse The Tale of the Golden Cockerel is based on two chapters of Tales of the Alhambra. In turn, the Pushkin poem inspired Vladimir Belsky's libretto for the opera "The Golden Cockerel" by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov.

 
 

Irving lived at the Alhambra Palace while writing some of the material for his book.
 
 
The book serves as the basis of the 1950 Spanish film Tales of the Alhambra.

Villa Zorayda, a museum in St. Augustine, Florida based on a wing of the Alhambra, takes its name from a character in Irving's book (specifically from "Legend of the Three Beautiful Princesses" [9]

The city of Alhambra, California is named after the book. In 1874, the daughter of Benjamin Wilson was reading the book and encouraged him to use the name for his new Los Angeles suburban development.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
     
  Washington Irving

"The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"
"Rip Van Winkle"


Illustrations by Arthur Rackham
     
 
 
     
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1832
 
 
John P. Kennedy: "Swallow Barn," sketches of Southern plantation life
 
 
Kennedy John Pendleton
 

John Pendleton Kennedy (October 25, 1795 – August 18, 1870) was an American novelist and Whig politician who served as United States Secretary of the Navy from July 26, 1852 to March 4, 1853, during the administration of President Millard Fillmore, and as a U.S. Representative from the Maryland's 4th congressional district.

 

John Pendleton Kennedy
  He was the brother of U.S. Senator Anthony Kennedy. He was also the Speaker of the Maryland State assembly and served several different terms in the assembly.

Kennedy helped to lead the effort to end slavery in Maryland, which, as a non-confederate state, was not affected by the Emancipation Proclamation and required a state law to free slaves within its borders and to outlaw the furtherance of the practice.

Kennedy was also an advocate of religious tolerance and also of memorializing and furthering study of Maryland history.

He is also credited with playing seminal roles in the founding of several historical, cultural and educational institutions in Maryland; including (the now called) Historic St. Mary's City (site of the colonial founding of Maryland and the birthplace of religious freedom in America), St. Mary's College of Maryland (then St. Mary's Female seminary), the Peabody Library (now a part of Johns Hopkins University) and the Peabody Conservatory of Music (also now a part of Johns Hopkins).

He also played key and decisive roles in the United States government's study, adoption and implementation of the telegraph.

 
 
John P. Kennedy, in full John Pendleton Kennedy, pseudonym Mark Littleton (born Oct. 25, 1795, Baltimore, Md., U.S.—died Aug. 18, 1870, Newport, R.I.), American statesman and writer whose best remembered work was his historical fiction.

Kennedy was admitted to the Maryland bar in 1816. From 1821 he served two terms in the Maryland House of Delegates and three terms in the U.S. Congress and was secretary of the navy in the cabinet of President Millard Fillmore.

In the latter capacity, he organized Commodore Matthew Perry’s trip to Japan. Meanwhile, using the pen name of Mark Littleton, Kennedy wrote historical novels, including Swallow Barn (1832), sketches of the post-Revolutionary life of gentlemen on Virginia plantations, and Rob of the Bowl (1838), a tale of colonial Maryland in which Protestants overthrow Roman Catholic control.

Kennedy’s major work of nonfiction is Memoirs of the Life of William Wirt (1849), about the man who was an attorney for the prosecution in the trial of Aaron Burr for treason. He also coedited the satirical magazine Red Book (1818–19) and wrote political articles for the National Intelligencer. His novels were his main achievement, however; although their style was imitative of the work of Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper, they were capably and imaginatively written.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
John P. Kennedy: "Swallow Barn"
 
 
see also: John Pendleton Kennedy
 
 
     
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1832
 
 
Lenau Nikolaus: "Gedichte"
 
 
 
 
     
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1832
 
 
Silvio Pellico: "Le Mie prigioni"
 
 
Pellico Silvio
 

Silvio Pellico (24 June 1789 – 31 January 1854) was an Italian writer, poet, dramatist and patriot.

 

Silvio Pellico
  Biography
Silvio Pellico was born at Saluzzo (Piedmont). He spent the earlier portion of his life at Pinerolo and Turin, under the tuition of a priest named Manavella. At the age of ten he composed a tragedy inspired by a translation of the Ossianic poems. On the marriage of his twin sister Rosina with a maternal cousin at Lyon, he went to reside in that city, devoting himself during four years to the study of French literature. He returned in 1810 to Milan, where he became professor of French in the Collegio degli Orfani Militari.

