Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1831 Part III NEXT-1832 Part I    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

"View of London Bridge" by Claude de Jongh
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1831 Part IV
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Barry Heinrich Anton
 

Heinrich Anton de Bary, (born Jan. 26, 1831, Frankfurt am Main [Germany]—died Jan. 19, 1888, Strassburg, Ger. [now Strasbourg, Fr.]), German botanist whose researches into the roles of fungi and other agents in causing plant diseases earned him distinction as a founder of modern mycology and plant pathology.

 

Heinrich Anton de Bary
  A professor of botany at the universities of Freiburg im Breisgau (1855–66), Halle (1867–72), and Strassburg (1872–88), de Bary determined the life cycles of many fungi, for which he developed a classification that has been retained in large part by modern mycologists. Among the first to study host-parasite interactions, he demonstrated ways in which fungi penetrate host tissues.
In his book Untersuchungen über die Brandpilze (1853; “Researches Concerning Fungal Blights”), he correctly asserted that fungi associated with rust and smut diseases of plants are the cause, rather than the effect, of these diseases. In 1865 he proved that the life cycle of wheat rust involves two hosts, wheat and barberry. He was the first to show (1866) that lichens consist of a fungus and an alga in intimate association; he coined the term symbiosis in 1879 to mean an internal, mutually beneficial partnership between two organisms.

De Bary also did important research on slime molds and sexual modes of reproduction in algae, and he wrote a comparative anatomy of phanerogams and ferns.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Chloroform simultaneously invented by Samuel Guthrie (American) and Justus von Liebig (Germany)
 
 
Guthrie Samuel
 

Samuel Guthrie (1782–1848) was an American physician from Hounsfield, New York. He invented a form of percussion powder and also the punch lock for igniting it, which made the flintlock musket obsolete. He discovered chloroform independently in 1831.

 
Samuel Guthrie was a 19th-century physician and chemist who discovered the anaesthetic chloroform (trichloromethane) in 1831, by distilling chloride of lime with alcohol in a copper barrel, using it as a mild anesthetic in amputation surgeries. The same chemical compound was discovered independently by a French scientist, Eugène Soubeiran, in October 1831, and by the German chemist Justus Liebig in November 1831, but Guthrie wrote of his findings in the summer of the same year, so he is generally acknowledged as the discoverer.

At the age of 22, Samuel Guthrie Jr. married Sybil Sexton, who was originally from Connecticut. They traveled by way of horse and buggy to the nearby village of Smyrna to be married.

During the winter of 1810 to 1811, Guthrie studied at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York (which is now Columbia University.)

  In January 1815, he listened to lectures at the University of Pennsylvania. These courses constituted his entire formal education.

In 1817, Samuel Guthrie Jr. moved to Sackets Harbor, New York, Jefferson County, in northern New York where he opened up practice as a rural doctor.

In addition to his medical practice, Dr. Guthrie was a successful businessman, best known in his time for manufacturing chloric ether, vinegar, and priming powder for firearms which made flintlock muskets obsolete.

He also invented a process for converting potato starch into molasses and he distilled an alcohol that was reputed to be of unequaled quality in the Jefferson County.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
Liebig Justus
 

Justus, baron von Liebig, (born May 12, 1803, Darmstadt, Hesse-Darmstadt [Germany]—died April 18, 1873, Munich, Bavaria), German chemist who made significant contributions to the analysis of organic compounds, the organization of laboratory-based chemistry education, and the application of chemistry to biology (biochemistry) and agriculture.

 

Justus, baron von Liebig
  Training and early career
Liebig was the son of a pigment and chemical manufacturer whose shop contained a small laboratory. As a youth, Liebig borrowed chemistry books from the royal library in Darmstadt and followed their “recipes” in experiments he conducted in his father’s laboratory. At the age of 16, after studying pharmacy for six months under the tutelage of an apothecary at Heppenheim, he persuaded his father that he wanted to pursue chemistry, not the apothecary trade. In 1820 he began his study of chemistry with Karl Kastner at the Prussian University of Bonn, following Kastner to the University of Erlangen in Bavaria, where Liebig ultimately received his doctorate in 1822. His diligence and brilliance was noticed by the Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt and his ministers, who funded his further chemistry studies under Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac in Paris between 1822 and 1824. While in Paris, Liebig investigated the dangerous explosive silver fulminate, a salt of fulminic acid. Concurrently, the German chemist Friedrich Wöhler was analyzing cyanic acid. Liebig and Wöhler jointly realized that cyanic acid and fulminic acid represented two different compounds that had the same composition—that is, the same number and kind of atoms—but different chemical properties. This unexpected conclusion, which was later codified under the concept of isomerism by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, led to a lifelong friendship between Liebig and Wöhler and to a remarkable collaborative research partnership, frequently conducted via correspondence.
 
 
Liebig’s scientific work with fulminates, together with his fortunate meeting with the influential German naturalist and diplomat Alexander von Humboldt, who was always keen to patronize younger talent, led to Liebig’s appointment at the small University of Giessen in May 1824. As Liebig later observed in his fragmentary autobiography, “at a larger university, or in a larger place, my energies would have been divided and dissipated, and it would have been much more difficult, perhaps impossible, to reach the goal at which I aimed.”
 
 

Justus, baron von Liebig
  Foundations of organic chemistry
Liebig succeeded in institutionalizing the independent teaching of chemistry, which hitherto in German universities had been taught as an adjunct to pharmacy for apothecaries and physicians. Furthermore, he expanded the realm of chemistry teaching by formalizing a standard of training based upon practical laboratory experience and by focusing attention upon the uncultivated field of organic chemistry. The key to his success proved to be an improvement in the method of organic analysis. Liebig burned an organic compound with copper oxide and identified the oxidation products (water vapour and carbon dioxide) by weighing them, directly after absorption, in a tube of calcium chloride and in a specially designed five-bulb apparatus containing caustic potash. This procedure, perfected in 1831, allowed the carbon content of organic compounds to be determined to a greater precision than previously known. Moreover, his technique was simple and quick, allowing chemists to run six or seven analyses per day as opposed to that number per week with older methods. The rapid progress of organic chemistry witnessed in the early 1830s suggests that Liebig’s technical breakthrough, rather than the abandonment of the belief that organic compounds might be under the control of “vital forces,” was the key factor in the emergence of biochemistry and clinical chemistry. The five-bulb potash apparatus he designed for carbon dioxide absorption rapidly became, and remains to this day, emblematic of organic chemistry.
 
 
Liebig’s introduction of this new method of analysis led to a decade of intensive investigation of organic compounds, both by Liebig and by his students. Liebig himself published an average of 30 papers a year between 1830 and 1840. Several of these investigative reports became highly significant to further developments in the theory and practice of organic chemistry. Most noteworthy among these writings were his series of papers on the nitrogen content of bases, joint work with Wöhler on the benzoyl radical (1832) and on the degradation products of urea (1837), the discovery of chloral (trichloroethanal, 1832), the identification of the ethyl radical (1834), the preparation of acetaldehyde (ethanal, 1835), and the hydrogen theory of organic acids (1838). He also popularized, but did not invent, the Liebig condenser, still used in laboratory distillations.

Liebig’s analytical prowess, his reputation as a teacher, and the Hessian government’s subsidy of his laboratory created a large influx of students to Giessen in the 1830s. Indeed, so many students were drawn to Liebig that he had to expand his facilities and systematize his training procedures. A considerable number of his students, some 10 per semester, were foreigners. Maintaining a devoted following among foreign audiences helped firmly to establish Liebig’s emphasis on laboratory-based teaching and research in foreign countries and in other German states. For example, the Royal College of Chemistry founded in London in 1845, the Lawrence Scientific School established at Harvard University in 1847, and Hermann Kolbe’s large laboratory at Leipzig in Saxony in 1868 were all modeled upon Liebig’s program.

One of the major investigations that Liebig collaboratively pursued with Wöhler was an analysis of the oil of bitter almonds in 1832. After demonstrating that the oil could be oxidized to benzoic acid (benzenecarboxylic acid), the two chemists postulated that both substances, as well as a large number of derivatives, contained a common group, or “radical,” which they named “benzoyl.” This research, based upon Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius’s electrochemical and dualistic model of inorganic composition, proved to be a landmark in classifying organic compounds according to their constituent radicals.

The radical theory, together with a large accumulation of data from organic analysis experiments, provided Liebig and Wöhler sufficient background to begin to analyze the complex organic compounds in urine. Between 1837 and 1838 they identified, analyzed, and classified many of the constituents and degradation products of urine, including urea (carbamide), uric acid, allantoin, and uramil. Among their conclusions, uramil was reported to be produced by “innumerable metamorphoses” of uric acid—itself a degradation product, they conjectured, of flesh and blood. This magnificent investigation, which astonished British chemists when Liebig reported it to the British Association for the Advancement of Science during a visit to Britain in 1837, gave contemporary physicians new insight into the pathology of many kidney and urinary bladder diseases. Later, in 1852, Liebig provided physicians with simple chemical procedures whereby they could quantitatively determine the amount of urea in urine. In another work of practical use to physicians, he determined the oxygen content of the air by quantifying its adsorption in an alkaline solution of pyrogallol (benzene-1,2,3-triol).

 
 
Developments in agricultural, animal, and food chemistry
Liebig’s realization that organic chemistry could be used as a tool to investigate living processes led him to abandon pure chemistry in 1840. In that year he published Die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Agricultur und Physiologie (Chemistry in Its Applications to Agriculture and Physiology). In this German publication, which soon appeared in English and French translations, Liebig claimed that because “perfect agriculture is the true foundation of all trade and industry,” a “rational system of agriculture cannot be formed without the application of scientific principles.” Only the chemist, he argued dogmatically, could tell the farmer the best means of feeding plants, the nature of the different soils, and the action of particular manures upon them. By analyzing soils, Liebig showed that the prevailing “humus theory” in which a plant’s carbon content was claimed to have originated principally from leaf mould, and not from atmospheric photosynthesis, was fallacious. On the other hand, Liebig argued incorrectly for years that atmospheric ammonia and nitrates in the soil were more important direct sources of plant nitrogen than manures, whose principal function he viewed as providing trace minerals from the products of decomposition that remained in the soil. In order to provide these minerals more efficiently, Liebig began to develop “chemical manures” in 1845. Although Liebig’s claim was later proven to be incorrect, and his fertilizers were shown to be inefficient and uneconomic, investigations conducted at the Rothamsted Experimental Station in Hertfordshire by his English pupil J.H. Gilbert, together with the landowner John Bennet Lawes, led to the discovery of superphosphates, which were readily developed as fertilizers.

Sulfuric acid production for fertilizers accelerated both the industrialization of Europe and the vertical integration of chemical industries. Liebig’s aphorism of 1843, that the measure of a country’s civilization lay in the amount of sulfuric acid it consumes every year, became widely known. Both directly and indirectly, Liebig was an influential figure in the development of scientific agriculture and, thus, in increasing food production at a time when a rising European population was undergoing vast urban and industrial expansion.

  In 1842 Liebig published a sequel, Die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Physiologie und Pathologie (Animal Chemistry or Organic Chemistry in Its Applications to Physiology and Pathology), which is considered to be a foundational writing of modern biochemistry. In this work, Liebig employed analyses and highly speculative equations in an attempt to unravel the metabolic routes by which foodstuffs were transformed into flesh and blood and whereby tissues were degraded into animal heat, muscular work, and secretions and excretions. Although many of the details were later shown to be wrong, his novel approach of examining metabolism from a chemical viewpoint inspired decades of further research.

A false hypothesis in science can often be fruitful; by demonstrating the errors of Liebig’s schemes, many important principles were discovered. For instance, Liebig was wrong in claiming that fermentation and putrefaction were merely dynamic reshufflings of the constituent parts of chemical substances; yet his claim prompted many physicians to espouse a chemical theory of disease that challenged the predominant sanitarian view that disease was spread by the poisonous miasma that arose from accumulated sewage.

Liebig grew increasingly interested in the chemistry of food, especially in discovering better ways to cook meat in order to preserve its nutritional qualities. In his 1847 publication Chemische Untersuchung über das Fleisch (Research on the Chemistry of Food), Liebig described a particular “extract of meat” prepared by low-pressure evaporation of the soup from lean meat, and he claimed it to be a valuable restorative for the sick, wounded, and ill-nourished. In later editions of his popular Chemische Briefe (Familiar Letters on Chemistry), he pointed out that in countries such as South America and Australia, where cattle were routinely slaughtered for their hides or tallow, his meat extract could be prepared extremely economically.

Belgian railway engineer Georg Giebert followed up this suggestion and, in 1865, began to market, with Liebig’s promotional assistance, Liebig’s extract of meat as a nutritious food for invalids and the labouring classes. In the same decade Liebig also improved the commercial processing of artificial milk for infants, the baking of whole-meal bread, and the silvering of mirrors.

