Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1830 Part V NEXT-1831 Part II    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

Battle of Ostrołęka of 1831, an 1838 painting by Karol Malankiewicz
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1831 Part I
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Battle of Ostroleka
 

The Battle of Ostrołęka of 26 May 1831 was one of the largest engagements of Poland's November Uprising. Throughout the day, Polish forces under Jan Skrzynecki fought for the control over the town of Ostrołęka against the assaulting Russian forces of Hans Karl von Diebitsch. Although by the end of the day the town was still in Polish hands and the two sides suffered comparable losses, the battle is usually considered a Polish defeat because of the Russian army's almost unlimited strategic reinforcement capability. The Polish Army could not similarly replenish its casualties.

 
In the event, surviving Polish forces were saved by the particularly brave stand of its 4th Line Infantry Regiment, the "Czwartacy", who repelled several waves of enemy infantry and cavalry charges, holding the burning town during heavy fighting in close quarters. By late evening the Poles were again saved by a self-sacrificing charge of the 4th battery of mounted artillery led by Lt.Col. Józef Bem.
 
 

Battle of Ostrołęka of 1831, an 1838 painting by Karol Malankiewicz
 
 
The Battle
On the morning of 26 May, most of the Polish army was west of the Narew River except for General Tomasz Łubieński's 5th Infantry Division (part of the II Corps), and General Ludwik Bogusławski's 4th Regiment of Line Infantry, which were still east of Ostrołęka. Łubieński's orders from Ignacy Prądzyński was to "defend yourself through the day to come", despite facing Russian forces four times his size. The danger, according to the commanding officer of the Polish Cavalry Brigade, General Karol Turno, was in being trapped and pushed into the river as occurred in the Battle of Berezina. The Russian army made contact at 06:00 with the arrival of forces under General Georg von Nostitz, and the battle began at 09:00 when Fyodor Berg arrived, with the Poles offering strong resistance, forcing Nostitz to wait for the arrival of the rest of Field Marshal Diebitsch's forces, which included Generals Nabokov, Lopuchin, Manderstern and Shakhovskoy. By 10:00, Łubieński was forced back to Ostrołęka on the Narew, with some protection from Prądzyński's guns and veterans located on the sandy hills to the west. The Polish headquarters were moved to Kruki, further to the west, on the Omulew River, a tributary of the Narew.

Skrzynecki ordered Bogusławski to "defend the town to the death" with mainly the 4th Infantry Regiment (known by its nickname of "Czwartacy" - lit. "those of the Fourth") and two batteries of four cannons each.
  The 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 4th Infantry Regiment were deployed south of Ostrołęka, opposite the road to Rzekun, the 3rd Battalion on the road to Goworki and the 4th Battalion protecting the bridges. The 3rd Battalion took up defence inside the St. Anthony's Bernardine Monastery near the market, the only brick building in Ostrołęka.

By 11:00 Diebitsch had arrived and ordered the 1st Cuirasseur Guard Division to attack from the northern highway while the Astrakhan Grenadier Regiment attacked from Rzekun to the south, forcing the 1st and 4th Battalions to retreat in disarray, exposing the bridges, and forcing the "Czwartacy" in to help as the fighting moved in the direction of the market, almost trapping the Poles.

The constant cannonade caught buildings on fire, forcing the inhabitants to flee into the streets and market where the battle was raging and "Ostrołęka would begin more and more to resemble hell". Finally, Bogusławski ordered a retreat to the bridges, only to find they were in the process of being dismantled, forcing some of his soldiers to cross the river by swimming. His defence had lasted only an hour and was disastrous for the 4th Infantry Regiment, having lost 16 officers and 782 soldiers killed, wounded or captured. Diebitsch now had the opportunity of using the bridges the Poles did not have time to dismantle, to cross the Narew.

 
 
The Battle on a 19th-century gravure by Georg Benedikt Wunder
 
 
By now, Karl Wilhelm von Toll had 62 guns sweeping the valiant Poles and Diebitsch ordered the Astrakhan Regiment to cross the river using boards from the Ostrołęka homes to repair the damaged bridges. Ludwik Michał Pac then gathered remnants of the 3rd and 4th Battalions of the 4th Infantry Regiment, at 12:00, along with the 3rd Infantry Division to fight for the bridges. At 13:00, Maciej Rybiński's 1st Infantry Division was called into to help defend the bridges. At 15:00, Skrzynecki called for an ill-fated cavalry attack, the remnants of which were withdrawn by 17:00. By 18:00, the remnants of the 5th Infantry Division retreated in disorder to the rear, by which time two heroes, Ludwick Kicki and Henryk Ignacy Kamieński were dead.
 
 
At 19:00, Lt. Col. Józef Bem and Henryk Dembiński manoeuvred to make the Russians think the Poles still had hidden behind the hills reserve forces which would cost Diebitsch dearly if he continued to advance.

Bem's 4th Mounted Battery was so close to the Russian lines when they dismounted, that Bem had three Platoons use grenades and bullets and the last two used grapeshot. Silence prevailed until Bem ordered his cannons to fire at which time the entire Russian line of artillery responded. This lasted for about half an hour during which time Bem fired two hundred and fifty times.
The effect of Bem's "terrible shots" was to cut out the ranks of grenadiers in the streets, and the impression on Diebitsch was enough that he withdrew most of his troops from the bank of the Narew under cover of darkness.

However, between 20:00 and 22:00, Skrzynecki held a war council with his generals: Łubieński, Prądzyński, Skarżyński, Rybiński, Dembiński, Turno and Langermann in which they agreed to march towards Różan and then towards Warsaw, with Dembiński in command of the rearguard.

 
A German poem glorifying the 4th Regiment's actions at Ostrołęka
 
 
In Popular Culture
The battle became one of the symbols of the failed uprising. Julius Mosen, a German poet and writer, commemorated the 4th Regiment in his poem Die letzten Zehn vom vierten Regiment (The last 10 of the 4th Regiment), later widely-translated onto several languages. The battle also inspired Johan Sebastian Welhaven's Republikanerne.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 

Battle of Ostrołęka, 1831. Painting by Juliusz Kossak.
 
 
see also: November Uprising (1830–31)
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Caprivi Leo
 

Leo, count von Caprivi, (born February 24, 1831, Berlin-Charlottenburg—died February 6, 1899, near Crossen-an-der-Oder, Germany [now Krosno, Poland]), distinguished soldier who was Bismarck’s successor as Germany’s imperial chancellor during 1890–94.

 

Leo Count von Caprivi, Chancellor 1890—1894
  Caprivi was educated in Berlin and entered the army in 1849; he took part in the Austrian campaign of 1866, being attached to the staff of the I Army. In 1870–71, in the Franco-German War, he was chief of staff to the X Army Corps (part of the II Army) and took part in battles before Metz as well as in those around Orléans.

In 1883 he was made chief of the admiralty, in which post he commanded the fleet and represented the department in the Reichstag. He resigned in 1888 and was appointed commander of the X Army Corps. Bismarck had already referred to Caprivi as a possible successor, for Caprivi had shown great administrative ability and was unconnected with any political party, and in March 1890 he was appointed chancellor, Prussian minister president, and foreign minister.

Caprivi’s first achievement as chancellor was the conclusion in July 1890 of a general agreement with Great Britain regarding the spheres of influence of the two countries in Africa. But the abandonment of an aggressive policy in East Africa and Nigeria and the withdrawal of German claims to Zanzibar (in exchange for Heligoland) aroused the hostility of the colonial parties, who bitterly attacked the new chancellor.

The Anglo-German agreement of 1890 was followed by commercial treaties with Austria, Romania, and other states; by concluding them he earned the express commendation of the emperor William II and the title of count, but he was from this time relentlessly attacked by the Agrarians, and he had to depend greatly on the support of the Liberals and other parties that had been formerly in opposition.