His tragedy Francesca da Rimini was brought out with success by Carlotta Marchionni at Milan in 1818. Its publication was followed by that of the tragedy Euphemio da Messina, but the representation of the latter was forbidden.
Pellico had in the meantime continued his work as tutor, first to the unfortunate son of Count Briche, and then to the two sons of Count Porro Lambertenghi (it). He threw himself heartily into an attempt to weaken the hold of the Austrian despotism by indirect educational means. 

Of the powerful literary executive which gathered about Counts Porro and Confalonieri, Pellico was the able secretary the management of the Conciliatore, a review which appeared in 1818 as the organ of the association, resting largely upon him.

 
 
But the paper, under the censorship of the Austrian officials, ran for a year only, and the society itself was broken up by the government. In October 1820, Pellico was arrested on the charge of carbonarism and conveyed to the Santa Margherita prison. After his removal to the Piombi at Venice in February 1821, he composed several Cantiche and the tragedies Ester d'Engaddi and Iginici d'Asti.
 
 

The Arrest of Silvio Pellico and Piero Maroncelli, Saluzzo, civic museum.
 
 
The sentence of death pronounced on him in February 1822 was finally commuted to fifteen years of jail in harsh condition, and in the following April he was placed in the Spielberg, at Brünn (today's Brno), where he was transferred via Udine and Ljubljana. His chief work during this part of his imprisonment was the tragedy Leoniero da Dertona, for the preservation of which he was compelled to rely on his memory.
 
 
After his release in 1830, he commenced the publication of his prison compositions, of which the Ester was played at Turin in 1831, but immediately suppressed. In 1832, his Gismonda da Mendrisio, Erodiade and the Leoniero , appeared under the title of Tre nuove tragedie, and in the same year the work which gave him his European fame, Le mie prigioni (it), an account of his sufferings in prison. The last gained him the friendship of the Marchesa di Barolo, the reformer of the Turin prisons, and in 1834 he accepted from her a yearly pension of 1200 francs. His tragedy Tommaso Moro had been published in 1833, his most important subsequent publication being the Opere inedite in 1837.

On the decease of his parents in 1838, he was received into the Casa Barolo, where he remained until his death, assisting the marchesa in her charities, and writing chiefly upon religious themes. Of these works the best known is the Dei doveri degli uomini, a series of trite maxims which do honor to his piety rather than to his critical judgment. A fragmentary biography of the marchesa by Pellico was published in Italian and English after her death.

He died in 1854 at Turin. He was buried in the Camposanto, Turin.

While Pellico's tragedies are generally considered mediocre, the simple narrative and naive egotism of Le mie prigioni has established his strongest claim to remembrance, winning fame by his misfortunes rather than by his genius. "My prisons" contributed to the Italian unification, against Austrian occupation. The pamphlet was translated into virtually every European language during Pellico's lifetime.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Silvio Pellico: "Le Mie prigioni"
 
 
 
     
  Western Literature

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1832
 
 
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
 

Eugene Onegin is a novel in verse written by Pushkin Aleksandr Sergeyevich.

 
It is a classic of Russian literature, and its eponymous protagonist has served as the model for a number of Russian literary heroes (so-called superfluous men).

It was published in serial form between 1825 and 1832. The first complete edition was published in 1833, and the currently accepted version is based on the 1837 publication.

Almost the entire work is made up of 389 stanzas of iambic tetrameter with the unusual rhyme scheme "AbAbCCddEffEgg", where the uppercase letters represent feminine rhymes while the lowercase letters represent masculine rhymes. This form has come to be known as the "Onegin stanza" or the "Pushkin sonnet."

The rhythm, innovative rhyme scheme, the natural tone and diction, and the economical transparency of presentation all demonstrate the virtuosity which has been instrumental in proclaiming Pushkin as the undisputed master of Russian poetry.

The story is told by a narrator (a lightly fictionalized version of Pushkin's public image), whose tone is educated, worldly, and intimate.