 
 

Justus, baron von Liebig
  Later life
Liebig remained in Giessen for 28 years, where the Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt made him a baron in 1845. In 1852, fatigued from teaching, he moved to the University of Munich, where he no longer offered practical instruction but pursued his own interests and concentrated upon popular lecturing and writing. Through the popularity of his Familiar Letters on Chemistry, he became viewed as an elder statesman of science, and he regularly commented on broader issues including scientific methodology, the opposition to materialism, and the dangers of failing to recycle sewage or replace soil nutrients that were harvested as animal and human food. Liebig was frequently hot-tempered and quarrelsome by nature, and he tenaciously upheld his own particular viewpoints. As editor of the monthly Annalen der Pharmacie und Chemie, which he founded in 1832 and which continued until 1998 as Liebigs Annalen, he publicized both his own work and that of his pupils while also using its pages to criticize the work of other chemists. A giant among 19th-century German chemists, his charismatic power as a teacher and friend was aptly conveyed by his former student A.W. Hofmann: “Each word of his carried instruction, every intonation of his voice bespoke regard; his approval was a mark of honour, and of whatever else we might be proud, our greatest pride of all was having him for our master.” Liebig was buried in Munich’s Südfriedhof Cemetery. Statues were erected in his honour at Darmstadt, Giessen, and Munich. Liebig’s former laboratories in Giessen are now the Liebig Museum.

William H. Brock

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Chloroform
 

Chloroform is an organic compound with formula CHCl3. It is one of the four chloromethanes. The colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid is a trihalomethane, and is considered hazardous. Several million tons are produced annually as a precursor to PTFE and refrigerants, but its use for refrigerants is being phased out. The hydrogen attached to carbon in chloroform participates in hydrogen bonding.

 
Natural occurrence
The total global flux of chloroform through the environment is approximately 660 000 tonnes per year, and about 90 % of emissions are natural in origin. Many kinds of seaweed produce chloroform, and fungi are believed to produce chloroform in soil.

Chloroform volatilizes readily from soil and surface water and undergoes degradation in air to produce phosgene, dichloromethane, formyl chloride, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen chloride. Its halflife in air ranges from 55 to 620 days. Biodegradation in water and soil is slow. Chloroform does not bioaccumulate to any significant extent in aquatic organisms.

History
Trichloromethane was synthesized independently by two groups in 1831: Liebig carried out the alkaline cleavage of chloral, whereas Soubeirain obtained the compound by the action of chlorine bleach on both ethanol and acetone.

In 1835, Dumas prepared the substance by the alkaline cleavage of trichloroacetic acid. Regnault prepared trichloromethane by chlorination of monochloromethane.

By the 1850s, chloroform was being produced on a commercial basis by using the Liebig procedure, which retained its importance until the 1960s.

Today, trichloromethane — along with dichloromethane — is prepared exclusively and on a massive scale by the chlorination of methane and monochloromethane.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Colomb Philip Howard
 

Philip Howard Colomb, (born May 29, 1831, Scotland—died Oct. 13, 1899, Botley, Hampshire, Eng.), British naval officer and historian, noted for his innovative theories about sea power.

 
Colomb entered the Royal Navy in 1846 at age 15 and served successively in the Mediterranean, China, Myanmar (Burma), and other areas. He invented a new and more efficient way of signaling between ships at night, and his system was adopted throughout the Royal Navy in 1867. He was retired from active service in 1886 and reached the rank of vice admiral in 1892.

Colomb made a special study of naval tactics for steam-powered vessels, but his major work remains Naval Warfare, 8 vol. (1891). In this overly long historical study he stressed the importance of sea power in maintaining Britain’s colonial empire and its geopolitical supremacy vis-à-vis the other European powers. Colomb thus came independently to many of the conclusions that were more ably publicized by Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Darwin Charles sails as naturalist on a surveying expedition in "H.M.S. Beagle" to S. America, New Zealand, and Australia (—1836)
 
 
Darwin and the Beagle
 
 
In 1831 Captain Robert Pitzroy set sail in HMS Beagle on a voyage, for the British Admiralty, to continue charting the coasts of South America and "to carry a chain of chronometncal measurements round the world." He took with him Charles Darwin, a 22-year-old naturalist who had never been abroad and was never to go again. Darwin was full of enthusiasm to explore the Andes, the pampas, and the virtually unknown offshore islands: the Falklands, Tierra del Fuego, and the Galapagos.



Charles Darwin was 22 years old when he was offered the post of naturalist on HMS Beagle. The observations that he made during the voyage were the main inspiration behind his theory of evolution by natural selection, one of the great theories in the history of science, first published in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859).



Darwin's explorations on land (for it had been agreed with Fitzrov before they left that he should be able to leave the ship for lengthy periods) included many adventures. He climbed Corcovado at Rio dc Janeiro. He explored in small boats and on land among the channels of Tierra del Fuego, nearly getting stranded on one occasion. He set off with gauchos on horseback across the Argentine pampas. He hunted ostriches in Patagonia and shot a condor in Chile. He traversed the Andes, where he suffered mountain sickness in the high passes between Portillo and Mendoza; he rode a giant tortoise in the Galapagos and "found it a very wobbly seat."

While participating in all these innocent adventures, Darwin "was keenly observing and taking notes all the time. His studies at Cambridge had extended to geology and entomology as well as natural history. He amassed a large collection of insects in Rio and an even larger collection of fossils in Patagonia. Indeed, he commented that "we may conclude that the whole area of the pampas is one wide sepulcher of ... extinct giant quadrupeds.' He became convinced that the Andes had been below the waters of the ocean and had been thrust upward. This conclusion owed much to the sea fossils he found high in the mountains and to his noting the frailty of the Earth's shell during a particularly severe earthquake at Conception in Chile.
 
 
 
 
The seeds of an idea

It was in the Galapagos Islands, however, that Darwin experienced the first inklings of his later theories about the process of natural selection and the common origin of species. He was impressed by the variety of wildlife, and when he looked at his many specimens he was struck by the fact that the majority belonged to species which, while resembling other species in South America, were unique to the islands.

He also discovered that the species differed from island to island, although many were only 50 to 60 miles (80 to 90 kilometers) apart. These differences, he deduced, could only have developed in an environment where creatures were without predators or competitors for food and water, and so could gradually evolve in ways best suited to local conditions. This led him to question the accepted current belief in the creation of unchangeable species as described in the Book of Genesis. As he wrote in his journal, "In July opened first notebook on Transmutation of Species. Had been greatly struck from about the month of previous March on character of South American fossils, and species on Galapagos Archipelago. These facts (especially the latter) origin of all my views."

All this collecting and theorizing placed a considerable strain on Captain Fitzroy, whose cabin Darwin shared. The decks of the Beagle became littered with bones, rocks, plants, skins of birds, and even rotting fish and fungi.
 
 
  Darwin was immediately impressed and intrigued by the birds of the tropical forests, such as the Toco toucan (Ramphastus toco), when he explored the area around Salvador on the Brazilian coast in 1832.




When the Beagle visited the Falkland Islands in February 1833, Darwin recorded great numbers of foxes (Canis antarcticus) which were fearless enough to harass the men in the party that went ashore.
 
 
Worse than the disconcerting clutter was the extemely disconcerting talk. Fitzroy was a devout Christian and a fundamentalist: he sincerely believed every word of the Bible to be the literal truth. Darwin had himself been intended for a career in the Church, but now he was beginning to doubt. Could the Creation possibly have taken place as late as 4004 ВС (the date confidently expounded by the Church)? Could the flood really have covered the Earth and Noah's Ark rescued all the surviving species? And could the heavens and the Earth, and all that dwelt therein, conceivably have been created in seven days? Fitzroy, who was already deeply disappointed at his inability to implant a missionary in Tierra del Fuego, began to feel he was harboring a religious subversive in the person of Darwin.

It took many years for Darwin to digest and record all the results of what turned out to be a five-year voyage. When eventually he published his On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859, it was followed the next year by a public debate in Oxford in which Darwin's supporters argued the issues with Dr Wilberforce and other leading clerics. The meeting was interrupted by an elderly gray-haired man who denounced Darwin and all his works: he was Vice-Admiral Robert Fitzroy, late of HMS Beagle.
 
 

The Beagle's artist, Conrad Martens, painted this watercolor of native
people visiting the Beagle off the coast of Tierra del Fuego.
 
 
Galapagos finches

Darwin was amazed by the number of different species of finch on the Galapagos Islands, and the variety of their beaks. On one island the birds had developed beaks suitable for feeding on fruits and flowers; on another they had thick strong beaks for cracking nuts and seeds; on yet another the beaks were smaller to make it easier to catch insects.

It was clear that the birds had evolved these different beaks in response to the different types of food that were available on the islands. Darwin went on to conclude that they had been able to develop in this way because they were the first birds to make the journey from the mainland to the islands, and so had not had any competitors for food and water.

The woodpecker-type of finch, for example, had been able to evolve because there was no mainland woodpecker already established on the Galapagos. Isolation had led to the development of new species.
 
 
 
 
     
 
Charles Darwin

On the Origin of Species by Natural selection
     
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Faraday Michael carries out a series of experiments demonstrating the discovery of
electromagnetic induction
 
 

One of Faraday's 1831 experiments demonstrating induction. The liquid battery (right) sends an electric current through the small coil (A). When it is moved in or out of the large coil (B), its magnetic field induces a momentary voltage in the coil, which is detected by the galvanometer (G).
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Maxwell James Clerk
 

James Clerk Maxwell, (born June 13, 1831, Edinburgh, Scotland—died November 5, 1879, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England), Scottish physicist best known for his formulation of electromagnetic theory. He is regarded by most modern physicists as the scientist of the 19th century who had the greatest influence on 20th-century physics, and he is ranked with Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein for the fundamental nature of his contributions. In 1931, on the 100th anniversary of Maxwell’s birth, Einstein described the change in the conception of reality in physics that resulted from Maxwell’s work as “the most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton.”

 
The concept of electromagnetic radiation originated with Maxwell, and his field equations, based on Michael Faraday’s observations of the electric and magnetic lines of force, paved the way for Einstein’s special theory of relativity, which established the equivalence of mass and energy. Maxwell’s ideas also ushered in the other major innovation of 20th-century physics, the quantum theory. His description of electromagnetic radiation led to the development (according to classical theory) of the ultimately unsatisfactory law of heat radiation, which prompted Max Planck’s formulation of the quantum hypothesis—i.e., the theory that radiant-heat energy is emitted only in finite amounts, or quanta. The interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter, integral to Planck’s hypothesis, in turn has played a central role in the development of the theory of the structure of atoms and molecules.
 
 

James Clerk Maxwell
  Early life
Maxwell came from a comfortable middle-class background. The original family name was Clerk, the additional surname being added by his father, who was a lawyer, after he had inherited the Middlebie estate from Maxwell ancestors. James was an only child.

His parents had married late in life, and his mother was 40 years old at his birth. (See Researcher’s Note: Maxwell’s date of birth.) Shortly afterward the family moved from Edinburgh to Glenlair, the country house on the Middlebie estate.

His mother died in 1839 from abdominal cancer, the very disease to which Maxwell was to succumb at exactly the same age.
A dull and uninspired tutor was engaged who claimed that James was slow at learning, though in fact he displayed a lively curiosity at an early age and had a phenomenal memory.

Fortunately he was rescued by his aunt Jane Cay and from 1841 was sent to school at the Edinburgh Academy. Among the other pupils were his biographer Lewis Campbell and his friend Peter Guthrie Tait.

Maxwell’s interests ranged far beyond the school syllabus, and he did not pay particular attention to examination performance.

 
 
His first scientific paper, published when he was only 14 years old, described a generalized series of oval curves that could be traced with pins and thread by analogy with an ellipse. This fascination with geometry and with mechanical models continued throughout his career and was of great help in his subsequent research.
 
 

A young Maxwell at Trinity College, Cambridge. He is holding one of his colour wheels.
  At age 16 he entered the University of Edinburgh, where he read voraciously on all subjects and published two more scientific papers. In 1850 he went to the University of Cambridge, where his exceptional powers began to be recognized. His mathematics teacher, William Hopkins, was a well-known “wrangler maker” (a wrangler is one who takes first-class honours in the mathematics examinations at Cambridge) whose students included Tait, George Gabriel (later Sir George) Stokes, William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin), Arthur Cayley, and Edward John Routh.

Of Maxwell, Hopkins is reported to have said that he was the most extraordinary man he had ever met, that it seemed impossible for him to think wrongly on any physical subject, but that in analysis he was far more deficient. (Other contemporaries also testified to Maxwell’s preference for geometrical over analytical methods.) This shrewd assessment was later borne out by several important formulas advanced by Maxwell that obtained correct results from faulty mathematical arguments.

In 1854 Maxwell was second wrangler and first Smith’s prizeman (the Smith’s Prize is a prestigious competitive award for an essay that incorporates original research). He was elected to a fellowship at Trinity, but, because his father’s health was deteriorating, he wished to return to Scotland.

 
 
In 1856 he was appointed to the professorship of natural philosophy at Marischal College, Aberdeen, but before the appointment was announced his father died. This was a great personal loss, for Maxwell had had a close relationship with his father. In June 1858 Maxwell married Katherine Mary Dewar, daughter of the principal of Marischal College. The union was childless and was described by his biographer as a “married life…of unexampled devotion.”

