Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1830 Part IV NEXT-1831 Part I    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

The Duke of Wellington's train and other locomotives being readied for departure from Liverpool, 15 September 1830
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1830 Part V
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
 
Elisée Reclus, (born March 15, 1830, Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Fr.—died July 4, 1905, Thourout, near Bruges), French geographer and anarchist who was awarded the gold medal of the Paris Geographical Society in 1892 for La Nouvelle Géographie universelle.
 

Jean Jacques Elisee Reclus
 

He was educated at the Protestant college of Montauban and studied geography under Carl Ritter in Berlin. Having identified himself with the republicans of 1848, he was obliged to leave France after the coup d’etat of 1851.

He spent the years 1852–57 visiting the British Isles, the United States, Central America, and Colombia. Returning to France, he applied himself to geography, publishing La Terre, description des phénomènes de la vie du globe, 2 vol. (1867–68; The Earth: A Descriptive History of the Phenomena of the Life of the Globe, 4 vol., 1871–73) and Histoire d’un ruisseau (1869; “History of a Brook”). During the German siege of Paris (1870–71) he participated in Nadar’s balloon ascents. Serving in the National Guard in defense of the Commune, he was taken prisoner in April 1871; but his sentence of transportation for life was commuted in January 1872 to one of perpetual banishment after European scientists had appealed to the government on his behalf.
After a visit to Italy, he settled at Clarens, Switz.

His great work, La Nouvelle Géographie universelle, la terre et les hommes, 19 vol. (1875–94; The Earth and Its Inhabitants, 1878–94), is profusely illustrated with maps, plans, and engravings and characterized by a brillance of exposition that gives his work permanent scientific value.

Though benefitting under the amnesty of 1879, Reclus had meanwhile lost none of his revolutionary enthusiasm.

 
 

When proceedings were instituted at Lyon against the International Workingmen’s Association, Peter Kropotkin and Reclus were designated as leading promoters of anarchism; but Reclus, as domiciled in Switzerland, escaped imprisonment. In 1892 he was appointed professor of comparative geography in Brussels.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1830
 
 
Markham Clements Robert
 

Sir Clements Robert Markham KCB FRS (20 July 1830 – 30 January 1916) was an English geographer, explorer, and writer. He was secretary of the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) between 1863 and 1888, and later served as the Society's president for a further 12 years. In the latter capacity he was mainly responsible for organising the National Antarctic Expedition of 1901–04, and for launching the polar career of Robert Falcon Scott.

 

Sir Clements Robert Markham
  Markham began his career as a Royal Naval cadet and midshipman, during which time he went to the Arctic with HMS Assistance in one of the many searches for the lost expedition of Sir John Franklin. Later, Markham served as a geographer to the India Office, and was responsible for the collection of cinchona plants from their native Peruvian forests, and their transplantation in India. By this means the Indian government acquired a home source from which quinine could be extracted. Markham also served as geographer to Sir Robert Napier's Abyssinian expeditionary force, and was present in 1868 at the fall of Magdala.

The main achievement of Markham's RGS presidency was the revival at the end of the 19th century of British interest in Antarctic exploration, after a 50-year interval. He had strong and determined ideas about how the National Antarctic Expedition should be organised, and fought hard to ensure that it was run primarily as a naval enterprise, under Captain Scott's command. To do this he overcame hostility and opposition from much of the scientific community.

 
 
In the years following the expedition he continued to champion Scott's career, to the extent of disregarding or disparaging the achievements of other contemporary explorers.

All his life Markham was a constant traveller and a prolific writer, his works including histories, travel accounts and biographies. He authored many papers and reports for the RGS, and did much editing and translation work for the Hakluyt Society, of which he also became president. He received public and academic honours, and was recognised as a major influence on the discipline of geography, although it was acknowledged that much of his work was based on enthusiasm rather than scholarship. Among the geographical features bearing his name is Antarctica's Mount Markham, named after him by Scott in 1902.

 
 
Childhood
Markham was born on 20 July 1830 at Stillingfleet, Yorkshire, the second son of The Reverend David Markham who was vicar of Stillingfleet. The family were descendents of The Rt Hon. and Most Rev. Dr William Markham, a former Archbishop of York and royal tutor; this Court connection led to David Markham's appointment, in 1827, as an honorary canon of Windsor. Markham's mother Caroline, née Milner, was the daughter of Sir William Milner, Bt., of Nun Appleton Hall, Yorkshire.

In 1838, The V. Rev. David Canon Markham (as he now was) was appointed rector of Great Horkesley, near Colchester, Essex. A year later Markham began his schooling, first at Cheam and later at Westminster School. He was reportedly an apt pupil, particularly interested in geology and astronomy, and from an early age a prolific writer, an activity which filled much of his spare time. At Westminster, which he found "a wonderful and delightful place", he developed a particular interest in boating, often acting as coxswain in races on the River Thames.

 
 

Markham as a naval cadet in 1844
  Royal Navy
Naval cadet

In May 1844 Markham was introduced by his aunt, the Countess of Mansfield, to Rear-Admiral Sir George Seymour, a Lord of the Admiralty. The boy made a favourable impression on the admiral, and the meeting led to the offer of a cadetship in the Royal Navy. Accordingly, on 28 June 1844 Markham travelled to Portsmouth and joined Seymour's flagship HMS Collingwood a few days later. Collingwood was being fitted out for an extended voyage to the Pacific Ocean where Seymour was to assume command of the Pacific station. This voyage lasted for almost four years. Markham's social connections evidently assured him of a relatively comfortable time; it is reported that he was frequently invited to dine with the admiral, whose wife and daughters were aboard. The ship reached the Chilean port of Valparaíso, the headquarters of the Pacific station, on 15 December after a cruise that incorporated visits to Rio de Janeiro and the Falkland Islands, and a stormy passage in the Southern Ocean.
After a few weeks' respite Collingwood sailed again, this time for Callao, the main port on the Peruvian coast, giving Markham his first experience of a country that would figure prominently in his later career. During the next two years Collingwood cruised in the Pacific, visiting the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), Mexico, and Tahiti, where Markham attempted to assist the nationalist rebels against their French governor.
 
 
He experienced his first taste of naval discipline when he was punished for impertinence to a naval instructor; he was made to stand on deck from eight in the morning until sunset. On 25 June 1846 Markham passed the examination for midshipman, being placed third in a group of ten. The long periods spent in Chilean and Peruvian ports had also enabled him to learn Spanish.

Towards the end of the voyage Markham's aspirations evidently changed from those of a conventional naval career. He now desired above all to be an explorer and a geographer, carrying these thoughts with him on the voyage home. On arrival in Portsmouth in July 1848 he informed his father of his wish to leave the navy, but was persuaded by him to stay. After a brief period of service in the Mediterranean Markham experienced months of inactivity while based at Spithead and the Cove of Cork, which further diminished his interest in the service. However, early in 1850 he learned that a squadron of four ships was being assembled to undertake a new search for the lost Arctic expedition of Sir John Franklin. Markham used his family's influence to secure a place in this venture, and on 1 April 1850 was informed of his appointment to HMS Assistance, one of the squadron's two principal vessels.

 
 

HMS Collingwood, Markham's first ship
 
 
First Arctic voyage 1850–51
Sir John Franklin had left England in May 1845 with two ships, HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, in search of the Northwest Passage. The expedition was last seen on 29 July by whalers in the northern waters of Baffin Bay, moored to an ice floe and waiting for the chance to continue westward.

The hunt for the missing ships began two years later. The relief squadron which Markham joined was commanded by Captain Horatio Austin in HMS Resolute. Markham's ship Assistance was captained by Erasmus Ommanney. Markham, as the youngest member of the expedition and its only midshipman, had a limited role, but carefully noted every detail of expedition life in his journal. The ships sailed on 4 May 1850.
After rounding the southernmost point of Greenland on 28 May, the squadron proceeded northwards until stopped by ice in Melville Bay on 25 June. They were held here until 18 August, when they were finally able to proceed west into Lancaster Sound, the known route taken by Franklin. Here the ships dispersed to search different areas for signs of the vanished expedition. On 23 August Ommanney sighted a cairn, and discovered packing materials nearby which bore the name of "Goldner", Franklin's canned meat supplier. Together with other odds and ends of abandoned equipment, these fragments were the first traces of Franklin that anyone had found. A few days later, on Beechey Island, the party came across three graves, which proved to be those of members of Franklin's crew who had died between January and April 1846.

  Searches continued until the ships were laid up for the long Arctic winter. The chief work during the ensuing months was detailed preparation for the spring sledging season. There were lectures and classes for the crew, and various theatrical diversions in which Markham was able to display his "great histrionic talent".

He did much reading, mainly Arctic history and classical literature, and thought about a possible return visit to Peru, a country which had captivated him during the Collingwood voyage. When spring returned, a series of sledging expeditions was launched to search for further signs of the missing crews. Markham played a full part in these activities, which produced no further evidence of Franklin, but led to the mapping of hundreds of miles of previously uncharted coast. The expedition returned to England in early October 1851.

Immediately on his return to England Markham informed his father of his determination to leave the navy. One of the main reasons for his disaffection appears to have been the severity of the corporal punishment that was constantly administered for what in his view were trivial offences. He had been in trouble during his Collingwood service for attempting to prevent the flogging of a crewman.

He had also become disenchanted by the idleness that had occupied long periods of his service. With some regret the elder Markham consented to his son's request, and after taking and passing the gunnery part of the examination for the rank of lieutenant, Markham resigned the service at the end of 1851.

 
 

A modern photograph of the graves discovered at
Beechey Island in 1850
 
 
Peruvian journeys
First journey 1852–53

In the summer of 1852, freed from his naval obligations, Markham made plans for an extended visit to Peru. Supported by a gift from his father of £500 (more than £40,000 at 2008 values) to cover expenses, Markham sailed from Liverpool on 20 August.