The narrator digresses at times, usually to expand on aspects of this social and intellectual world. This allows for a development of the characters and emphasises the drama of the plot despite its relative simplicity.

The book is admired for the artfulness of its verse narrative as well as for its exploration of life, death, love, ennui, convention and passion.

 
 
 
Main characters
Eugene Onegin: A dandy from Saint Petersburg, about 26. An arrogant, selfish and world-weary cynic.
Vladimir Lensky: A young poet, about 18. A very romantic and naïve dreamer.
Tatyana Larina: A shy and quiet, but passionate landowner's daughter. Pushkin referred to her as aged 17 in a letter to Pyotr Vyazemsky.
Olga Larina: Tatyana's younger sister, a vain coquette.
 
 
Plot
In the 1820s, Eugene Onegin is a bored Saint Petersburg dandy, whose life consists of balls, concerts, parties and nothing more. One day he inherits a landed estate from his uncle. When he moves to the country, he strikes up a friendship with his neighbor, a starry-eyed young poet named Vladimir Lensky. One day, Lensky takes Onegin to dine with the family of his fiancée, the sociable but rather thoughtless Olga Larina. At this meeting he also catches a glimpse of Olga's sister Tatyana. A quiet, precocious romantic and the exact opposite of Olga, Tatyana becomes intensely drawn to Onegin. Soon after, she bares her soul to Onegin in a letter professing her love. Contrary to her expectations, Onegin does not write back. When they meet in person, he rejects her advances politely but dismissively and condescendingly. This famous speech is often referred to as Onegin's Sermon: he admits that the letter was touching, but says that he would quickly grow bored with marriage and can only offer Tatyana friendship; he coldly advises more emotional control in the future, lest another man take advantage of her innocence.

Later, Lensky mischievously invites Onegin to Tatyana's name day celebration promising a small gathering with just Tatyana, Olga, and their parents. When Onegin arrives, he finds instead a boisterous country ball, a rural parody of and contrast to the society balls of St. Petersburg he has grown tired of.
 
Eugene Onegin as imagined by Alexander Pushkin, 1830.
 
 
Onegin is irritated with the guests who gossip about him and Tatyana, and with Lensky for persuading him to come. He decides to avenge himself by dancing and flirting with Olga. Olga is insensitive to her fiancé and apparently attracted to Onegin. Earnest and inexperienced, Lensky is wounded to the core and challenges Onegin to fight a duel; Onegin reluctantly accepts, feeling compelled by social convention. During the duel, Onegin unwillingly kills Lensky. Afterwards, he quits his country estate, traveling abroad to deaden his feelings of remorse.

Tatyana visits Onegin's mansion, where she looks through his books and his notes in the margins, and begins to question whether Onegin's character is merely a collage of different literary heroes, and if there is, in fact, no "real Onegin".

Several years pass, and the scene shifts to St. Petersburg. Onegin has come to attend the most prominent balls and interact with the leaders of old Russian society. He sees the most beautiful woman, who captures the attention of all and is central to society's whirl, and he realizes that it is the same Tatyana whose love he had once turned away. Now she is married to an aged prince. Upon seeing Tatyana again, he becomes obsessed with winning her affection, despite the fact that she is married. However, his attempts are rebuffed. He writes her several letters, but receives no reply. Eventually Onegin manages to see Tatyana and presents to her the opportunity to finally elope after they have become reacquainted. Does he desire her only for her wealth and position? She recalls the days when they might have been happy, but that time has passed. Onegin repeats his love for her. Faltering for a moment, she admits that she still loves him, but she will not allow him to ruin her and declares her determination to remain faithful to her husband. She leaves him regretting his bitter destiny.

 
 
Major themes
One of the main themes of Eugene Onegin is the relationship between fiction and real life. People are often shaped by art and the work is suitably packed with allusions to other major literary works.

Another major element is Pushkin's creation of a woman of intelligence and depth in Tatyana, whose vulnerable sincerity and openness on the subject of love has made her the heroine of countless Russian women, despite her apparent naivety.

Pushkin, in the final chapter, fuses his Muse and Tatyana's new 'form' in society after a lengthy description of how she has guided him in his works.