In 1860 the University of Aberdeen was formed by a merger between King’s College and Marischal College, and Maxwell was declared redundant. He applied for a vacancy at the University of Edinburgh, but he was turned down in favour of his school friend Tait. He then was appointed to the professorship of natural philosophy at King’s College, London.

The next five years were undoubtedly the most fruitful of his career. During this period his two classic papers on the electromagnetic field were published, and his demonstration of colour photography took place. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1861. His theoretical and experimental work on the viscosity of gases also was undertaken during these years and culminated in a lecture to the Royal Society in 1866. He supervised the experimental determination of electrical units for the British Association for the Advancement of Science, and this work in measurement and standardization led to the establishment of the National Physical Laboratory. He also measured the ratio of electromagnetic and electrostatic units of electricity and confirmed that it was in satisfactory agreement with the velocity of light as predicted by his theory.

 
 

James Clerk Maxwell
  Later life
In 1865 Maxwell resigned his professorship at King’s College and retired to the family estate in Glenlair. He continued to visit London every spring and served as external examiner for the Mathematical Tripos (exams) at Cambridge. In the spring and early summer of 1867 he toured Italy. But most of his energy during this period was devoted to writing his famous treatise on electricity and magnetism.

It was Maxwell’s research on electromagnetism that established him among the great scientists of history. In the preface to his Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (1873), the best exposition of his theory, Maxwell stated that his major task was to convert Faraday’s physical ideas into mathematical form. In attempting to illustrate Faraday’s law of induction (that a changing magnetic field gives rise to an induced electromagnetic field), Maxwell constructed a mechanical model.

He found that the model gave rise to a corresponding “displacement current” in the dielectric medium, which could then be the seat of transverse waves. On calculating the velocity of these waves, he found that they were very close to the velocity of light.
Maxwell concluded that he could “scarcely avoid the inference that light consists in the transverse undulations of the same medium which is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena.”

 
 
Maxwell’s theory suggested that electromagnetic waves could be generated in a laboratory, a possibility first demonstrated by Heinrich Hertz in 1887, eight years after Maxwell’s death. The resulting radio industry with its many applications thus has its origin in Maxwell’s publications.

In addition to his electromagnetic theory, Maxwell made major contributions to other areas of physics. While still in his 20s, he demonstrated his mastery of classical physics by writing a prizewinning essay on Saturn’s rings, in which he concluded that the rings must consist of masses of matter not mutually coherent—a conclusion that was corroborated more than 100 years later by the first Voyager space probe to reach Saturn.

The Maxwell relations of equality between different partial derivatives of thermodynamic functions are included in every standard textbook on thermodynamics. Though Maxwell did not originate the modern kinetic theory of gases, he was the first to apply the methods of probability and statistics in describing the properties of an assembly of molecules. Thus he was able to demonstrate that the velocities of molecules in a gas, previously assumed to be equal, must follow a statistical distribution (known subsequently as the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law). In later papers Maxwell investigated the transport properties of gases—i.e., the effect of changes in temperature and pressure on viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion.

 
 

James Clerk Maxwell
  Maxwell was far from being an abstruse theoretician. He was skillful in the design of experimental apparatus, as was shown early in his career during his investigations of colour vision. He devised a colour top with adjustable sectors of tinted paper to test the three-colour hypothesis of Thomas Young and later invented a colour box that made it possible to conduct experiments with spectral colours rather than pigments. His investigations of the colour theory led him to conclude that a colour photograph could be produced by photographing through filters of the three primary colours and then recombining the images. He demonstrated his supposition in a lecture to the Royal Institution of Great Britain in 1861 by projecting through filters a colour photograph of a tartan ribbon that had been taken by this method. In addition to these well-known contributions, a number of ideas that Maxwell put forward quite casually have since led to developments of great significance. The hypothetical intelligent being known as Maxwell’s demon was a factor in the development of information theory. Maxwell’s analytic treatment of speed governors is generally regarded as the founding paper on cybernetics, and his “equal areas” construction provided an essential constituent of the theory of fluids developed by Johannes Diederik van der Waals. His work in geometrical optics led to the discovery of the fish-eye lens. From the start of his career to its finish, his papers are filled with novelty and interest. He also was a contributor to the ninth edition of Encyclopædia Britannica.
 
 
In 1871 Maxwell was elected to the new Cavendish professorship at Cambridge. He set about designing the Cavendish Laboratory and supervised its construction. Maxwell had few students, but they were of the highest calibre and included William D. Niven, Ambrose (later Sir Ambrose) Fleming, Richard Tetley Glazebrook, John Henry Poynting, and Arthur Schuster.

During the Easter term of 1879 Maxwell took ill on several occasions; he returned to Glenlair in June, but his condition did not improve. He died on November 5, after a short illness. Maxwell received no public honours and was buried quietly in a small churchyard in the village of Parton, in Scotland.

Cyril Domb

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Sir James Clark Ross (Ross James Clark) determines position of magnetic North Pole
 
 
North Pole
 

North Pole, northern end of the Earth’s axis, lying in the Arctic Ocean, about 450 miles (725 km) north of Greenland.

 
This geographic North Pole does not coincide with the magnetic North Pole—to which magnetic compasses point and which in the early 21st century lay north of the Queen Elizabeth Islands of extreme northern Canada at approximately 82°15′ N, 112°30′ W (it is steadily migrating northwest)—or with the geomagnetic North Pole, the northern end of the Earth’s geomagnetic field (about 79°30′ N, 71°30′ W). The geographic pole, located at a point where the ocean depth is about 13,400 feet (4,080 m) deep and covered with drifting pack ice, experiences six months of complete sunlight and six months of total darkness each year.

The American explorer Robert E. Peary claimed to have reached the pole by dog sledge in April 1909, and another American explorer, Richard E. Byrd, claimed to have reached it by airplane on May 9, 1926; the claims of both men were later questioned.

  Three days after Byrd’s attempt, on May 12, the pole was definitely reached by an international team of Roald Amundsen, Lincoln Ellsworth, and Umberto Nobile, who traversed the polar region in a dirigible.

The first ships to visit the pole were the U.S. nuclear submarines Nautilus (1958) and Skate (1959), the latter surfacing through the ice, and the Soviet icebreaker Arktika was the first surface ship to reach it (1977).

Other notable surface expeditions include the first confirmed to reach the pole (1968; via snowmobile), the first to traverse the polar region (1969; Alaska to Svalbard, via dog sled), and the first to travel to the pole and back without resupply (1986; also via dog sled); the last expedition also included the first woman to reach the pole, American Ann Bancroft.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Routh Edward John
 

Edward John Routh FRS (20 January 1831 – 7 June 1907), was an English mathematician, noted as the outstanding coach of students preparing for the Mathematical Tripos examination of the University of Cambridge in its heyday in the middle of the nineteenth century. He also did much to systematise the mathematical theory of mechanics and created several ideas critical to the development of modern control systems theory.

 

Edward John Routh
  Early life
Routh was born of an English father and a French-Canadian mother in Quebec, at that time the British colony of Lower Canada. His father's family could trace its history back to the Norman conquest when it acquired land at Routh near Beverley, Yorkshire. His mother's family, the Taschereau family, was well-established in Quebec, tracing their ancestry back to the early days of the French colony. His parents were Sir Randolph Isham Routh (1782–1858) and his second wife, Marie Louise Taschereau (1810–1891). Randolph was a commissariat officer who had served at the Battle of Waterloo, and Marie Louise was the daughter of judge Jean-Thomas Taschereau and the sister of judge Jean-Thomas and cardinal Elzéar-Alexandre Taschereau. Routh came to England aged eleven and attended University College School and then entered University College, London in 1847, having won a scholarship. There he studied under Augustus De Morgan, whose influence led to Routh to decide on a career in mathematics.
Routh obtained his B.A. (1849) and M.A. (1853) in London. He attended Peterhouse, Cambridge, where he was taught by Isaac Todhunter and coached by "senior wrangler maker" William Hopkins. In 1854, Routh graduated just above James Clerk Maxwell, as Senior Wrangler, sharing the Smith's prize with him.
Routh was elected fellow of Peterhouse in 1855.
 
 
Mathematics tutor
On graduation, Routh took up work as a private mathematics tutor in Cambridge and took on the pupils of William John Steele during the latter's fatal illness, though insisting that Steele take the fees. Routh inherited Steele's pupils, going on to establish an unbeaten record as a coach. He coached over 600 pupils between 1855 and 1888, 27 of them making Senior Wrangler, as to Hopkins' 17.

Routh worked conscientiously and systematically, taking rigidly timetabled classes of ten pupils during the day and spending the evenings preparing extra material for the ablest men. "His lectures were enlivened by mathematical jokes of a rather heavy kind."

Routh was a staunch defender of the Cambridge competitive system and despaired when the university started to publish examination results in alphabetical order, observing "They will want to run the Derby alphabetically next".

 
 
Private life
Astronomer Royal George Biddell Airy sought to entice Routh to work at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Though Airy did not succeed, at Greenwich Routh met Airy's eldest daughter Hilda (1840–1916) whom he married in 1864. The couple had five sons and a daughter. Routh was a "kindly man and a good conversationalist with friends, but with strangers he was shy and reserved."

Work

Routh collaborated with Henry Brougham on the Analytical View of Sir Isaac Newton's Principia (1855).

He published a textbook, Dynamics of a System of Rigid Bodies (1860, 6th ed. 1897) in which he did much to define and systematise the modern mathematical approach to mechanics.

  This influenced Felix Klein and Arnold Sommerfeld, Klein arranging the German translation. It also did much to influence William Thomson and Peter Guthrie Tait's Treatise on Natural Philosophy (1867). The Routhian of classical mechanics is named in honor of him.

Stability and control
In addition to his intensive work in teaching and writing, which had a persistent effect on the presentation of mathematical physics, he also contributed original research such as the Routh-Hurwitz theorem.

Central tenets of modern control systems theory relies upon the Routh stability criterion, an application of Sturm's Theorem to evaluate Cauchy indices through the use of the Euclidean algorithm.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Charles Sauria of France develops method of making matches easy to ignite
 
 
Sauria Marc Charles
 
Marc Charles Sauria (25 April 1812 – 22 August 1895) was a French chemist credited for inventing phosphorus-based matches in 1830–1831.
 

Marc Charles Sauria
  Several events are believed to have led Sauria to his discovery, including the hydrogen lighter introduced in 1827 by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and the demonstration by his chemistry professor Nicolet where a powder mixture of potassium chlorate and sulfur was detonated by a blow. During a long series of experiments, Sauria went on to add white phosphorus that helped ignite the mixture by friction. He finalized the invention by adding gum arabic to hold the powders together, and dipping pieces of wood into it.

Sauria was a poor student at the time; however, Nicolet communicated his invention to German industrialist Friedrich Kammerer who had patented it and used it in mass production of matches.

The British chemist John Walker had introduced a very similar match some five years earlier, where he used antimony sulfide instead of white phosphorus. However, the phosphorus matches became more popular, mostly because of the reduced smell of sulfur, and quickly replaced those made by Walker.

 
 
Around the time of Sauria's death, some 3 trillion of white phosphorus matches per year were produced worldwide. However, white phosphorus was soon proven to be toxic and banned by the international Berne Convention in 1906.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
1831
 
 
The great cholera pandemic, which began in India in 1826, spreads from Russia into Central Europe, reaching Scotland in 1832
 
 
Great cholera pandemic
 

The second cholera pandemic (1829-1849), also known as the Asiatic Cholera Pandemic, was a cholera pandemic that reached from India to Europe, Great Britain and the Americas.

 
History
This pandemic began, like the first, with outbreaks along the Ganges River delta in India. From there the disease spread along trade routes to cover most of India. By 1828 the disease had traveled to China and reached the southern tips of the Ural Mountains in 1829. On 26 August 1829 the first cholera case was recorded in Orenburg with reports of outbreaks in Bugulma (7 November), Buguruslan (5 December), Menselinsk (2 January 1830) and Belebeevsk (6 January). With 3500 cases including 865 fatal ones in Orenburg province, the epidemic stopped by February 1830.

The epidemic reached Great Britain in December 1831: appearing in Sunderland, Gateshead and Newcastle. In London, the disease claimed 6,536 victims; in Paris, 20,000 died (out of a population of 650,000), with about 100,000 deaths in all of France. In 1832 the epidemic reached Russia (see Cholera Riots), Quebec, Ontario, Detroit and New York. It reached the Pacific coast of North America between 1832 and 1834.

  In the summer of 1832, 57 Irish immigrants laying a stretch of railroad called Duffy's Cut, 30 miles west of Philadelphia, died.

Legacy

Norwegian Poet Henrik Wergeland wrote a stage-play inspired by the pandemic, which had reached Norway. In The Indian Cholera, he criticized British colonialism for spreading the pandemic.