 
 
The reorganization of the army caused a parliamentary crisis, but Caprivi carried it through successfully, only, however, to earn the enmity of the more old-fashioned soldiers, who would not forgive him for shortening the period of service.

His position was seriously compromised in 1892 when an education bill that he had defended by saying that the question at issue was Christianity or atheism failed to carry, and he resigned the presidency of Prussian ministry, which was then given to Count Eulenburg. In 1894 a difference arose between Eulenburg and Caprivi concerning the bill for an amendment of the criminal code (the Umsturz Vorlage), and in October the emperor dismissed both. The last years of his life were spent in absolute retirement.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Charles Albert
 

Charles Albert, Italian Carlo Alberto (born Oct. 2, 1798, Turin, Piedmont, French Republic—died July 28, 1849, Oporto, Port.), king of Sardinia–Piedmont (1831–49) during the turbulent period of the Risorgimento, the movement for the unification of Italy. His political vacillations make him an enigmatic personality.

 

Charles Albert
  Exiled from Italy, Charles Albert, who belonged to a collateral branch of the House of Savoy, was brought up in Paris and Geneva, where he was exposed to the ideas of the French Revolution. Succeeding his father as prince of Carignano in 1800, he was named count by Napoleon in 1810. When his cousin Victor Emmanuel I was restored to the throne of Piedmont, Charles Albert returned to Milan, where the young liberals sought his aid in persuading the King to grant a popular constitution. After the revolution in Naples (1820), a plot against the King materialized. After consenting on March 6, 1821, to lead it, Charles Albert the next day refused to participate directly in the conspiracy. The coup erupted on March 10, Victor Emmanuel abdicated on the 13th, and Charles Albert was appointed regent until the arrival of the new king, Charles Felix. Charles Albert promptly promulgated a liberal constitution, which was, however, annulled by Charles Felix, who arrested the Regent and quelled the rebellion. Charles Albert then fought with the French to reinforce the monarchy in Spain (1823).

After Charles Felix’ death in 1831, Charles Albert ascended the throne, giving new hope to the liberals. Yet he failed to pardon his accomplices in the plot of 1821 and harshly repressed a conspiracy in 1833. He was fiercely anti-Austrian, shunning the Austrophile reactionary party, however, and, though a believer in the divine right of kings, still considered himself the popular liberator of Italy. He mitigated the harsh administration of his country and accelerated its economic and social development.

 
 
After the election of the liberal Pius IX as pope and the Austrian occupation of Ferrara, Charles Albert sought to lead the liberation of Italy. He replaced his reactionary Cabinet with a reformist one (1847) and was soon forced by the spread of revolutionary ideas to grant a statute for representative government (March 5, 1848).

When the Milanese revolution against the Austrians (March 18–22) raised the question of war with Austria, Charles Albert at first hesitated, but then declared war. After enjoying great successes through the beginning of June, he remained inactive for more than a month, confused by political conflicts between the various Italian states and shifting foreign alliances. This respite allowed the Austrians to reorganize and mount a vigorous counteroffensive. Defeated decisively at Custoza, and then at Milan, the King was forced to sign the armistice of Salasco on August 9.

Republican and nationalist forces, however, agitated ever more strongly for a new war with Austria. Seeking to vindicate his past failures, Charles Albert broke the armistice with Austria on March 12, 1849. Promptly defeated at Novara on March 23, he abdicated in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II. He exiled himself to

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Leopold I of Belgium
 

Leopold I, French in full Léopold-Georges-Chrétien-Frédéric, Dutch in full Leopold George Christiaan Frederik (born Dec. 16, 1790, Coburg, Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld [Germany]—died Dec. 10, 1865, Laeken, Belg.), first king of the Belgians (1831–65), who helped strengthen the nation’s new parliamentary system and, as a leading figure in European diplomacy, scrupulously maintained Belgian neutrality.

 

Leopold I of Belgium
  The fourth son of Francis, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Leopold served with the allies against Napoleon’s forces during the Napoleonic Wars (1800–15); in 1816 he married Charlotte, the only child of the future king George IV of Great Britain.

Although the princess died in 1817, Leopold continued to live in England until 1831, when he accepted his election as king of the Belgians, having declined the Greek crown the previous year. He immediately began to strengthen the Belgian army and, with assistance from France and England, fought off the attacks of William I of the Netherlands, who refused until 1839 to recognize Belgium as an independent kingdom.

Until 1839 Leopold helped maintain a Liberal–Catholic coalition that expanded the educational system. In 1836 he granted greater political autonomy to large towns and rural areas. The coalition ended in 1839 with the removal of Dutch pressure through William I’s recognition of the Belgian kingdom.
Leopold signed commercial treaties with Prussia (1844) and France (1846) and maintained a neutral foreign policy, most notably during the Crimean War (1853–56). His throne was not seriously challenged during the revolutions of 1848. After the accession of a hostile regime under Napoleon III in France (1852), he sponsored a fortification of the Antwerp area, completed in 1868.

Often referred to as the “Nestor of Europe,” Leopold was highly influential in European diplomacy and used marriages to strengthen his ties with France, England, and Austria. He married Marie-Louise of Orléans, daughter of the French king Louis-Philippe, in 1832; in 1840 he helped to arrange the marriage of his niece Victoria, queen of England, to his nephew Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

 
 
He also helped negotiate the marriage of his daughter Carlota to Maximilian, archduke of Austria and later emperor of Mexico, in 1857. Leopold’s influence declined with the growing power of Napoleon III and of Otto von Bismarck of Prussia.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
 

The Belgian Revolution (25 August 1830 – 14 July 1831) was the conflict which led to the secession of the southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and established an independent Kingdom of Belgium.

 
The people of the south were nearly all Catholics; half were French-speaking. Many outspoken liberals regarded King William I's rule as despotic. There were high levels of unemployment and industrial unrest among the working classes.

On 25 August 1830 riots erupted in Brussels and shops were looted. Theatergoers who had just watched a nationalistic opera joined the mob. Uprisings followed elsewhere in the country. Factories were occupied and machinery destroyed. Order was restored briefly after William committed troops to the Southern Provinces but rioting continued and leadership was taken up by radicals, who started talking of secession.

Dutch units saw the mass desertion of recruits from the southern provinces, and pulled out. The States-General in Brussels voted in favour of secession and declared independence. In the aftermath, a National Congress was assembled. King William refrained from future military action and appealed to the Great Powers. The resulting 1830 London Conference of major European powers recognized Belgian independence. Following the installation of Leopold I as "King of the Belgians" in 1831, King William made a belated military attempt to reconquer Belgium and restore his position through a military campaign. This "Ten Days' Campaign" failed because of French military intervention. Not until 1839 did the Dutch accept the decision of the London conference and Belgian independence by signing the Treaty of London.

 
 
  The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839

1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830)

1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830)

2 Duchy of Limburg (1839–1867) (in the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg)

3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after 1830)

4 and 5 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (borders until 1830)

4 Province of Luxembourg (Waals-Luxemburg, to Belgium in 1839)

5 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (German Luxemburg; borders after 1839)

In blue, the borders of the German Confederation.
 
 
 
United Kingdom of the Netherlands
The Dutch overthrew Napoleonic rule in 1813 and, after the British-Dutch Treaty of 1814, named their state the "United Provinces of the Netherlands" or simply the "United Netherlands". After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, the Congress of Vienna created a kingdom for the House of Orange-Nassau, thus combining the United Provinces of the Netherlands with the former Austrian Netherlands in order to create a strong buffer state north of France; with the unification of all the provinces the Netherlands was indeed a rising power. Symptomatic of the tenor of diplomatic bargaining at Vienna was the early proposal to reward Prussia for its staunch fight against Napoleon with the former Habsburg territory. When the British insisted on retaining the former Dutch Ceylon and the Cape Colony (which they had seized while the Netherlands was ruled by Napoleon) the new kingdom of the Netherlands was compensated with these southern provinces (modern Belgium). The union of these two areas reverted to the original cultural area of the Netherlands before the 16th century and were called the "United Kingdom of the Netherlands".
 