Perhaps the darkest theme – despite the light touch of the narration – is his presentation of the deadly inhumanity of social convention. Onegin is its bearer in this work. His induction into selfishness, vanity, and indifference occupies the introduction, and he is unable to escape it when he moves to the country.

His inability to relate to the feelings of others and his frozen lack of empathy – the cruelty instilled in him by the "world" – is epitomized in the very first stanza of the first book by his stunningly self-centred thoughts about being with the dying uncle whose estate he is to inherit.

 
Onegin by Dmitry Kardovsky, 1909
 
 
"But God how deadly dull to sample
sickroom attendance night and day
...
and sighing ask oneself all through
"When will the devil come for you?"

However, the "devil comes for Onegin" when he literally kills the innocent and the sincere, shooting Lensky in the duel, and metaphorically kills innocence and sincerity when he rejects Tatyana. She learns her lesson, and armoured against feelings and steeped in convention she crushes his later sincerity and remorse. (This epic reversal of roles, and the work's broad social perspectives, provide ample justification for its subtitle "a novel in verse".)

Tatyana's nightmare illustrates the concealed aggression of the "world". She is chased over a frozen winter landscape by a terrifying bear (representing the ferocity of Onegin's inhuman persona) and confronted by demons and goblins in a hut she hopes will provide shelter. This is contrasted to the open vitality of the "real" people at the country ball, giving dramatic emphasis to the war of warm human feelings with the chilling artificiality of society.

So, Onegin has lost his love, killed his only friend, and found no satisfaction in his life. He is a victim of his own pride and selfishness. He is doomed to loneliness, and this is his tragedy.

The conflict between art and life was no mere fiction in Russia. It is illustrated by Pushkin's own fate, having been killed in a duel. He was driven to death, falling victim to the social conventions of Russian high society.

 
 
Composition and publication
As with many other 19th century novels, Onegin was written and published serially, with parts of each chapter often appearing published in magazines before the first printing of each chapter.

Many changes, some small and some large, were made from the first appearance to the final edition during Pushkin's lifetime. The following dates mostly come from Nabokov's study of the photographs of Pushkin's drafts that were available at the time, as well as other people's work on the subject.

The first stanza of chapter 1 was started on May 9, 1823, and except for three stanzas (XXXIII, XVIII and XIX), the chapter was finished on October 22. The remaining stanzas were completed and added to his notebook by the first week of October 1824.

Chapter 1 was first published as a whole in a booklet on February 16, 1825, with a foreword that suggests Pushkin had no clear plan on how (or even whether) he would continue the novel. 

 
Onegin by Elena Samokish-Sudkovskaya, 1908
 
 
Chapter 2 was started on October 22, 1823 (the date when most of chapter 1 had been finished), and finished by December 8, except for stanzas XL and XXXV, which were added sometime over the next three months. The first separate edition of chapter 2 appeared on October 20, 1826.
 
 
 
Many events occurred which interrupted the writing of Chapter Three. In January 1824, Pushkin stopped work on Onegin to work on The Gypsies. Except for XXV, stanzas I–XXXI were added on September 25, 1824. Nabokov guesses that Tanya's Letter was written in Odessa between February 8 and May 31, 1824.

Pushkin incurred the displeasure of the Tsarist regime in Odessa and was restricted to his family estate Mikhaylovskoye in Pskov for two years. He left Odessa on July 21, 1824, and arrived on August 9. Writing resumed on September 5, and chapter 3 was finished (apart from stanza XXXVI) on October 2. The first separate publication of chapter 3 was on October 10, 1827.

Chapter 4 was started in October 1824, by the end of the year Pushkin had written 23 stanzas and had reached XXVII by January 5, 1825, at which point he started writing stanzas for Onegin's Journey and worked on other pieces of writing. He thought it was finished on September 12, 1825, but later continued the process of rearranging, adding and omitting stanzas were till the first week of 1826. The first separate edition on of chapter 4 appeared with chapter 5 in a publication produced between January 31 and February 2, 1828.

The writing of chapter 5 began on January 4, 1826, and 24 stanzas were complete before the start of his trip to petition the Tsar for his freedom. He left on September 4 and returned on November 2, 1826.