Markham travelled by a roundabout route, proceeding first to Halifax, Nova Scotia, then overland to Boston and New York, before taking a steamer to Panama. After crossing the Isthmus he sailed for Callao, finally arriving there on 16 October. He set out for the Peruvian interior on 7 December 1852, heading across the Andes towards his goal, the ancient Inca city of Cuzco. On the way, Markham paused for nearly a month in the town of Ayacucho, to study the local culture and increase his knowledge of the Quechua. He then travelled on towards Cuzco, and after crossing a swinging bridge (the Apurimac Bridge) suspended 300 feet (91 m) above the raging Apurímac River, he and his party passed through fertile valleys which brought them finally to the city of Cuzco, on 20 March 1853.

Markham remained in the city for several weeks, researching Inca history, describing in his journal the many buildings and ruins that he visited. During the course of an excursion to nearby towns and ruins he reached the area of San Miguel, La Mar, Ayacucho, where he first learned of the properties of the cinchona plant, a source of quinine, cultivated in that vicinity. He finally left Cuzco on 18 May, accompanied by a party of six who, like him, were returning to Lima. Their journey took them southwards, descending the mountains to the city of Arequipa which would later be described as "an outstanding example of a colonial settlement" with its mixture of native and European architecture. The city is overlooked by the conical volcano Mount Misti, which Markham likened to Mount Fuji in Japan. On 23 June the party reached Lima, where Markham learned of the death of his father. He departed immediately for England, where he arrived on 17 September.

  Cinchona mission, 1859–61
Six years after his first trip to Peru, Markham returned there, with a specific mission to collect cinchona plants and seeds. He had been working meantime as a civil servant in the India Office, and in 1859 he made proposals to his employers for a scheme for collecting cinchona trees from the Peruvian and Bolivian Andes, and transplanting them to selected sites in India.

Cinchona bark, a source of quinine, was the first known treatment for malaria and other tropical diseases. These plans were approved and Markham, aged 29, was placed in charge of the entire operation.

Markham and his team, which included the noted botanist Richard Spruce and the New Zealand colonist Charles Bowen (who in 1861 would marry Markham's sister Georgina Elizabeth), left England for Peru in December 1859, arriving in Lima late in January 1860.

There was danger in their enterprise; Peru and Bolivia were on the verge of war, and Markham's party soon experienced the hostility of Peruvian interests anxious to protect their control over the trade. This limited his sphere of operations, and prevented him from obtaining specimens of the best quality. Later Markham overcame bureaucratic obstruction to obtain the necessary export licences.

Markham returned briefly to England before sailing to India, to select suitable sites for cinchona plantations there and in Burma (now Myanmar) and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Although many of the Indian plantations failed to flourish and were soon destroyed by insects, others survived, and were augmented by species obtained by Richard Spruce which were more suited to Indian conditions.

Twenty years after the first plantations the annual cinchona bark crop from India was estimated at 490,000 pounds (220,000 kg). For his work in introducing cinchona to India, Markham received a grant of £3,000 (over £200,000 in 2008 terms) from the British Government.

 
 

Old print of Arequipa, Peru, with Mount Misti in the background
 
 
Civil servant, geographer, traveller
India Office

After the death of his father in 1853 Markham had needed paid employment, and in December 1853 had secured a junior clerkship in the Legacy Duty Office of the Inland Revenue at a salary of £90 per annum (around £6,000 in 2008).

He found the work tedious, but was able, after six months, to transfer to the forerunner of what became, in 1857, the India Office. Here, the work was interesting and rewarding, with sufficient time to allow him to travel and to pursue his geographical interests.

In April 1857 Markham married Minna Chichester, who accompanied him on the cinchona mission to Peru and India. Their only child, a daughter Mary Louise (known as May), was born in 1859. As part of his India Office duties Markham investigated and reported to the Indian government on the introduction of Peruvian cotton into Madras, on the growth of ipecacuanha in Brazil and the possibilities for cultivating this medicinal plant in India, and on the future of the pearl industry at Tirunelveli in Southern India.

He was also involved in an ambitious plan for the transplanting of Brazilian rubber trees, claiming that he would "do for the india-rubber or caoutchouc-yielding trees what had already been done with such happy results for the cinchona trees." This scheme was not, however, successful.

  Abyssinia, 1867–68
In 1867 Markham became head of the India Office's geographical department. Later that year he was selected to accompany Sir Robert Napier's military expeditionary force to Abyssinia, as the expedition's geographer.

This force was despatched by the British government as a response to actions taken by the Abyssinian King Theodore. In 1862 the king had written to the British government requesting protection against Egyptian invaders, and proposing the appointment of an ambassador. Unwilling to risk giving offence to Egypt, the British government did not reply. The king reacted to this slight by seizing and imprisoning the British consul and his staff, and ordered the arrest and whipping of a missionary who had allegedly insulted the king's mother. A belated reply to the king's letter resulted in the capture and incarceration of the deputation that brought it. After efforts at conciliation failed, the British decided to settle the matter by sending a military expedition. Because the geography of the country was so little known, it was decided that an experienced traveller with map-making skills should accompany the force, hence Markham's appointment.

Napier's troops arrived at Annesley Bay in the Red Sea, early in 1868. Markham was attached to the force's headquarters staff, with responsibility for general survey work and in particular the selection of the route to Magdala, the king's mountain stronghold.

 
 
Markham also acted as the party's naturalist, reporting on the species of wildlife encountered during the 400-mile (640 km) march southward from the coast. He accompanied Napier to the walls of Magdala, which was stormed on 10 April 1868. As the king's forces charged down the mountain to meet Napier's advancing troops Markham recorded: "The Snider rifles kept up a fire no Abyssinian troops could stand. They were mown down in lines ... the most heroic struggle could do nothing in the face of such vast inequality of arms." After the discovery of the king's body the victorious troops, according to Markham, "gave three cheers over it, as if it had been a dead fox." Markham added that although the king's misdeeds had been numerous and his cruelties horrible, he had finally died as a hero.

On the orders of General Napier, Magdala was burnt to the ground and its guns destroyed. The British troops then departed, and Markham was back in England in July 1868. For his services to this campaign Markham was created a Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) in 1871.

 
 

HMS Discovery and HMS Alert in the Arctic during the 1875–76 expedition
 
 
Second Arctic voyage, 1875–76
Markham had, through his various activities, come to know many influential people, and during the early 1870s used these connections to make the case for a Royal Naval Arctic expedition. Prime minister Benjamin Disraeli consented, in the "spirit of maritime enterprise that has ever distinguished the English people". When the expedition was ready to sail, Markham was invited to accompany it as far as Greenland, on HMS Alert, one of the expedition's three ships. Markham accepted, and left with the convoy on 29 March 1875. He was gone for three months, remaining with Alert as far as the island of Disco in Baffin Bay. He wrote of this journey: "I never had a happier cruise ... a nobler set of fellows never sailed together." He returned to England on the support vessel HMS Valorous, although the homeward voyage was delayed after Valorous struck a reef and required substantial repairs. Markham's extended absence from his India Office duties, together with his increasing involvement in a range of other interests, caused his superiors to request his resignation. Markham retired from his post in 1877, his 22 years of service entitling him to a pension.

Meanwhile the main expedition, under the command of Captain George Nares, had proceeded north with the two ships HMS Discovery and HMS Alert. On 1 September 1875 they reached 82°24', the highest latitude reached by any ship up to that date. In the following spring a sledging party led by Markham's cousin, Commander Albert Hastings Markham, achieved a record Farthest North at 83°20'.

  Royal Geographical Society
Honorary secretary

In November 1854 Markham had been elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. The Society soon became the centre of his geographical interests, and in 1863 he was appointed its honorary secretary, a position he was to hold for 25 years.

In addition to his work in promoting the Nares Arctic expedition, Markham followed the work of other Arctic explorers, organising a reception in 1880 for the Swedish explorer Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld after the latter's successful navigation of the North-East Passage, and monitoring the progress of the American expeditions of Adolphus Greely and George W. DeLong. Release from the India Office provided Markham with more time for travel. He made regular trips to Europe and in 1885 went to America, where he met with President Grover Cleveland in the White House. Throughout his secretaryship Markham was a prolific writer of travel books and biographies, and of many papers presented to the RGS and elsewhere. He was the author of the Encyclopædia Britannica (ninth edition) article entitled "Progress of Geographical Discovery". He also wrote popular histories. Within the RGS Markham was responsible for the revision of the Society's standard Hints to Travellers, and for relaunching the journal Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society in a much livelier format.

In parallel with his RGS duties Markham served as secretary of the Hakluyt Society until 1886, subsequently becoming that society's president.

 
 

Clements Markham at the time of his election to the Royal Geographical Society
  As part of his work for this body, Markham was responsible for many translations from Spanish into English of rare accounts of travel, in particular those relating to Peru. In time scholars would express doubts about the quality of some of these translations, finding them prepared in haste and lacking in rigor. Nevertheless this work ran to 22 volumes in the society's publications. In 1873 Markham had been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and in subsequent years received several overseas honours, including the Portuguese Order of Christ and the Order of the Rose of Brazil. He briefly considered, but did not pursue, the idea of a parliamentary career.

Markham maintained his interest in the navy, particularly in the training of its officers. He often visited the merchant officer training vessels, HMS Conway and HMS Worcester, and became a member of the latter's governing body. In early 1887 he accepted an invitation from his cousin Albert Markham, who now commanded the Royal Navy's training squadron, to join the squadron at its station in the West Indies.

Markham spent three months aboard the flagship HMS Active, during which, on 1 March 1887, he had his first encounter with Robert Falcon Scott, who was serving as a midshipman aboard HMS Rover. Scott was victorious in a race between cutters, an event that was noted and remembered by Markham.

 
 
President
In May 1888 Markham resigned from his position as RGS Secretary, finding himself at odds with the Society's new policies which appeared to favour education over exploration. On his retirement he was awarded the Society's Founder's Medal for what were described at the presentation ceremony as his "incomparable services to the Society".

The next few years were filled with travel and writing. There were further cruises with the training squadron, and extended visits to the Baltic and the Mediterranean.
 
