Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

Loading
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
     
     
 
1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1830 Part III NEXT-1830 Part V    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

Eugene Delacroix. Liberty Leading the People.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1830 Part IV
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Bierstadt Albert
 

Albert Bierstadt (January 7, 1830 – February 18, 1902) was a German-American painter best known for his lavish, sweeping landscapes of the American West. To paint the scenes, Bierstadt joined several journeys of the Westward Expansion. Though not the first artist to record these sites, Bierstadt was the foremost painter of these scenes for the remainder of the 19th century.

Born in Germany, Bierstadt was brought to the United States at the age of one by his parents. He later returned to study painting for several years in Düsseldorf. He became part of the Hudson River School in New York, an informal group of like-minded painters who started painting along this scenic river. Their style was based on carefully detailed paintings with romantic, almost glowing lighting, sometimes called luminism. An important interpreter of the western landscape, Bierstadt, along with Thomas Moran, is also grouped with the Rocky Mountain School.

 

Albert Bierstadt
  Albert Bierstadt, (born Jan. 7, 1830, near Düsseldorf, Westphalia [Germany]—died Feb. 19, 1902, New York, N.Y., U.S.), American artist who painted landscapes and whose tremendous popularity was based on his panoramic scenes of the American West.

Among the last generation of painters associated with the Hudson River school, Bierstadt, like Frederick Church and Thomas Moran, covered vast distances in search of more exotic subject matter. His reputation was made by the huge canvases that resulted from his several trips to the Far West—e.g., The Rocky Mountains (1863; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City) and Mount Corcoran (c. 1875–77; Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.). Executed in his studio in New York, the large works do not have the freshness and spontaneity of the small on-the-spot paintings from which they were produced. They are, however, immense in scale and grandiose in effect.

Bierstadt freely altered details of landscape to create the effect of awe and grandeur. His colours were applied more according to a formula than from observation: luscious, green vegetation, ice-blue water, and pale, atmospheric blue-green mountains. The progression from foreground to background was often a dramatic one without the softness and subtlety of a middle distance.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 

Albert Bierstadt. Storm in the Rocky Mountains, Mount Rosalie (1866), Brooklyn Museum, New York
 
 
 
     
 
Albert Bierstadt
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
 
 

Corot Jean Baptiste Camille. "Chartres Cathedral"
 
 
 
     
 
Jean Baptiste Camille Corot
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Daumier Honore  begins his association with Charles Philipson and his journals
("La Caricature," later "Le Charivari")
 
 
 
     
 
Honore Daumier
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
 

Liberty Leading the People (French: La Liberté guidant le peuple) is a painting by Delacroix Eugene commemorating the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled King Charles X of France. A woman personifying the concept and the goddess of Liberty leads the people forward over the bodies of the fallen, holding the flag of the French Revolution – the tricolor flag which is still France's flag today – in one hand and brandishing a bayonetted musket with the other. The figure of Liberty is also viewed as a symbol of France and the French Republic known as Marianne.

 
History
By the time Delacroix painted Liberty Leading the People, he was already the acknowledged leader of the Romantic school in French painting. Delacroix, who was born as the Age of Enlightenment was giving way to the ideas and style of romanticism, rejected the emphasis on precise drawing that characterised the academic art of his time, and instead gave a new prominence to freely brushed colour.

Delacroix painted his work in the autumn of 1830. In a letter to his brother dated 21 October, he wrote: "My bad mood is vanishing thanks to hard work. I’ve embarked on a modern subject—a barricade. And if I haven’t fought for my country at least I’ll paint for her." The painting was first exhibited at the official Salon of May 1831.

 
 

Delacroix Eugene. Liberty Leading the People.
 
 
Symbolism
Delacroix depicted Liberty as both an allegorical goddess-figure and a robust woman of the people. The mound of corpses acts as a kind of pedestal from which Liberty strides, barefoot and bare-breasted, out of the canvas and into the space of the viewer. The Phrygian cap she wears had come to symbolize liberty during the first French Revolution, of 1789–94. The painting has been seen as a marker to the end of the Age of Enlightenment, as many scholars see the end of the French Revolution as the start of the romantic era.

The fighters are from a mixture of social classes, ranging from the bourgeoisie represented by the young man in a top hat, a student from the prestigious École Polytechnique wearing the traditional bicorne, to the revolutionary urban worker, as exemplified by the boy holding pistols. What they have in common is the fierceness and determination in their eyes. Aside from the flag held by Liberty, a second, minute tricolore can be discerned in the distance flying from the towers of Notre Dame.

The identity of the man in the top hat has been widely debated. The suggestion that it was a self-portrait by Delacroix has been discounted by modern art historians. In the late 19th century, it was suggested the model was the theatre director Étienne Arago; others have suggested the future curator of the Louvre, Frédéric Villot; but there is no firm consensus on this point.

 
 
Purchase and exhibition
The French government bought the painting in 1831 for 3,000 francs with the intention of displaying it in the throne room of the Palais du Luxembourg as a reminder to the "citizen-king" Louis-Philippe of the July Revolution, through which he had come to power. This plan did not come to fruition and the canvas hung in the palace's museum gallery for a few months, before being removed due to its inflammatory political message. After the June Rebellion of 1832, it was returned to the artist. According to Albert Boime,

Champfleury wrote in August 1848 that it had been “hidden in an attic for being too revolutionary.” Although Louis-Philippe's Ministry of the Interior initially acquired it as a gesture to the Left, after the uprising at the funeral of Lamarque in June 1832 it was never again openly displayed for fear of setting a bad example.

Delacroix was permitted to send the painting to his aunt Félicité for safekeeping. It was exhibited briefly in 1848, after the Republic was restored in the revolution of that year, and then in the Salon of 1855. In 1874, the painting entered the collection of Palais du Louvre in Paris.

 
Delacroix Eugene. Liberty Leading the People. (detail)
 
 
In 1974–75, the work was the featured work in an exhibit organized by the government of France, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and the Detroit Institute of Arts as a Bicentennial gift to the people of the United States. The exhibit, entitled French Painting 1774–1830: The Age of Revolution, marked the first time the Delacroix painting, and many of the other 148 works, were seen outside France.
 
 
The exhibit was first shown at the Grand Palais 16 November 1974 through 3 February 1975. It moved to Detroit 5 March through 4 May 1975, then New York 12 June through 7 September 1975.