 
A sketch by Pushkin of himself and Onegin lounging in St. Petersburg
 
 
He completed the rest of the chapter in the week November 15 to 22, 1826. The first separate edition of chapter 5 appeared with chapter 4 in a publication produced between January 31 and February 2, 1828.
 
 
When Nabokov made his study on the writing of Onegin the manuscript of chapter 6 was lost, but we know that Pushkin started chapter 6 before he had finished chapter 5. Most of the chapter appears to have been written before the beginning of December 19, 1826 when he returned from exile in his family estate to Moscow. Many stanzas appeared to have been written between November 22 and 25, 1826. On March 23, 1828, the first separate edition of chapter 6 was published.
Pushkin started writing chapter 7 in March 1827, but aborted his original plan for the plot of the chapter and started on a different tack, completing the chapter on November 4, 1828. The first separate edition of chapter 7 was first printed on March 18, 1836.

Pushkin intended to write a chapter called "Onegin's Journey", which occurred between the events of Chapter 7 and 8, and in fact was supposed to be the eighth chapter. Fragments of this incomplete chapter were published, in the same way that parts of each chapter had been published in magazines before each chapter was first published in its first separate edition. When Pushkin first completed chapter 8 he published it as the final chapter and included within its denouement the line nine cantos I have written still intending to complete this missing chapter. When Pushkin finally decided to abandon this chapter he removed parts of the ending to fit with the change.

 
Tatiana
 
 
Chapter 8 was begun before December 24, 1829, while Pushkin was in Petersburg. In August 1830, he went to Boldino (the Pushkin family estate) where, due to an epidemic of cholera, he was forced to stay for three months. During this time, he produced what Nabokov describes as an "incredible number of masterpieces" and finished copying out chapter 8 on September 25, 1830. During the summer of 1831, Pushkin revised and completed chapter 8 apart from "Onegin's Letter", which was completed on October 5, 1831. The first separate edition of chapter 8 appeared on January 10, 1832.

Pushkin wrote at least eighteen stanzas of a never-completed tenth chapter. It contained many satire and even direct criticism on contemporary Russian rulers, including the Emperor himself. Afraid of being prosecuted for dissidence, Pushkin burnt most of the 10th chapter. Very little of it survived in Pushkin's notebooks.

The first complete edition of the book was published in 1833.
Slight corrections were made by Pushkin for the 1837 edition. The standard accepted text is based on the 1837 edition with a few changes due to the Tsar's censorship restored.

 
 

Duel by Ilya Repin, 1899
 
 
The duel
In Pushkin's time, the early 19th century, duels were very strictly regulated. A second's primary duty was to prevent the duel from actually happening, and only when both combatants were unwilling to stand down were they to make sure that the duel proceeded according to formalised rules. A challenger's second should therefore always ask the challenged party if he wants to apologise for his actions that have led to the challenge.

In Eugene Onegin, Lensky's second, Zaretsky, does not ask Onegin even once if he would like to apologise, and because Onegin is not allowed to apologise on his own initiative, the duel takes place, with fatal consequences. Zaretsky is described as "classical and pedantic in duels" (chapter 6, stanza XXVI), and this seems very out of character for a nobleman.

 
 
Zaretsky's first chance to end the duel is when he delivers Lensky's written challenge to Onegin (chapter 6, stanza IX). Instead of asking Onegin if he would like to apologise, he apologises for having much to do at home and leaves as soon as Onegin (obligatorily) accepts the challenge.

On the day of the duel, Zaretsky gets several more chances to prevent the duel from happening. Because dueling was forbidden in the Russian Empire, duels were always held at dawn. Zaretsky urges Lensky to get ready shortly after 6 o'clock in the morning (chapter 6, stanza XXIII), while the sun only rises at 20 past 8, because he expects Onegin to be on time. However, Onegin oversleeps (chapter 6, stanza XXIV), and arrives on the scene more than an hour late. According to the dueling codex, if a duelist arrives more than 15 minutes late, he automatically forfeits the duel. Lensky and Zaretsky have been waiting all that time (chapter 6, stanza XXVI), even though it was Zaretsky's duty to proclaim Lensky as winner and take him home.
When Onegin finally arrives, Zaretsky is supposed to ask him a final time if he would like to apologise. Instead, Zaretsky is surprised by the apparent absence of Onegin's second. Onegin, against all rules, appoints his servant Guillot as his second which was the last action to take from a noble man (chapter 6, stanza XXVII), a blatant insult for the nobleman Zaretsky. Zaretsky angrily accepts Guillot as Onegin's second. By his actions, Zaretsky does not act as a nobleman should, in the end Onegin wins the duel.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Onegin proposes to Tatiana, late 19th century illustration by Pavel Sokolov
 
