(born July 15, 1831, Berlin, Prussia [Germany]—died Aug.
3, 1911, Berlin), artist who dominated Prussian
sculpture for a generation after 1870.
Reinhold Begas, photograph by Jacob Hilsdorf
Begas began studying
sculpture with the leading figures of the Berlin
school of sculptors, notably Gottfried Schadow and
Christian Daniel Rauch.
While studying in Italy from 1856 to 1858, Begas was
strongly influenced by the work of Michelangelo and
by the art of the Baroque period.
The Baroque influence is apparent in his work in,
for example, the agitation of draperies and the
asymmetrical placement of his figures, in the
“Schiller Memorial” (1871) and the “Bismarck
Although Begas’ preference was for mythological and
decorative subjects (“Mercury and Psyche”; 1874), he
was the most famous German sculptor of his time in
portraiture, executing busts of many of his great
Venus and Cupid, 1864, Marble, Germany
Reinhold Begas. Schiller monument, c. 1862-1871, Berlin
Constantin Meunier (12 April 1831 – 4
April 1905) was a Belgian painter and sculptor, born in Etterbeek,
Constantin Meunier, by Max Liebermann
Constantin Meunier was born in the traditionally working-class area
of Etterbeek, near Brussels.
Art career His first exhibit was a plaster sketch, The Garland, shown at
the Brussels Salon in 1851. Soon afterwards, on the advice of the
painter Charles de Groux (fr), he abandoned the chisel for the
brush. His first important painting, The Salle St Roch (1857), was
followed by a series of paintings including A Trappist Funeral
(1860), Trappists Ploughing (1863), in collaboration with Alfred
Verwee, Divine Service at the Monastery of La Trappe (1871) and
episodes of the German Peasants' War (1878).
About 1880 he was commissioned to
illustrate those parts of Camille Lemonnier's description of Belgium
in Le Tour du monde which referred to miners and factory-workers,
and produced In the Factory, Smithery at Cockerill's, Melting Steel
at the Factory at Seraing (1882), Returning from the Pit, and The
Broken Crucible (1884).
In 1882 he was employed by the
government to copy Pedro de Campaña's Descent from the Cross at
Seville, and in Spain he painted such characteristic pictures as The
Café Concert, Procession on Good Friday, and The Tobacco Factory at
Seville (Brussels Gallery). On his return to Belgium he was
appointed professor at the Louvain Academy of Fine Arts.
In 1885 he returned to statuary and
produced The Puddler, The Hammerer (1886), Firedamp (1889, Brussels
Gallery), Le Débardeur (modeled 1885; many castings made 1889–1905),
Ecce Homo (1891), The Old Mine-Horse (1891), The Mower (1892), The
Glebe (1892), the monument to Father Damien at Louvain (1893),
Puddler at the Furnace (1893), the scheme of decoration for the
Botanical Garden of Brussels in collaboration with the sculptor
Charles van der Stappen (1893), The Horse at the Pond, in the square
in the north-east quarter of Brussels, and two unfinished works, the
Monument to Labour and the Émile Zola monument, in collaboration
with the French sculptor Alexandre Charpentier.
The Monument to Labour, which was
acquired by the State for the Brussels Gallery, comprises four stone
bas-reliefs: Industry, The Mine, Harvest, and the Harbour; four
bronze statues: The Sower, The Smith, The Miner, and the Ancestor;
and a bronze group, Maternity.
He was one of the co-founders of
the Société Libre des Beaux-Arts of Brussels and was a member of the
International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers.
He was a freemason, and a member of the lodge Les Amis Philanthropes
of the Grand Orient of Belgium in Brussels.
La sonnambula (The
Sleepwalker) is an opera semiseria in two acts, with
music in the bel canto tradition by
Bellini Vincenzo set to
an Italian libretto by Felice Romani, based on a
scenario for a ballet-pantomime written by Eugène Scribe
and choreographed by Jean-Pierre Aumer called La
somnambule, ou L'arrivée d'un nouveau seigneur. The
ballet had premiered in Paris in September 1827 at the
height of a fashion for stage works incorporating
The role of Amina was
originally written for the soprano sfogato Giuditta Pasta
and the tenor Giovanni Battista Rubini, but during Bellini's
lifetime another soprano sfogato, Maria Malibran, was a
notable exponent of the role. The first performance took
place at the Teatro Carcano (it) in Milan on 6 March 1831.