As a result of the epidemic, the medical community developed a major advance, the intravenous saline drip. It was developed from the work of Dr Thomas Latta of Leith, near Edinburgh.

Latta established from blood studies that a saline drip greatly improved the condition of patients and saved many lives by preventing dehydration.
But, he was one of the many medical personnel who died in the epidemic.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Ger. emigration to America с 15,000 (in 1841, с 43,000)
 
 
 
1831
 
 
William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing the abolitionist periodical "The Liberator," in Boston
 
 
Garrison William Lloyd
 

William Lloyd Garrison, (born December 10/12, 1805, Newburyport, Massachusetts, U.S.—died May 24, 1879, New York, New York), American journalistic crusader who published a newspaper, The Liberator (1831–65), and helped lead the successful abolitionist campaign against slavery in the United States.

 

William Lloyd Garrison
  Garrison was the son of an itinerant seaman who subsequently deserted his family. The son grew up in an atmosphere of declining New England Federalism and lively Christian benevolence—twin sources of the abolition movement, which he joined at age 25. As editor of the National Philanthropist (Boston) in 1828 and the Journal of the Times (Bennington, Vermont) in 1828–29, he served his apprenticeship in the moral reform cause. In 1829, with a pioneer abolitionist, Benjamin Lundy, he became co-editor of the Genius of Universal Emancipation in Baltimore; he also served a short term in jail for libeling a Newburyport merchant who was engaged in the coastal slave trade. Released in June 1830, Garrison returned to Boston and, a year later, established The Liberator, which became known as the most uncompromising of American antislavery journals. In the first issue of The Liberator he stated his views on slavery vehemently: “I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation . . . . I am in earnest—I will not equivocate—I will not excuse—I will not retreat a single inch—AND I WILL BE HEARD.” Like most of the abolitionists he recruited, Garrison was a convert from the American Colonization Society, which advocated the return of free blacks to Africa, to the principle of “immediate emancipation,” borrowed from English abolitionists. “Immediatism,” however variously it was interpreted by American reformers, condemned slavery as a national sin, called for emancipation at the earliest possible moment, and proposed schemes for incorporating the freedmen into American society.
 
 
Through The Liberator, which circulated widely both in England and the United States, Garrison soon achieved recognition as the most radical of American antislavery advocates. In 1832 he founded the New England Anti-Slavery Society, the first immediatist society in the country, and in 1833 he helped organize the American Anti-Slavery Society, writing its Declaration of Sentiments and serving as its first corresponding secretary. It was primarily as an editorialist, however, excoriating slave owners and their moderate opponents alike, that he became known and feared. “If those who deserve the lash feel it and wince at it,” he wrote in explaining his refusal to alter his harsh tone, “I shall be assured that I am striking the right persons in the right place.”
 
In 1837, in the wake of financial panic and the failure of abolitionist campaigns to gain support in the North, Garrison renounced church and state and embraced doctrines of Christian “perfectionism,” which combined abolition, women’s rights, and nonresistance, in the biblical injunction to “come out” from a corrupt society by refusing to obey its laws and support its institutions. From this blend of pacifism and anarchism came the Garrisonian principle of “No Union With Slaveholders,” formulated in 1844 as a demand for peaceful Northern secession from a slaveholding South.
 
 

Garrison circa 1850
  By 1840 Garrison’s increasingly personal definition of the slavery problem had precipitated a crisis within the American Anti-Slavery Society, a majority of whose members disapproved of both the participation of women and Garrison’s no-government theories. Dissension reached a climax in 1840, when the Garrisonians voted a series of resolutions admitting women and thus forced their conservative opponents to secede and form the rival American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. Later that year a group of politically minded abolitionists also deserted Garrison’s standard and founded the Liberty Party. Thus, 1840 witnessed the disruption of the national organization and left Garrison in control of a relative handful of followers loyal to his “come-outer” doctrine but deprived of the support of new antislavery converts and of the Northern reform community at large.

In the two decades between the schism of 1840 and the Civil War, Garrison’s influence waned as his radicalism increased. The decade before the war saw his opposition to slavery and to the federal government reach its peak: The Liberator denounced the Compromise of 1850, condemned the Kansas-Nebraska Act, damned the Dred Scott decision, and hailed John Brown’s raid as “God’s method of dealing retribution upon the head of the tyrant.”

In 1854 Garrison publicly burned a copy of the Constitution at an abolitionist rally in Framingham, Massachusetts. Three years later he held an abortive secessionist convention in Worcester, Massachusetts.

 
 
The Civil War forced Garrison to choose between his pacifist beliefs and emancipation. Placing freedom for the slave foremost, he supported Abraham Lincoln faithfully and in 1863 welcomed the Emancipation Proclamation as the fulfillment of all his hopes. Emancipation brought to the surface the latent conservatism in his program for the freedmen, whose political rights he was not prepared to guarantee immediately. In 1865 he attempted without success to dissolve the American Anti-Slavery Society and then resigned. In December 1865 he published the last issue of The Liberator and announced that “my vocation as an abolitionist is ended.” He spent his last 14 years in retirement from public affairs, regularly supporting the Republican Party and continuing to champion temperance, women’s rights, pacifism, and free trade. “It is enough for me,” he explained in justifying his refusal to participate in radical egalitarian politics, “that every yoke is broken, and every bondman set free.”

John L. Thomas

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
 
Edwin Lawrence Godkin (October 2, 1831 – May 21, 1902) was an Irish-born American journalist and newspaper editor. He founded The Nation, and was editor-in-chief of the New York Evening Post 1883-1899.
 

Edwin Lawrence Godkin
  Biography
Godkin was born in Moyne (a hamlet in Knockananna), County Wicklow, Ireland. His father, James Godkin, was a Congregationalist minister and a journalist. He studied law at Queen's College, Belfast, where he was the first president of the Literary and Scientific Society. After leaving Belfast in 1851 and studying law in London, he was the 1853-1855 Crimean War correspondent for the London Daily News in Turkey and Russia, being present at the Siege of Sevastopol.

In 1856, he emigrated to the United States and wrote letters to the News, giving his impressions of a tour on horseback he made of the southern states of the American Union. He studied law under David Dudley Field in New York City, and was admitted to the bar in 1859.

Owing to impaired health, he travelled in Europe in 1860-1862. He wrote for the News and the New York Times in 1862-1865. In 1865, he founded The Nation in New York City, a weekly projected by him long before, for which Charles Eliot Norton gained friends in Boston and James Miller McKim in Philadelphia. In 1866, two others joined Godkin as proprietors, while he remained editor until the end of the year 1899.

In 1881 he sold the Nation to the New York Evening Post, and became an associate editor of the Post, of which he was editor-in-chief in 1883-1899, succeeding Carl Schurz.

In the eighties he engaged in a controversy with Goldwin Smith over the Irish question.

 
 
Under his leadership the Post broke with the Republican Party in the presidential campaign of 1884, when Godkin's opposition to nominee James G. Blaine did much to create the so-called Mugwump party, and his organ became thoroughly independent, as was seen when it attacked the Venezuelan policy of President Grover Cleveland, who had in so many ways approximated the ideal of the Post and Nation. 
 
He consistently advocated currency reform, the gold standard, a tariff for revenue only, and civil service reform, rendering the greatest aid to the last cause. His attacks on Tammany Hall were so frequent and so virulent that in 1894 he was sued for libel because of biographical sketches of certain leaders in that organization; cases which never came up for trial.
 
 

Edwin Lawrence Godkin
  In 1896, Godkin broke with the Democratic party after it nominated William Jennings Bryan. He supported the National Democratic Party (United States) third ticket because it championed a gold standard, limited government, and opposed protectionism. His opposition to the war with Spain and to imperialism was able and forcible.

He retired from his editorial duties on the December 30, 1899, and sketched his career in the Evening Post of that date. Although he recovered from a severe apoplectic stroke early in 1900, his health was shattered, and he died in Greenway, Devon, England, on the May 21, 1902. He was buried at Saint Michael's Church in Haselbech, Daventry District, Northamptonshire, England, near the home of the friend with whom he had been staying.

Godkin shaped the lofty and independent policy of the Post and The Nation, which had a small but influential and intellectual class of readers. But as editor he had none of the personal magnetism of Greeley, for instance, and his superiority to the influence of popular feeling made Charles Dudley Warner style the Nation the weekly judgment day. He was an economist of the school of John Stuart Mill, urged the necessity of the abstraction called economic man, and insisted that socialism put in practice would not improve social and economic conditions in general. In politics, he was an enemy of sentimentalism and loose theories in government.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Hirsch Moritz
 

Maurice (Zvi) von Hirsch (9 December 1831 – 21 April 1896) was a German-Jewish philanthropist who set up charitable foundations to promote Jewish education and improve the lot of oppressed European Jewry. He was the founder of the Jewish Colonization Association which sponsored large-scale Jewish immigration to Argentina.

 

Baron Moritz von Hirsch
  Biography
Maurice von Hirsch was born on 9 December 1831 in Munich. His grandfather, the first Jewish landowner in Bavaria, was ennobled with the appellation "auf Gereuth" in 1818; his father, who was banker to the Bavarian king, was created a baron in 1869. For generations, the family occupied a prominent position in the German Jewish community. At the age of thirteen, Hirsch was sent to Brussels to school. He went into business at the age of seventeen. In 1855 he became associated with the banking house of Bischoffsheim & Goldschmidt, of Brussels, London and Paris. He amassed a large fortune, which he increased by purchasing and working railway concessions in Austria, Turkey and the Balkans, and by speculations in sugar and copper. His best known railway venture was the Chemins de fer Orientaux, a visionary railway project intended to link Vienna to Istanbul. He lived in great splendour in Paris, where he owned a town house on rue de l'Elysée and the Château de Beauregard. He also had residences in London, Hungary and today Czech Republic (Veveří, Rosice). Baron von Hirsch married on June 28, 1855 Clara Bischoffsheim (born 1833), daughter of Jonathan-Raphaël Bischoffsheim of Brussels, by whom he had a son and daughter. Maurice von Hirsch died at Stará Ďala near Komárno (Slovakia, then Hungary) on April 21, 1896. The baroness, seconded her husband's charitable work with great munificence — their total benefactions have been estimated at £18,000,000. She died at Paris on April 1, 1899 leaving the remaining family assets to her adopted son, father of Belgium business mogul Maurice de Forest (later titled Count of Bendern).
Maurice von Hirsch was amongst the top 5 richest individuals in Europe at the time.
 
 
Philanthropy
He devoted much of his time to schemes for the relief of Jews in lands where they were persecuted and oppressed. He took a deep interest in the educational work of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, and on two occasions presented the society with gifts of a million francs. For some years he regularly paid the deficits in the accounts of the Alliance, amounting to several thousand pounds a year. In 1889 he capitalized his donations and presented the society with securities producing an annual income of £16,000. On the occasion of the fortieth anniversary of the emperor Francis Joseph's accession to the Austrian throne he gave £500,000 for the establishment of primary and technical schools in Galicia and the Bukowina. Hirsch donated all the prize money won by his string of racehorses to charity. This included more than £35,000 won by his mare La Fleche between 1891 and 1894.
 
 

Spanish Article about Baron de Hirsch and Jewish Colonies in Argentina, Colonia Lapin
 
 
Jewish resettlement schemes
The greatest charitable enterprise on which he embarked was in connection with the persecution of the Jews in Russia. He gave £10,000 to the funds raised for the repatriation of the refugees in 1882, but, feeling that this was a very lame conclusion to the efforts made in western Europe for the relief of the Russian Jews, he offered the Russian Government £2,000,000 for the endowment of a system of secular education to be established in the Jewish Pale of Settlement. The Russian Government was willing to accept the money, but declined to allow any foreigner to be concerned in its control or administration.

Thereupon Baron von Hirsch resolved to devote the money to an emigration and colonization scheme which should afford the persecuted Jews opportunities of establishing themselves in agricultural colonies outside Russia. He founded the Jewish Colonization Association as an English society, with a capital of £2,000,000, and in 1892 he presented to it a further sum of £7,000,000. On the death of his wife in 1899 the capital was increased to £11,000,000, of which £1,250,000 went to the Treasury, after some litigation, in death duties. This enormous fund, which was in its time probably the greatest charitable trust in the world, was managed by delegates of certain Jewish societies, chiefly the Anglo-Jewish Association of London and the Alliance Israelite Universelle of Paris, among whom the shares in the association have been divided.

  The association, which was prohibited from working for profit, possessed large agricultural colonies in Argentina, Canada and Palestine. In addition to its vast agricultural work it had a gigantic and complex machinery for dealing with the whole problem of Jewish persecution, including emigration and distributing agencies, technical schools, co-operative factories, savings and loan banks and model dwellings. It also assisted a large number of societies all over the world whose work was connected with the relief and rehabilitation of Jewish refugees.

Besides this great organization, Baron von Hirsch founded in 1881 a benevolent trust in the United States for the benefit of Jewish immigrants, which he endowed with £493,000. His minor charities were on a princely scale, and during his residence in London he distributed over £100,000 among the local hospitals.

