Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1830 Part II NEXT-1830 Part IV    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1830 Part III
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Bentham Jeremy: "Constitutional Code for all Nations"
 
 
see also: Jeremy Bentham
 
 
     
  IDEAS that Changed the World

Myths and Legends
History of Religion
History of Philosophy
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
 
Rural Rides is the book for which the English journalist, agriculturist and political reformer Cobbett William is best known.
 
At the time of writing in the early 1820s, Cobbett was a radical anti-Corn Law campaigner, newly returned to England from a spell of self-imposed political exile in the United States.

Cobbett disapproved of proposals for remedies for agricultural distress suggested in Parliament in 1821. He made up his mind to see rural conditions for himself, and to "enforce by actual observation of rural conditions", the statements he had made in answer to the arguments of the landlords before the Parliamentary Agricultural Committee. He embarked on a series of journeys by horseback through the countryside of Southeast England and the English Midlands. He wrote down what he saw from the points of view both of a farmer and a social reformer. The result documents the early nineteenth century countryside and its people as well as giving free vent to Cobbett's opinions.

He first published his observations in serial form in the Political Register, running from 1822 to 1826. They were first published in book form in two volumes in 1830.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Coulanges Numa Denis
 
Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges, (born March 18, 1830, Paris, France—died Sept. 12, 1889, Massy), French historian, the originator of the scientific approach to the study of history in France.
 

Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges
  After studying at the École Normale Supérieure, he was sent to the French school at Athens in 1853 and directed some excavations at Chios. From 1860 to 1870 he was professor of history at the faculty of letters at the University of Strasbourg, where he had a brilliant career as a teacher. His subsequent appointments included a lectureship at the École Normale Supérieure in February 1870, a professorship at the University of Paris faculty of letters in 1875, the chair of medieval history at the Sorbonne in 1878, and the directorship of the École Normale in 1880.
Fustel’s historical thought had two main tenets: the importance of complete objectivity and the unreliability of secondary sources. By his teaching and example he thus established the modern idea of historical impartiality at a time when few people had any qualms about combining the careers of historian and politician. His insistence on the use of contemporary documents led to the very full use of the French national archives in the 19th century. Fustel, however, was no paleographer, and his fondness for manuscript sources was occasionally responsible for major errors of judgment.

Apart from La Cité antique (1864; “The Ancient City”), a study of the part played by religion in the political and social evolution of Greece and Rome, most of Fustel’s work was related to the study of the political institutions of Roman Gaul and the Germanic invasions of the Roman empire.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1830
 
 
The religious society of Mormons or Latter-day Saints, founded by Joseph Smith and his friends at Fayette,
N.Y.
 
 
Smith Joseph
 

Joseph Smith, originally Joseph Smith, Jr. (born Dec. 23, 1805, Sharon, Vt., U.S.—died June 27, 1844, Carthage, Ill.), Mormon prophet and founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

 

Joseph Smith
  Early years
Smith came from an unremarkable New England family. His grandfather, Asael Smith, lost most of his property in Topsfield, Mass., during the economic downturn of the 1780s and eventually moved to Vermont, where Smith’s father, Joseph Smith, Sr., established himself as a farmer. After the birth of Joseph Smith, Jr., a series of crop failures forced the family to move to Palmyra, N.Y. His mother, Lucy Mack, came from a Connecticut family that had disengaged from conventional Congregationalism and leaned toward Seekerism, a movement that looked for a new revelation to restore true Christianity. Although privately religious, the family rarely attended church, and after they moved to Palmyra they became involved in magic and treasure-seeking. Lucy Smith attended Presbyterian meetings, but her husband refused to accompany her, and Joseph, Jr., remained at home with his father. Religious differences within the family and over religious revivals in the Palmyra area left Smith perplexed about where to find a church. When he was 14, he prayed for help, and, according to his own account, God and Jesus Christ appeared to him. In answer to his question about which was the right church, they told him that all the churches were wrong. Although a local minister to whom he related the vision dismissed it as a delusion, Smith continued to believe in its authenticity. In 1823 he received another revelation: while praying for forgiveness, he later reported, an angel calling himself Moroni appeared in his bedroom and told him about a set of golden plates containing a record of the ancient inhabitants of America.
 