 

Markham as President of the Royal Geographical Society
   In 1893, during the course of one of these journeys, Markham was elected in absentia President of the Royal Geographical Society. This unexpected elevation was the result of a dispute within the Society over the question of women members, about which Markham had kept silent. When in July 1893 the issue was put to a special general meeting, the proposal to admit women was narrowly defeated despite an overwhelming postal ballot in favour. In these circumstances the Society's President, Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant Duff, resigned his office.
The 22 existing women members were allowed to remain, but no more were admitted until January 1913 when the RGS changed its policy. Although Markham was not the first choice as a replacement—other notable figures were approached—he had kept out of the women members controversy and was broadly acceptable to the membership.
Shortly after his accession to the presidency, in recognition of his services to geography Markham was raised in the Order of the Bath to the rank of Knight Commander (KCB), and became Sir Clements Markham.
 
 
In a letter written many years later, Markham said that on the assumption of the presidency he had felt the need, after the dispute over women, to "restore the Society's good name" by the adoption of some great enterprise. He chose Antarctic exploration as the basis for this mission; there had been no significant Antarctic exploration since Sir James Clark Ross's expedition fifty years previously. A new impetus was provided through a lecture given to the RGS in 1893 by the oceanographer Professor John Murray, calling for "an expedition to resolve the outstanding questions still posed in the south." In response to Murray the RGS and the Royal Society formed a joint committee, to campaign for a British Antarctic expedition.
 
 
National Antarctic Expedition
Murray's call for the resumption of Antarctic exploration was taken up again two years later, when the RGS acted as host to the sixth International Geographical Congress in August 1895. This Congress passed a unanimous resolution:

[That] the exploration of the Antarctic Regions is the greatest piece of geographical exploration still to be undertaken. That, in view of the additions to knowledge in almost every branch of science which would result from such a scientific exploration, the Congress recommends that the scientific societies throughout the world should urge, in whatever way seems to them most effective, that this work should be undertaken before the close of the century.

The joint committee organising the British response to this resolution contained a difference of view. Murray and the Royal Society argued for a largely civilian expedition, directed and staffed by scientists, while Markham and most of the RGS contingent saw a National Antarctic Expedition as a means of reviving naval glories, and wanted the expedition organised accordingly.

Markham's tenacity finally won the day when in 1900 he secured the appointment of his protégé Robert Falcon Scott, by then a torpedo lieutenant on HMS Majestic, as the expedition's overall commander. In doing so he thwarted an attempt to place the leadership in the hands of Professor John Gregory of the British Museum.
In the view of Markham's critics, this represented the subordination of scientific work to naval adventure, although the Instructions to the Commander, drawn up by Markham, give equal priorities to geographical and scientific work.

The "science versus adventure" arguments were renewed when, after the return of the expedition, there was criticism over the accuracy and professionalism of some of its scientific results.

  Markham faced further problems in securing funding for the expedition. In 1898, after three years' effort, only a fraction of what was required had been promised. Meanwhile, the Anglo-Norwegian explorer Carsten Borchgrevink had obtained a sum of £40,000 (over £3 million in 2008) from publisher George Newnes, to finance a private Antarctic venture. Markham was furious, believing that funds were being diverted from his own project, and denounced Borchgrevink as "evasive, a liar and a fraud". He was equally hostile to William Speirs Bruce, the Scottish explorer who had written to Markham asking to join the National Antarctic Expedition. On receiving no confirmation of an appointment, Bruce obtained finance from the Scottish Coats family and organised his own Scottish National Antarctic Expedition. Markham accused Bruce of "mischievous rivalry", and of attempting to "cripple the National Expedition ... in order to get up a scheme for yourself". The Scottish expedition duly sailed, but Markham remained unforgiving towards it, and used his influence to ensure that its participants received no Polar Medals on their return.

A substantial private donation and a government grant finally allowed the National Antarctic Expedition to proceed. A new ship, the Discovery, was built, and a mainly naval crew of officers and crewmen appointed, along with a scientific staff which was later described as "underpowered". Discovery sailed on 5 August 1901, after an inspection by King Edward VII, at which Markham was present to introduce Scott and the officers. The ship was gone for just over three years during which time, from a base in the Ross Sea area, significant explorations of this sector of Antarctica were carried out, along with an extensive scientific programme. Although it was reported by the Times as "one of the most successful [expeditions] that ever ventured into the Polar regions, north or south," it was largely ignored by the government of the day. Markham was criticised in official quarters for privately sanctioning a second season in the Antarctic, contrary to the original plan, and then being unable to raise funds for the expedition's relief in 1904. The cost for this had to be borne on the Treasury.

 
 
Later life
Shackleton and Scott
A few months after the Discovery'​s return, Markham announced his retirement from the RGS presidency. He was 75 years old; according to his biographer he felt that his active geographical life was now over. His 12 years in the presidency was the longest period on record. He remained a member of the RGS Council, a vice-president, and he kept an active interest in Antarctic exploration, particularly in the two British expeditions which set out in the five years following his retirement. These were led respectively by Ernest Shackleton and Robert Falcon Scott.
 
 


Ernest Shackleton: Markham initially supported him, but later turned against him.

 


Robert Falcon Scott, who remained Markham's protégé throughout his polar career

 
 
Markham had agreed to Shackleton's appointment as Third Officer on the Discovery following a recommendation from the expedition's principal private donor. He had given sympathy and support after Shackleton's early return from the expedition on grounds of ill health, and had backed the latter's unsuccessful application for a Royal Navy commission. Later, after Shackleton had confided his intention to lead an expedition of his own, Markham supplied a generous testimonial, describing Shackleton as "well-fitted to have charge of men in an enterprise involving hardship and peril", and "admirably fitted for the leader[ship] of a Polar Expedition."
He expressed strong support for Shackleton's 1907–09 Nimrod Expedition: "... not only my most cordial wishes for your success will accompany you, but also a well-founded hope." When news of the expedition's achievement of a new Farthest South latitude of 88°23' reached him, Markham publicly signified his intention to propose Shackleton for the RGS Patron's Medal.

However, Markham had second thoughts, and was soon writing to the current RGS president, Leonard Darwin, to express disbelief about Shackleton's claimed latitudes, repeating these doubts to Scott.
  Historians have surmised that Scott was Markham's protégé, and that the old man resented polar glory going to someone else.
Whatever his reason, Markham adopted a bitterness towards Shackleton which he retained for the rest of his life. He is said to have crossed out all favourable references to Shackleton in his own notes on the Discovery expedition,and to have virtually ignored Shackleton's achievements in a 1912 address to the British Association. He was equally dismissive in his history of Antarctic exploration, The Lands of Silence (published posthumously in 1921).

By contrast, Markham remained on close personal terms with Scott and was godfather to the explorer's son, born 14 September 1909 and named Peter Markham Scott in the old man's honour. In his tribute to Scott in the preface to Scott's Last Expedition (1913), Markham describes Scott as "among the most remarkable men of our time", and talks of the "beauty" of his character. As Scott lay dying "there was no thought for himself, only the earnest thought to give comfort and consolation to others." In one of the last letters written from his final camp, days from death, Scott wrote: "Tell Sir Clements I thought much of him, and never regretted his putting me in command of the 'Discovery'."

 
 

Markham in old age.
  Retirement
After his retirement from the RGS presidency, Markham led an active life as a writer and traveller. He wrote biographies of the English kings Edward IV and Richard III, and of his old naval friend Admiral Sir Leopold McClintock; he also kept up his editing and translating work. He continued to produce papers for the RGS, and remained president of the Hakluyt Society until 1910. Markham continued to travel extensively in Europe, and in 1906 cruised with the Mediterranean squadron, where Scott was acting as Flag-Captain to Rear-Admiral George Egerton. When Scott announced his plans for a new Antarctic venture, the Terra Nova Expedition, Markham assisted with fundraising and served on the expedition's organising committee, arranging the deal which brought in Lieutenant "Teddy" Evans as second-in-command, in return for the abandonment of Evans's own expedition plans.
Markham was awarded honorary degrees from the Universities of Cambridge and Leeds. In conferring this latter degree, the Chancellor referred to Markham as "a veteran in the service of mankind", and recalled that he had been "for sixty years the inspiration of English geographical science." However, Markham did not altogether avoid controversy. In 1912, when Roald Amundsen, conqueror of the South Pole, was invited by RGS president Leonard Darwin to dine with the Society, Markham resigned his council seat in protest.
 
 
The news of the death of Scott and his returning polar party reached Markham in February 1913, while he was staying in Estoril. He returned to England, and assisted with the preparation of Scott's journals for publication. Scott's death was a heavy blow, but Markham continued to lead a busy life of writing and travelling. In 1915 he was present at the service in St Peter's Church, Binton, near Stratford-upon-Avon, where a window was dedicated to Scott and his companions; later that year he assisted at the unveiling of the Royal Navy's statue of Scott, in Waterloo Place, London. Markham read his last paper for the RGS on 10 June 1915, its title being "The History of the Gradual Development of the Groundwork of Geographical Science".
 
 
Death and legacy
On 29 January 1916, while reading in bed by candlelight, Markham set fire to the bedclothes and was overcome by smoke. He died the following day. His last diary entry, a few days earlier, had recorded a visit from Peter Markham Scott.

The family received tributes from King George V, who acknowledged the debt the country owed to Markham's life work of study and research; from the Royal Geographical Society and the other learned bodies with which Markham had been associated; from the Naval Commander-in-Chief at Devonport; and from Fridtjof Nansen, the Norwegian Arctic explorer.
Other messages were received from France, Italy, Denmark, Sweden, the United States, and from Arequipa in Peru.

More critical assessments of Markham's life and work were to follow. Hugh Robert Mill, Shackleton's first biographer and for many years the RGS librarian, referred to the dictatorial manner in which Markham had run the Society.

In time, questions would be raised about the accuracy of some of his Hakluyt translations, and about the evidence of haste in the preparation of other publications. On a personal level he had made enemies as well as friends; Frank Debenham, the geologist who served with both Scott and Shackleton, called Markham "a dangerous old man", while William Speirs Bruce wrote of Markham's "malicious opposition to the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition". Bruce's colleague Robert Rudmose-Brown went further, calling Markham "that old fool and humbug".