In 1900 his estate donated funds to the Pasteur Institute in Paris for the construction of their Chimie biologique (biochemistry) building. He died in Stara Ďala part od city HURBANOVO in Slovak Republic (21. 4. 1896).

Commemoration
The Beth Israel Synagogue (Halifax, Nova Scotia), originally was known as the Baron de Hirsch Benevolent Society.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Hood John Bell
 

John Bell Hood, (born June 1, 1831, Owingsville, Ky., U.S.—died Aug. 30, 1879, New Orleans), Confederate officer known as a fighting general during the American Civil War, whose vigorous defense of Atlanta failed to stem the advance of Gen. William T. Sherman’s superior Federal forces through Georgia in late 1864.

 

John Bell Hood
  A graduate of West Point who served in the U.S. Cavalry until the outbreak of hostilities, Hood rapidly rose to the rank of colonel in the Confederate Army. He was seriously wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1863), where he commanded an assault on the Federal left at Round Top, and lost a leg at the Battle of Chickamauga (September).

In the spring of 1864, Hood was appointed a lieutenant general under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston to help defend Atlanta against Sherman’s forces. Johnston’s continual withdrawals impelled Confederate president Jefferson Davis to transfer the command in July to Hood, whom he considered more aggressive. In a vain effort to save Atlanta, Hood promptly attacked but was forced back into the city, which he held for five weeks. He then led his men on a long march north and west, intending to strike Sherman’s rear. This plan was thwarted, however, when he was confronted by the Army of the Cumberland, under Gen. George H. Thomas, which had moved back to check him. Two battles ensued in Tennessee—Franklin (November) and Nashville (December)—both decisive defeats for Hood, whose retreating army was pursued by Thomas and virtually destroyed. His command ended at his own request the following month. He spent his retirement years in New Orleans in business and in writing his memoirs.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1831
 
 
French Foreign Legion
 

The French Foreign Legion (French: Légion étrangère is a military service wing of the French Army established in 1831, unique because it was exclusively created for foreign nationals willing to serve in the French Armed Forces.

 
French Foreign Legion, French Légion étrangère , an elite military force originally consisting of foreign volunteers in the pay of France but now comprising volunteer soldiers from any nation, including France, for service in France and abroad. Created as a temporary expedient in a French army that otherwise barred foreigners from serving in its ranks, the French Foreign Legion eventually gained a reputation as the world’s premier mercenary corps. For most of its history, the legion also maintained the exceptional status of being a voluntary unit in a conscript army. It lost this distinction when France abandoned conscription in the early 21st century, but it retained its elite status nevertheless. Today, with a strength of approximately 8,000 men, the Foreign Legion is one of the French army’s preferred units for overseas service. It saw action in the Persian Gulf War of 1990–91 and has since been sent often to Africa, as well as to Southeast Asia, the Balkans, and Afghanistan.
 
 
The legion today
Men between the ages of 17 and 40, of any nationality, may join the legion. Recruits enlist under an assumed name—a requirement known as the anonymat—but a legionnaire may request to serve under his true name after a year of service. Although the legion shields every legionnaire’s privacy, each prospective recruit is thoroughly interrogated to discover his motivation for joining the legion and to determine whether he has a criminal background. Those who have had minor scrapes with the law are acceptable—even preferred—as they are assumed to be more willing to turn their backs on their former lives and fully integrate into life in the legion; serious criminals, however, are unwelcome. Recruitment patterns reflect the political turmoil of the time. However, care is taken to have a mix of nationalities. Legionnaires of European descent predominate, and Frenchmen remain well represented in the ranks, either because they seek to belong to an elite corps of the French army or because a criminal record makes them ineligible for service in regular French units. Some foreigners enlist in the hope of gaining French citizenship, for which they are eligible at the completion of three years’ service. Those selected sign a five-year enlistment contract and are dispatched for basic training (including French-language instruction, if needed) with the 4th Foreign Regiment, based at Castelnaudary, France. During basic training, new legionnaires are awarded the traditional white cap, the képi blanc, in an impressive torchlight ceremony, although the green beret remains the legion’s battle-dress headgear. 
 
The Légion Étrangère in 1852
 
 
Legionnaires chosen for the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment, based at Calvi in Corsica, are sent for paratroop training at the French airborne school at Pau. Otherwise, they are assigned to the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment at Nîmes (France); the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment in French Guiana; the 13th Demi-Brigade in Djibouti; the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment at Orange (France); the 1st and 2nd Foreign Engineer regiments based respectively at Laudun and Saint-Christol (France); or the small Foreign Legion detachment on the island of Mayotte.

Although legionnaires may be of any nationality, all legion officers are French-born or naturalized citizens, many the elite of Saint-Cyr, the French military academy at Coëtquidan. Approximately one-tenth of the officers are former noncommissioned officers (NCOs). A legionnaire may become a corporal after two years’ service. A corporal with three years’ service may become a sergeant, the lowest NCO rank. Higher NCO rank is reserved for reenlisted legionnaires.

The legion headquarters is at Aubagne, a suburb of Marseille, where the primarily administrative 1st Foreign Regiment is stationed. Prospective recruits are sent from recruitment depots in France’s major cities (it is impossible to enlist abroad) to Aubagne, where they undergo the selection process. Aubagne also is home to the legion’s archives and museum, and it is where the legion’s magazine, Képi blanc (“White Kepi”), which first appeared in 1947, is published.

The legion’s monument of the dead at Aubagne—originally built in Sidi Bel Abbès, Algeria, for the legion’s 1931 centennial—remains the focus of celebrations each April 30, the anniversary of the battle of Camerone (Camarón, Mexico) in 1863, in which about two-thirds of a company of 65 legionnaires perished while defending themselves against a much larger contingent of the Mexican army. During the celebrations, the wooden prosthetic hand of the company’s captain, Jean Danjou, is taken out of the crypt of the museum and paraded down the voie sacrée (“sacred way”) before a column of slow-marching, bearded sappers with axes at shoulder arms, and a description of the battle is recited by a senior NCO. To be selected to carry the hand of Danjou is a great honour. The legion’s burial ground—also originally located at Sidi Bel Abbès—and its convalescent and retirement home are located at Puyloubier, near Aix-en-Provence.

 
 

Légion étrangère
 
 
History
The Foreign Legion was founded by King Louis-Philippe on March 9, 1831, as a military unit to support the conquest of Algeria, which the French had invaded the previous year. The legion absorbed many refugees who crowded into France as well as unemployed soldiers, such as members of the Swiss regiments who had served the unpopular Bourbon regime prior to the July Revolution of 1830. The demands of imperial conquest combined with a continuous influx of refugees assured the legion a long and, over time, glorious existence. Its debut was inauspicious, however. Such factors as mismanagement in Algeria, nationally homogeneous battalions that proved resistant to military discipline and difficult to reinforce, endemic desertion, and an officer corps drawn from the least qualified—or the most desperate—all contributed to an uneven performance.

In 1835 the legion was transferred into Spanish service to help Queen Regent María Cristina de Borbón quell a Carlist insurrection. Meanwhile, Louis-Philippe, realizing the continued need for legionnaires in Algeria, resurrected the French Foreign Legion in December 1835. This nouvelle légion (“new legion”) began to stake out a reputation for desperate valour during the 1837 storming of Constantine, Algeria, under ambitious officers like Armand-Jacques Leroy de Saint-Arnaud, a future marshal of France. Once the “Spanish Legion” disbanded in 1838, survivors—such as Achille Bazaine, another future marshal of France—were offered the opportunity to join the nouvelle légion.

Life for legionnaires in Algeria during this period was nasty, brutish, and short, even by the standards of the hygiene-shy French army, and legionnaires were often used as labour troops rather than combatants. This situation began to change with the arrival in 1840 of Thomas-Robert Bugeaud as commander in chief in Algeria. A veteran of the Napoleonic Peninsular War, Bugeaud broke with a strategy of scattering French units in static posts that might be isolated and overwhelmed by Algerian resisters. Organized into mobile columns, French forces now took the war to Abdelkader, titular head of the tribal coalition against the French. Bugeaud’s strategy was counterinsurgency at its most elemental and most brutal, and the legion became a major player in the incessant marching that demanded, according to Belgian memoirist Louis Lamborelle, “the thighs of a buck, the heart of a lion…and the stomach of an ant.” Campaigns were grueling, and those who could not keep up—and they were many—were simply abandoned to their fate. Nevertheless, the legion’s morale and performance improved, in no small part because ambitious officers in search of action, such as Patrice de Mac-Mahon, future president of the Third Republic, began to volunteer for a unit that was always in the thick of the fight. The legion’s officers also began to understand that leadership of foreign mercenaries requires finesse, appeals to the men’s sense of honour, and nonjudgmental, nonxenophobic attitudes.

The 1840s were the legion’s adolescent years, a time when it ceased to be the stepchild of the French army and became its adopted son. By this time five battalions strong, the unit was severed into the 1st and the 2nd Foreign Regiment. While the 2nd Foreign Regiment comprised mainly Mediterranean recruits, the 1st Foreign was composed mainly of “men of the north.” The 1st Foreign eventually transformed Sidi Bel Abbès, a Muslim shrine south of Oran, Algeria, into its celebrated garrison town. Over time, the 2nd Foreign settled in Saïda, Algeria. As the practice of separate national units slipped quietly into abeyance, discipline improved, and an esprit de corps based on a sense of legion particularism began to develop. Still, the legionnaires’ awareness of belonging to an elite unit was challenged by the practice of detaching battalions and companies from the two regiments’ headquarters for service in morale-sapping outposts, in columns in search of elusive foe, and as temporarily assembled bataillons de marche (task forces) dispatched on expeditions to disease-ridden lands. Indeed, deaths in the legion during this period were due largely to disease, not combat.

  By mid-century, although its recruitment of cutthroats, political refugees, outlaws, and others who required strict, at times pitiless, discipline still exiled it to the frontier of military respectability, the legion had established its reputation as a fighting unit. Attrition forced Abdelkader’s submission in 1847. The legion then participated in the siege of the Algerian desert oasis of Zaatcha in 1849; culminated the long Siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War (1853–56) with a heroic assault on the Russian battery at Malakhov on September 8, 1855; and grabbed headlines with the storming of Ischeriden in June 1857 during a very difficult campaign in the Kabylie region of Algeria. At the Battle of Magenta (1859) during the Italian wars of independence, the legion earned the accolades of its old commander Mac-Mahon, who said that the unit’s presence meant that victory was dans le sac (“in the bag”).

The French intervention in Mexico (1862–67), although not a success for France, proved the salvation of the legion, once again on the verge of disbandment. It participated in some interesting tactical experiments, such as mounted units, and also staked out what would become its defining legend on April 30, 1863. On that day the 3rd company of the 2nd Foreign Regiment under Capt. Jean Danjou put up a heroic but doomed defense against a large contingent of Mexican soldiers at the walled hacienda of La Trinidad near the village of Camarón, known in French as Camerone. (By the early 20th century, Danjou’s wooden hand, purchased by Austrian troops from a Mexican farmer and eventually acquired by the French, had become the legion’s revered relic and symbol of ultimate sacrifice.) However, as the end of the American Civil War (1861–65) freed U.S. veterans and weapons to aid in the ejection of the French-sponsored Emperor Maximilian from Mexico, the insurgent nature of the Mexican fighting tested the discipline of many legionnaires. The legion hemorrhaged deserters, especially when operating close to the Rio Grande.

During the Franco-German War, the 1831 law that had excluded the legion from French soil was suspended after Napoleon III’s armies surrendered at Sedan and Metz in September–October 1870. The legion—which amalgamated largely untrained foreign volunteers, veterans ferried from Algeria, and Breton conscripts (dumped into the legion because most French units had been captured or destroyed)—put in a spotty performance. Officers were lacking, and the supply system collapsed in the bitterly cold winter of 1870–71. The legion’s participation in the bloody repression of the Commune of Paris in the spring of 1871 recalled the use by the Bourbon regime of Swiss mercenaries against the revolutionaries of 1789 and 1830. However, the vast majority of the 1,000 or so legionnaires who fought to regain control of Paris for the Third Republic were French.

As France refocused on Continental defense, French conscripts, who had provided the bulk of the conquerors of Algeria, became increasingly scarce abroad. The legion—along with the professional infantry units known as the Zouaves, the troupes de marine (marines), and a few French cavalry units, such as the chasseurs d’Afrique (see chasseur)—thus formed the European core of a largely indigenously recruited imperial force. Indeed, the enormous imperial expansion that took place between 1871 and 1914 launched the legion’s golden age. The corps, which numbered about 10,000 legionnaires, participated in campaigns in southeastern Algeria and in the conquest of Morocco under Gen. Louis-Hubert-Gonzalve Lyautey. Campaigns often were spearheaded by mule-mounted units, which became a permanent feature of legion operations in North Africa into the 1930s. As part of France’s Army of Africa (the force responsible for North Africa), the legion was also utilized in Indochina and sub-Saharan Africa, areas normally the exclusive preserve of the navy’s troupes de marine. The legion battalion that joined the expedition to Tonkin (northern Vietnam) in 1883 became a permanent fixture in Indochina, and eventually it was elevated to regimental status as the 5th Foreign Regiment. Legionnaires also stiffened the 1892 Dahomey (now southern Benin) expedition, and they helped in the conquest and pacification of Madagascar (1895–1905).