 

Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Gustaf Wappers (1834), (Museum of Fine Art, Brussels)
 
 
Causes of the Revolution
The Belgian Revolution had many causes and consequences; the main causes were alleged ill-treatment of the French-speaking Catholic Walloons in the Dutch-dominated United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and the difference of religion between the Belgians and their Dutch king.

The main cause of the Belgian Revolution was the domination of the Dutch over the economic, political, and social institutions of the Kingdom (although at that time the Belgian population was larger than the Dutch). Catholic bishops in the south had forbidden working for the new government. This rule, originated in 1815 by Maurice-Jean de Broglie, the French nobleman who was bishop of Ghent, caused an under-representation of Southerners in government and the army.

The traditional economy of trade and an incipient Industrial Revolution were also centered in the present day Netherlands, particularly in the large port of Amsterdam. Furthermore, although 62% of the population lived in the South, they were assigned the same number of representatives in the States General. At the most basic level, the North was for free trade, while less developed local industries in the South called for the protection of tariffs. Free trade lowered the price of bread, made from wheat imported through the reviving port of Antwerp; at the same time, these imports from the Baltic depressed agriculture in Southern grain-growing regions.

  The more numerous Northern provinces represented a majority in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands' elected Lower Assembly, and therefore the more populous Southerners felt significantly under-represented. King William I was from the North, lived in the present day Netherlands, and largely ignored the demands for greater autonomy. His more progressive and amiable representative living in Brussels, which was the twin capital, was the Crown-Prince William, later King William II, who had some popularity among the upper class but none among peasants and workers.

A linguistic reform in 1823 was intended to make Dutch the official language in the Flemish provinces, since it was the language of most of the Flemish population. This reform met with strong opposition from the upper and middle classes who at the time were mostly French-speaking. On 4 June 1830, this reform was abolished.

Faith was another cause of the Belgian Revolution. In the politics of the south Roman Catholicism was the important factor. Its partisans fought against the freedom of religion proclaimed by William that was at that time still supported by the liberal faction. Over time the (southern) liberal faction began to support the Catholics, partly to accomplish its own goals: freedom of education and freedom of the press.

The Belgian Revolution of 1830 crystallised this antagonism. The language policy of King William was abolished. But no oppression was used. The leading class did not need to be forced to use French.

 
 

Charles Rogier leads the 250 revolutionary volunteers from Liège to Brussels (Charles Soubre, 1878)
 
 
"Night at the opera"
Catholic partisans watched with excitement the unfolding of the July Revolution in France, details of which were swiftly reported in the newspapers. On 25 August 1830, at the Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie in Brussels, an uprising followed a special performance (in honor of William I's birthday) of Daniel Auber's La Muette de Portici (The Mute Girl of Portici), a sentimental and patriotic opera suited to fire National Romanticism, for it was set against Masaniello's uprising against the Spanish masters of Naples in the 17th century. The duet, "Amour sacré de la patrie", (Sacred love of Fatherland) with Adolphe Nourrit in the tenor role, engendered a riot that became the spark for the Belgian Revolution.

The crowd poured into the streets after the performance, shouting patriotic slogans, and swiftly took possession of government buildings. The coming days saw an explosion of the desperate and exasperated proletariat of Brussels who rallied around the newly created flag of the Brussels independence movement which was fastened to a standard with shoelaces during a streetfight and used to lead a counter-charge against the forces of Prince William.
  William I sent his two sons, Prince William, Prince of Orange and Prince Frederik to quell the riots. The affable and moderate Crown Prince William, who represented the monarchy in Brussels, was convinced by the Estates-General on 1 September that the administrative separation of north and south was the only viable solution to the crisis. His father rejected the terms of accommodation that Prince William proposed. King William I attempted to restore the established order by force, but the 8,000 Dutch troops under Prince Frederick were unable to retake Brussels in bloody street fighting (23–26 September).

The army was withdrawn to the fortresses of Maastricht, Venlo, and Antwerp, and when the Northern commander of Antwerp bombarded the town, claiming a breach of a ceasefire, the whole of the Southern provinces was incensed.

Any opportunity to quell the breach was lost on 26 September when a National Congress was summoned to draw-up a Constitution and the Provisional Government was established under Charles Latour Rogier. A Declaration of Independence followed on 4 October 1830.
 
 

Belgian rebels on the barricade of the Place Royale facing the Parc de Bruxelles in Brussels (1830).
 
 
International recognition
On 20 December 1830 the London Conference of 1830 brought together five major European powers, including Britain, France and Prussia. They recognized the success of the Belgian revolution and permanently guaranteed Belgian independence. On 7 February 1831, the Belgian Constitution was proclaimed and the separation from the Dutch was a fact.
 
 
Constitutional monarchy
The Belgian Congress chose Louis, Duke of Nemours, the second son of the French king Louis-Philippe, to be king of Belgium. However, Louis-Philippe rejected the offer, on the advice of British Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston. Palmerston and the Great Powers wanted a strong leader to prevent Belgium from falling under the control of France, and to prevent the outbreak of war. Erasme Louis Surlet de Chokier was appointed Regent of Belgium on 25 February 1831.

On 4 June the Congress chose Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg as king — a strong and politically astute choice, as Leopold was not only a capable man, but well connected to both Britain and France. Leopold I took the oath as King of the Belgians on 21 July 1831.

Ten Days' Campaign
King William was not satisfied with the settlement drawn up in London and did not accept Belgium's claim of independence: it divided his kingdom and drastically affected his Treasury. From 2–12 August 1831 the Dutch army, headed by the Dutch princes, invaded Belgium, in the so-called "Ten Days' Campaign", and defeated a makeshift Belgian force near Hasselt and Leuven. Only the appearance of a French army under Marshal Gérard caused the Dutch to stop their advance. While the victorious initial campaign gave the Dutch an advantageous position in subsequent negotiations, the Dutch were compelled to agree to an indefinite armistice, although they continued to hold the citadel in Antwerp and occasionally bombarded the city until French forces forced them out in December 1832.

 
French partition plan
 
 
William I would refuse to recognize a Belgian state until April 1839, when he had to yield under pressure by the Treaty of London and reluctantly recognized a border which, with the exception of Limburg and Luxembourg, was basically the border of 1790.
 
 
European powers
The European powers were divided over the Belgian cry for independence. The Napoleonic Wars were still fresh in the memories of Europeans, so when the French, under the recently installed July Monarchy, supported Belgian independence, the other powers unsurprisingly supported the continued union of the Provinces of the Netherlands. Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain all supported the somewhat authoritarian Dutch king, many fearing the French would annex an independent Belgium (particularly the British: see Talleyrand partition plan for Belgium). However, in the end, none of the European powers sent troops to aid the Dutch government, partly because of rebellions within some of their own borders (the Russians were occupied with the November Uprising in Poland and Prussia was saddled with war debt). Britain came to see the benefits of isolating France geographically.

Independent Belgium
On 19 April 1839 the Treaty of London signed by the European powers (including the Netherlands) recognized Belgium as an independent and neutral country comprising West Flanders, East Flanders, Brabant, Antwerp, Hainaut, Namur, and Liège, as well as half of Luxembourg and Limburg. The Dutch army, however, held onto Maastricht, and as a result the Netherlands kept the eastern half of Limburg and its large coalfields. Germany broke the treaty in 1914 when it invaded Belgium, dismissing British protests over a "scrap of paper."