 
 
     
  Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin

"The Bronze Horseman" 
Illustration by Alexandre Benois
"Eugene Onegin"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
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1832
 
 
Sir Scott Walter, Scot. poet and novelist, d. (b. 1771)
 
 

Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet
 
 
 
     
 
Sir Walter Scott

"Ivanhoe"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1832
 
 
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
 

"The Lady of Shalott" is a Victorian ballad by the English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson (Tennyson Alfred). Like his other early poems – "Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere" and "Galahad" – the poem recasts Arthurian subject matter loosely based on medieval sources. Tennyson wrote two versions of the poem, one published in 1833, of twenty stanzas, the other in 1842 of nineteen stanzas.

 

John William Waterhouse's The Lady of Shalott, 1888 (Tate Britain, London)


Overview
The poem was loosely based on the Arthurian legend of Elaine of Astolat, as recounted in a thirteenth-century Italian novella titled Donna di Scalotta (No. LXXXII in the collection Cento Novelle Antiche), with the earlier version being closer to the source material than the later. Tennyson focused on the Lady's "isolation in the tower and her decision to participate in the living world, two subjects not even mentioned in Donna di Scalotta."



Waterhouse's The Lady of Shalott Looking at Lancelot, 1894

 

Synopsis
The first four Stanzas of the 1842 poem describe a pastoral setting. The Lady of Shalott lives in an island castle in a river which flows to Camelot, but little is known about her by the local farmers.

And by the moon the reaper weary,
Piling sheaves in uplands airy,
Listening, whispers, " 'Tis the fairy
Lady of Shalott."




'The Lady of Shalott' by John Atkinson Grimshaw



Stanzas five to eight describe the lady's life. She suffers from a mysterious curse, and must continually weave images on her loom without ever looking directly out at the world. Instead, she looks into a mirror, which reflects the busy road and the people of Camelot that pass by her island.

She knows not what the curse may be,
And so she weaveth steadily,
And little other care hath she,
The Lady of Shalott.



The Lady of Shalott' by Seymour Garstin Harvey



The reflected images are described as "shadows of the world", a metaphor that makes clear that they are a poor substitute for seeing directly ("I am half-sick of shadows".)

Stanzas nine to twelve describe "bold Sir Lancelot" as he rides by, and is seen by the lady.

All in the blue unclouded weather
Thick-jewell'd shone the saddle-leather,
The helmet and the helmet-feather
Burn'd like one burning flame together,
As he rode down to Camelot.

 


Illustration by W. E. F. Britten for a 1901 edition of Tennyson's poems


The remaining seven stanzas describe the effect on the lady of seeing Lancelot; she stops weaving and looks out of her window toward Camelot, bringing about the curse.

Out flew the web and floated wide-
The mirror crack'd from side to side;
"The curse is come upon me," cried
The Lady of Shalott.



'The Lady of Shalott' by Walter Crane



She leaves her tower, finds a boat upon which she writes her name, and floats down the river to Camelot. She dies before arriving at the palace. Among the knights and ladies who see her is Lancelot, who thinks she is lovely.

"Who is this? And what is here?"
And in the lighted palace near
Died the sound of royal cheer;
And they crossed themselves for fear,
All the Knights at Camelot;

But Lancelot mused a little space
He said, "She has a lovely face;
God in his mercy lend her grace,
The Lady of Shalott."




Hunt's Lady of Shalott (1905)



Themes

According to scholar Anne Zanzucchi, "[i]n a more general sense, it is fair to say that the pre-Raphaelite fascination with Arthuriana is traceable to Tennyson's work". Tennyson's biographer Leonée Ormonde finds the Arthurian material is "Introduced as a valid setting for the study of the artist and the dangers of personal isolation".