 
 
During this period the legion’s reputation as a band of romantic misfits began to seize the public imagination, stimulated by the anonymat (the requirement to enlist under an assumed name). Their anonymity allowed legionnaires to invent fantastic pasts or to imagine that many of the men with whom they served were romantic or tragic figures—“kings having lost their thrones, bishops who misplaced their miters, or generals who lost their stars,” as Aristide Merolli, a 20th-century legion officer, later put it. The possibility of a fresh start in life, a clean slate, in an environment of manly hardships and challenges gripped the thoughts of many. German propaganda, which depicted the legion as a band of criminals, commanded by sadistic NCOs, into which the naive and innocent were lured, fanned this image, as did literary works. Under Two Flags (1867), by the English novelist Ouida, kicked off a series of novels and stories about the legion that peaked with Percival Christopher Wren’s Beau Geste in 1924.

World War I brought an abrupt end to this imperial idyll. The large numbers of foreign volunteers who flocked to France to fight for republican principles, as well as Jewish refugees from tsarist pogroms who had settled in France, mixed badly with the grizzled veterans of France’s colonial wars. This problem was compounded by initial attempts to organize the newer volunteers into nationally homogeneous units. Faced with severe morale problems—including mutinies in some battalions during the bloody Artois offensive (1915)—and political pressure from foreign governments, Paris permitted many foreigners to escape into French units. Remaining legionnaires on the Western Front were organized into a task force called the Régiment de marche de la Légion étrangère (RMLE), which, as part of the celebrated Moroccan Division, became the most decorated unit in the legion. Although legionnaires served at Gallipoli (now in Turkey) and with the Eastern Army (Armée d’Orient) based at Thessaloníki, Greece, the bulk of the legion, including its German, Austrian, and Turkish volunteers, remained in North Africa. A legion battalion also fought the Red Army in northern Russia in 1918–19, before being dissolved; many legionnaires then joined Russia’s anticommunist White forces.

 
 
The post-World War I years brought more imperial campaigns in Syria and Morocco. By 1933 the legion numbered more than 30,000 soldiers and had carved out an organizational niche under an inspector general based in Sidi Bel Abbès. The legion’s first inspector general, Paul Rollet, who had commanded the RMLE in the last year of the war, sought to secure the legion’s place in the public imagination and in the French army by reviving pre-1914 “traditions,” beginning with the uniform. Legionnaires in the 19th century, particularly those in North Africa, had worn white uniforms and white kepis; later, the uniforms became khaki, and a khaki cloth, often bleached white by the sun and repeated washings, covered the kepi. The kepi and other distinctive elements of a legionnaire’s uniform—the red and green epaulets, the blue cummerbund, and buttons emblazoned with a grenade and seven flames—disappeared with the standardization of French army uniforms during World War I. By the mid-20th century, however, these elements had been resurrected and adopted by all legion units.

Rollet also established a series of regimental rituals designed to assimilate a polyglot soldiery and to showcase the legion’s distinctiveness. “Legio patria nostra” (“The legion is our country”), the legion’s slogan, reinforced notions of loyalty to the legion rather than to France. Rollet’s tenure culminated in an important celebration of the legion’s centennial at Sidi Bel Abbès in 1931—not on March 9, the date of the legion’s founding, but on April 30, the date of the battle of Camerone, which had become a potent behavioral model and a symbol of the legionnaires’ capacity for heroic sacrifice.

 
Uniform of a legionnaire during the 1863 Mexican campaign
 
 
In choosing the anniversary of Camerone, Rollet formalized a spontaneous movement in the legion to sanctify April 30 as the unit’s official feast day. In addition, Rollet commissioned a hagiographic history, Le Livre d’or de la Légion étrangère (“The Golden Book of the Foreign Legion”), and even had artists paint historic battle scenes showing legionnaires in white kepis to reinforce his campaign of legion particularism. The official version of the legion’s marching song, Le Boudin (“The Sausage,” referring to a legionnaire’s bedroll), was adopted during this period as well, although the legion’s distinctive slow march appears to date from 1945.

Rollet’s reforms were initiated in part to counter what he believed to be an orchestrated campaign of vilification of the legion. He argued that fictional depictions of the legion, as well as memoirs like American legionnaire Bennett J. Doty’s Legion of the Damned (1928), which discusses the author’s service and eventual desertion in Syria in the 1920s, were barely disguised attacks on France. Nevertheless, books and motion pictures about the legion—including Hollywood versions of the novels Under Two Flags (1936) and Beau Geste (1939) and the French film Le Grand Jeu (1934; “The Full Deck”)—remained popular throughout the dreary years of the Great Depression and did much to promote the romanticism, adventure, and promise of redemption through hardship that formed the core of the legion’s appeal.

 
 

Légion étrangère
 
 
The outbreak of World War II in 1939 offered in many respects a reprise of 1914, with foreign volunteers—central European Jews and Spanish Republicans prominent among them—directed into established regiments of the legion as well as three regiments of foreign volunteers. The 13th Demi-Brigade of the Foreign Legion, organized in early 1940, rallied to Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French forces, after France’s capitulation to Germany in June 1940. The 13th Demi-Brigade spearheaded the Gaullist conquest of French colonies in sub-Saharan Africa and Syria, where it actually fought against legion units loyal to the collaborationist Vichy government. Gaullist propaganda touted the heroic defense of the desert position of Bir Hakeim (now in Libya) by the 1st Free French Brigade, part of the British Eighth Army that incorporated the 13th Demi-Brigade, during the June 1942 Battle of Gazala. The Allied invasion of French North Africa in November 1942 reunited the fractured branches of the legion. But political rancour, stoked especially by the confrontation in Syria, was slow to dissipate. Feuding between pro-Gaullist and ex-Vichy legion units continued in Italy, where the legion participated in the breakthrough at Monte Cassino in 1944, and during the hard fighting in Alsace in the winter of 1944–45 under Jean de Lattre de Tassigny.

The legion contributed roughly 30,000 troops during the French Indochina War (1946–54; see Indochina wars). That war witnessed the birth of parachute battalions, one of which eventually became the 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment (1er Régiment étranger de parachutistes; 1er REP). In the Mekong delta the Foreign Cavalry Regiment adapted commercial tracked vehicles called “crabs” and “alligators” into what was commonly known as the “cavalry of the rice paddies.” Yet even a heroic performance by several battalions of legionnaires at Dien Bien Phu in early 1954 could not salvage the doomed French imperial enterprise or crown with victory the deaths of more than 10,000 legionnaires.

  The defeat of legion paratroops by Viet Minh Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap’s 308th “Iron Division” on May 4, 1954, was the death knell of Dien Bien Phu, which the French surrendered three days later.

Hardly had the smoke cleared from that battlefield than the legion was repatriated to Algeria, where it formed the backbone of the mobile units that, despite enjoying military success against the Algerian National Liberation Front, could not win the war (see Algeria: The Algerian War of Independence). Disgust at the decision made by de Gaulle (now president of France) to abandon Algeria, considered the legion’s home and its raison d’être, pushed the 1er REP to join a military rebellion against the president in April 1961.

Allegedly, Defense Minister Pierre Messmer, who had served with the 13th Demi-Brigade in World War II, narrowly dissuaded an enraged de Gaulle from abolishing the legion altogether. However, the 1er REP was disbanded, and the remainder of the legion’s units were scattered in garrisons on the mainland and in the French territories. After 1962 the legion headquarters was transferred to Aubagne, where the essential traditions evolved at Sidi Bel Abbès continue to be nurtured.

Legionnaires served as part of French and allied expeditions in Chad in 1969–70; in Kolwezi, Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo), in 1978; and in Lebanon in the early 1980s. In the 1990s legion units served in the Persian Gulf War (as part of the French army’s Opération Daguet) and in the Balkans. In the early 21st century the legion continued to participate in various peacekeeping efforts and military operations in Afghanistan, Southeast Asia, Côte d’Ivoire, and many other places around the world.

Douglas Porch

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1831
 
 
London Bridge opened
 
 
London Bridge
 

London Bridge, any of several successive structures spanning the River Thames between Borough High Street in Southwark and King William Street in the City of London.

 
Old London Bridge
The Old London Bridge of nursery rhyme fame dates from 1176, when Peter, a priest and chaplain of St. Mary’s of Colechurch, began construction of the foundation. Replacing a timber bridge (one of several built in late Roman and early medieval times), Peter’s structure was the first great stone arch bridge built in Britain. It was to consist of 19 pointed arches, each with a span of approximately 24 feet (7 metres), built on piers 20 feet (6 metres) wide; a 20th opening was designed to be spanned by a wooden drawbridge. The stone foundations of the piers were built inside cofferdams made by driving timber piles into the riverbed; these in turn were surrounded by starlings (loose stone filling enclosed by piles). As a result of obstructions encountered during pile driving, the span of the constructed arches actually varied from 15 to 34 feet (5 to 10 metres). In addition, the width of the protective starlings was so great that the total waterway was reduced to a quarter of its original width, and the tide roared through the narrow archways like a millrace. “Shooting the bridge” in a small boat became one of the thrills of Londoners.
 
 

Detail of Old London Bridge on the 1632 oil painting "View of London Bridge" by Claude de Jongh
 
 
In 1205 Peter of Colechurch died, and three other London citizens completed the bridge by 1209. Almost immediately the bridge became not only an important commercial crossing but also a choice business and residential site. Shops lined both sides of the roadway between the fortified gates at either end; houses were built above the shops, with 138 premises being recorded in 1358. Walkways and additional rooms were extended between the buildings, transforming the roadway into a tunnel-like passage through which merchants and other travelers bustled. In the 1580s, during Queen Elizabeth I’s reign, water mills were installed that added to the uproar.

The bridge became the site of calamities. Three years after its completion a huge fire destroyed all the buildings and killed as many as 3,000 people. But the houses (a source of income for the bridge) were quickly rebuilt, lining the 926-foot (282-metre) length of the bridge and reducing the carriageway to only 12 feet (4 metres). In 1282 five arches collapsed under the pressure of winter ice. These, too, were rebuilt, and the bridge, though often in a state of disrepair, survived as London’s sole crossing of the Thames until 1750. In that year Westminster Bridge opened, despite opposition from City merchants.

 
 

Drawing of London Bridge from a 1682 panorama
 
 
Shortly thereafter the City decided to repair Peter of Colechurch’s bridge, and the project was given to Charles Labelye, designer of the Westminster Bridge. By 1762 all the houses were removed, the carriageway was widened to 46 feet (14 metres), and the two central arches were replaced by one great arch at mid-span. The removal of the central pier led to serious erosion of the riverbed, and gravel was constantly poured to protect the remaining piers. Finally the maintenance became too much of a burden, and the City asked the renowned engineer John Rennie to design a wholly new structure several yards upstream.
 
 

New London Bridge in the late 19th century
 
 
New London Bridge
For the new structure, Rennie proposed five semielliptical stone arches, with the central span reaching 150 feet (46 metres), the next two 140 feet (43 metres), and the two shore spans 130 feet (40 metres). Rennie died in 1821 before work began, and the job was left to his two sons. George Rennie had actually made the design in 1820, but construction was conducted under John Rennie, Jr., beginning in 1824. In 1831 King William IV and Queen Adelaide arrived by water to celebrate the opening of the new bridge. Demolition of the ancient structure began that year, and by 1832 it disappeared, having served 622 years.

Rennie’s bridge survived less than 140 years. Between 1968 and 1971 its facing stone was dismantled and shipped across the Atlantic Ocean to the U.S. state of Arizona, where it was reerected on a five-span core of reinforced concrete to serve as a tourist attraction at the resort town of Lake Havasu City. The New London Bridge now crosses Lake Havasu behind Parker Dam, 155 miles (250 km) south of Hoover Dam on the Colorado River.

 
 

London Bridge viewed from Southwark on the South Bank
 
 
Modern London Bridge
The current London Bridge, built between 1968 and 1972, replaced Rennie’s stone arches with beams of prestressed concrete reaching 340 feet (104 metres) in the central span. Construction was carried out using the cantilever method, with segments being built outward from two piers, each segment tied to the previous one by high-strength steel tendons. In the centre the two cantilevers did not meet but stopped short, leaving a space into which the builders placed a concrete beam to complete the span. The design represents a major post-World War II innovation in bridge engineering, but the bridge itself is not of great historical significance.

David P. Billington

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1831
 
 
The first horse-drawn (Horse-bus) buses appear in New York
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Population of Great Britain, 13.9 million; America, 12.8 million
 
 
 
1831
 
 
 
Pullman George Mortimer
 
George M. Pullman, in full George Mortimer Pullman (born March 3, 1831, Brocton, New York, U.S.—died October 19, 1897, Chicago), American industrialist and inventor of the Pullman sleeping car, a luxurious railroad coach designed for overnight travel. In 1894 workers at his Pullman’s Palace Car Company initiated the Pullman Strike, which severely disrupted rail travel in the midwestern United States and established the use of the injunction as a means of strikebreaking.
 