  Post Independence

Economic changes

The independence of Belgium was a disaster for the important industrial city of Ghent. In 1829 the city's cotton industry processed 7.5 million kilograms of cotton, while in 1832 this was only 2 million kilograms.

A direct consequence of the break-up was unemployment for most of the labourers. Wages fell to 30% of their 1829 level. For the harbour city of Antwerp the disaster was even greater. Trade with the colonies fell to zero and the number of ships that entered the port fell to 398. In contrast, in 1829 1,030 ships entered Antwerp, carrying 129,000 tons, double the amount of Rotterdam and Amsterdam together.

Orangism
As early as 1830 a movement started for the reunification of Belgium and the Netherlands, called Orangism, which was active in Flanders and Brussels. But industrial cities, like Liège, also had a strong Orangist faction. The movement met with strong disapproval from the authorities.

Between 1831 and 1834, 32 incidents of violence against Orangists were mentioned in the press and in 1834 Minister of Justice Lebeau banned expressions of Orangism in the public sphere, enforced with heavy penalties.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Baron H. F. K. vom und zum Stein (Stein Karl), Ger. statesman, d. (b. 1757)
 
 

Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom Stein im Jahr 1821
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Monroe James, fifth President of the U.S., d. (b. 1758)
 
 

James Monroe
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Goschen George Joachim
 

George Joachim Goschen, 1st Viscount Goschen, (born August 10, 1831, London—died February 7, 1907, Seacox Heath, Kent, England), British economist and administrator, who worked for both Liberal and Conservative governments in the late 19th century.

 

George Joachim Goschen
  The son of William Henry Goeschen (or Göschen), a London banker of German origin, he was educated in Saxony, at Rugby, and at Oriel College, Oxford. He became prominent in the banking world early and was made a director of the Bank of England at 27. His Theory of the Foreign Exchanges (1861) was long famous.

Goschen entered Parliament in 1863 as a Liberal and made his mark at once in the House of Commons, becoming a junior minister in November 1865.

In William Gladstone’s great Cabinet of 1868 Goschen was at first president of the Poor Law Board, where he projected useful reforms, and then, from March 1871 to February 1874, first lord of the Admiralty. He and the French negotiated (1876) with the khedive in Cairo the decree that established the dual Anglo-French control of Egyptian bonds.

Goschen stoutly opposed Benjamin Disraeli’s policy in the eastern crisis in 1876–78. He did not join Gladstone’s government in 1880 because he disapproved of the impending extension of the franchise, but he did accept the post of special ambassador to Constantinople and helped to settle various Balkan frontier questions in 1880–81.

He found himself more and more at variance with progressive Liberals, and, when Gladstone declared for Irish Home Rule, Goschen opposed him vigorously. But he lost his seat in the election of July 1886 and only returned to the House of Commons in February 1887.

 
 
When Lord Randolph Churchill resigned in December 1886, Goschen took his place as chancellor of the Exchequer (“I forgot Goschen,” said Churchill) and operated a successful conversion of the national debt in 1888. He was in opposition from 1892 to 1895, and returned to the Admiralty as first lord in Lord Salisbury’s coalition Cabinet (1895–1902), where he supervised large expansions of the fleet. He retired with a viscountcy in 1900.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Southampton insurrection: Virginia slave revolt led by Negro Nat Turner (1800-1831); 55 Whites die
 
 
Turner Nat
 

Nat Turner, (born October 2, 1800, Southampton county, Virginia, U.S.—died November 11, 1831, Jerusalem, Virginia), black American slave who led the only effective, sustained slave rebellion (August 1831) in U.S. history. Spreading terror throughout the white South, his action set off a new wave of oppressive legislation prohibiting the education, movement, and assembly of slaves and stiffened proslavery, antiabolitionist convictions that persisted in that region until the American Civil War (1861–65).

 
Turner was born the property of a prosperous small-plantation owner in a remote area of Virginia. His mother was an African native who transmitted a passionate hatred of slavery to her son. He learned to read from one of his master’s sons, and he eagerly absorbed intensive religious training. In the early 1820s he was sold to a neighbouring farmer of small means. During the following decade his religious ardour tended to approach fanaticism, and he saw himself called upon by God to lead his people out of bondage. He began to exert a powerful influence on many of the nearby slaves, who called him “the Prophet.”
 
 

1831 woodcut purporting to illustrate various stages of the rebellion
 
 
In 1831, shortly after he had been sold again—this time to a craftsman named Joseph Travis—a sign in the form of an eclipse of the Sun caused Turner to believe that the hour to strike was near. His plan was to capture the armoury at the county seat, Jerusalem, and, having gathered many recruits, to press on to the Dismal Swamp, 30 miles (48 km) to the east, where capture would be difficult. On the night of August 21, together with seven fellow slaves in whom he had put his trust, he launched a campaign of total annihilation, murdering Travis and his family in their sleep and then setting forth on a bloody march toward Jerusalem. In two days and nights about 60 white people were ruthlessly slain. Doomed from the start, Turner’s insurrection was handicapped by lack of discipline among his followers and by the fact that only 75 blacks rallied to his cause. Armed resistance from the local whites and the arrival of the state militia—a total force of 3,000 men—provided the final crushing blow. Only a few miles from the county seat the insurgents were dispersed and either killed or captured, and many innocent slaves were massacred in the hysteria that followed. Turner eluded his pursuers for six weeks but was finally captured, tried, and hanged.
 
 

Nat Turner captured by Mr. Benjamin Phipps, a local farmer
 
 
Nat Turner’s rebellion put an end to the white Southern myth that slaves were either contented with their lot or too servile to mount an armed revolt. In Southampton county black people came to measure time from “Nat’s Fray,” or “Old Nat’s War.” For many years in black churches throughout the country, the name Jerusalem referred not only to the Bible but also covertly to the place where the rebel slave had met his death.

Turner has been most widely popularized by William Styron in his novel The Confessions of Nat Turner (1967).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
 

August Wilhelm Antonius Graf Neidhardt von Gneisenau (27 October 1760 – 23 August 1831) was a Prussian field marshal. He was a prominent figure in the reform of the Prussian military and the War of Liberation.

 
Early life
Gneisenau was born at Schildau in the Electorate of Saxony. He was the son of a Saxon lieutenant of artillery, August William Neidhardt, and his wife Maria Eva Neidhardt, née Müller. He grew up in great poverty at Schildau, and subsequently at Würzburg and Erfurt. In 1777 he entered the University of Erfurt, but two years later joined an Austrian regiment quartered there. In 1782, taking the additional name of Gneisenau from some lost estates of his family in Austria, he entered as an officer the service of the Margrave of Bayreuth-Ansbach. With one of that prince's mercenary regiments in British pay, he saw active service and gained valuable experience in the American Revolutionary War. Returning in 1786, he applied for Prussian service, and King Frederick the Great gave him a commission as first lieutenant in the infantry.

Made Stabskapitän (Staff Captain) in 1790, Gneisenau served in Poland from 1793-1794. Ten years of subsequent quiet garrison life in Jauer enabled him to undertake wide ranging studies of military and political history. In 1796 he married Caroline von Kottwitz.

 
 

August Wilhelm Antonius Graf Neidhardt von Gneisenau
  Napoleonic Wars
In 1806 Gneisenau served as one of Prince Hohenlohe's staff-officers, fought at Saalfeld and Jena, and a little later commanded a provisional infantry brigade which fought under Lestocq in the Lithuanian campaign. Early in 1807, the Prussian Army sent Major von Gneisenau as commandant to Kolberg, which, though small and ill-protected, with the additional assistance of Schill and Nettelbeck succeeded in holding out against Napoleonic forces until the Peace of Tilsit. The commandant received the highly prized Pour le Mérite and promotion to lieutenant-colonel.