Modern critics consider The Lady of Shalott to be representative of the dilemma that faces artists, writers, and musicians: to create work about and celebrate the world, or to enjoy the world by simply living in it. Feminist critics see the poem as concerned with issues of women's sexuality and their place in the Victorian world. The fact that the poem works through such complex and polyvalent symbolism indicates an important difference between Tennyson's work and his Arthurian source material. While Tennyson's sources tended to work through allegory, Tennyson himself did not.



"The Lady of Shalott" by Arthur Hughes. 1873

 

Critics such as Hatfield have suggested that The Lady of Shalott is a representation of how Tennyson viewed society; the distance at which other people are in the lady's eyes is symbolic of the distance he feels from society. The fact that she only sees them reflected through a mirror is significant of the way in which Shalott and Tennyson see the world—in a filtered sense. This distance is therefore linked to the artistic licence Tennyson often wrote about.



Waterhouse's "I Am Half-Sick of Shadows," Said the Lady of Shalott
 

Cultural influence
Art

The poem was particularly popular amongst artists of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, who shared Tennyson's interest in Arthuriana; several of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood made paintings based on episodes from the poem.

The 1857 Moxon's edition of Tennyson's works was illustrated by William Holman Hunt and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Hunt depicted the moment when the Lady turns to see Lancelot. Rossetti depicted Lancelot's contemplation of her 'lovely face'. Neither illustration pleased Tennyson, who took Hunt to task for depicting the Lady caught in the threads of her tapestry, something which is not described in the poem. Hunt explained that he wanted to sum up the whole poem in a single image, and that the entrapment by the threads suggested her "weird fate". The scene fascinated Hunt, who returned to the composition at points throughout his life, finally painting a large scale version shortly before his death. He required assistants, as he was too frail to complete it himself. This deeply conceived evocation of the Lady, ensnared within the perfect rounds of her woven reality, is an apt illustration of the mythology of the weaving arts. This work is now in the collection of the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art in Hartford, Connecticut.



Elaine arrives at Camelot


John William Waterhouse painted three episodes from the poem. In 1888, he painted the Lady setting out for Camelot in her boat; this work is now in the Tate Gallery. In 1894, Waterhouse painted the Lady at the climactic moment when she turns to look at Lancelot in the window; this work is now in the City Art Gallery in Leeds. In 1915, Waterhouse painted "I Am Half-Sick of Shadows," Said the Lady of Shalott, as she sits wistfully before her loom; this work is now in the Art Gallery of Ontario.

Because of the similarity in the stories, paintings of Elaine of Astolat tend to be very similar to paintings of the Lady of Shalott. The presence of a servant rowing the boat is one aspect that distinguishes them.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 
     
  Alfred Tennyson

"Idylls of the King"
"Lady of Shalott", "Sir Galahad"
 
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
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1832
 
 
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 

Theodore Watts-Dunton, in full Walter Theodore Watts-Dunton, original name Walter Theodore Watts (born Oct. 12, 1832, St. Ives, Huntingdonshire, Eng.—died June 6, 1914, London), English critic and man of letters, who was the friend and, after 1879, protector, agent, and nurse of the poet Algernon Charles Swinburne.

 

Theodore Watts-Dunton
  Watts studied law and practiced in London, but his real interest was literature.
He contributed regularly to the Examiner and was the chief poetry reviewer of the Athenaeum from 1876 to 1902.

He wrote the article on poetry for the 9th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1885). He changed his surname to Watts-Dunton in 1896.

Much interested in the Roma (Gypsies), he wrote introductions to later editions of George Borrow’s books Lavengro and Romany Rye, which had been first published in the 1850s. Watts-Dunton’s very successful novel Aylwin (1898) is a romance that also contains a fictional portrait of Dante Gabriel Rossetti and his circle.

His other published works include the novel Vesprie Towers (1916) and a book of poems, The Coming of Love (1897).

Swinburne, already in poor health, collapsed completely in 1879 but recovered under Watts-Dunton’s care, which continued for some 30 years.

Watts-Dunton’s memoirs, Old Familiar Faces (1916), are a valuable record of his life and times.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
     
  Western Literature

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