George M. Pullman
 

Early life and career
Pullman was the third of 10 children born to James and Emily Pullman. The family relocated to Albion, New York, in 1845 so that Pullman’s father, a carpenter, could work on the Erie Canal. His specialty was moving structures out of the way of the canal with jackscrews and a device he patented in 1841. When he died in 1853, George Pullman took over the business, winning a contract with the state of New York the following year to move some 20 buildings from the path of the Erie Canal.

In 1857 Pullman opened a similar business in Chicago, where much help was needed in raising buildings above the Lake Michigan flood plain, in part to facilitate the installation of a modern sewerage system. Pullman’s company was one of several firms hired to lift multistoried buildings, as well as whole city blocks, by four to six feet (1.2 to 1.8 metres). As Pullman realized, however, the city would have less need of his services as new buildings were erected with better foundations. After exploring several possibilities, he decided on the manufacture and leasing of railroad cars.

The American railroad system at that time was expanding enormously. Although the greatest impact of the new rail lines may have been on the transport of raw materials and finished goods, Pullman’s interest lay in passenger travel.

 
 

He himself frequently used railroads in pursuit of business but did not enjoy the experience.

Regular cars were uncomfortable and dirty, and sleeping cars, which were then just beginning to appear, were unsatisfactory, with cramped beds and inadequate ventilation. In partnership with Benjamin Field, a friend and former New York state senator, he decided to build a better sleeper, one that was not only comfortable but also luxurious, and he persuaded the Chicago, Alton and St. Louis Railroad to allow him to convert two of its cars. Debuted in August 1859, the Pullman sleepers were an immediate success. Some reviews compared them to steamboat cabins and declared them to be the most-luxurious way to travel.

 
 

Pullman's First Sleeper Completes First Trip, 1859
 
 

Pullman also briefly caught the gold fever then spreading through the country in 1859. He relocated to Colorado, where he quickly realized that a profitable business could be made in catering to the needs of miners. He and a group of partners soon opened Cold Spring Ranch in Central City, which became popular with miners needing a meal, a bed, and supplies. Miners also stopped there to switch out their tired teams of animals for fresh ones before ascending the mountain passes, earning the ranch the name Pullman’s Switch.

Pullman returned to Chicago in the 1860s and, like most wealthy men, hired a replacement to serve in his stead in the Civil War (1861–65). He devoted his time to expanding his business, introducing new and even-more-luxurious train sleepers. The first real (unconverted) Pullman car—the “Pioneer,” invented jointly with Field—appeared in 1865. It contained folding upper berths and seat cushions that could be extended to make lower berths. Although expensive, the cars garnered national attention, especially after Pullman managed to have several of them included in the train that bore Abraham Lincoln’s body back to Springfield, Illinois, in 1865. (In fact, the slain president’s son Robert Todd Lincoln succeeded Pullman as president of the Pullman Company upon the latter’s death in 1897, serving until 1911.)

In 1867 the partnership between Pullman and Field was dissolved, and Pullman became president of the newly launched Pullman Palace Car Company. The company grew steadily during the next two decades. By 1879 the company had boasted 464 cars for lease, gross annual earnings of $2.2 million, and net annual profits of almost $1 million. The company also manufactured and sold freight, passenger, refrigerator, street, and elevated cars. By the early 1890s it had a capitalization of more than $36 million.

 

Pullman, Illinois
The most-unusual aspect of Pullman’s business was the town he constructed for his workers, which he called Pullman. He began planning the town in 1879, and in 1880 he purchased 4,000 acres (1,620 hectares) adjacent to his factory and near Lake Calumet, some 14 miles (23 km) south of Chicago, for $800,000. The town, inaugurated on January 1, 1881, was not a municipality in the normal sense; it was an effort, as George Pullman saw it, to solve the problems of labour unrest and poverty. The 1,300 original structures included housing for workers, shopping areas, churches, theatres, parks, and a library. The centrepiece was a towered administration building and the nearby Hotel Florence, named for Pullman’s daughter.

Pullman believed that the country air and the fine facilities—as well as the absence of labour agitators, saloons, and red-light districts—would produce a happy and loyal workforce. The planned community became a leading attraction during the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and the nation’s press praised George Pullman for his benevolence and vision.

What enthusiasts failed to see was that Pullman was little more than a company town and that George Pullman ruled it like a feudal lord. The housing within it reflected the social hierarchy of the workforce. Freestanding homes were for executives, row houses for skilled or at least senior workers, tenements for unskilled workers, and rooming houses for common labourers. George Pullman prohibited independent newspapers, public speeches, town meetings, or open discussion. His inspectors regularly entered homes to check for cleanliness, and the company could terminate leases on 10 days’ notice. The churches often stood empty because approved (Protestant) denominations would not pay the high rent, and no other congregations were allowed.

 
 

The first real Pullman Sleeping Car Introduced, 1865
 
 

Richard T. Ely, the noted Wisconsin economist and Progressive social commentator, wrote that the power exercised by Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor who had unified modern Germany, was “utterly insignificant when compared with the ruling authority of the Pullman Palace Car Company in Pullman.”

Although workers were not required to live in the town, they were strongly encouraged to do so, and though rents were higher than those in surrounding areas—averaging $14 a month—many chose to reside there because living conditions were in fact better, something even Pullman’s critics conceded. As pleasant as the town might have been, however, Pullman expected it to make money. On payday he issued workers who lived in the town two checks, one for the rent and the other for the balance of the wages. A paymaster delivered the checks with a rent collector in tow, and workers were required to immediately endorse and hand back the rent check. By 1892 the community was indeed profitable, with a valuation of more than $5 million.

 
 

George M. Pullman
 

The Pullman Strike (May–July 1894)
When Pullman’s business fell off amid the economic depression that began in 1893, he cut jobs and wages and increased working hours in order to lower costs, though he did not reduce the dividends he paid to stockholders. Nor did he reduce the rents or the prices of goods and utilities in Pullman.

For those who lived in the town, wages beyond rent had been barely enough to live on even in prosperous times; now there was hardly anything left afterward. Many of the workers, driven to desperation, joined the American Railway Union (ARU). When a grievance committee of workers attempted to meet with Pullman, he had them all fired. On May 11, 1894, the Pullman workers went on strike (see Pullman Strike) and looked to the ARU and its leader, Eugene V. Debs, for help.

After Pullman refused arbitration of the dispute, Debs called for a nationwide boycott of Pullman cars. Sympathy strikes by union locals occurred in states and territories from Ohio to California, and violence and rioting of disputed origin and intensity broke out, centring in Chicago. Gov. John P. Altgeld of Illinois, who sympathized with the strikers, refused to call out the militia. On July 2, in part acceding to requests from the railroads, U.S. Attorney General Richard Olney procured an injunction from federal judges to halt acts impeding mail service and interstate commerce.
On July 4, Pres. Grover Cleveland, acting on Olney’s advice, ordered 2,500 federal troops to Chicago. The strike ended within the week, and the troops were recalled on July 20.

 
 

Final years
George Pullman and his business thrived in the years immediately following the strike. He headed a company that built the Metropolitan elevated railway system in New York City, and his factory continued to build sleeping cars for the nation’s rail system. The Pullman Company merged in 1930 with the Standard Steel Car Company to become the Pullman-Standard Company, and it built its last car for Amtrak in 1982. Soon afterward the company faded away, and its plants shut down; the remaining assets were sold off in 1987.

The labour movement continued to revile Pullman, and when he died of a heart attack in 1897, he was buried at night in a lead-lined coffin within an elaborately reinforced steel-and-concrete vault. Workers then poured several tons of cement over the vault to prevent his body from being exhumed and desecrated by labour activists.

Melvin I. Urofsky

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1831
 
 
Schofield John
 

John McAllister Schofield (September 29, 1831 – March 4, 1906) was an American soldier who held major commands during the American Civil War. He later served as U.S. Secretary of War and Commanding General of the United States Army.

 
Early life
Schofield was born in Gerry, New York. He graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1853, ranking seventh in his class of 52 graduates, and was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the artillery. In his final year at the Academy, he suffered a potentially career-ending incident. While working as a teaching assistant in the mathematics section, he was accused of allowing cadet candidates in his classroom to make offensive jokes and drawings on the blackboard. He was dismissed from West Point, but appealed the decision to the Secretary of War, who referred the matter back to a Board of Inquiry at the Academy. His expulsion was overturned by a majority of the board, but of the two officers who voted to sustain it, one was a future commander of his during the Civil War, Lt. George H. Thomas, a cavalry and artillery instructor. Although Schofield's memoirs do not mention Thomas's role in the board, his persistent criticism of Thomas's generalship after the war may have been provoked by this incident.

Schofield served for two years in the artillery, was assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy at West Point from 1855 to 1860, and while on leave (1860–1861) was professor of physics at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri.

 
 

John Schofield during the Civil War
  Civil War
When the Civil War broke out, Schofield became a major in the 1st Missouri Infantry Regiment and served as chief of staff to Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon until Lyon's death during the Battle of Wilson's Creek (Missouri) in August 1861. Schofield acted with "conspicuous gallantry" during the battle, and received the Medal of Honor in 1892 for that action. Schofield was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers on November 21, 1861, and to major general on November 29, 1862. From 1861 to 1863 he held various commands in the Trans-Mississippi Theater, most of the time in command of the Army of the Frontier. He was eventually relieved of duty in the West, at his own request, due to altercations with his superior Samuel R. Curtis.
On April 17, 1863, he took command of the 3rd Division in the XIV Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. He returned to Missouri as commander of the Department of Missouri in 1863. His command in Missouri was marred by controversy, with pro-Union Missourians sending a delegation to Washington DC to plead with President Lincoln to dismiss Schofield—for sympathizing with pro-Confederate Bushwhacker para-military marauders who were attacking loyal Union citizens. In 1864, as commander of the Army of the Ohio, he took part in the Atlanta Campaign under Major General William T. Sherman. Sherman placed him in command of a major operation to break the rail lines in late July 1864, Schofield became embroiled in another controversy with the commander of the US XIV Corps Major General John M. Palmer who resigned from his position as Corps Commander, rather than to serve under Schofield at Utoy Creek.
 
 
Schofield with his XXIII Corps and the XIV Corps spent the month in front of Atlanta and East Point with lackluster results. Sherman resorted to a flanking movement to defeat the Confederates under Hood. Schofield was sent to cut off Hardee's retreat at Jonesboro but failed to move, he became embroiled in a further controversy, when he was placed under General Stanley commanding the US IV Corps, on 30 August 1864.

Sherman, after the fall of Atlanta, took the majority of his forces on a March to the Sea through Georgia. Schofield's Army of the Ohio was detached to join Major General George H. Thomas in Tennessee. When Confederate General John Bell Hood invaded Tennessee and nearly cut off Schofield's command at Spring Hill, Hood's rash assault to regain momentum at the subsequent Battle of Franklin resulted in a significant defeat. On December 15-16, Schofield took part in Thomas's crowning victory at the Battle of Nashville where Hood's Army of Tennessee was decisively defeated, and effectively destroyed as a fighting force for the remainder of the war. However, during the buildup towards the battle Schofield intrigued against Thomas, feeding Grant false information, in order to try to succeed his senior in command. For his services at Franklin he was awarded the rank of brigadier general in the regular army on November 30, 1864, and the brevet rank of major general on March 13, 1865.

Ordered to operate with Sherman in North Carolina, Schofield moved his corps by rail and sea to Fort Fisher, North Carolina, in 17 days, occupied Wilmington on February 22, 1865, fought the action at Kinston on March 10, and on March 23, joined Sherman at Goldsboro.

After the war, General Schofield joined the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States.

 
 

Official U.S. Army Chiefs of Staff portrait, by Stephen W. Shaw, 1874
  Postbellum career
After the war, Schofield was sent on a special diplomatic mission to France, on account of the presence of French troops in Mexico. During Reconstruction, Schofield was appointed by President Andrew Johnson to serve as military governor of Virginia and of the First Military District. From June 1868 to March 1869, Schofield served as Secretary of War. President Johnson had forced Edwin M. Stanton, a Radical Republican who had served as Secretary of War since 1862, to resign from his cabinet. Schofield served in an interim capacity until the United States Senate confirmed John Aaron Rawlins. Schofield then served for a year as head of the Department of Missouri. In 1870 he wrote an article criticizing his wartime rival George Thomas, who subsequently died of a stroke while writing a response. Following Thomas' death, Schofield succeeded him in commanding the Military Division of the Pacific.
In 1873, Schofield was given a secret task by Secretary of War William Belknap to investigate the strategic potential of a United States presence in the Hawaiian Islands. Schofield's report recommended that the United States establish a naval port at Pearl Harbor. Starting in 1876 Schofield was superintendent of the United States Military Academy. In 1878, Schofield won the ire of the Radical Republicans when he was asked by President Rutherford B. Hayes to reopen the case of Major General Fitz John Porter, who had been convicted by a court-martial for cowardice and disobedience at the Second Battle of Bull Run.
 