 
Smith found the plates buried in a stone box not far from his father’s farm. Four years later, the angel permitted him to remove the plates and instructed him to translate the characters engraved on their surfaces with the aid of special stones called “interpreters.” Smith insisted that he did not compose the book but merely “translated” it under divine guidance. Completing the work in less than 90 days, he published it in March 1830 as a 588-page volume called the Book of Mormon.

The Book of Mormon told the 1,000-year history of the Israelites, who were led from Jerusalem to a promised land in the Western Hemisphere. In their new home, they built a civilization, fought wars, heard the word of prophets, and received a visit from Christ after his resurrection. The book resembled the Bible in its length and complexity and in its division into books named for individual prophets. According to the book itself, one of the prophets, a general named Mormon, abridged and assembled the records of his people, engraving the history on gold plates. Later, about 400 ce, the record keepers, known as Nephites, were wiped out by their enemies, the Lamanites, presumably the ancestors of the American Indians.

 
 

Smith said he received golden plates from the angel Moroni at the Hill Cumorah
 
 
Emergence of the church

Establishment of settlements and persecution

On April 6, 1830, Smith organized a few dozen believers into a church. From then on, his great project was to gather people into settlements, called “cities of Zion,” where they would find refuge from the calamities of the last days. Male converts were ordained and sent out to make more converts, a missionary program that resulted in tens of thousands of conversions by the end of Smith’s life. Members of the church, known as Saints, gathered first at Independence, Mo., on the western edge of American settlement. When other settlers found their presence intolerable, the Saints were forced to move to other counties in the state. Meanwhile, Smith moved his family to another gathering place in Kirtland, Ohio, near Cleveland.

None of these communities survived, however, because the Mormons were expelled as soon as their increasing numbers threatened to give them political control of the towns in which they settled.

  Non-Mormons tolerated a handful of “religious fanatics” in their midst but found dominance by the Mormons to be unbearable. Smith fled Kirtland for Far West, Mo., in 1838, but opposition arose once more.

In 1838, facing expulsion for a third time, Smith tried to defend the church with arms. In response, local Missourians rose up in wrath, and the governor ordered that the Mormons be driven out of the state or, where that was not possible, exterminated. In November 1838 Smith was imprisoned on charges of robbery, arson, and treason, and he probably would have been executed had he not escaped and fled to Illinois.

The Mormons came together in the nearly abandoned town of Commerce on the Illinois side of the Mississippi River. Renaming the site Nauvoo (a Hebrew word meaning “Beautiful Place”), Smith built his most successful settlement, complete with a temple (finished only after Smith’s death) on a bluff overlooking the town. Attracting converts from Europe as well as the United States, Nauvoo grew to rival Chicago as the largest city in the state.

 
 
Teachings
Mormons believed that Smith’s actions were directed by revelation. When questions arose, he would call upon God and dictate words in the voice of the Lord. Sometimes the revelations gave practical instructions; others explained the nature of heaven or the responsibilities of the priesthood. All Smith’s revelations were carefully recorded and preserved. In 1835 Smith published the first 65 revelations in a volume titled the Book of Commandments, later called the Doctrine and Covenants. While believing the Bible, like all Christians, Smith broke its monopoly on the word of God. The Book of Mormon and the Doctrine and Covenants were added to the canon of scripture, and Smith spoke as if more revelations and translations would accumulate in the future.
Smith’s teachings departed from conventional Christian traditions by incorporating certain practices from the Hebrew Bible. The temples he built (in Smith’s lifetime, two were erected and two more were planned) were modeled on the temples of ancient Israel. He appointed his male followers to priesthoods, named for the biblical figures Melchizedek and Aaron, that were overseen by the office of High Priest.
 