In 1999, it flew aboard an Airbus Beluga from Paris to Tokyo via Bahrain and Calcutta in about 20 hours. The large canvas, measuring 2.99 metres (9.8 feet) high by 3.62 metres (11.9 feet) long, was too large to fit into a Boeing 747. It was transported in the vertical position inside a special pressurised container provided with isothermal protection and an anti-vibration device.

In 2012, it was moved to the new Louvre-Lens museum in Lens, Pas-de-Calais, as the starring work in the first tranche of paintings from the Louvre's collection to be installed. On 7 February 2013, the painting was vandalized by a visitor in Lens. An unidentified 28-year old woman allegedly wrote an inscription ("AE911") on the painting.

The young woman was immediately arrested by a security guard and a visitor. A short time after the incident, the management of the Louvre and its Pas-de-Calais branch published a press release indicating that "at first glance, the inscription is superficial and should be easily removed". Louvre officials announced the next day that the writing had been removed in less than two hours by a restorer without damaging the original paint, and the piece returned to display that morning.

 
Delacroix Eugene. Liberty Leading the People. (detail)
 
 
Legacy
Although Delacroix was not the first artist to depict Liberty in Phrygian cap, his painting may be the best known early version of the figure commonly known as Marianne, a symbol of the French Republic and of France in general.

The painting may have influenced Victor Hugo's novel Les Misérables. In particular, the character of Gavroche is widely believed to have been inspired by the figure of the pistol-wielding boy running over the barricade.
 
 
The novel describes the events of the June Rebellion two years after the revolution celebrated in the painting, the same rebellion that led to its being removed from public view.

The painting inspired Bartholdi's Statue of Liberty in New York City, which was given to the United States as a gift from the French a half-century after Liberty Leading the People was painted.

The statue, which holds a torch in its hand, takes a more stable, immovable stance than that of the woman in the painting. An engraved version of part of the painting, along with a depiction of Delacroix himself, was featured on the 100-franc note from 1978 to 1995.

The painting has had an influence on classical music. George Antheil titled his Symphony No. 6 After Delacroix, and stated that the work was inspired by Liberty Leading the People.

The imagery was adapted by Robert Ballagh to commemorate Ireland's independence struggle on an Irish postage stamp in 1979, the centenary of the birth of Pádraig Pearse, and the painting was used for the band Coldplay's album cover Viva la Vida or Death and All His Friends, with the words Viva La Vida written in white.

The cover of the book Enough is Enough: How to Build a New Republic by Fintan O'Toole references the painting but with Kathleen ni Houlihan holding the Irish tricolour in Dublin while the leaders of the 3 main political parties at the time (Brian Cowen, Enda Kenny and Eamon Gilmore) lie on the ground.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
Delacroix Eugene. Liberty Leading the People. (detail)
 
 
 
     
 
Eugene Delacroix
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Sir Lawrence Thomas, Eng. portrait painter, d. (b. 1769)
 
 


Lawrence Thomas. The Calmady Children. 1824

 
 
 
     
 
Sir Thomas Lawrence
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Leighton Frederic
 

Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton PRA (3 December 1830 – 25 January 1896), known as Sir Frederic Leighton between 1878 and 1896, was an English painter and sculptor. His works depicted historical, biblical, and classical subject matter. Leighton was bearer of the shortest-lived peerage in history; after only one day his hereditary peerage ended with his death.

 

Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton
  Frederic Leighton, Baron Leighton, also called (1886–96) Sir Frederic Leighton, Baronet (born Dec. 3, 1830, Scarborough, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Jan. 25, 1896, London), academic painter of immense prestige in his own time.

After an education in many European cities, he went to Rome in 1852, where his social talents won him the friendship of (among others) the English novelist William Makepeace Thackeray, the French novelist George Sand, and the English poet Robert Browning.

Leighton’s painting Cimabue’s Madonna, shown at the Royal Academy’s exhibition in 1855, was bought by Queen Victoria.

It marked the entry into England of a new cosmopolitan academic manner in which grandeur of scale and forms of classical Greek and High Renaissance extraction were used to embody subject matter of an anecdotal and superficial nature.

Leighton came to London in 1858 to enjoy this triumph but did not settle there until 1860.

In 1869 he was made a member of the Royal Academy and in 1878 its president.

In 1878 he was knighted, in 1886 he was made a baronet, and, on the day before he died, he became a baron, being the first English painter to be so honoured.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 

Frederic Leighton. Music Lesson
 
 
 
     
 
Frederic Leighton
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
End of the Nazarene Brotherhood, an antiacademic society of Ger. painters in Rome (Overbeck, Schnorr von
Carolsfeld, etc.)
 
 
Nazarene Brotherhood
 

Nazarene, member of Lucas Brotherhood, or Brotherhood of Saint Luke, German Nazarener, or Lukasbund, one of an association formed by a number of young German painters in 1809 to return to the medieval spirit in art.

 
Reacting particularly against 18th-century Neoclassicism, the brotherhood was the first effective antiacademic movement in European painting. The Nazarenes believed that all art should serve a moral or religious purpose; they admired painters of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance and rejected most subsequent painting (promulgated by the European academies), believing that it abandoned religious ideals in favour of artistic virtuosity. They also thought that the mechanical routine of the academy system could be avoided by a return to the more intimate teaching situation of the medieval workshop. For this reason, they worked and lived together in a semimonastic existence.
The brotherhood’s original members were six Vienna Academy students.

Four of them, Johann Friedrich Overbeck, Franz Pforr , Ludwig Vogel, and Johann Konrad Hottinger, moved in 1810 to Rome, where they occupied the abandoned monastery of Sant’Isidoro. There they were joined by Peter von Cornelius, Wilhelm von Schadow, and others who at various times were associated with the movement. They soon acquired the originally derisive nickname Nazarenes because of their affectation of biblical style of hair and dress.

The major project of the Nazarenes was to revive the medieval art of fresco painting. They were fortunate in receiving two important commissions, the fresco decoration of the Casa Bartholdy (1816–17) and the Casino Massimo (1817–29) in Rome, which brought their work to international attention. By the time of the completion of the Casino Massimo frescoes, all except Overbeck had returned to Germany and the group had dissolved.