  These protestations reflected Markham's protective attitude towards Scott; according to Bruce, "Scott was Markham's protégé, and Markham thought it necessary, in order to uphold Scott, that I should be obliterated". He added that "Scott and I were always good friends, in spite of Markham."

It has been suggested that Markham's prejudices about polar travel, particularly his belief in the "nobility" of manhauling, had been passed to Scott, to the detriment of all future British expeditions. Mill's measured opinion, that Markham was "an enthusiast rather than a scholar", has been asserted as a fair summary of his strengths and weaknesses, and as the basis for his influence on the discipline of geography in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He is commemorated by Mount Markham, 82°51′S 161°21′E, in the Transantarctic range, discovered and named by Scott on his southern march during the Discovery expedition in 1902. The Markham River in Papua New Guinea was named after him; Carsten Borchgrevink discovered and named Markham Island in the Ross Sea during his 1900 expedition, a gesture that was not, however, acknowledged by Markham. The name lives on in Lima, Peru, through Markham College, a private co-educational school. Minna Bluff, a promontory extending into the Ross Ice Shelf, was named by Scott for Lady Markham.

Markham's estate was valued for probate purposes at £7,740 (2008 equivalent £376,000). He was survived by his wife Minna, to whom Albert Hastings Markham's 1917 biography of Sir Clements is dedicated. Markham's only child, May, avoided public life and devoted herself to church work in the East End of London. According to the family's entry in Burke's Landed Gentry she died in 1926.

 
 
Writings
Markham was a prolific writer and diarist; his first published work, an account of his voyage with HMS Assistance in search of Franklin, had appeared in 1853. After his retirement from the India office in 1877 writing became his chief source of income. In addition to papers and reports for the Royal Geographical Society and other learned bodies, Markham wrote histories, biographies and travel accounts, many as full-length books. He also translated many works from Spanish to English, and compiled a grammar and dictionary for the Quichua language of Peru.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Brown Robert
 
Robert Brown, (born Dec. 21, 1773, Montrose, Angus, Scot.—died June 10, 1858, London, Eng.), Scottish botanist best known for his description of the natural continuous motion of minute particles in solution, which came to be called Brownian movement.
 

Robert Brown
  In addition, he recognized the fundamental distinction between the conifers and their allies (gymnosperms) and the flowering plants (angiosperms), recognized and named the nucleus as a constant constituent of living cells in most plants, and improved the natural classification of plants by establishing and defining new families and genera. He also contributed substantially to knowledge of plant morphology, embryology, and geography, in particular by his original work on the flora of Australia.

Brown was the son of a Scottish Episcopalian clergyman. He studied medicine at the universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh and spent five years in the British army serving in Ireland as an ensign and assistant surgeon (1795–1800). A visit to London in 1798 brought Brown to the notice of Sir Joseph Banks, president of the Royal Society. Banks recommended Brown to the Admiralty for the post of naturalist aboard a ship (the Investigator) for a surveying voyage along the northern and southern coasts of Australia under the command of Matthew Flinders.

Brown sailed with the expedition in July 1801. The Investigator reached King George’s Sound, Western Australia, an area of great floral richness and diversity, in December 1801. Until June 1803, and while the ship circumnavigated Australia, Brown made extensive plant collections. Returning to England in October 1805, Brown devoted his time to classifying the approximately 3,900 species he had gathered, almost all of which were new to science.

 
 
The results of his Australian trip were partially published in 1810 as his Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae . . . , a classic of systematic botany and Brown’s major work, in which he laid the foundations for Australian botany while refining the prevailing systems of plant classification. Disappointed by its small sale, however, he published only one volume. Brown’s close observation of minute but significant details was also shown in his publication on Proteaceae, in which he demonstrated how the study of pollen-grain characters could assist in the classification of plants into new genera.
 
 

Robert Brown
  In 1810 Banks appointed Brown as his librarian and in 1820 bequeathed him a life interest in his extensive botanical collection and library. Brown transferred them to the British Museum in 1827, when he became keeper of its newly formed botanical department.

In 1828 he published a pamphlet, A Brief Account of Microscopical Observations . . . , in which he recorded that, after having noticed moving particles suspended in the fluid within living pollen grains of Clarkia pulchella, he examined both living and dead pollen grains of many other plants and observed a similar motion in the particles of all fresh pollen. Brown’s experiments with organic and inorganic substances, reduced to a fine powder and suspended in water, then revealed such motion to be a general property of matter in that state. This phenomenon has long been known as Brownian motion. In 1831, while dealing with the fertilization of Orchidaceae and Asclepiadaceae, he noted the existence of a structure within the cells of orchids as well as many other plants that he termed the “nucleus” of the cell. These observations testify to the range and depth of his pioneering microscopical work and his ability to draw far-reaching conclusions from isolated data or selected structures. Brown was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1810.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Exportation of nitrates begins from Chile (300 tons; in 1900, 1.5 million tons)
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Fourier Jean Baptiste , Fr. mathematician and physicist, d. (b. 1768)
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Ger. botanist Johann Friedrich Hessel proves that crystals can have 37 different kinds of symmetry
 
 
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
 
Johann Friedrich Christian Hessel (27 April 1796 – 3 June 1872) was a German physician (MD, University of Würzburg, 1817) and professor of mineralogy (PhD, University of Heidelberg, 1821) at the University of Marburg.
 
Contributions to Mineralogy and Crystallography
The origins of geometric crystallography (the field concerned with the structures of crystalline solids), for which Hessel's work was noteworthy, can be traced back to eighteenth and nineteenth century mineralogy. Hessel also made contributions to classical mineralogy (the field concerned with the chemical compositions and physical properties of minerals), as well.
 
 

Johann Friedrich Christian Hessel
  Derivation of the Crystal Classes
In 1830, Hessel proved that, as a consequence of Haüy’s law of rational intercepts, morphological forms can combine to give exactly 32 kinds of crystal symmetry in Euclidean space, since only two-, three-, four-, and six-fold rotation axes can occur.[2] A crystal form here denotes a set of symmetrically equivalent planes with Miller indices enclosed in braces, {hkl}; form does not mean "shape". For example, a cube-shaped crystal of fluorite (referred to as Flussspath by Hessel) has six equivalent faces. The entire set is denoted as {100}. The indices for each of the individual six faces are enclosed by parentheses and these are designated: (010), (001), (100), (010), (001), and (100).

The cube belongs to the isometric or tessular class, as do an octahedron and tetrahedron. The essential symmetry elements of the isometric class is the existence of a set of three 4-fold, four 3-fold, and six 2-fold rotation axes. In the earlier classification schemes by the German mineralogists Christian Samuel Weiss (1780 - 1856) and Friedrich Mohs (1773 - 1839) the isometric class had been designated sphäroedrisch (spheroidal) and tessularisch (tesseral), respectively. As of Hessel's time, not all of the 32 possible symmetries had actually been observed in real crystals.

Hessel's work originally appeared in 1830 as an article in Gehler’s Physikalische Wörterbuch (Gehler’s Physics Dictionary). It went unnoticed until it was republished in 1897 as part of a collection of papers on crystallography in Oswald’s Klassiker der Exakten Wissenschaften (Ostwald’s Classics of the Exact Sciences).

 
 
Prior to this posthumous re-publication of Hessel's investigations, similar findings had been reported by the French scientist Auguste Bravais (1811–1863) in Extrait J. Math., Pures et Applique ́es (in 1849) and by the Russian crystallographer Alex V. Gadolin (1828 - 1892) in 1867.

Interestingly, all three derivations (Hessel's, Bravais', and Gadolin's), which established a small finite number of possible crystal symmetries from first principles, were based on external crystal morphology rather than a crystal's internal structural arrangement (i.e. lattice symmetry).

 
 

Some of Hessel's original drawings
 
 
However, the 32 classes of crystal symmetry are one-and-the-same as the 32 crystallographic point groups. After seminal work on space lattices by Leonhard Sohncke (1842-1897), Arthur Moritz Schönflies (1853–1928), Evgraf Stepanovich Fedorov (1853–1919), and William Barlow (1845–1934), the connection between space lattices and the external morphology of crystals was espoused by Paul Niggli (1888 - 1953), particularly in his 1928 Kristallographische und Strukturtheoretische Grundbegriffe. For example, the repetition, or translation (physics), of a lattice plane produces a stack of parallel planes, the last member of which may be manifested morphologically as one of the external faces of the crystal.

Briefly, a crystal is similar to three-dimensional wallpaper, in that it is an endless repetition of some motif (a group of atoms or molecules). The motif is created by point group operations, while the wallpaper, which is called the space lattice, is generated by translation of the motif with or without rotation or reflection. The symmetry of the motif is the true point group symmetry of the crystal and it causes the symmetry of the external forms.

Specifically, the crystal's external morphological symmetry must conform to the angular components of the space group symmetry operations, without the translational components. Under favorable circumstances, point groups (but not space groups) can be determined solely by examination of the crystal morphology, without the need for analysis of an X-ray diffraction pattern. This is not always possible because, of the many forms normally apparent or expected in a typical crystal specimen, some forms may be absent or show unequal development. The word habit is used to describe the overall external shape of a crystal specimen, which depends on the relative sizes of the faces of the various forms present. In general, a substance may crystallize in different habits because the growth rates of the various faces need not be the same.
  Exceptions to Euler's Formula for Convex Polyhedra
Following the work of the Swiss mathematician Simon Antoine Jean L'Huilier (1750 - 1840), Hessel also gave specific examples of compound crystals (aka double crystals) for which Euler's formula for convex polyhedra failed. In this case, the sum of the valence (degree) and the number of faces does not equal two plus the number of edges (V + F ≠ E + 2). Such exceptions can occur when a polyhedron possesses internal cavities, which, in turn, occur when one crystal encapsulates another. Hessel found this to be true with lead sulfide crystals inside calcium fluoride crystals. Hessel also found Euler's formula disobeyed with interconnected polyhedra, for example, where an edge or vertex is shared by more than two faces (e.g. as in edge-sharing and vertex-sharing tetrahedra).