 
Schofield's board made use of a great amount of new evidence from Confederate generals who had participated in the battle and found that Porter had been wrongly convicted and that his actions might have saved the entire Union army from complete defeat caused by the ineptitude of Maj. Gens. John Pope and Irvin McDowell.

On April 5, 1880, an African American cadet at West Point, Johnson Chesnut Whittaker, was found bruised and beaten in his cot. He claimed that he had been attacked by fellow cadets, but the administration claimed he had fabricated his story to win sympathy. Whittaker was court-martialed and expelled for allegedly faking an assault on himself staged by his fellow cadets. A Congressional investigation into the incident resulted in Schofield's removal from his post as superintendent in 1881. Following that incident, Schofield served in the Department of the Gulf (1881–82), the Military Division of the Pacific (1882–83), the Military Division of the Missouri (1883–86), and the Military Division of the Atlantic (1886–88), He also went to France to witness military maneuvers there.

From 1888 until his retirement in 1895, Schofield was commanding general of the United States Army. He had become a major general on March 4, 1869, and on February 5, 1895, he was commissioned a lieutenant general. Schofield retired on September 29, 1895, upon reaching the mandatory retirement age of 64.

General Schofield was an honorary companion of the Military Order of Foreign Wars.

General Schofield died at St. Augustine, Florida, and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. His memoirs, Forty-six Years in the Army, were published in 1897. He is memorialized by the military installation Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. Prior to his death, Schofield was the last surviving member of Andrew Johnson's cabinet.

Today, Schofield is remembered for a lengthy quotation that all cadets at the United States Military Academy at West Point, Officer Candidate School at Fort Benning, and the United States Air Force Academy are required to memorize. It is an excerpt from his graduation address to the class of 1879 at West Point:

The discipline which makes the soldiers of a free country reliable in battle is not to be gained by harsh or tyrannical treatment. On the contrary, such treatment is far more likely to destroy than to make an army. It is possible to impart instruction and give commands in such a manner and such a tone of voice as to inspire in the soldier no feeling, but an intense desire to obey, while the opposite manner and tone of voice cannot fail to excite strong resentment and a desire to disobey. The one mode or other of dealing with subordinates springs from a corresponding spirit in the breast of the commander. He who feels the respect which is due to others cannot fail to inspire in them respect for himself. While he who feels, and hence manifests, disrespect towards others, especially his subordinates, cannot fail to inspire hatred against himself.
— John M. Schofield

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Samuel Francis Smith, probably then a student at Andover, Mass., writes the words
"My Country, 'Tis of Thee" to the tune of "America"; until 1931 one of the national anthems of the U.S.
 
 
Smith Samuel Francis
 

Samuel Francis Smith (October 21, 1808 – November 16, 1895) was a Baptist minister, journalist, and author. He is best known for having written the lyrics to "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", which he entitled "America".

 
Life and career
Early life

Smith gave Lowell Mason the lyrics he had written and the song was first performed in public on July 4, 1831, at a children's Independence Day celebration at Park Street Church in Boston. The song, titled "America", was first published by Lowell Mason in The Choir in 1832. Smith later wrote an additional stanza for the April 30, 1889 Washington Centennial Celebration. There is a handwritten note by Smith in the Louise Arner Boyd Collection archived by the Marin History Museum featuring all the original verses to the song with the additional stanza on the reverse of the notepaper. It is dated May 16, 1889 and signed, "S.F. Smith".

The house Smith lived in is now a Phillips Academy dormitory called America House, or A-House for short.

 
 

Samuel Francis Smith
  Early career
Smith attended Harvard College (now Harvard University) from 1825 to 1829, and was a classmate of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. .He graduated in 1829 and subsequently attended Andover Theological Academy. After graduating from Andover Theological in 1834, Smith worked in Boston editing the Baptist Missionary Magazine before going to Maine. His ordination as a Baptist minister was on February 12, 1834, in Waterville, Maine, where in addition to his ministry, he served as Professor of Modern Languages at Waterville College. In 1842, he left Waterville to go to Newton, Massachusetts.

In Newton, Smith became editor of the Christian Review and other publications of the Baptist Missionary Union (BMU). He continued his ministry as well, becoming pastor of the First Baptist Church in Newton in the village of Newton Centre. In Newton, Smith bought a house at 1181 Centre Street which had been built in 1836 and added on to in 1842. After twelve years as pastor of the Newton Centre church, he became editorial secretary of the BMU and served there for fifteen years. During the years 1875–1880, he made many trips to Europe, Turkey, the Indian Empire as well as Ceylon and Burma to visit missionary outposts.

On September 16, 1834, Smith married Mary White Smith, whose maiden name was Smith. They had six children.

 
 
Smith was foster father for four years to teenager Thornton Chase, who, instead of entering college, left to become an officer in the Civil War. Chase later converted to the Bahá'í Faith and was a leading member in the United States.

Smith did not stop writing. In addition to "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", Smith wrote over 150 other hymns and in 1843 teamed with Baron Stow to compile a Baptist hymnal, The Psalmist.

 
 
Later years and death
Professor and author Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. recommended Smith as a potential candidate for an honorary Doctor of Letters degree from Harvard University in 1893. Harvard president Charles William Eliot declined, noting that My Country 'Tis of Thee was better known for its tune, which Smith did not write, rather than its lyrics. Holmes disagreed, noting that "his song will be sung centuries from now, when most of us and our pipings are forgotten."

He wrote a history of his adoptive home, entitled History of Newton, Massachusetts, which was published in 1880.
Samuel Francis Smith died suddenly on November 16, 1895, while on his way by train to preach in the Boston neighborhood of Readville and was buried in Newton Cemetery in Newton.

  Samuel Francis Smith died suddenly on November 16, 1895, while on his way by train to preach in the Boston neighborhood of Readville and was buried in Newton Cemetery in Newton. "America" was among the pieces sung at his funeral. He was survived by his wife and five children.

Legacy

The home in which Smith and his family lived in Newton is no longer standing. In 1958 a society was formed to buy and preserve it, though the home was damaged by fire in 1968 and again in 1969, leading to its being torn down. A small monument and growing garden honors his legacy.
Smith was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1970.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Stephan Heinrich
 

Heinrich von Stephan (January 7, 1831 – April 8, 1897) was a general post director for the German Empire who reorganized the German postal service. He was integral in the founding of the Universal Postal Union in 1874, and in 1877 introduced the telephone to Germany.

 

Heinrich von Stephan
  Stephan was born in Stolp (Słupsk), Pomerania, in the Kingdom of Prussia. He began his career as a local postal clerk in the service of the Prussian post in 1849. In 1866 he was put in charge by the Prussian government of federalizing the postal service that had long been privately run by the noble Thurn und Taxis family. In 1870 he was named director of postal services for the North German Confederation. Stephan's career then moved quickly up the ranks, as he was named Postmaster General of the German Empire in 1876, the Undersecretary of State in charge of the post office in 1880, and the Minister of Postal Services for Germany in 1895.
When Stephan began his work as a postal worker, Germany was divided into 17 independent states, each with its own separate policies and fees. He worked early on to establish a uniform postage rate throughout Germany, to facilitate easier mailing. His general goal of standardization and internationalization is evident in his work to combine the postal service with the telegraph service in Germany, and in his efforts to organize the International Postal Conference in Bern in 1874, in which the Universal Postal Union was established. He introduced the postcard (which he had initially suggested in 1865) to Germany after Chancellor Otto von Bismarck promoted him in 1870: the postcard came into widespread use in the subsequent Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71 as a method of communication between units in the field. He is also credited with having introduced the telephone to Germany.

Stephan died in 1897 in Berlin, having made a profound impact on the standardization of mail service worldwide. He was also actively engaged in cultivating purely Germanic terminology for the field of telecommunication and postal services.

 
 
The German-speaking afterworld thus gained terms such as "Fernsprechapparat" (distance-speaking-device) for telephone, "Wertzeichen" (value-sign) for stamp, "postlagernd" (post-office-stored) for poste restante and "Anschrift" (towards-lettering, analogous to "Ansprache" or "Anrede" for addressing a person or a saluation) for address. The word creations mandated by von Stephan in the 1870s gained circulation at post offices and among its workforce, but many times the Greek or French original term was retained by German speakers. Thus at home people would say "frankieren" for putting stamps on a postcard or letter envelope (Briefumschlag) among themselves, but switch to "freimachen" (absolve from stamp-debt, thus permitting delivery) when at the post office. Or at home they would say "Telefon" in everyday speech, although the arcane official term was "Fernsprecher" (remote speaker) or Fernsprechapparat. His achievements in the field of postal services far outweigh this pedantic purism and it was his proposal to have the Siemens company manufacture telephones which led to the development of an entirely new business segment for the famous German company in 1878.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1831
 
 
Whiteley William
 

William Whiteley (29 September 1831 – 24 January 1907) was an English entrepreneur of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He was the founder of Whiteleys department store.

 
Early life
Whiteley was born in Yorkshire in the small village of Purston, situated between Wakefield and Pontefract. His father was a prosperous corn dealer. William along with his three brothers enjoyed a healthy open-air life. He left school at the age of 14, and started work at his uncle's farm. He would have liked to have been a veterinary surgeon or perhaps a jockey but his parents had other ideas. In 1848 they started him on a seven-year apprenticeship with Harnew & Glover, the largest drapers in Wakefield. Whiteley took his new job seriously and received a 'severe drilling in the arts and mysteries of the trade.'

In 1851 he paid his first visit to London to see the Great Exhibition. The exhibition fired his imagination, particularly the magnificent displays of manufactured goods. All that could be bought or sold was on display, but nothing was for sale. Whiteley had the idea that he could create a store as grand as the Crystal Palace where all these goods could be under one roof and it would make him the most important shopkeeper in the world. Wakefield, once the centre of the Yorkshire woollen trade, was in decline and Whiteley now wanted to be something more than a small town draper. On completion of his apprenticeship he arrived in London with £10 in his pocket.

 
 

William Whiteley
  Growing business
He took a job with R. Willey & Company in Ludgate Hill, and then Morrison & Dillon's to learn all aspects of the trade. Whiteley lived frugally. Not smoking or drinking he was able to save up £700, enough to start his own business. London was expanding rapidly in the 1860s and after considering Islington he turned his attention to Bayswater; the area was rapidly being developed into a high class residential district. He observed the number of fashionable people using Westbourne Grove and decided to open his shop there. He started his business in 1863 by opening a Fancy Goods shop at 31 Westbourne Grove, employing two girls to serve and a boy to run errands. Later one of the girls, Harriet Sarah Hall, became his wife.

Seizing every opportunity, he acquired a row of shops in Westbourne Grove in 1867 and turned them into 17 departments. Dressmaking was started in 1868, and a house agency and refreshment room, the first ventures outside drapery, opened in 1872. By then 622 people were employed on the premises and a further 1,000 outside. Whiteley started selling food in 1875, and a building and decorating department was added in 1876. This proved to be particularly profitable, as the large stuccoed houses in the area needed regular repainting. Claiming that he could provide anything from a pin to an elephant, William Whiteley dubbed himself "The Universal Provider".

 
 
He met strong opposition from smaller tradesmen, and also from the local authorities over his grand building plans, and several bad fires in the 1880s may have been caused by opponents. Business nonetheless prospered, aided by a delivery service extending up to 25 miles (40 km), and in 1887 the store was described as 'an immense symposium of the arts and industries of the nation and of the world'.

By 1890 over 6,000 staff were employed in the business, most of them living in company-owned male and female dormitories, having to obey 176 rules and working 7 am to 11 pm, six days a week. Whiteley also bought massive farmlands and erected food-processing factories to provide produce for the store and for staff catering. In 1896 he earned an unsolicited Royal Warrant from Queen Victoria - an unprecedented achievement.

 
 
Westbourne Grove Fire and reopening
In 1887 disaster struck and the store in Westbourne Grove burnt down.

In his autobiography, Drawn From Memory, E. H. Shepard said the fire could be seen from Highgate Hill, and some days later when he and his brother Cyril were allowed to visit Westbourne Grove, that, "The long front of the shop was a sorry sight with part of the wall fallen and the rest blackened."

Whiteleys was to rise again like the Phoenix from the fire and was soon rebuilt, but later moved from Westbourne Grove to Queensway.

  When the Lord Mayor of London in the presence of thousands opened the new store in Queensway on 21 November 1911, it was claimed to be the largest British store in the world.

Murder

On 24 January 1907, Whiteley was shot dead at his shop by Horace George Raynor, aged 29, who claimed that he was Whiteley's illegitimate son. In his will Whiteley left £1,000,000 (a fabulous amount at that time, equivalent in 2014 to £89.5 million). Some of the money was used to create Whiteley Village, a retirement village near Walton-on-Thames.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 

 
 
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