The art of the Nazarenes, consisting largely of religious subjects executed in a conventional naturalistic style, was, for the most part, unimpressive, characterized by overcrowded compositions, overattention to detail, and lack of colouristic or formal vitality. Nevertheless, their aim of honest expression of deeply felt ideals had an important influence on subsequent movements, particularly the English Pre-Raphaelites of the mid-19th century.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
Johann Friedrich Overbeck: Freskenzyklus im Casa Massimo in Rom, Tasso-Saal, Szene:
Der Erzengel Gabriel gebietet Gottfried von Bouillon die Befreiung Jerusalems
 
 
see also:
 
Johann Friedrich Overbeck
Peter von Cornelius
Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld
Paul Delaroche
Hippolyte-Jean Flandrin

Franz Pforr
Philipp Veit
Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier

Johann Anton Ramboux
Josef Fuhrich
Carl Philipp Fohr 
Tommaso Minardi
Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow
Pietro Tenerani
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Pissarro Camille
 

Camille Pissarro, in full Jacob-Abraham-Camille Pissarro (born July 10, 1830, St. Thomas, Danish West Indies—died Nov. 13, 1903, Paris, France), painter and printmaker who was a key figure in the history of Impressionism. Pissarro was the only artist to show his work in all eight Impressionist group exhibitions; throughout his career he remained dedicated to the idea of such alternative forums of exhibition. He experimented with many styles, including a period when he adopted Georges Seurat’s “pointillist” approach. A supportive friend and mentor to influential artists such as Paul Cézanne and Paul Gauguin, he was described by many who knew him as “Father Pissarro.”

 

Childhood
Pissarro was the third son of a Jewish merchant of French, originally Portuguese, descent. His family lived above their shop on Charlotte Amalie, the main street of St. Thomas. When Camille was 12 years old, his parents sent him away to a school in Passy, near Paris. The young Pissarro showed an early talent for drawing, and he began to visit the collections of the Louvre.

At age 17 he returned to St. Thomas, where his father expected him to enter the family business. Pissarro was more interested in sketching at the harbour, however, and, after meeting the visiting Danish painter Fritz Melbye, he sailed with the older artist to Venezuela in November 1852. Later, Pissarro said he had “abandoned all I had and bolted to Caracas to get clear of the bondage of bourgeois life.” While in Caracas, Pissarro made many sketches of life on the streets. He returned to St. Thomas in August 1854. This time his parents finally realized that no amount of argument would change their son’s determination to be a painter, and so in the fall of 1855 he left home for the last time, bound for Paris.

 
 
 
 

Camille Pissarro, c. 1900
  Early career
Pissarro arrived in time to see the contemporary art on display at Paris’s Universal Exposition, where he was strongly attracted to the paintings of Camille Corot. He began to attend private classes at the École des Beaux-Arts in 1856, and in 1861 he registered as a copyist at the Louvre. He also attended the Académie Suisse, a “free studio,” where he met future Impressionists Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne, and Armand Guillaumin. Through Monet, he also met Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Alfred Sisley.

In these early years in France, Pissarro painted scenes of the West Indies from memory, and he found guidance from Melbye’s brother Anton. Indeed, when he first showed work at the Paris Salon of 1859, Pissarro called himself “Pupil of A. Melbye,” a title he continued to use until 1866. He was also taught informally by Corot, who urged him to paint from nature. Reflecting the influence of Corot, Pissarro’s early paintings usually include a path or river receding in perspective, as well as figures—generally viewed from the back—that give an overall sense of scale. His early works are blonde and green in tonality, however, in contrast to the silvery tonality of Corot’s work.

During this period Pissarro spent time in rural areas such as Montmorency, La Roche-Guyon, and Pontoise, where he could find ample subject matter for landscape painting. This established a lifelong pattern of working outside Paris while also frequently staying in the city.

 
 

About 1860 he began a relationship with Julie Vellay, his mother’s maid, and in 1863 their first child, Lucien, was born. (The couple married in London in 1871; in all, they would eventually have eight children.)

Pissarro became more and more opposed to the standards of the École des Beaux-Arts and the Academy throughout the 1860s, and he occasionally took part in lively debates with younger artists such as Monet and Renoir at the Café Guérbois. Ten years older than such artists, Pissarro was seen as a father figure, and his fierce arguments about egalitarianism and the inequities of the system of juries and prizes impressed everyone. Although he showed his work at the Paris Salon, he and his colleagues came increasingly to recognize the unfairness of the Salon’s jury system as well as the disadvantages relatively small paintings such as their own had at Salon exhibitions.

Discussions in the art world were interrupted, however, by the outbreak of the Franco-German War in 1870. Pissarro left for London, where he met up with Monet and the dealer Paul Durand-Ruel. Pissarro lived in south London for a time and painted scenes, such as The Crystal Palace, London (1871), of the newly emerging suburbs there. Many years later, he wrote: “Monet and I were very enthusiastic over the London landscapes. Monet worked in the parks, while I, living in Lower Norwood, at that time a charming suburb, studied the effects of fog, snow, and springtime.” On his return to France and his house in Louveciennes, Pissarro discovered that much of the work in his studio had been destroyed by Prussian soldiers.

In 1872 Pissarro moved back to Pontoise, where he gathered a small circle of painters around him, including Guillaumin, and, most importantly, Cézanne, to whom Pissarro demonstrated his method of painting patiently from nature. These lessons caused Cézanne to change his entire approach to art. Later, in 1902, he said of his mentor: “As for old Pissarro, he was a father to me, a man to consult and something like the good Lord.”

 
 

Camille Pissarro and his wife, Julie Vellay, 1877, Pontoise
  The Impressionist years
In the early 1870s Pissarro devoted a great deal of thought to the idea of creating an alternative to the Salon, a plan he discussed with Monet, Renoir, and others. They devised the idea of a society with a charter based on that of a local bakers’ union, and by January 1874 Pissarro helped found a cooperative along these lines. In April of that year the group held their first exhibition at the studio of the photographer Nadar in Paris, at 35 Boulevard des Capucines, a show that became known as the first Impressionist exhibition. Pissarro showed five paintings at the show, including Hoar Frost, The Old Road to Ennery, Pontoise (1873). Among those who also showed their work were Monet, Renoir, Sisley, Cézanne, Edgar Degas, and Berthe Morisot.
The Impressionist artists shared a desire to record the modern world around them by capturing the transient effects of light and colour. They generally avoided traditional modeling and compositions, focusing instead on texture, tone, and high-keyed colour. Pissarro favoured rural subjects, rather than the modern urban subjects preferred by some of his colleagues, but he shared the other artists’ desire to paint the effects of light falling on objects.
 
 

His work from this early Impressionist period also displays the loose brushwork and absence of drawing that characterized other Impressionist art at the time.