A wider sphere of work now opened to Gneisenau. As chief of engineers, and a member of the reorganizing committee, he played a great part, along with Scharnhorst, in the work of reconstructing the Prussian army. Though primarily devoted to the problem of military reorganization, he exercised considerable influence on the general policy of the Ministry as well. A colonel in 1809, he soon drew upon himself, by his energy, the suspicion of the dominant French, and Stein's fall (January 1809) was soon followed by Gneisenau's retirement. But, after visiting Austria, Imperial Russia, Sweden and England on secret missions, he returned to Berlin and resumed his place as a leader of the patriotic party. In open military work and secret machinations his energy and patriotism were equally tested, and with the outbreak of the Wars of Liberation, Major-General Gneisenau became Blücher's quartermaster-general.
 
 
Thus began the connection between these two soldiers which has furnished military history with one of the best examples of the harmonious co-operation between a commander and his chief-of-staff. With Blücher, Gneisenau served in the capture of Paris; his military character perfectly complemented Blücher's, and under this happy guidance the young troops of Prussia, at times defeated but never discouraged, fought their way into the heart of France. The plan for the march on Paris, which led directly to the fall of Napoleon, was specifically the work of the chief-of-staff. In 1814, as a reward for his distinguished service, Gneisenau — along with Yorck, Kleist, and Bülow —was elevated to count, while at the same time Blücher became Prince of Wahlstatt.

In 1815, once more chief of Blücher's staff, Gneisenau played a very conspicuous part in the Waterloo campaign. Senior generals such as Yorck and Kleist had been set aside in order that the chief-of-staff should take command in case of need, and when on the field of Ligny the old field marshal was disabled, Gneisenau assumed command of the Prussian army. He rallied the army, directed it towards Wavre from where part of it marched to join Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815, where the flanking attack by the Prussians helped to decide the battle.

On the field of Waterloo, Gneisenau carried out a pursuit that resulted in the capture of Napoleon's carriage. In the days following the battle, Gneisenau saw that the Prussian forces reached Paris before Wellington. In reward Gneisenau gained further promotion and the Order of the Black Eagle.

 
 
Later life
In 1816 Gneisenau was appointed to command the VIII Prussian Corps, but soon retired from the service, both because of ill health and for political reasons.

For two years Gneisenau lived in retirement at his estate, Erdmannsdorf in Silesia, but in 1818 he became governor of Berlin, as successor to Kalckreuth, and member of the Staatsrath (Council of State).

In 1825 he was promoted to General Field Marshal.

In 1831, soon after the outbreak of the Polish insurrection of 1830, he was appointed to the command of the Army of Observation on the Polish frontier, with Clausewitz as his chief-of-staff.

At Posen he was struck down by cholera and died on 24 August 1831, soon followed by his chief-of-staff, who fell a victim to the same disease in November.

  Legacy
As a soldier, Gneisenau proved the greatest Prussian general since Frederick the Great. As a man, his noble character and virtuous life secured him the affection and reverence not only of his superiors and subordinates in the service, but of the whole Prussian nation. A statue by Christian Daniel Rauch was erected in Berlin in 1855, and in memory of the siege of 1807, the Kolberg grenadier regiment received his name in 1889. One of his sons led a brigade of the VIII Army Corps in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Several German navy ships, including the World War I armored cruiser SMS Gneisenau, the World War II battleship Gneisenau, and a post-war frigate were named after him. Additionally, several German cities have streets named "Gneisenaustrasse" (Gneisenau Street), including Berlin (which has an U-bahn stop in his name), Leipzig, Hamburg, and Heidelberg.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Kapodistrias Ioannis Antonios, Greek statesman, d. (b. 1776)
 
 

Murder of Kapodistrias by Charalambos Pachis.
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Labouchere Henry
 

Henry Du Pré Labouchère (9 November 1831 – 15 January 1912) was an English politician, writer, publisher and theatre owner in the Victorian and Edwardian eras. He lived with the actress Henrietta Hodson from 1868, and they married in 1887.

Labouchère, who inherited a large fortune, engaged in a number of occupations. He was a junior member of the British diplomatic service, a member of parliament in the 1860s and again from 1880 to 1906, and edited and funded his own magazine, Truth. He is remembered for the Labouchère Amendment to British law, which for the first time made all male homosexual activity a crime.

Unable to secure the senior positions to which he thought himself suitable, Labouchère left Britain and retired to Italy.

 

Henry Du Pré Labouchere
  Henry Du Pré Labouchere, byname Labby (born November 9, 1831, London, England—died January 15, 1912, near Florence, Italy), British politician, publicist, and noted wit who gained journalistic fame with his dispatches from Paris (for the Daily News, London, of which he was part owner) while the city was under siege during the Franco-German War (1870–71).

The dispatches, which he sent via balloon to Henrietta Hodson, an actress whom he later married, were widely read and later published as Letters of a Besieged Resident (1872). He also helped to expose (1889) the Irish journalist Richard Pigott as the forger of an incriminating letter ostensibly written by the Irish nationalist leader Charles Stewart Parnell.

The grandson of a financier whose fortune he inherited, Labouchere served in the British diplomatic corps (1854–64) and then sat in the House of Commons as a Liberal (1865, 1867–68) and as a Radical (1880–1906).

He urged the abolition of the House of Lords and opposed the expansionism of Joseph Chamberlain and other Liberal imperialists that led to the South African War (1899–1902). His periodical Truth (founded 1877) was devoted to the exposure of organized frauds.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Clausewitz Carl
 
Carl von Clausewitz, in full Carl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz (born June 1, 1780, Burg, near Magdeburg, Prussia [Germany]—died Nov. 16, 1831, Breslau, Silesia [now Wrocław, Pol.]), Prussian general and military thinker, whose work Vom Kriege (1832; On War) has become one of the most respected classics on military strategy.
 

Carl von Clausewitz
  Early military career
Clausewitz enlisted in the Prussian army in 1792, and in 1793–95 he took part (and was commissioned) in the campaigns of the First Coalition against Revolutionary France. In 1801 he gained admission into the Institute for Young Officers in Berlin, an event that proved to be a turning point in his life.

During his three years at the institute, Clausewitz became the closest protégé of Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst, the institute’s head. The broad curriculum, coupled with Clausewitz’s extensive reading, expanded his horizons dramatically. His basic ideas regarding war and its theory were shaped at that time. After finishing first in his class, Clausewitz was on the road leading to the centre of the political and military events during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, the reform of the Prussian army that followed Prussia’s defeat, and the restoration of European monarchies following the defeat of Napoleon.

In 1804 Clausewitz was appointed adjutant to Prince August Ferdinand of Prussia. In this capacity, he took part in the Battle of Jena-Auerstädt (1806). In the wake of Prussia’s catastrophic defeat by Napoleon, he and the prince fell into French captivity. With the Prussian army demolished and the prince captured, Prussia was forced to give up half of its territory in the concluding peace treaty.

 
 
After their release at the end of 1807, Clausewitz joined the group of young and middle-rank officers around Scharnhorst, who struggled to reform the Prussian army. The reformers believed that Prussia’s only hope of survival in the age of mass enlistment, as introduced by Revolutionary France, was in adopting similar institutions. However, such a modernization of society, state, and army was widely resisted among the aristocratic elite, which feared an erosion of its status. During these years, Clausewitz married Countess Marie von Bruhl, with whom he formed a very close but childless union. Clausewitz was ill at ease in society and more in his element among a small circle of fellow military reformers.