A mob tarred and feathered Smith in 1832
 
 
In the temples, he instituted rituals of washing and anointing taken from instructions in Exodus for consecrating priests. Justifying the practice of polygamy by reference to the precedent of Abraham, the first of the Hebrew patriarchs, Smith was “sealed” (the ceremony that binds men and women in marriage for eternity) to about 30 wives, though no known children came from these unions. As in the Bible, men took the leading roles in church affairs, but by the end of his life Smith taught that men and women were redeemed together through eternal marriage. At the heart of his teachings was a confidence in the spiritual potential of common people. He believed that every man could be a priest and that everyone had in him the possibility of the divine. The purpose of the temple rituals was to give people the knowledge they needed to enter God’s presence and to become like God.
 
 
Character and final years
Smith was not a polished preacher. It was the originality of his views, an outsider commented, that made his discourse fascinating. Absolutely resolute in all of his projects, he never became discouraged, even under the most trying circumstances. Nor did people of higher social standing intimidate him; he appeared to think of himself as the equal of anyone, as demonstrated when he ran for president of the United States in 1844.

He married Emma Hale in 1827, when he was 21 years old and she 22. The couple adopted twins and had nine of their own children, five of whom died in infancy. Their devotion to each other was sorely tried by the practice of polygamy. Emma believed in her husband’s calling but could not abide additional wives. She remained faithful to him to the end, however, and after his death wore a lock of his hair on her person.

 
Depiction of Smith at head of the Nauvoo Legion
 
 
When Mormon dissenters published a reform newspaper in Nauvoo that Smith felt disturbed the peace, he ordered it suppressed. Meanwhile, non-Mormon hostility in the surrounding county had been growing for the usual reasons, and when the press was closed, irate local citizens brought charges of promoting riot against Smith and his brother Hyrum. The two were taken to Carthage, the county seat, for a hearing, and while imprisoned they were shot by a mob on June 27, 1844. The leadership of the church then fell to Brigham Young, who dedicated himself to perpetuating Smith’s teachings and program. After the Mormons left Nauvoo in 1846, they migrated to Utah, where they constructed Salt Lake City on a pattern laid down by Joseph Smith for the cities of Zion.

Richard L. Bushman

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 

A 19th-century painting depicting the mob attack inside Carthage Jail
 
 
 
Mormon
 

Mormon, member of any of several denominations that trace their origins to a religion founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. (1805–1844), in the United States in 1830. The term Mormon, often used to refer to members of these churches, comes from the Book of Mormon, which was published by Smith in 1830. Now an international movement, Mormonism is characterized by a unique understanding of the Godhead, emphasis on family life, belief in continuing revelation, desire for order, respect for authority, and missionary work. Mormons also obey strict prohibitions on alcohol, tobacco, coffee, and tea and promote education and a vigorous work ethic.

 
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the principal formal body embracing Mormonism, is headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, and had more than 11 million members by the early 21st century. About 50 percent of the church’s members live in the United States and the rest in Latin America, Canada, Europe, Africa, the Philippines, and parts of Oceania. The next largest Mormon denomination, the Community of Christ (until 2001 the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), is headquartered in Independence, Missouri, and had a membership of approximately 250,000 in the early 21st century.
 
 

Smith was held for four months in Liberty jail
 
 
History
In western New York state in 1823, Smith had a vision in which an angel named Moroni told him about engraved golden plates buried in a nearby hill. According to Smith, he received subsequent instruction from Moroni and, four years later, excavated these plates and translated them into English. The resultant Book of Mormon—so called after an ancient American prophet who, according to Smith, had compiled the text recorded on the plates—recounts the history of a family of Israelites that migrated to America centuries before Jesus Christ and were taught by prophets similar to those in the Old Testament. The religion Smith founded originated amid the great fervour of competing Christian revivalist movements in early 19th-century America but departed from them in its proclamation of a new dispensation. Through Smith, God had restored the “true church”—i.e., the primitive Christian church—and had reasserted the true faith from which the various Christian churches had strayed.