Pissarro was very disappointed with the public and financial response to the first Impressionist exhibition. He wrote bitterly to the critic Théodore Duret: “Our exhibition goes well. It is a success. The critics destroy us and accuse us of not having studied; I am returning to my work, it is better than reading the reviews.” The artist’s financial plight was desperate, and he was at a low ebb in his personal life: his nine-year-old daughter, Jeanne, had died a week before the exhibition opened.

Pissarro nonetheless remained certain that the group’s independent exhibitions represented the correct path forward. After exploring the idea of another alternative forum for exhibition, called the “Union,” he rejoined the other founder-members of the Impressionist group and showed his work at the second group exhibition, held in April 1876 at the gallery of Durand-Ruel. He showed 12 paintings—among them two painted at Montfoucault, the home of his friend Ludovic Piette—that included spring, summer, and winter landscapes. Once again, his work was criticized. Pissarro’s financial struggles were also increasingly acute. Renoir recalled being turned down by one collector who said: “You are too late. Pissarro has just left, and I have taken a painting of his. A human consideration: he has such a large family. Poor chap!”

By the time of the fourth group show, in 1879, Renoir, Sisley, and Cézanne had withdrawn, and the following year Monet too was absent. Forced to reconsider the future of the exhibitions, Pissarro told the painter Gustave Caillebotte: “We need men of talent—who are deserting us—[and] we also need new pictures. . . . If the best artists slip away, what will become of our artistic union?” Pissarro’s qualms were realized: the sixth and seventh Impressionist exhibitions showed great rifts among the participants, particularly because Degas brought in many new artists. The open-minded Pissarro did not object to these new participants, however, reminding Caillebotte, who was vociferous in his opposition, that Degas had “brought to us Mlle [Mary] Cassatt, [Jean-Louis] Forain, and you [Caillebotte himself].”

Despite the problems plaguing the Impressionist exhibitions, Pissarro remained steadfast in his refusal to return to the Salon. His work during this period was dominated by figure studies, rather than pure landscapes, as seen in Young Peasant Woman Drinking Her Café au Lait (1881). Continuing his role as a mentor, Pissarro patiently worked with the flamboyant young artist Paul Gauguin during this period. His links with Degas and Cassatt were also strong, and together they embarked on a project to produce a monthly journal dedicated to prints entitled Le Jour et la nuit (“Day and Night”). The journal did not materialize, but Pissarro made some fine prints, and Degas wrote to their mutual friend, the printmaker Félix Bracquemond: “Pissarro is delightful in his enthusiasm and faith.”

 
 

Camille Pissarro, c. 1900
  The crisis of Impressionism and Neo-Impressionism
In one of numerous letters to his son Lucien, part of a correspondence lasting 20 years (until Pissarro’s death), the artist wrote in 1883: “I will calmly tread the path I have taken, and try to do my best.” It was difficult to remain calm, however. The collapse of the French economy in the early 1880s meant that Pissarro found it harder than ever to sell work, plus he had become uncertain about the direction his art was taking, using an increasingly small brushstroke and attempting to give his work a greater sense of structure. In 1884 Pissarro moved from Pontoise to the tiny hamlet of Eragny, on the Epte River. The following year he met the young avant-garde artists Georges Seurat and Paul Signac and became a convert to their new approach to painting, known as Neo-Impressionism. In accordance with this style, Pissarro applied paint to the canvas in dots of contrasting pigments, which the retina would perceive as a single hue. Now in his fifties, Pissarro was still eager to reinvent his art, calling his former colleagues “romantics,” in contrast to his new “scientific” Impressionist colleagues. The eighth and last Impressionist exhibition in 1886 showed the lack of harmony among the remaining artists, as the work of the Neo-Impressionists was shown separately from that of the others. Moreover, both Monet and Renoir were absent. Seurat showed his enormous A Sunday on La Grande Jatte—1884 (1884–86), which dominated the room that contained Pissarro’s own Neo-Impressionist submissions: nine oil paintings, among them View from My Window, Eragny-sur-Epte (1886–88), as well as gouaches, pastels, and etchings.
 
 
The Irish critic George Moore’s lack of comprehension of Pissarro’s new work was typical: “Owing to a long and intimate acquaintance with Pissarro and his work, I could distinguish between him and Seurat, but to the ordinary visitor, their pictures were identical.”

Pissarro’s attraction to Neo-Impressionism was short-lived, and starting about 1889 he began to move away from the style, believing it made it “impossible to be true to my sensations and consequently to render life and movement.” At this point, the conditions in the art world that had once made the group exhibitions seem crucial had changed: new galleries were being established and showing the work of avant-garde artists, and, even without the stylistic splits between the painters, Impressionism had run its course. In the end, Pissarro was the only artist associated with the movement to have shown in all eight Impressionist exhibitions.

 
 
The last years: series paintings
By 1890 Pissarro believed that he at last understood how to attain the unity in painting he had pursued throughout his career. He wrote about the genesis of this discovery to his niece Esther Isaacson: “I began to understand my sensations and to know what it was that I wanted to do when I was about 40 years old [in the 1870s]—but vaguely.” Others also recognized the development of his work since the height of Impressionism, including the dealer Georges Bernheim, who in 1891 wrote to Pissarro: “Your moment has come!” In 1892 Durand-Ruel held a large and successful retrospective of Pissarro’s work, and for the first time the artist achieved some financial stability.

At this point in his career, when his Impressionist colleagues such as Monet, Renoir, and Sisley were abandoning the subject of the city, Pissarro returned to it with several series of views of Paris, the first from a hotel window opposite the Gare Saint-Lazare, which was the station at which he arrived from Eragny. He also painted serial views of the Rouen Cathedral and the seaport town of Le Havre, working on several canvases simultaneously—a practice also famously pursued by Monet later in his career. Pissarro’s later works are more freely painted than those of the Neo-Impressionist years, and he frequently used a vantage point of an upper-story window. In these works he continued to pursue his long-standing quest to convey impressions of light and colour, but with the added notion that he needed to create more than one painting of each scene to explore and convey the changing effects of light and weather to the fullest extent.

  He found the unity he had long sought by creating a harmony of colours and tones and by applying a consistent brushstroke across the entire surface of the canvas.

Assessment

Camille Pissarro was a major figure in the history of Impressionism.

His continuing belief in the value of independent group exhibitions and his commitment to representing landscapes under specific weather and light conditions made him, in some ways, the quintessential Impressionist.