In the war ministry that was formed, headed by Scharnhorst, Clausewitz served as his mentor’s assistant and was then simultaneously appointed a major in the general staff, instructor at the new Officers’ Academy, and military tutor to the Prussian crown prince. Like his friends in the reform circle, he looked for any opportunity to wage a national war of liberation against France, and he was repeatedly frustrated by the king’s hesitation to act against the much superior French power. In 1812, when Prussia was forced to join Napoleon’s invasion of Russia, Clausewitz, like some of his comrades, resigned his commission and joined the Russian service. He served in various staff posts, and during the catastrophic French retreat he was instrumental in generating the chain of events that ultimately drove Prussia to change sides. Clausewitz took part in the final campaigns that brought down Napoleon in 1813–15. During the Waterloo campaign, he served as chief of staff to one of the four Prussian army corps.

 
 
Military scholar
With the coming of peace and the setting in of the reaction to the terms of the treaty in Prussia, which clouded his career, Clausewitz increasingly concentrated on his intellectual interests. He had been thinking and writing on war and its theory since his days in the Institute for Young Officers. His tenure as head of the Military Academy at Berlin (1818–30) left him plenty of time to work on his major study On War. Appointed chief of staff to the Prussian army that prepared for intervention against the Polish revolt of 1831, Clausewitz died of cholera that year. His unfinished work, together with his historical studies, was posthumously published by his widow.

Clausewitz’s ideas were shaped by the coming together of two revolutions that dominated his life and times. Intellectually, he expressed in the military field the sweeping Romantic reaction against the ideas of the Enlightenment, a reaction that had been brewing in Germany since the late 18th century and that had turned into a tidal wave by the beginning of the 19th century in response to French Revolutionary ideas and imperialism. In the spirit of their time, the military thinkers of the Enlightenment had believed that war ought to come under the domination of reason. A comprehensive theory based on rules and principles ought to be formulated and, wherever possible, given a mathematical form. Against this Clausewitz argued, in line with Romantic critics, that human affairs and war in particular were very different from natural phenomena and the sciences. He ruled out any rigid system of rules and principles for the conduct of war, celebrating instead the free operation of genius, changing historical conditions, moral forces, and the elements of uncertainty and chance. These elements, especially the enemy’s counteractions, give war a nonlinear logic. Every simple action encounters “friction”—in Clausewitz’s borrowed metaphor from mechanics—which slows it down and may frustrate it.

  At the same time, Clausewitz believed that a general theory of war was attainable and that it should express war’s immutable essence, nature, or concept and guide all military action. Here is the second revolution that dominated his life. His generation witnessed the collapse of the limited warfare of ancien régimes in the face of the all-out effort and strategy of destruction, or total war, unleashed by the French Revolution and Napoleon. While very conscious of the changing social and political conditions that had brought about this transformation of warfare, Clausewitz, like his contemporaries, held that the new, sweeping way of war making, culminating in the decisive battle and the overthrow of the enemy country, reflected the true nature of war and the correct method of its conduct. He had expressed this view in his writings through 1827, when the first six books of On War (out of an eventual eight) had been completed.

However, in 1827 Clausewitz began to have serious doubts about whether total war was really the sole legitimate type of war. He came to the conclusion that there were in fact two types of war, total (or absolute) and limited, and that it was, above all, political aims and requirements that imposed themselves on war and dictated its intensity—hence his famous dictum, “War is a continuation of state policy with the admixture of other means.” In the light of these new ideas, Clausewitz added the last two books of On War and started to revise the first six.

He died while working on Book One, however. Thus, the manuscript remained as an incomplete draft—Books Two to Six expressed his old ideas regarding the supremacy of the decisive battle and total war, whereas the beginning and end of On War proclaimed the subservience of war to politics and consequently the legitimacy of limited war.
It was in this form that Clausewitz’s widow published the manuscript after his death.

 
 
This curious development of Clausewitz’s work has had a profound effect on the reception of his ideas. Since later readers have been largely unaware of the reasons for the glaring inconsistency in On War, while being impressed by its sophistication, they have tended to concentrate on those ideas that most accorded with the spirit of their own times. For decades after Clausewitz’s death, On War remained a respected but little-known work. However, Prussia’s victories in the German Wars of Unification—orchestrated by a self-declared disciple of Clausewitz, Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke—made Clausewitz the most celebrated strategic authority by the late 19th century. It was Clausewitz’s emphasis on morale, concentration of force, the decisive battle, and the complete overthrow of the enemy that were highlighted in the intellectual climate of that time. However, once disillusionment with total war had set in after the two world wars of the 20th century, and with the advent of nuclear weapons, interpretations completely reversed themselves. Strategic thinkers of the nuclear age now picked up the ideas found in the later stage of Clausewitz’s work regarding limited war and the careful political direction of war. A “Clausewitz renaissance” in academia and the armed forces throughout the West ensued. In the communist camp as well—following Vladimir Lenin’s perusal of Clausewitz’s work during World War I—commentators praised Clausewitz’s understanding of the political context of war, while maintaining that his grasp of the social context did not go far enough and while also criticizing his nationalism.

Azar Gat

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Garfield James Abram
 

James A. Garfield, in full James Abram Garfield (born November 19, 1831, near Orange [in Cuyahoga county], Ohio, U.S.—died September 19, 1881, Elberon [now in Long Branch], New Jersey), 20th president of the United States (March 4–September 19, 1881), who had the second shortest tenure in presidential history. When he was shot and incapacitated, serious constitutional questions arose concerning who should properly perform the functions of the presidency.

 

James A. Garfield
  Early life and political career
Garfield was the son of Abram Garfield and Eliza Ballou, who continued to run the family’s impoverished Ohio farm after her husband’s death in 1833. The last president born in a log cabin, Garfield dreamed of foreign ports of call as a sailor but instead worked for a time on a boat on the Ohio Canal between Cleveland, Ohio, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Always studious, he attended Western Reserve Eclectic Institute (later Hiram College) at Hiram, Ohio, and graduated (1856) from Williams College. He returned to the Eclectic Institute as a professor of ancient languages and in 1857, at age 25, became the school’s president. A year later he married Lucretia Rudolph (Lucretia Garfield) and began a family that included seven children (two died in infancy). Garfield also studied law and was ordained as a minister in the Disciples of Christ church, but he soon turned to politics.
An advocate of free-soil principles (opposing the extension of slavery), he became a supporter of the newly organized Republican Party and in 1859 was elected to the Ohio legislature. During the Civil War he helped recruit the 42nd Ohio Volunteer Infantry and became its colonel. After commanding a brigade at the Battle of Shiloh (April 1862), he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, and while waiting for Congress to begin its session, he served as chief of staff in the Army of the Cumberland, winning promotion to major general after distinguishing himself at the Battle of Chickamauga (September 1863).
 
 
It was about that time that Garfield had an extramarital affair with a Lucia Calhoun in New York City. He later admitted the indiscretion and was forgiven by his wife. Historians believe that the many letters he had written to Calhoun, which are referred to in his diary, were retrieved by Garfield and destroyed.

For nine terms, until 1880, Garfield represented Ohio’s 19th congressional district. As chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations, he became an expert on fiscal matters and advocated a high protective tariff; as a Radical Republican, he sought a firm policy of Reconstruction for the South. In 1880 the Ohio legislature elected him to the U.S. Senate.