Fanny Tacchinardi Persiani as Amina by Karl
The majority of
twentieth-century recordings have been made with a soprano
cast as Amina, usually with added top-notes and other
changes according to tradition, although it was released in
soprano sfogato voice (not be confused with the modern
mezzo, nonexistent at the time) who sang soprano and
contralto roles unmodified.
The phrase Ah! non credea
mirarti / Sì presto estinto, o fiore ("I did not believe you
would fade so soon, oh flower") from Amina's final aria is
inscribed on Bellini's tomb in the Catania Cathedral in
Joseph Joachim (28 June
1831 – 15 August 1907) was a Hungarian violinist,
conductor, composer and teacher. A close collaborator of
Johannes Brahms, he is widely regarded as one of the
most significant violinists of the 19th century.
Joseph Joachim, (born
June 28, 1831, Kittsee, near Pressburg,
Austria-Hungary—died Aug. 15, 1907, Berlin, Ger.),
Hungarian violinist known for his masterful
technique and his interpretations of works of Bach,
Mozart, and Beethoven.
studied at Budapest, and at age seven he appeared
with his teacher S. Serwaczyński. In 1844 he visited
London, where he was sponsored by Mendelssohn and
achieved an outstanding success.
In 1849 he led the orchestra at Weimar, and in 1853,
the orchestra at Hannover. In 1868 he became
director of the Hochschule für Ausübende Tonkunst
(Berlin), where he acquired a reputation as a fine
teacher, attracting pupils from all of Europe.
In 1869 he founded the Joachim Quartet, which became
renowned for its performances of the late string
quartets of Beethoven.
In his playing,
Joachim subordinated technical virtuosity to
aesthetic values, and he thus brought about a reform
in program making that turned away from the
His close friend Johannes Brahms consulted with him
on his violin concerto and dedicated it to him, and
Schumann’s Phantasy for Violin and Orchestra was
written for him.
Joachim’s own compositions, influenced by Brahms and
Schumann, comprise chiefly works for the violin,
notably the Hungarian Concerto in D Minor.
Joseph and Amalie Joachim
Joseph Joachim Quartet
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto,
Violin Concerto in the Hungarian
Manner, Op 11
00:00 Allegro un poco maestro
24:31 Romance. Andante
34:00 Finale alla Zingara. Allegro con spirito
Elmar Oliveira, violin
London Philharmonic Orchestra
Leon Botstein, conductor
Robert le diable
(Robert the Devil) is an opera in five acts composed
by from a libretto written by Eugène Scribe and
Germain Delavigne. Robert le diable is regarded as one
of the first grand operas at the Paris Opéra. It has
only a superficial connection to the medieval legend of
Robert the Devil.
Degas: "Ballet of the Nuns" from act 3 of Robert le diable (1876
The opera was immediately
successful from its first night on 21 November 1831 at the
Opéra; the dramatic music, harmony and orchestration, its
melodramatic plot, its star singers and its sensational
stage effects compelled Frédéric Chopin, who was in the
audience, to say, "If ever magnificence was seen in the
theatre, I doubt that it reached the level of splendour
shown in Robert...It is a masterpiece...Meyerbeer has made
himself immortal". Robert initiated the European fame of its
composer, consolidated the fame of its librettist, Scribe,
and launched the reputation of the new director of the Opéra,
Louis-Désiré Véron, as a purveyor of a new genre of opera.
It also had influence on development of the ballet, and was
frequently mentioned and discussed in contemporary French
Robert continued as a
favourite in opera houses all over the world throughout the
nineteenth century. After a period of neglect, it began to
be revived towards the end of the twentieth century.
MEYERBEER - ROBERT LE DIABLE
Robert - Rockwell Blake
Alice - Michèle Lagrange
Isabelle - June Anderson
Bertram - Samuel Ramey
Raimbaut - Walter Donati
Albert - Jean-Philippe Marlière
Conductor - Thomas Fulton
Orchestra - L'Opéra National de Paris
Chorus - L'Opéra National de Paris
Pleyel Ignaz, Fr.-
d. (b. 1757)
Ignaz Pleyel Clarinet Concerto Movement 3
Ignaz Pleyel Clarinet Concerto Movement 3
conducted by Maestro
Robert W. Butts,
Dan Sagi, clarinet,
The Baroque Orchestra of New
Summer Festival of Baroque Music, the College of St