By the end of his life he was beginning to gain critical recognition and praise, an estimation that continued throughout the 20th century, when critics and scholars consistently acknowledged his place as a key figure in Impressionism.

Pissarro bridged the 19th and 20th centuries in his art and life.

Despite his humble nature, Pissarro’s legacy—his unrelenting interest in change, his influence on seminal artists such as Cézanne and Gauguin, and his steadfast opposition to the artistic establishment—powerfully shaped the development of the early 20th-century avant-garde.

Kathleen Adler

Encyclopædia Britannica 
 
 


Camille Pissarro. Hyde Park, London
1890

 
 
 
     
  Camille Pissarro

Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Ward John Quincy Adams
 

John Quincy Adams Ward (June 29, 1830 – May 1, 1910) was an American sculptor, who is most familiar for his over-lifesize standing statue of George Washington on the steps of Federal Hall on Wall Street.

 

John Quincy Adams Ward
  Early years
He was born in Urbana, Ohio, a city that had been founded by his grandfather Col. William Ward, and went to live with his sister in Brooklyn, New York, where he trained under the well-established sculptor Henry Kirke Brown, who carved "J.Q.A. Ward, asst." on his equestrian monument of George Washington in Union Square. His younger brother was the artist, Edgar Melville Ward. Ward went to Washington in 1857, where he made a name with portrait busts of men in public life. In 1861 he worked for the Ames Manufacturing Company of Chicopee, Massachusetts, providing models for decorative objects including gilt-bronze sword hilts for the Union Army. Ames also was one of the largest brass, bronze and iron foundries in the US. Ward set up a studio in New York City in 1861 and was elected to the National Academy of Design the following year; he was there president till 1874. In 1882 a new New York studio on 52nd Street was designed for him by his friend, Richard Morris Hunt who was to collaborate with him on many projects over the years.

Career
Nineteenth-century American commissions for sculpture were largely confined to portrait busts and monuments, where Ward was preeminent in his generation. Sculptors also made a living selling bronze reductions of their public works; Ward made use of new galvanoplastic duplicating techniques; many of Ward's reductions and galvanoplastic and die-stamped relief panels survive.

 
 

George Washington in front of Federal Hall National Memorial
 
 
In 1903, with the collaboration of Paul Wayland Bartlett, he made the models for the marble pediment sculptures for the New York Stock Exchange. The pediment was carved by the Piccirilli Brothers.

Ward was a founder and president of the National Sculpture Society (1893–1904) and president of the National Academy of Design (1874). He was one of the first trustees in 1897 for the American Academy in Rome.

He died at his home in New York City in 1910. A copy of his Indian Hunter stands at his gravesite in Urbana, and his Urbana home is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. His sketchbooks are conserved at the Albany Institute of History & Art.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Waterhouse Alfred
 
Alfred Waterhouse, (born July 19, 1830, Liverpool, Eng.—died Sept. 22, 1905, Yattendon, Berkshire), English architect who worked in the style of High Victorian medieval eclecticism. He is remembered principally for his elaborately planned complexes of educational and civic buildings.
 

Alfred Waterhouse
  Waterhouse was an apprentice to Richard Lane in Manchester. His position as a designer of public buildings was assured as early as 1859, when his Gothic Revival design won the open competition for the Manchester Assize Courts.

In 1868 he won the competition for the Manchester Town Hall, which showed a firmer and perhaps more original handling of the Gothic manner. That same year he began rebuilding Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. This was not his only university work, for he also designed Balliol College (1867–69), Oxford, and Pembroke College (1871), Cambridge. Among his other important educational commissions were Owens College (1870–98; now Victoria University of Manchester) and St. Paul’s School (c. 1885), Hammersmith, London. (After the school moved to its present site at Barnes in 1968, the original building was demolished.)

Many of his buildings (e.g., the Romanesque-inspired Natural History Museum [1873–81] in London) are built with brick (often burnt) and terra-cotta, with extensive use of decorative ironwork and exposed metal structure. Waterhouse also designed a few churches and country houses—e.g., Lyndhurst Road Congregational Church (1883) in Camden, London, and Hutton Hall (1865) at Guisborough.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 

Manchester Town Hall, built 1868-1877.
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
 

Fra Diavolo, ou L'hôtellerie de Terracine (Fra Diavolo, or The Inn of Terracina) is an opéra comique in three acts by the French composer Auber Daniel, from a libretto by Auber's regular collaborator Eugène Scribe.

 
It is loosely based on the life of the Itrani guerrilla leader Michele Pezza, active in southern Italy in the period 1800-1806, who went under the name of Fra Diavolo ("Brother Devil").

The opera was first performed by the Opéra-Comique at the Salle Ventadour in Paris on 28 January 1830 and an Italian version was prepared by Auber and Scribe for performance in London in 1857.

This contained new recitatives and arias, as well as expanding the roles of Fra Diavolo's accomplices.

The opera was Auber's greatest success, one of the most popular works of the 19th century and was in the standard repertory in its original French as well as German and Italian versions.

An English translation was also prepared. Hugh Macdonald has characterised this comic opera as "the most successful work of its kind before Offenbach".

  Synopsis
Zerline, daughter of the innkeeper of Terracina, is in love with an impoverished soldier, Lorenzo, but her father wants her to marry the rich old Francesco. Lorenzo is in pursuit of the notorious bandit Fra Diavolo. Diavolo himself arrives at the inn disguised as a marquis and robs two English travellers, Lord and Lady Cockburn. Lorenzo manages to retrieve part of the stolen goods and is rewarded with enough money to marry Zerline. Diavolo is determined to rob the travellers again and enlists the help of his two comical henchmen, Giacomo and Beppo. During the night the three of them sneak into Zerline's room and steal her dowry. Lorenzo appears and mistakes the 'marquis' for a rival in love. The next day Zerline is forced to marry Francesco as she now no longer has her dowry. Diavolo instructs his henchmen to warn him when Lorenzo and his troop of soldiers have left the town so he can safely rob again, but the two are recognised in the crowd by Zerline and Diavolo is tricked into appearing and arrested when the signal is given as arranged. Zerline is free to marry Lorenzo again.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 
Daniel-François-Esprit Auber - Fra Diavolo - Ouverture
 
Fra Diavolo ou L'Hôtellerie de Terracine, opéra comique in three acts, first performance 28 January 1830, Théâtre Feydeau, Paris.