 
 
Road to the presidency
At the Republican presidential convention the same year in Chicago, the delegates were divided into three principal camps: the “Stalwarts” (conservatives led by powerful New York Senator Roscoe Conkling), who backed former president Ulysses S. Grant, the “Half-Breed” (moderate) supporters of Maine Senator James G. Blaine, and those committed to Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman. Tall, bearded, affable, and eloquent, Garfield steered fellow Ohioan Sherman’s campaign and impressed so many with his nominating speech that he, not the candidate, became the focus of attention. As the chairman of the Ohio delegation, Garfield also led a coalition of anti-Grant delegates who succeeded in rescinding the unit rule, by which a majority of delegates from a state could cast the state’s entire vote. This victory added to Garfield’s prominence and doomed Grant’s candidacy. Grant led all other candidates for 35 ballots, but failed to command a majority; and on the 36th ballot the nomination went to a dark horse, Garfield, who was still trying to remove his name from nomination as the bandwagon gathered speed.
His Democratic opponent in November was General Winfield Scott Hancock, like Garfield a Civil War veteran, so both could wrap themselves in the symbolic “bloody shirt” of the Union.
  But Garfield also capitalized on his rags-to-riches background, and along with a campaign biography literally written by Horatio Alger, he reached back to his humble beginnings as a “canal boy” for the slogan “From the tow path to the White House.” (“No man ever started so low that accomplished so much, in all our history,” said former president Rutherford B. Hayes of Garfield. He was “the ideal self-made man.”)

In an era when it was still considered unseemly for a candidate to court voters actively, Garfield, aided by Lucretia (who remained an important adviser), conducted the first “front porch” campaign, from his home in Mentor, Ohio, where reporters and voters came to hear him speak. Notwithstanding allegations of involvement in the Crédit Mobilier Scandal, in which Garfield had received $329 from stock in the notorious company (a remuneration which Democrats characterized as a bribe and played up as a campaign issue by plastering walls, sidewalks, and placards with “329”), and a forged letter that supposedly revealed Garfield’s advocacy of unrestricted Chinese immigration, he defeated Hancock (as well as the third-party Greenback candidate), though he won the popular election by fewer than 10,000 votes. The vote in the electoral college was less close: 214 votes for Garfield, 155 for Hancock.
 
 
Presidency
By the time of his election, Garfield had begun to see education rather than the ballot box as the best hope for improving the lives of African Americans. In his inaugural speech he said, “The elevation of the Negro race from slavery to the full rights of citizenship is the most important political change we have known since the adoption of the Constitution of 1787. No thoughtful man can fail to appreciate its beneficent effect upon our institutions and people.…It has liberated the master as well as the slave from a relation which wronged and enfeebled both.” Garfield tried to put together a cabinet that would appease all factions of the Republican Party, but, prompted by his secretary of state, Blaine, he eventually challenged Conkling’s patronage machine in New York. Instead of appointing one of Conkling’s friends as collector of the Port of New York, Garfield chose a Blaine protégé, prompting the resignation of an outraged Conkling and strengthening the independence and power of the presidency.
 
 

James A. Garfield
  So demanding were the office seekers and the pressures of the patronage system that at one point Garfield wondered why anyone would want to seek the presidency. “My God,” he exclaimed, “what is there in this place that a man should ever want to get into it!” The other significant development of Garfield’s short term of office, the Star Route Scandal, involved the fraudulent dispersal of postal route contracts. “Go ahead regardless of where or whom you hit,” Garfield told investigators. “I direct you not only to probe this ulcer to the bottom, but to cut it out.” Despite such strong talk, Grant accused Garfield of having “the backbone of an angleworm.”

Assassination
On July 2, 1881, after only four months in office, while on his way to visit his ill wife in Elberon, New Jersey, Garfield was shot in the back at the railroad station in Washington, D.C., by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker with messianic visions. Guiteau peaceably surrendered to police, calmly announcing, “I am a Stalwart. [Chester A.] Arthur is now president of the United States.” For 80 days the president lay ill and performed only one official act—the signing of an extradition paper.

It was generally agreed that, in such cases, the vice president was empowered by the Constitution to assume the powers and duties of the office of president. But should he serve merely as acting president until Garfield recovered, or would he receive the office itself and thus displace his predecessor? Because of an ambiguity in the Constitution, opinion was divided, and, because Congress was not in session, the problem could not be debated there. On September 2, 1881, the matter came before a cabinet meeting, where it was finally agreed that no action would be taken without first consulting Garfield. But in the opinion of the doctors this was impossible, and no further action was taken before the death of the president, the result of slow blood poisoning, on September 19.

 
 
The public and the media were obsessed with this drawn-out passing of the president, leading historians to see in the brief Garfield administration the seeds of an important aspect of the modern president: the chief executive as celebrity and symbol of the nation. It is said that public mourning for Garfield was more extravagant than the grief displayed in the wake of President Abraham Lincoln’s assassination, which is startling in light of the relative roles these men played in American history. Garfield was buried beneath a quarter-million-dollar, 165-foot (50-metre) monument in Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Former President Adams John Quincy  becomes U.S. representative from Massachusetts
 
 

John Quincy Adams
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
 

The First Egyptian-Ottoman War, First Turco-Egyptian War or First Syrian War (1831–1833) was brought about by Muhammad Ali Pasha's demand to the Ottoman Empire for control of Arab Greater Syria, as reward for his assistance in Crete against Greece. As a result, Muhammad Ali's forces temporarily gained control of Syria, and advanced as far north as Adana.

 
Background
The Greek War of Independence was a prelude to the conflict in which, the state of Egypt, nominally under Ottoman control was requested to send naval ships to aid the fledgling Ottoman fleets. The Ottoman and Egyptian ships were subsequently defeated at the battle of Navarino by an Anglo-Russo-French fleet. The Ottomans were also defeated two years later by the Russians in 1829. Once more, Muhammad Ali was not given the promised reward for the aid he had given to Turkey during the war.
 
 
Invasion of Syria
Outraged, Ali sent his army into Syria under the command of his son Ibrahim Pasha, and his navy, under command of General Ibrahim Yakan, landed at Jaffa. The Egyptians rapidly occupied Jerusalem and the coastal regions of Palestine and Lebanon.

Several battles between the Egyptians and Ottomans ensued. At a village south of Homs on the Orontes, on April 14, 1832, the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha defeated an Ottoman force of 15,000 under Othman Pasha. After reducing Acre, the Egyptians occupied Damascus on June 14, 1832. A new Ottoman army under Mohammed Pasha advanced south to Homs, and a major battle took place on July 8, 1832 on the southern approaches to that city. The Ottomans were routed with large losses and the Egyptians occupied Homs on July 9; then Aleppo on July 17, and Antioch on July 28.

On July 29 another major battle took place at the Pass of Beilan through the Nur Mountains, where the

  Egyptians defeated an Ottoman force of 45,000 equipped with 160 guns, under Hussein Pasha and captured 25 guns along with considerable war booty. The Egyptians occupied Beilan on July 30, then Tarsus and Adana on July 31. At this point the Egyptian army halted, having occupied the Arabic-speaking regions it had intended to annex to Egypt, and awaited instructions from Ibrahim's father, Muhammad Ali Pasha in Cairo.

In the ensuing lull, the Sultan recalled the Grand Vizier Reshid Pasha and organised a new army of 80,000 to repel the Egyptians. Anticipating a final major battle, Ibrahim set about to capture territory in Southern Turkey to secure his supply lines.

On December 21, 1832, the Battle of Konya was fought, where the Ottomans were easily defeated and the Egyptians thereafter threatened Constantinople. In February of the following year, the Ottoman Empire entered a defensive alliance with Russia and received military assistance from Nicholas I of Russia.

 
 
Foreign pressure
The Egyptians were eventually forced to call off the invasion because of British and French pressure. Although they initially backed the Pasha, they threatened military action against him if he did not halt his advance. They feared that if the Egyptians were to continue advancing, an already severely weakened Ottoman Empire, would collapse and leave a power vacuum, in which Russia could possibly take or gain advantage.