Feldspar Composition
In the field of classical mineralogy, Hessel showed that the plagioclase feldspars could be considered solid solutions of albite and anorthite. His analysis was published in 1826 (Taschenbuch für die gesammte Mineralogie, 20 [1826], 289–333) but, as with his work on the crystal classes, it did not garner much attention among his contemporaries. Rather, the theory of the composition of these feldspars was subsequently credited to Gustav Tschermak (1836 - 1927) in 1865.

Early life and education
Little is documented about Hessel's early life. He was a student at the Realschule in Nuremberg and subsequently studied science and medicine at Erlangen and Würzburg. After receiving his PhD in mineralogy under Karl C. von Leonhard (1779–1862), Hessel went to the University of Marburg as an associate professor of mineralogy and became full professor in 1825. He remained there until his death. Hessel was also a Marburg city council member and was named an honorary citizen of Marburg on November 9, 1840.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
 
The opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&M) took place on 15 September 1830. Work on the L&M began in the 1820s, to connect the major port town of Liverpool with the burgeoning industrial town of Manchester, 35 miles (56 km) away. Although horse-drawn railways already existed elsewhere, and a few industrial sites already used primitive steam locomotives for bulk haulage, the L&M was the first locomotive-hauled railway to connect two major cities, and the first to provide a scheduled passenger service. The opening day was a major public event. Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, the Prime Minister, rode on one of the eight inaugural trains, as did many other dignitaries and notable figures of the day. Huge crowds lined the track at Liverpool to watch the trains depart for Manchester.
 

The Duke of Wellington's train and other locomotives being readied for departure from Liverpool, 15 September 1830
 
 
The trains left Liverpool on time and without any technical problems. The Duke of Wellington's special train ran on one track, and the other seven trains ran on an adjacent and parallel track, sometimes ahead and sometimes behind the Duke's train. Around 13 miles (21 km) out of Liverpool the first of many problems occurred, when one of the trains derailed and the following train collided with it. With no reported injuries or damage, the derailed locomotive was lifted back onto the track and the journey continued.
 
 

Open carriages on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1830
 
 
At Parkside railway station, near the midpoint of the line, the locomotives made a scheduled stop to take on water. Although the railway staff advised passengers to remain on the trains while this took place, around 50 of the dignitaries on board alighted when the Duke of Wellington's special train stopped. One of those who got off was William Huskisson, former cabinet minister and Member of Parliament for Liverpool. Huskisson was a highly influential figure in the creation of the British Empire and an architect of the doctrine of free trade, but fell out with Wellington in 1828 over the issue of parliamentary reform and resigned from the cabinet. Hoping to be reconciled with Wellington, he approached the Duke's railway carriage and shook his hand. Distracted by the Duke, he did not notice an approaching locomotive on the adjacent track, Rocket. On realising it was approaching he panicked and tried to clamber into the Duke's carriage, but the door of the carriage swung open leaving him hanging directly in the path of the oncoming Rocket. He fell onto the tracks in front of the train, suffering serious leg injuries and dying later that night.
 
 

1831 colour engraving of Parkside station
 
 
The Duke of Wellington felt that the remainder of the day's events should be cancelled following the accident at Parkside, and proposed to return to Liverpool. However, a large crowd gathered in Manchester to see the trains arrive, and was beginning to become unruly. Wellington was persuaded to continue to Manchester. By the time the trains reached the outskirts of Manchester the crowd became hostile and was spilling onto the tracks.

With local authorities unable to clear the tracks, the trains were obliged to drive at low speed into the crowd, using their own momentum to push people out of the way. Eventually they arrived at Liverpool Road railway station in Manchester to be met by a hostile crowd, who waved banners and flags against the Duke and pelted him with vegetables. Wellington refused to get off the train, and ordered that the trains return to Liverpool.
 
 
Mechanical failures and an inability to turn the locomotives meant that most of the trains were unable to leave Manchester. While the Duke of Wellington's train left successfully, only three of the remaining seven locomotives were usable. These three locomotives slowly hauled a single long train of 24 carriages back to Liverpool, eventually arriving 61⁄2 hours late after having been pelted with objects thrown from bridges by the drunken crowds lining the track.

The death and funeral of William Huskisson caused the opening of the railway to be widely reported, and people around the world became aware for the first time that cheap and rapid long-distance transport was now possible. The L&M became extremely successful, and within a month of its opening plans were put forward to connect Liverpool and Manchester with the other major cities of England.
Within ten years, 1,775 miles (2,857 km) of railways were built in Britain, and within 20 years of the L&M's opening over 6,200 miles (10,000 km) were in place. The L&M remains in operation, and its opening is now considered the start of the age of mechanised transport; in the words of industrialist and former British Rail chairman Peter Parker, "the world is a branch line of the pioneering Liverpool–Manchester run".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
The Duke of Wellington in 1830
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Scottish geologist Charles Lyell divides the geological system into three groups which he names eocene, miocene, and pliocene
 
 
Lyell Charles
 

Sir Charles Lyell, Baronet, (born Nov. 14, 1797, Kinnordy, Forfarshire, Scot.—died Feb. 22, 1875, London), Scottish geologist largely responsible for the general acceptance of the view that all features of the Earth’s surface are produced by physical, chemical, and biological processes through long periods of geological time. The concept was called uniformitarianism (initially set forth by James Hutton). Lyell’s achievements laid the foundations for evolutionary biology as well as for an understanding of the Earth’s development. He was knighted in 1848 and made a baronet in 1864.

 

Sir Charles Lyell
  Life
Lyell was born at Kinnordy, the stately family home at the foot of the Grampian Mountains in eastern Scotland. His principal childhood associations, however, were with the New Forest near Southampton, Eng., where his parents moved before he was two years old. His father, a naturalist who later turned to more literary pursuits, kept the study well stocked with books on every subject, including geology. The eldest of 10 children, Charles attended a series of private schools, where he was not a particularly diligent student; he much preferred rambles in the New Forest and his father’s instruction at home to those places, with their schoolboy pranks and pecking orders whose spirit he never really shared.

His first scientific hobby was collecting butterflies and aquatic insects, an activity pursued intensively for some years, even though labelled unmanly by local residents. His observations went far beyond those of any ordinary boy, and later this instinct for collecting and comparing led to important discoveries. At 19 Lyell entered Oxford University, where his interest in classics, mathematics, and geology was stimulated, the latter by the enthusiastic lectures of William Buckland, later widely known for his attempt to prove Noah’s Flood by studies of fossils from cave deposits.
Lyell spent the long vacations between terms travelling and conducting geological studies. Notes made in 1817 on the origin of the Yarmouth lowlands clearly foreshadow his later work.
 
 
The penetrating geological and cultural observations Lyell made while on a continental tour with his family in 1818 were as remarkable as the number of miles he walked in a day. In December 1819 he earned a B.A. with honours and moved to London to study law.
 
 
Career
Lyell’s eyes were weakened by hard law study, and he sought and found relief by spending much time on geological work outdoors. Among these holidays was a visit to Sussex in 1822 to see evidence of vertical movements of the Earth’s crust. In 1823, on a visit to Paris, he met the renowned naturalists Alexander von Humboldt and Georges Cuvier and examined the Paris Basin with the French geologist Louis-Constant Prévost. In 1824 Lyell studied sediments forming in freshwater lakes near Kinnordy. When in London, Lyell participated in its vigorous intellectual life, meeting such literati as Sir Walter Scott and taking active part in several scientific societies.
 
 

Sir Charles Lyell
  New approach to geology.
Prodded to finish his law studies, Lyell was admitted to the bar in 1825, but with his father’s financial support he practiced geology more than law, publishing his first scientific papers that year. Lyell was rapidly developing new principles of reasoning in geology and began to plan a book which would stress that there are natural (as opposed to supernatural) explanations for all geologic phenomena, that the ordinary natural processes of today and their products do not differ in kind or magnitude from those of the past, and that the Earth must therefore be very ancient because these everyday processes work so slowly. With the ambitious young geologist Roderick Murchison, he explored districts in France and Italy where proof of his principles could be sought. From northern Italy Lyell went south alone to Sicily. Poor roads and accommodations made travel difficult, but in the region around Mt. Etna he found striking confirmation of his belief in the adequacy of natural causes to explain the features of the Earth and in the great antiquity even of such a recent feature as Etna itself.
The results of this trip, which lasted from May 1828 until February 1829, far exceeded Lyell’s expectations. Returning to London, he set to work immediately on his book, Principles of Geology, the first volume of which was published in July 1830. A reader today may wonder why this book filled with facts purports to deal with principles.
 
 
Lyell had to teach his principles through masses of facts and examples because in 1830 his method of scientific inquiry was novel and even mildly heretical. A remark of Charles Darwin shows how brilliantly Lyell succeeded: “The very first place which I examined . . . showed me clearly the wonderful superiority of Lyell’s manner of treating geology, compared with that of any other author, whose work I had with me or ever afterwards read.”

During the summer of 1830 Lyell travelled through the geologically complex Pyrenees to Spain, where the closed, repressed society both fascinated and repelled him. Returning to France, he was astonished to find King Charles X dethroned, the tricolour everywhere, and geologists able to talk only of politics. Back in London he set to work again on the Principles of Geology, finishing Volume II in December 1831 and the third and final volume in April 1833. His steady work was relieved by occasional social or scientific gatherings and a trip to a volcanic district in Germany close to the home of his sweetheart, Mary Horner, in Bonn, whom he married in July 1832, taking a long honeymoon and geological excursion in Switzerland and Italy. Mary, whose father had geological leanings, shared Charles’s interests. For 40 years she was his closest companion; the happiness of their marriage increased because of her ability to participate in his work.

During the next eight years the Lyells led a quiet life. Winters were devoted to study, scientific and social activities, and revision of Principles of Geology, which sold so well that new editions were frequently required. Data for the new editions were gathered during summer travels, including two visits to Scandinavia in 1834 and 1837. In 1832 and 1833 Lyell delivered well-received lectures at King’s College, London, afterward resigning the professorship as too time-consuming.