Libretto: Eugène Scribe

Ouverture

Orchestra: Nürnberg Symphonieorchester

Conductor: Hanspeter Gmur

 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Daniel-Francois-Esprit  Auber
 
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
 

I Capuleti e i Montecchi (The Capulets and the Montagues) is an Italian opera (Tragedia lirica) in two acts by Bellini Vincenzo.

 
The libretto by Felice Romani was a reworking of the story of Romeo and Juliet for an opera by Nicola Vaccai called Giulietta e Romeo and based on the play of the same name by Luigi Scevola written in 1818, thus an Italian source rather than taken directly from William Shakespeare.

Behind the libretto stand many Italian, ultimately Renaissance sources created by Matteo Bandello, and probably through their French translations by François de Belleforest and Pierre Boaistuau, rather than Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet.

The theme was very popular in Italy: there were earlier libretti by Luzzi for Marescalchi (1785, Venice), Foppa for Zingarelli (1796, Milan), and Buonaiuti for Pietro Carlo Guglielmi (1810, London).

The first Italian libretto explicitly based on Shakespeare’s play did not appear until 1865; it was by M. M. Marcello, for Filippo Marchetti’s Romeo e Giulietta given in Trieste.

Bellini was persuaded to write the opera for the 1830 Carnival season at the Teatro La Fenice in Venice, with only a month and a half available for composition.
He succeeded by appropriating a large amount of music previously written for his unsuccessful opera Zaira.
The first performance of I Capuleti e i Montecchi took place on 11 March 1830.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Francesco Hayez, Romeo and Juliet's last kiss
 
 
 
 
Bellini: Netrebko & Garanca in I Capuleti e i Montecchi
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Vincenzo Bellini
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Bulow Hans
 

Baron Hans Guido von Bulow (January 8, 1830 – February 12, 1894) was a German conductor, virtuoso pianist, and composer of the Romantic era. One of the most famous conductors of the 19th century, his activity was critical for establishing the successes of several major composers of the time, especially Richard Wagner and Johannes Brahms. Along with Carl Tausig, Bülow was perhaps the most prominent of the early students of Hungarian virtuoso pianist, conductor and composer Franz Liszt. He became acquainted with and eventually married Liszt's daughter Cosima, who later left him for Wagner. Noted for his interpretation of the works of Ludwig van Beethoven, he was one of the earliest European musicians to tour the United States.

 

Baron Hans Guido von Bulow
  Biography
Bülow was born in Dresden, to members of the prominent Bülow family. From the age of nine he was a student of Friedrich Wieck (the father of Clara Schumann). However, his parents insisted that he study law instead of music, and sent him to Leipzig. There he met Franz Liszt, and on hearing some music of Richard Wagner—specifically, the premiere of Lohengrin in 1850—he decided to ignore the dictates of his parents and make himself a career in music instead. He studied the piano in Leipzig with the famous pedagogue Louis Plaidy. He obtained his first conducting job in Zurich, on Wagner's recommendation, in 1850.

Bülow had a strongly acerbic personality and a loose tongue; this alienated many musicians he worked with. He was dismissed from his Zurich job for this reason, but at the same time he was beginning to win renown for his ability to conduct new and complex works without a score. In 1851, he became a student of Liszt, marrying his daughter Cosima in 1857. They had two daughters: Daniela, born in 1860 and Blandina, born in 1863. During the 1850s and early 1860s he was active as a pianist, conductor, and writer, and became well known throughout Germany as well as Russia. In 1857, he premiered Liszt's great Piano Sonata in B minor in Berlin.

In 1864 he became the Hofkapellmeister in Munich, and it was at this post he achieved his principal renown. He conducted the premieres of two Wagner operas, Tristan und Isolde and Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, in 1865 and 1868 respectively; both were immensely successful. Meanwhile however, Cosima had been carrying on an affair with Richard Wagner and gave birth to his daughter Isolde in 1865.

 
 
Two years later, they had another daughter, Eva. Although Cosima and Wagner's affair was now open knowledge, Bülow still refused to grant his wife a divorce. Finally, she gave birth to one final child, a son Siegfried and it was only then that the conductor at last relented. Their divorce was finalized in 1870, after which Cosima and Wagner married. Bülow never spoke to Wagner again and he did not see his former wife for 11 years afterwards, although he apparently continued to respect the composer on a professional level, as he still conducted his works and mourned Wagner's death in 1883.
 
 
In 1867 Bülow became director of the newly reopened Königliche Musikschule in Munich. He taught piano there in the manner of Liszt. He remained as director of the Conservatory until 1869.

In addition to championing the music of Wagner, Bülow was a supporter of the music of both Brahms and Tchaikovsky. He was the soloist in the world premiere of the Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto No. 1 in B flat minor in Boston in 1875. He was also a devotee of Frédéric Chopin's music; he came up with epithets for all of Chopin's Opus 28 Preludes, but these have generally fallen into disuse. On the other hand, the Db Major Prelude No. 15 is widely known by his title, the "Raindrop." (The complete list of titles is given in Schonberg 1987, pp. 136-37).

He was the first to perform the complete cycle of Beethoven's piano sonatas, which he did from memory, and he also produced a scholarly edition of the sonatas which is still in print.

From 1878 to 1880 he was Hofkapellmeister in Hanover but was forced to leave after fighting with a tenor singing the "Knight of the Swan [Schwan]" role in Lohengrin; Bülow had called him the "Knight of the Swine [Schwein]". In 1880 he moved to Meiningen where he took the equivalent post, and where he built the orchestra into one of the finest in Germany; among his other demands, he insisted that the musicians learn to play all their parts from memory. It was during his five years in Meiningen that he met Richard Strauss (though the meeting actually took place in Berlin).

  His first opinion of the young composer was not favorable, but he changed his mind when he was confronted with a sample of Strauss's "Serenade". Later on, he used his influence to give Strauss his first regular employment as a conductor. Like Strauss, Bülow was attracted to the ideas of Max Stirner, whom he reputedly had known personally. In April 1892 Bülow closed his final performance with the Berlin Philharmonic (where he had been serving as Principal Conductor since 1887) with a speech "exalting" the ideas of Stirner. Together with John Henry Mackay, Stirner's biographer, he placed a memorial plaque at Stirner's last residence in Berlin.

Some of his orchestral innovations included the addition of the five-string bass and the pedal timpani; the pedal timpani have since become standard instruments in the symphony orchestra. His accurate, sensitive, and profoundly musical interpretations established him as the prototype of the virtuoso conductors who flourished at a later date. He was also an astute and witty musical journalist.

In the late 1880s he settled in Hamburg, but continued to tour, both conducting and performing on the piano.