Aftermath
The war ended in 1833, and Egypt was left in control of Syria and much of Arabia. At the Convention of Kutahya, held in May 1833, Syria and Adana were ceded to Egypt, and Ibrahim became governor-general of the two provinces. Later that same year, the Ottomans signed the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi with Russia, in which both countries agreed to mutual assistance should either empire enter a military conflict.

But the settlement of the Peace Agreement of Kutahya was not satisfactory to either party, resulting in the Second Ottoman-Egyptian War (1839–1841).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1831
 
 
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, part of the Netherlands since the Congress of Vienna, divided
into two parts, the larger of which goes to Belgium
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Wretched conditions of the working classes in Lyons, France, lead to uprisings
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Lord John Russell introduces Reform Bill that abolishes all "nomination" boroughs
 
 
Russell John
 

John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, (born Aug. 18, 1792, London, Eng.—died May 28, 1878, Pembroke Lodge, Richmond Park, Surrey), prime minister of Great Britain (1846–52, 1865–66), an aristocratic liberal and leader of the fight for passage of the Reform Bill of 1832.

 

John Russell
  Russell was the third son of John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford. (As the younger son of a peer, he was known for most of his life as Lord John Russell; he himself was created earl in 1861.) He thus came of a family that had long demonstrated its public spirit. The depth of his liberalism probably owed much to an untypical education. Poor health forbade the rigours of an English public school, and later, his father, who was critical of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, sent him to the University of Edinburgh, where he drank deeply of Scottish philosophy.

In 1813 he became a member of Parliament and four years later made his first important speech—characteristically, an attack on the government’s suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act. In December 1819 Russell took up the cause of parliamentary reform, making it in the early 1820s not only his own cause but also that of the Whig Party.

When the Whigs came to power in 1830, he joined the small ministerial committee that was to draft a reform bill, and on March 31, 1831, he presented it to the House of Commons. Overnight, he had won a national reputation.

In the 1830s and ’40s, Russell remained the chief promoter of liberal reform in the Whig Party—although never again, perhaps, was this role so glorious as in the protracted but successful conflict over the passing of the first Reform Bill.

 
 
As paymaster general under Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, during roughly the first half of the 1830s, Russell championed the cause of religious freedom for both English Dissenters and Irish Roman Catholics. Indeed, he pursued these aims so zealously that, in seeking to divert some of the wealth of the established Church of Ireland (which was Protestant) to the Roman Catholics (who formed the bulk of the population), he frightened such leading Whigs as Lord Stanley (later Earl of Derby) out of the party.
 
 
In the second half of the 1830s, as home secretary under Lord Melbourne, Russell, among other things, democratized the government of large towns (with the exception of London).

He also reduced the number of criminal offenses liable to capital punishment and began the system of state inspection and support of public education.

Even out of office from 1841 to 1846, when he stood in opposition to Sir Robert Peel, Russell left his mark. In 1845, in advance of his party, he came out in favour of total free trade, a crucial step in forcing Peel to follow him. As a result Peel split his party, the Whigs came to power, and Russell became prime minister.

This administration (1846–52) demonstrated that, although Russell’s penchant for advanced ideas was as strong as ever, his ability to implement them was now seriously reduced. He was able to establish the 10-hour day in factory labour (1847) and to found a national board of public health (1848).

But, largely because of party disunity and weak leadership, he was unable to end the civil disabilities of the Jews, extend the franchise to the workers in the cities, or guarantee security of tenure to the Irish farmers.

  In the remaining years of his public career, Russell’s difficulties increased. Party disunity continued and brought down his second administration (1865–66) when he made his last attempt to extend the franchise. But more significant, in the 1850s the national temper had changed. An age of reform had given way to a mood of self-complacency, even of belligerence. This was already evident in the Ecclesiastical Titles Act of 1851, which Russell’s government had passed and which in effect was England’s defiance of the papacy.

This mood deepened, transformed, on the one hand, into an appetite for foreign conquest and, on the other, into boredom with social and political reform. In such an atmosphere Russell was inevitably overshadowed by the forceful and popular Lord Palmerston, who seized the forefront of the national stage in the Crimean War (1854–56). Indeed, for four years, from 1855 to 1859, Russell retired from public life and devoted more and more of his time to literature. Private life had always beckoned to him, as had the life of a litterateur. Among the English prime ministers, few wrote so copiously—biography, history, poetry—as Russell. He accepted an earldom in 1861, and he died at Pembroke Lodge, Richmond Park, in 1878.

David Spring

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Mass demonstrations in Swiss cities lead to introduction of more liberal legislation, expansion of franchise, and the principle of popular sovereignty
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Emperor Pedro I of Brazil (1798-1834) abdicates; succeeded by Pedro II (b. 1825), his son (—1889)
 
 

Pedro I delivers his abdication letter on 7 April 1831
 
 
 
Pedro II of Brazil
 

Pedro II, original name Dom Pedro de Alcântara (born Dec. 2, 1825, Rio de Janeiro, Braz.—died Dec. 5, 1891, Paris, France), second and last emperor of Brazil (1831–89), whose benevolent and popular reign lasted nearly 50 years.

 

Pedro II
  On April 7, 1831, when he was five years old, his father, Pedro I (Pedro, or Peter, IV of Portugal), abdicated in his favour; and for nine years Brazil was governed by a turbulent regency. To restore political stability, Pedro was declared of age on July 23, 1840, and crowned emperor on July 18, 1841.
Although the disturbances in the provinces that had plagued the regency continued for the next five years, the young emperor’s intellectual curiosity and profound concern for his subjects soon became apparent. He considered himself the arbiter of Brazil’s political life, and he used the power granted him by the constitution to regulate the antagonistic groups that sought to dominate the country.

He was greatly aided in this activity by the support offered by the country’s dominant military figure, the duke of Caxias (Luiz Alves de Lima e Silva). The first Brazilian monarch to be born in Brazil, Pedro guarded his country’s sovereignty in disputes with Great Britain and the United States. He led Brazil into the War of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay (1864–70), gaining new territory and prestige for Brazil.

The rule of Pedro II, a calm, serious, and intelligent man, brought stability and progress to the troubled economy. He encouraged coffee production instead of sugar, and under his guidance Brazil made significant gains in railroad, telegraph, and cable construction. As a result of his leadership, he enjoyed almost unqualified support for 40 years.

 
 
During Pedro’s 49-year reign, he presided over 36 different cabinets, most of which received and merited public support, as Pedro was generally served by excellent councillors and ministers. By astutely alternating support for the Liberal and Conservative parties, he ensured that both enjoyed a roughly equal amount of time in power, and he provided orderly, nonviolent transitions between them. Both parties, however, represented the landholding oligarchy, and, as a result, issues that affected other sectors of Brazilian society were often hedged.

Thus, despite Pedro’s generally benign and progressive leadership, by the end of his reign his support had weakened. The crucial issue was the abolition of slavery. Personally opposed to slavery (he had freed his own slaves in 1840), Pedro felt that abolition in the agriculturally based Brazilian economy would have to occur gradually so as not to upset the landowners. When complete emancipation was at last decreed (1888), with his daughter Isabel acting as regent, 700,000 slaves were freed, and no provision was made for compensation to the owners. Pedro also had strained relations with the Roman Catholic church after 1872 because of his opposition to the anti-Masonic laws passed by the church. In addition, the emperor, who represented the colonial countryside and landed classes, found himself removed from increasingly powerful elements in society, particularly the emerging urban middle class and the military. These and other factors combined to bring about his downfall. On Nov. 15, 1889, a military coup forced him to abdicate. The royal family went into exile in Europe. His remains and those of his wife were returned to Brazil in 1920 and placed in a chapel in the city of Petrópolis, named in his honour.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1830 Part V NEXT-1831 Part II