 
 
Scientific eminence.
Publication of the Principles of Geology placed him among the recognized leaders of his field, compelling him to devote more time to scientific affairs. During these years he gained the friendship of men like Darwin and the astronomer Sir John Herschel. In 1838 Lyell’s Elements of Geology was published; it described European rocks and fossils from the most recent, Lyell’s specialty, to the oldest then known. Like the Principles of Geology, this well-illustrated work was periodically enlarged and updated.

In 1841 Lyell accepted an invitation to lecture and travel for a year in North America, returning again for nine months in 1845–46 and for two short visits in the 1850s. During their travels, the Lyells visited nearly every part of the United States east of the Mississippi River and much of eastern Canada, seeing almost all of the important geological “monuments” along the way, including Niagara Falls. Lyell was amazed at the comparative ease of travel, although they saw many places newly claimed from the wilderness. A veteran of coach and sail days, Lyell often praised the speed and comfort of the new railroads and steamships. Lyell’s lectures at the Lowell Institute in Boston attracted thousands of people of both sexes and every social station. Lyell wrote enthusiastic and informative books, in 1845 and 1849, about each of his two long visits to the New World. Unlike the majority of well-off Victorians, Lyell was a vocal supporter of the Union cause in the American Civil War. Familiar with both North and South, he admired the bravery and military skill of the South but believed in the necessity and inevitability of a Northern victory.

In the 1840s Lyell became more widely known outside the scientific community, socializing with Lord John Russell, a leading Whig; Sir Robert Peel, founder of Scotland Yard; and Thomas Macaulay, the historian of England. In 1848 Lyell was knighted for his scientific achievements, beginning a long and friendly acquaintance with the royal family. He studied the prevention of mine disasters with the English physicist Michael Faraday in 1844, served as a commissioner for the Great Exhibition in 1851–52, and in the same year helped to begin educational reform at Oxford University—he had long objected to church domination of British colleges.

  Lyell’s professional reputation continued to grow; during his lifetime he received many awards and honorary degrees, including, in 1858, the Copley Medal, the highest award of the Royal Society of London; and he was many times president of various scientific societies or functions.

Expanding reputation and responsibilities brought no letup in his geological explorations. With Mary, he travelled in Europe or Britain practically every summer, visiting Madeira in the winter of 1854 to study the origin of the island itself and of its curious fauna and flora. Lyell especially liked to visit young geologists, from whom he felt “old stagers” had much to learn. After exhaustive restudy carried out on muleback in 1858, he proved conclusively that Mt. Etna had been built up by repeated small eruptions rather than by a cataclysmic upheaval as some geologists still insisted. He wrote Mary that “a good mule is like presenting an old geologist with a young pair of legs.”

In 1859 publication of Darwin’s Origin of Species gave new impetus to Lyell’s work. Although Darwin drew heavily on Lyell’s Principles of Geology both for style and content, Lyell had never shared his protégé’s belief in evolution. But reading the Origin of Species triggered studies that culminated in publication of The Geological Evidence of the Antiquity of Man in 1863, in which Lyell tentatively accepted evolution by natural selection.

Only during completion of a major revision of the Principles of Geology in 1865 did he fully adopt Darwin’s conclusions, however, adding powerful arguments of his own that won new adherents to Darwin’s theory. Why Lyell was hesitant in accepting Darwinism is best explained by Darwin himself: “Considering his age, his former views, and position in society, I think his action has been heroic.”

After 1865 Lyell’s activities became more restricted as his strength waned, although he never entirely gave up outdoor geology. His wife, 12 years his junior, died unexpectedly in 1873 after a short illness, leaving Lyell to write, “I endeavour by daily work at my favourite science, to forget as far as possible the dreadful change which this has made in my existence.” He died in 1875, while revising his Principles of Geology for its 12th edition, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

 
 

Sir Charles Lyell
  Assessment
Lyell typified his times in beginning as an amateur geologist and becoming a professional by study and experience. Unlike most geologists then and now, however, he never considered observations and collections as ends in themselves but used them to build and test theories. The Principles of Geology opened up new vistas of time and change for the younger group of scientists around Darwin. Only after they were gone did Lyell’s reputation begin to diminish, largely at the hands of critics who had not read the Principles of Geology as carefully as had Darwin and attributed to Darwin things he had learned from Lyell. Lyell is still underestimated by some geologists who fail to see that the methods and principles they use every day actually originated with Lyell and were revolutionary in his era. The lasting value of Lyell’s work and its importance for the modern reader are clear in Darwin’s assessment:
The great merit of the Principles was that it altered the whole tone of one’s mind, and therefore that, when seeing a thing never seen by Lyell, one yet saw it partially through his eyes.

Richard W. Macomber

 
 
 
1830
 
 
Raoult Francois Marie
 
François-Marie Raoult (10 May 1830 - 1 April 1901) was a French chemist who conducted research into the behavior of solutions, especially their physical properties.
 

François-Marie Raoult
  François-Marie Raoult, (born May 10, 1830, Fournes-en-Weppes, France—died April 1, 1901, Grenoble), French chemist who formulated a law on solutions (called Raoult’s law) that made it possible to determine the molecular weights of dissolved substances.

Raoult taught at the University of Grenoble from 1867 and was professor there from 1870 until his death.

About 1886 he discovered that the freezing point of an aqueous solution is lowered in proportion to the amount of a nonelectrolytic substance dissolved.

This observation led to the expression of Raoult’s law, which states that the changes in certain related properties of a liquid (e.g., vapour pressure, boiling point, or freezing point) that occur when a substance is dissolved in the liquid are proportional to the number of molecules of dissolved substance (solute) present for a given quantity of solvent molecules.

The relationship has been of fundamental importance in the development of the theory of solutions, although few real solutions behave strictly in accordance with it.

A solution that conforms to Raoult’s law is called an ideal solution.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Ger. naturalist and industrialist Karl von Reichenbach discovers paraffin
 
 
Reichenbach Karl
 

Baron Dr. Carl (Karl) Ludwig von Reichenbach (full name: Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Reichenbach) (February 12, 1788 – January 1869) was a notable chemist, geologist, metallurgist, naturalist, industrialist and philosopher, and a member of the prestigious Prussian Academy of Sciences. He is best known for his discoveries of several chemical products of economic importance, extracted from tar, such as eupione, waxy paraffin, pittacal (the first synthetic dye) and phenol (an antiseptic). He also dedicated himself in his last years to research an unproved field of energy combining electricity, magnetism and heat, emanating from all living things, which he called the Odic force.

 

Baron Dr. Carl (Karl) Ludwig von Reichenbach
  Life
Reichenbach was educated at the University of Tübingen, where he obtained the degree of doctor of philosophy. At the age of 16 he conceived the idea of establishing a new German state in one of the South Sea Islands, and for five years he devoted himself to this project. Afterwards, directing his attention to the application of science to the industrial arts, he visited manufacturing and metallurgical works in France and Germany, and established the first modern metallurgical company, with forges of his own in Villingen and Hausach in the Black Forest region of Southern Germany and later in Baden.

Scientific contributions

Reichenbach conducted original scientific investigations in many areas. The first geological monograph which appeared in Austria was his Geologische Mitteilungen aus Mähren (Vienna, 1834). His position as the head of the large chemical works, iron furnaces and machine shops upon the great estate of Count Hugo secured to him excellent opportunities for conducting large-scale experimental research. From 1830 to 1834 he investigated complex products of the distillation of organic substances such as coal and wood tar, discovering a number of valuable hydrocarbon compounds including creosote, paraffin, eupione and phenol (antiseptics), pittacal and cidreret (synthetic dyestuffs), picamar (a perfume base), assamar, capnomor, and others.
 
 
Under the name of eupione, Reichenbach included the mixture of hydrocarbon oils now known as waxy paraffin or coal oils. In his paper describing the substance, first published in the Neues Jahrbuch der Chemie und Physik, B, ii, he dwelt upon the economical importance of this and of its associate paraffins, whenever the methods of separating them cheaply from natural bituminous compounds would be established.
 
 
Earth's magnetism
Reichenbach expanded on the work of previous scientists, such as Galileo Galilei, who believed the Earth's axis was magnetically connected to a universal central force in space, in concluding that Earth's magnetism comes from magnetic iron, which can be found in meteorites. His reasoning was that meteorites and planets are the same, and no matter the size of the meteorite, polar existence can be found in the object. This was deemed conclusive by the scientific community in the 19th century.
  The Odic force
In 1839 Von Reichenbach retired from industry and entered upon an investigation of the pathology of the human nervous system. He studied neurasthenia, somnambulism, hysteria and phobia, crediting reports that these conditions were affected by the moon.

After interviewing many patients he ruled out many causes and cures, but concluded that such maladies tended to affect people whose sensory faculties were unusually vivid. These he termed "sensitives".
 
 
Influenced by the works of Franz Anton Mesmer he hypothesised that the condition could be affected by environmental electromagnetism, but finally his investigations led him to propose a new imponderable force allied to magnetism, which he thought was an emanation from most substances, a kind of "life principle" which permeates and connects all living things. To this vitalist manifestation he gave the name Odic force.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1830
 
 
Royal Geographical Society
 

The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) is the UK's learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences. Today, it is the leading centre for geographers and geographical learning. The Society has 16,500 members and its work reaches millions of people each year.

 
History
The Geographical Society of London was founded in 1830 under the name Geographical Society of London as an institution to promote the 'advancement of geographical science'.

It later absorbed the older African Association, which had been founded by Sir Joseph Banks in 1788, as well as the Raleigh Club and the Palestine Association.

Like many learned societies, it had started as a dining club in London, where select members held informal dinner debates on current scientific issues and ideas.

Founding members of the Society included Sir John Barrow, Sir John Franklin and Sir Francis Beaufort. Under the patronage of King William IV it later became known as The Royal Geographical Society (RGS) and was granted its Royal Charter under Queen Victoria in 1859.

From 1830 – 1840 the RGS met in the rooms of the Horticultural Society in Regent Street, London and from 1854 -1870 at 15 Whitehall Place, London. In 1870, the Society finally found a home when it moved to 1 Savile Row, London – an address that quickly became associated with adventure and travel.