Bülow suffered from chronic neuralgiforme headaches, which were caused by a tumor of the cervical radicular nerves. After about 1890 his mental and physical health began to fail, and he sought a warmer, drier climate for recovery; he died in a hotel in Cairo, Egypt at the age of 64, only ten months after his final concert performance.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
 
Anna Bolena is a tragedia lirica, or opera, in two acts by Donizetti Gaetano. Felice Romani wrote the Italian libretto after Ippolito Pindemonte's Enrico VIII ossia Anna Bolena and Alessandro Pepoli's Anna Bolena, both recounting the life of Anne Boleyn, the second wife of England's King Henry VIII.
 

Anna Bolena
 
King Henry VIII
 
 
It is one of four operas by Donizetti dealing with the Tudor period in English history—in composition order, Il castello di Kenilworth (1829), Anna Bolena (1830), Maria Stuarda (named for Mary, Queen of Scots, it appeared in different forms in 1834 and 1835), and Roberto Devereux (1837, named for a putative lover of Queen Elizabeth I of England). The leading female characters of the latter three operas are often referred to as "the Three Donizetti Queens."

The duet "Sul suo capo aggravi un Dio" between Anna (soprano) and Jane Seymour (mezzo soprano), who later became Henry VIII's third wife, is considered one of the finest in the entire operatic repertoire.

Anna Bolena premiered on 26 December 1830 at the Teatro Carcano in Milan, to "overwhelming success." Weinstock notes that only after this success did Donizetti's teacher, Johann Simon Mayr, "address his former pupil as Maestro." The composer had begun "to emerge as one of three most luminous names in the world of Italian opera", alongside Bellini and Rossini.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
 
"ANNA BOLENA"-Anna Netrebko-Elina Garanca-Atto 2-Vienna 5.4.2011
 
Donizetti "ANNA BOLENA" live Wiener Staatsoper 5.4.2011 / Anna Bolena, Anna Netrebko / Giovanna Seymour, Elina Garanca
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Gaetaho Donizetti
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Goldmark Karl
 

Karl Goldmark, also known originally as Károly Goldmark (Hungarian: Goldmark Károly) and later sometimes as Carl Goldmark; May 18, 1830, Keszthely – January 2, 1915, Vienna) was a Hungarian composer.

 

Karl Goldmark
  Life and career
Goldmark came from a large Jewish family, one of 20 children. His father, Ruben Goldmark, was a chazan to the Jewish congregation at Keszthely, Hungary. Karl Goldmark's older brother Joseph Goldmark became a physician and was later involved in the Revolution of 1848, and forced to emigrate to the United States. Karl Goldmark's early training as a violinist was at the musical academy of Sopron (1842–44). He continued his music studies there and two years later was sent by his father to Vienna, where he was able to study for some eighteen months with Leopold Jansa before his money ran out. He prepared himself for entry first to the Vienna Technische Hochschule and then to the Vienna Conservatory to study the violin with Joseph Böhm and harmony with Gottfried Preyer. The Revolution of 1848 forced the Conservatory to close down. He was largely self-taught as a composer. He supported himself in Vienna playing the violin in theatre orchestras, at the Carlstheater and the privately supported Viennese institution, the Theater in der Josefstadt, which gave him practical experience with orchestration, an art he more than mastered. He also gave lessons: Jean Sibelius studied with him briefly. Goldmark's first concert in Vienna (1858) met with hostility, and he returned to Budapest, returning to Vienna in 1860.

To make ends meet, Goldmark also pursued a side career as a music journalist. "His writing is distinctive for his even-handed promotion of both Brahms and Wagner, at a time when audiences (and most critics) were solidly in one composer's camp or the other and viewed those on the opposing side with undisguised hostility." (Liebermann 1997)

 
 
Johannes Brahms and Goldmark developed a friendship as Goldmark's prominence in Vienna grew. Goldmark, however would ultimately distance himself because of Brahms' prickly personality.

Among the musical influences Goldmark absorbed was the inescapable one, for a musical colorist, of Richard Wagner, whose anti-semitism stood in the way of any genuine warmth between them; in 1872 Goldmark took a prominent role in the formation of the Vienna Wagner Society. He was made an honorary member of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, received an honorary doctorate from the University of Budapest and shared with Richard Strauss an honorary membership in the Accademia di Santa Cecilia, Rome.

Goldmark's opera Die Königin von Saba ("The Queen of Sheba"), Op. 27 was celebrated during his lifetime and for some years thereafter. First performed in Vienna on 10 March 1875, the work proved so popular that it remained in the repertory of the Vienna Staatsoper continuously until 1938. He wrote six other operas as well.

 
 

Karl Goldmark
  The Rustic Wedding Symphony (Ländliche Hochzeit), Op. 26 (premiered 1876), a work that was kept in the repertory by Sir Thomas Beecham, includes five movements, like a suite composed of coloristic tone poems: a wedding march with variations depicting the wedding guests, a nuptial song, a serenade, a dialogue between the bride and groom in a garden, and a dance movement.

His Violin Concerto No. 1 in A minor, Op. 28, was once his most frequently played piece. The concerto had its premiere in Bremen in 1877, initially enjoyed great popularity and then slid into obscurity.

A very romantic work, it has a Magyar march in the first movement and passages reminiscent of Dvořák and Mendelssohn in the second and third movements.

It has started to re-enter the repertoire, through recordings by such prominent violin soloists as Itzhak Perlman and Joshua Bell. Nathan Milstein also championed the work and Milstein's recording of the Concerto (1963) is widely considered the definitive one. Goldmark wrote a second violin concerto, but it was never published.

A second symphony in E-flat, Op. 35, is much less well-known. (Goldmark also wrote an early symphony in C major, between roughly 1858 and 1860. This work was never given an opus number, and only the scherzo seems to have ever been published.)

Goldmark's chamber music, in which the influences of Schumann and Mendelssohn are paramount, although critically well received in his lifetime, is now rarely heard.

 
 
It includes the String Quintet in A minor Op. 9 that made his first reputation in Vienna, the Violin Sonata in D major Op. 25, two Piano Quintets in B-flat major, Op. 30 and C-sharp minor, Op. 54, the Cello Sonata Op. 39, and the work that first brought Goldmark's name into prominence in the Viennese musical world, the String Quartet in B-flat Op. 8 (his only work in that genre).

Goldmark also composed choral music, two Suites for Violin and Piano (in D major, Op. 11, and in E-flat major, Op. 43), and numerous concert overtures, such as the Sakuntala Overture Op. 13 (a work which cemented his fame after his String Quartet), the Penthesilea Overture Op. 31, the In the Spring Overture Op. 36, the Prometheus Bound Overture Op. 38, the Sappho Overture Op. 44, the In Italy Overture Op. 49, and the Aus jungendtagen Overture, Op. 53. Other orchestral works include the symphonic poem Zrínyi, Op. 47, and two orchestral scherzos, in E minor, Op. 19, and in A major, Op. 45.

Karl Goldmark's nephew Rubin Goldmark (1872–1936), a pupil of Dvořák, was also a composer, who spent his career in New York.

Goldmark died in Vienna and is buried in the Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery), along with many other notable composers.

Many of his autograph manuscripts are in the collection of the National Széchényi Library, with "G" catalogue numbers attached to various works (including those without opus number.)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
 
1. Movement "Allegro moderato"
Itzhak Perlman, violin
Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra
André Previn, conductor
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Karl Goldmark
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Leschetizky Teodor
 
Theodor Leschetizky (22 June 1830 – 14 November 1915) (Polish: Teodor Leszetycki) was a Polish pianist, professor and composer.
 

Theodor Leschetizky
  Life
Theodor Leschetizky was born on the estate of the family of Count Potocki in Lancut, Poland. His father was a gifted pianist and music teacher of Viennese birth. His mother, Therèse Von Ulmann, was a gifted singer of German origin. His father gave him his first piano lessons and then took him to Vienna to study with Carl Czerny. At age eleven, he performed a Czerny piano concerto in Lancut, with Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart, the son of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart conducting. At the age of fifteen he started to tutor his first pupils. By the age of eighteen he was a well-known virtuoso in Vienna and beyond. His composition teacher was Simon Sechter, who was an eminent professor, and who was the teacher of many other successful musicians.

At the invitation of his friend Anton Rubinstein, he went to St. Petersburg to teach in the court of the Grand Duchess Yelena Pavlovna. Remaining there from 1852 to 1877, he was head of the piano department and one of the founders of the St. Petersburg Conservatory of Music in 1862. While in Russia he married one of his most famous pupils, Anna Essipova, the second of his four wives, with whom he had two children, one of them was his daughter, the well known singer and teacher, Theresa, and the other was his son Robert .

 
 
In 1878 he returned to Vienna and began teaching there, creating one of the most eminent private piano schools in the world. He taught Paderewski, Schnabel, Bloomfield-Zeisler, Horzsowski, Brailowsky, Moisievitch, Goodson, Ney, Gabrilowitsch, Hambourg, Vengerova, and a host of many other wonderful pianists in his villa in the Wahring Cottage District on Karl Ludwigstraße,Vienna. See: List of music students by teacher: J to R#Theodor Leschetizky. Promising pianists flocked to him, coming from all over the world, wth a great many from the United States. He taught until the age of 85, leaving for Dresden in 1915, where he died on November 14 that year.

Leschetizky's motto: "No life without art, no art without life!"

 
 
Leschetizky's descendants
He was survived by a son, Robert (Dresden), whose family returned to Bad Ischl after his death. His descendants still live in Bad Ischl and there is a Leschetizky Villa at the Leschetizky Straβe, the summer resort where he often vacationed with his friend Johannes Brahms.

Leschetizky had a granddaughter, Ilse Leschetizky (1910–1997), who was a distinguished pianist and teacher. One of her daughters, Margret Tautschnig, continues the Leschetizky tradition with the Leschetizky Verein Ősterreich in Bad Ischl. This organisation was co-founded by the Belgian pianist Peter Ritzen.

  Leschetizky the composer
Leschetizky composed over a hundred characteristic piano pieces, two operas: Die Brüder von San Marco and Die Erste Falte, thirteen songs and a one-movement piano concerto. Opus numbers were given to 49 works.

Although his piano pieces are primarily smaller works in the salon music vein, they are expressively lyrical on the one hand while exploiting the piano's technical capabilities to great effect on the other. Most of his music has been out of print since the early twentieth century except for the Andante Finale, Op. 13 (a paraphrase for piano left hand on the famous sextet from the opera Lucia di Lammermoor by Donizetti); and Les deux alouettes, Op. 2, No. 1.

 
 
Leschetizky the teacher
His most important legacy is as the main teacher of numerous great pianists such as Ernesto Bérumen, Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler, Alexander Brailovsky, Annette Essipoff, Ignaz Friedman, Ossip Gabrilovic, Katherine Goodson, Mark Hambourg, Helen Hopekirk, Benno Moisevich, Ethel Leginska, Artur Schnabel, Elly Ney, Paul Wittgenstein, Mieczyslaw Horszowski and many others.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Remenyi Eduard
 

Ede Reményi or Eduard Reményi (Hungarian name order: Reményi Ede) (January 17, 1828 – May 15, 1898) was a Hungarian violinist and composer. His birth date is disputed, and variously given from 1828-1830.

 

Ede Reményi and Johannes Brahms (1852)
  Biography
Reményi was born in Miskolc, Hungary, as Eduard Hoffmann. He studied under Joseph Böhm at the Vienna Conservatory from 1842 to 1845.
Banished from Austria for participation in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, he went to Germany, where he befriended the 15-year-old Johannes Brahms and introduced him to Hungarian music. Pursued by German authorities, he fled to the United States in December, 1849.

He returned to Europe in 1852, toured with Brahms in 1853, and then sojourned for a time at Weimar, where he received the benefit of Franz Liszt's instruction and friendship. In 1854 he became solo violinist to Britain's Queen Victoria. He obtained his amnesty in 1860 and returned to Hungary, being soon afterward appointed soloist to Emperor Franz Joseph. He then retired for some years.

In 1865 he made a brilliant tour through France, Germany, Belgium, and Holland. From 1871 to 1877 he was in Paris, whence two years later he proceeded to London and then to the United States (where he took up residence), Canada, and Mexico. A concert tour round the world was undertaken by him in 1886, in the course of which he visited Japan, China, Cochinchina, and the Cape of Good Hope.

He died during a concert he was giving in San Francisco in 1898, aged 70.

 
 
Reményi made numerous transcriptions of piano pieces such as Chopin's waltzes, polonaises, and mazurkas, and pieces by Bach, Schubert, and others, all of which were published under the title of Nouvelle École du Violon. His best original composition is his Violin Concerto.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1830 Part III NEXT-1830 Part V