The Society also used a lecture theatre in Burlington Gardens, London which was lent to it by the Civil Service Commission. However, the arrangements were thought to be rather cramped and squalid.

A new impetus was given to the Society's affairs in 1911, with the election of Earl Curzon, the former Viceroy of India, as the Society's President (1911–1914). The premises in Savile Row were sold and the present site, Lowther Lodge in Kensington Gore, was purchased for £100,000 and opened for use in April 1913. In the same year the Society's ban on women was lifted.

  Lowther Lodge was built in 1874 for the Hon William Lowther by Norman Shaw, one of the most outstanding domestic architects of his day. Extensions to the east wing were added in 1929, and included the New Map Room and the 750 seat Lecture Theatre. The extension was formally opened by HRH the Duke of York (later King George VI) at the Centenary Celebrations on 21 October 1930.

The history of the Society was closely allied for many of its earlier years with 'colonial' exploration in Africa, the Indian subcontinent, the polar regions, and central Asia especially.

It has been a key associate and supporter of many notable explorers and expeditions, including those of Darwin, Livingstone, Stanley, Scott, Shackleton, Hunt and Hillary.

The early history of the Society is inter-linked with the history of British Geography, exploration and discovery. Information, maps, charts and knowledge gathered on expeditions was sent to the RGS, making up its now unique geographical collections. The Society published its first journal in 1831 and from 1855, accounts of meetings and other matters were published in the Society Proceedings. In 1893, this was replaced by The Geographical Journal which is still published today.

The Society was also pivotal in establishing Geography as a teaching and research discipline in British universities, and funded the first Geography positions in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge.

With the advent of a more systematic study of geography, the Institute of British Geographers (IBG) was formed in 1933, by some academic Society fellows, as a sister body to the Society. Its activities included organising conferences, field trips, seminars and specialist research groups and publishing the journal, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers.

 
 

Lowther Lodge, Royal Geographical Society (with IBG) headquarters, designed by Richard Norman Shaw
 
 
The RGS and IBG co-existed for 60 years until 1992 when a merger was discussed. In 1994, members were balloted and the merger agreed. In January 1995, the new Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) was formed.

The Society also works together with other existing bodies serving the geographical community, in particular the Geographical Association and the Royal Scottish Geographical Society.[citation needed]

In 2004, The Society's historical Collections relating to scientific exploration and research, which are of national and international importance, were opened to the public for the first time. In the same year, a new category of membership was introduced to widen access for people with a general interest in geography. The new Foyle Reading Room and glass Pavilion exhibition space were also opened to the public in 2004 – unlocking the Society intellectually, visually and physically for the 21st century. For example, in 2012 the RGS held an exhibition, in the glass Pavilion, of photographs taken by Herbert Ponting on Captain Robert Falcon Scott's expedition to the South Pole in 1912.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1830
 
 
Carriage road across St. Gotthard (Switzerland) finished (begun 1820)
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Samuel Thomas von Summering (Sommerring Samuel Thomas), Ger. anatomist, d. (b. 1755)
 
 

Samuel Thomas von Sommerring
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Fr. tailor Barthelemy Thimmonier devises a machine for utilitarian stitching (beginning of the sewing machine)
 
 
Thimonnier Barthelemy
 

Barthelemy Thimonnier, (August 19, 1793 in L'Arbresle, Rhône - July 5, 1857 in Amplepuis), was a French inventor, who invented the first sewing machine that replicated sewing by hand.

 
Early life
In 1795, his family moved to Amplepuis. Thimonnier was the oldest of seven children. He studied for a while in Lyon, before going to work as a tailor in Panissières. Barthelemy Thimonnier married an embroideress in January 1822. In 1823, he settled in a suburb (or called a commutety) of Saint-Étienne and worked as a tailor there.
 
 

Barthelemy Thimonnier
  Invention of the sewing machine
In 1829, he invented the sewing machine and in 1830 he signed a contract with Auguste Ferrand, a mining engineer, who made the requisite drawings and submitted a patent application. The patent for his machine was issued on 17 July 1830 in the names of both men, supported by the French government.
The same year, he opened (with partners) the first machine-based clothing manufacturing company in the world. It was supposed to create army uniforms. However, the factory was burned down, reportedly by workers fearful of losing work following the issuing of the patent.

A model of the machine is exhibited at the London Science Museum. The machine is made of wood and uses a barbed needle which passes downward through the cloth to grab the thread and pull it up to form a loop to be locked by the next loop.

 
 
The earliest sewing machine was actually patented by Thomas Saint in 1790. So Thimonnier's machine was not the first. Saint's contribution was not made public until 1874 when William Newton Wilson, himself a sewing machine manufacturer, found the drawings in the London Patent Office and built a machine which worked following some adjustments to the looper. So, in 1790 Thomas Saint had invented a machine with an overhanging arm, a feed mechanism (adequate for the short lengths of leather he intended it for), a vertical needle bar and a looper. The London Science Museum has the model that Wilson built from Saint's drawings.

Later life
Thimonnier then returned to Amplepuis and supported himself as a tailor again, while searching for improvements to his machine. He obtained new patents in 1841, 1845, and 1847 for new models of sewing machine. However, despite having won prizes at World Fairs, and being praised by the press, use of the machine did not spread. Thimonnier's financial situation remained difficult, and he died in poverty at the age of 64.

The Thimonnier sewing machine company, created after his death, existed up to the 20th century.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Thomson Wyville
 

Sir C. Wyville Thomson, in full Sir Charles Wyville Thomson (born March 5, 1830, Bonsyde, West Lothian, Scotland—died March 10, 1882, Bonsyde), Scottish naturalist who was one of the first marine biologists to describe life in the ocean depths.

 

Sir C. Wyville Thomson
  After studying medicine at the University of Edinburgh, Thomson lectured in botany at the University of Aberdeen (1850–51) and Marischal College (1851–52) but concentrated increasingly on zoology after his appointment to chairs of natural history at Cork and Belfast (1853–68), in Ireland.

When he was appointed professor of natural history at Edinburgh (1870), Thomson had already turned his attention exclusively to the study of marine invertebrates. Aboard two deep-sea dredging expeditions north of Scotland (1868–69), he discovered a wide variety of invertebrate life forms—many previously believed extinct—to a depth of 650 fathoms. He also found that deep-sea temperatures are not as constant as had been supposed, indicating the presence of oceanic circulation. Thomson described these findings in The Depths of the Sea (1873).
In 1872 he embarked on an exploration aboard HMS Challenger. The crew made observations and soundings of the three great ocean basins at 362 stations during a highly successful circumnavigation of 68,890 nautical miles (127,600 kilometres). Thomson was knighted on his return in 1876.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1830
 
 
Lander Richard Lemon
 

Richard Lemon Lander (8 February 1804 – 6 February 1834) was a Cornish explorer of western Africa (1825-1827, 1830).

 

Richard Lemon
Lander in African costume
  Biography
Lander was the son of a Truro innkeeper, born in the Fighting Cocks Inn (later the Dolphin Inn). Lander's explorations began as an assistant to the Scottish explorer Hugh Clapperton on an expedition to Western Africa in 1825. Clapperton died in April 1827 near Sokoto, in present-day Nigeria, leaving Lander as the only surviving European member of the expedition. He proceeded southeast before returning to Britain in July 1828.

Lander returned to West Africa in 1830, accompanied by his brother John. They landed at Badagri on 22 March 1830 and followed the lower River Niger from Bussa to the sea. After exploring about 160 kilometres of the River Niger upstream, they returned to explore the River Benue and Niger Delta. They travelled back to Britain in 1831.

In 1832, Lander returned to Africa as leader of an expedition organised by Macgregor Laird and other Liverpudlian merchants, with the intention of founding a trading settlement at the junction of the Niger and Benue rivers. However, the expedition encountered difficulties, many personnel died from fever and it failed to reach Bussa.

While journeying upstream in a canoe, Lander was attacked by African tribesmen and wounded by a musket ball in his thigh. He managed to return to the coast, but died there from his injuries.

 
 
In Truro, a monument to his memory by Cornish sculptor Neville Northey Burnard stands at the top of Lemon Street and one of the local secondary schools is named in his honour. The building of the column commenced in 1835. In 1832 he became the first winner of the Royal Geographical Society Founder's Medal, "for important services in determining the course and termination of the Niger".

To mark the 200th anniversary of the birth of Richard Lander and celebrate the Lander brothers’ remarkable achievements an 'Expedition of Goodwill' was sent in November 2004 to retrace their historic river journey.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 
see also: Navigation of the Niger
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Charting the Coastline
 
 
The first indisputable sighting of land in Greater (East) Antarctica was by the Briton John Biscoe, in the brig Tula on February 28, 1831. In his journal he described his discovery of Enderby Land (named after the well-known London sealing and whaling firm which financed the voyage) as follows: "4 p.m. saw several hummocks to the southward, which much resembled tops of mountains, and at 6 p.m. clearly distinguished it to be land, and to considerable extent; to my great satisfaction what we had seen first being the black tops of mountains showing themselves through the snow on the lower land.''

The mountains were what are now called "nunataks" — peaks which stick up through land-ice. Biscoe circumnavigated the Antarctic, accompanied by the cutter Lively, commanded by George Avery, and a year later discovered Graham Land (part of the Antarctic Peninsula), Adelaide Island, and the Biscoe Islands. Biscoe was "firmly of the opinion" that he had found "a large continent." off which be had coasted for 300 miles (485 kilometers).

Another British sealer, Peter Kemp, in Magnet may have discovered icy and desolate Heard Island (53°S 73°20'E), as well as Kemp Land, in Greater Antarctica, in November and December 1833. A few years later, in February 1839, another Enderby sealing venture discovered the Balleny Islands, which guard the entrance to the Ross Sea. The expedition's captains, John Balleny in the Eliza Scott and Thomas Freeman in the Sabrina, also reported an "appearance of land" near what was later called Sabrina Coast. Greater Antarctica. (The Enderby Company actively encouraged its captains to explore the Antarctic region and published their findings.)
 
 
 
 
National expeditions

Three national expeditions, French. American and British, between 1837 and 1843 took an important step forward in charting the Antarctic coastline. Both the French and the American expeditions did the greater part of their work in the warm waters of the Pacific. J.-S.-C. Dumont d'Urville, commanding the Astrolabe with the Zclee (under C.-H. Jacquinot) in company, discovered and named Terre Adelie after his wife. The little Adelie penguins are reminders of her too. At least one egg of an Emperor penguin was collected by the French expedition and brought back home. A splendid atlas and other volumes were later published in Paris, in the pages of which can be seen pictures of the French sailors and their officers on the rocky coast in January 1840. The French ships also visited and surveyed part of the Antarctic Peninsula and adjoining islands, notably Trinity Peninsula and the South Orkney Islands.
 
 
 

Jules Dumont d'Urville

named Terre Adelie after his wife "to perpetuate the memory of my profound regard for the devoted companion who has three times consented to a long and painful separation in order to allow me to accomplish my plans for distant explorations."
 
 
The United States Exploring Expedition of 1838—42 consisted ot a squadron of five ships. They too returned with a harvest of charts and collections, one of the indirect results of which was the founding of the great Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. However, there was much controversy both about its leader, Charles Wilkes, who was court-martialed on his return (although cleared of any serious charge), and about its charts, on which some land was shown in positions that were later sailed over by other explorers. Wilkes's poorly equipped ships sailed westward along the coast, discovering and charting what was later called Wilkes Land between 160°E and 98°E - a great arc of the Antarctic Circle.
 
 

Members of Dumont d'Urville's party planted the French flag on a rock just off the coast of Terre Adelie on January 21 1840.
 
 
James Clark Ross

Neither Duniont d'Urville nor Wilkes had earlier navigated m icy seas. The third and greatest of the three national expeditions of 1837-43 was commanded by a man who had served a long Arctic apprenticeship as a midshipman and a lieutenant in the Royal Navy,
Ross James Clark. His ships, HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, were ''bomb vessels," stoutly built to withstand the recoil of heavy mortars on deck and additionally strengthened for work in sea-ice.
At the instigation of the British Association and the Royal Society, the Admiralty despatched Ross (who had already reached the Magnetic North Pole in the Arctic) to find the Magnetic South Pole, the location of these points being of great importance to science and navigation.
 
 

Ross James Clark
  A magnetic observatory named Rossbank was set up m Tasmania, where the British colony's Governor was John Franklin, the man who five years later would himself command HMS Erebus in an unsuccessful attempt to find the Northwest Passage.

Ross was told of the expeditions of Duniont d'Urville and Wilkes, and, determined not to follow in their footsteps but to seek new waters to chart, he took a more easterly direction than originally planned.

On January 5, 1841, his two ships were the first to pass boldly through a belt of pack-ice into what was to be called the Ross Sea. To Ross's disappointment, land barred the way to the Magnetic South Pole, so he was unable to proceed with his original mission. He did, however, make some remarkable discoveries — notably Victoria Land. Mount Terror and Mount Erebus (an active volcano amid the ice and snow), and the cliffs of the extraordinary "Great Icy Barrier," now known as the Ross Ice Shelf.

Ross made two further southern sweeps, but he did not make any discoveries as dramatic as those in his first season of Antarctic exploration. The survival of his vessels m such inhospitable conditions is, however, evidence of the skill of the shipwrights who built them, and of the captains and crew.

Ross's second-in-command was F. R. M. Crozier, who was to perish in the Arctic with the Franklin expedition. The assistant surgeon of HMS Erebus later became an eminent botanist and traveler, Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker.
 
 

The narrow escape of HMS
Erebus and HMS Terror, in March 1842, was sketched by J. E. Davis, cartographer on the Terror. The Erebus, turning suddenly to avoid hitting an iceberg, crossed the bows of the Terror and a collision was unavoidable. The two ships, their rigging entangled, were dashed against each other. Ross described how the Terror "rose high above us, almost exposing her keel to view, and again descended as we in our turn rose to the top of the wave, threatening to bury her beneath us." Eventually the ships parted and, through a mixture of skill and luck, narrowly missed the iceberg and made for open sea.
 
 
see also: British Admiralty Expeditions
 
 
 
 
 
John Biscoe
 

John Biscoe (28 June 1794 – 1843) was an English mariner and explorer who commanded the first expedition known to have sighted the areas named Enderby Land and Graham Land along the coast of Antarctica. The expedition also found a number of islands in the vicinity of Graham Land, including the Biscoe Islands that were named after him.

 
Early life
Biscoe was born in Enfield, Middlesex, England. During March 1812, aged seventeen, he joined the Royal Navy and served during the 1812–1815 war against the United States. By the time of his discharge in 1815, he had become an justice Master. Thereafter he sailed on board merchant shipping as a mate or master, mostly to the East or West Indies.
 
 
Southern Ocean expedition, 1830–1833
In 1830, the whaling company Samuel Enderby & Sons appointed Biscoe master of the brig Tula and leader of an expedition to find new sealing grounds in the Southern Ocean. Accompanied by the cutter Lively, the Tula left London and by December had reached the South Shetland Islands. The expedition then sailed further south, crossing the Antarctic Circle on 22 January 1831, before turning east at 60°S.

A month later, on 24 February 1831, the expedition sighted bare mountain tops through the ocean ice. Biscoe correctly surmised that they were part of a continent and named the area Enderby Land in honour of his patrons. On 28 February, a headland was spotted, which Biscoe named Cape Ann; the mountain atop the headland would later be named Mount Biscoe. Biscoe kept the expedition in the area while he began to chart the coastline, but after a month his and his crews' health were deteriorating. The expedition sailed toward Australia, reaching Hobart, Tasmania in May, but not before two crew members had died from scurvy.

The expedition wintered in Hobart before heading back toward the Antarctic. On 15 February 1832, Adelaide Island was discovered and two days later the Biscoe Islands.

  A further four days later, on 21 February, more extensive coastline was spotted.

Surmising again that he had encountered a continent, Biscoe named the area "Graham Land", after First Lord of the Admiralty Sir James Graham. Biscoe landed on Anvers Island and claimed to have sighted the mainland of the Antarctic continent.

Biscoe again began charting the new coastline the expedition had found and by the end of April 1832 he had become the third man (after James Cook and Fabian von Bellingshausen) to circumnavigate the Antarctic continent. On the journey home, during July, the Lively was wrecked at the Falkland Islands. The expedition nonetheless returned to London safely by the beginning of 1833.

During 1833, Biscoe was again commissioned by Samuel Enderby & Sons to make another voyage of exploration. However, he resigned from the effort, probably because of his health. He instead engaged in the West Indies trade in a much warmer climate. He next took part in sailing ventures in Australian waters.

John Biscoe died at sea during 1843 while on a voyage to bring his family from Tasmania back to England. He was 49 years old.

 
 
Memorials
A group of islands and a mountain are named for him. The Biscoe Islands were discovered off the west coast of Graham Land in February 1832, during his Antarctic circumnavigation aboard Tula and Lively. Mount Biscoe is a distinctive 700m black peak, the high point of Cape Ann in East Antarctica. Discovered by Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen (by air in 1929) and Mawson (1930), it is thought to be have been seen by Biscoe in 1831.

Two British research ships have been named in his honour. After conversion to an ice strengthened research ship for the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey, HMS Pretext was renamed RRS John Biscoe (1944). She reverted to RRS Pretext in 1956, to allow the name to be used for RRS John Biscoe (1956), a new ship with a longer range and greater cargo-carrying capacity.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Ladies' skirts grow shorter; sleeves become enormous; hats extremely large, ornamented with flowers and ribbons.

Stiff collars become part of men's dress
 
 
see also: The Costume History
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Lockwood Belva Ann
 

Belva Ann Lockwood, née Belva Ann Bennett (born Oct. 24, 1830, Royalton, N.Y., U.S.—died May 19, 1917, Washington, D.C.), American feminist and lawyer who was the first woman admitted to practice law before the U.S. Supreme Court.

 

Belva Ann Lockwood
  Belva Bennett attended country schools until she was 15 and then taught in them until her marriage in 1848 to Uriah H. McNall, who died in 1853. She then resumed teaching and continued her own education. She graduated from Genesee College (forerunner of Syracuse University) in 1857. After college she continued as a teacher in various towns in upper New York state until 1866, when she moved to Washington, D.C. There she taught for a year and, while operating her own private school, began to study law. In 1868 she married Ezekiel Lockwood, a former minister and dentist who took over her school.

After Columbian College (now George Washington University), Georgetown University, and Howard University had each refused her admission, she was enrolled in the new National University Law School in 1871. She graduated in 1873 and in the same year was admitted to the District of Columbia bar. She was not allowed to speak before the Supreme Court because of “custom.”

Offended by the legal and economic discrimination against women in American society, Lockwood became one of the most effective advocates of women’s rights of her time. Although her law practice dealt primarily with pension claims against the government, her work in Washington gave her the opportunity to lobby on behalf of legislation favourable to women. She drafted a bill for equal pay for equal work by women in government employment, and the bill was enacted into law in 1872.

 
 
After being denied admission to the Supreme Court in 1876 she singlehandedly lobbied enabling legislation through Congress and in March 1879 became the first woman to avail herself of the new law. She gained national prominence as a lecturer on women’s rights and was active in the affairs of various suffrage organizations.

In 1884 and 1888 Lockwood ran for the presidency on the ticket of the National Equal Rights Party, a small California group. She was chosen by the Department of State to be a delegate to the International Congress of Charities, Correction, and Philanthropy at Geneva in 1896, and she attended peace congresses in Europe in 1889, 1906, 1908, and 1911. She took a prominent part in the campaign headed by Ellen S. Mussey that secured for the married women of the district equal property rights (see Married Women’s Property Acts) and equal guardianship of children in 1896. When the statehood bills for Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona came before Congress in 1903, she prepared amendments granting suffrage to women in the proposed new states. She later held office in several reform organizations.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 

 
 
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