The new church was millennialist, believing in the imminent Second Coming of Christ and his establishment of a 1,000-year reign of peace. This belief inspired Smith’s desire to establish Zion, the kingdom of God, which was to be built somewhere in the western United States. He received revelations, not only of theological truth but also day-to-day practical guidance. The Mormons devised new secular institutions, including collective ownership (later changed to a system of tithing) and polygamy, which was practiced by Smith himself and by most leading Mormons in the church’s early years.

Soon after the church’s founding, Smith and the bulk of the members moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where a prominent preacher, Sidney Rigdon, and his following had embraced Mormonism. In Jackson county, Missouri, where it was revealed that Zion was to be established, Smith instituted a communalistic United Order of Enoch. But strife with non-Mormons in the area led to killings and the burning of Mormon property. Tensions between Mormons and local slave-owning Missourians, who viewed them as religious fanatics and possible abolitionists, escalated to armed skirmishes that forced 15,000 Mormons to leave Missouri for Illinois in 1839, where Smith built a new city, Nauvoo. There the Mormons’ commercial success and growing political power once again provoked renewed hostility from their non-Mormon neighbours. Smith’s suppression of some dissidents among the Nauvoo Mormons in 1844 intensified non-Mormon resentment and furnished grounds for his arrest.
Smith and his brother Hyrum were murdered by a mob while both were in jail in Carthage, near Nauvoo, on June 27, 1844.

  After Smith’s unexpected death, the government of the church was left in the hands of the Council of the Twelve Apostles, whose senior member was Brigham Young. Ignoring several claimants to the church leadership, the majority of Mormons supported Young, who became the church’s second president. Increasing mob violence, however, made the Mormons’ continued presence in Nauvoo untenable, and Young thus led a mass 1,100-mile (1,800-km) migration to Utah in 1846–47. There the Mormons hoped to establish a commonwealth where they could practice their religion without persecution. Envisioning a new state that he called Deseret, Young helped to establish more than 300 communities in Utah and neighbouring territories. To build the population, he sent missionaries across North America and into Europe. Converts were urged to migrate to the new land, and it is estimated that about 80,000 Mormon pioneers traveling by wagon, by handcart, or on foot had reached Salt Lake City by 1869, when the arrival of the railroads made the journey much easier.

Despite the obstacles presented by the desert area of the Great Basin, the pioneers made steady progress in farming, partly through their innovative methods of irrigation. Their petition for statehood in 1849 was denied by the U.S. government, which instead organized the area as a territory, with Young as its first governor. Future efforts to gain statehood were blocked by the announcement in 1852 of the church’s belief in polygamy, a practice that had begun quietly among the church leaders during the Nauvoo period. Conflicts between Young and federal officials over this practice and over Mormon attempts to establish a theocratic government continued during the 1850s. Tensions increased following the 1857 Mountain Meadows massacre, in which a group of Mormons killed members of a wagon train passing through the region.

In response to the conflicts with federal officials, U.S. Pres. James Buchanan dispatched a military expedition to Utah to suppress the Mormon “rebellion” and to impose a non-Mormon governor, Alfred Cummings, on the territory. Fearing that the purpose of the expedition was to persecute the Mormons, Young called on the Utah militia to prepare to defend the territory. A negotiated settlement was reached in 1858, and Cummings, the new governor, eventually became popular with the Mormons. Although the abortive military episode, later known as “Buchanan’s blunder,” aroused widespread public sympathy for the Mormons, it succeeded in ending direct Mormon control of Utah’s territorial government.

After his death in 1877, Young was succeeded by John Taylor, the senior member of the Council of the Twelve Apostles. During Taylor’s presidency, the U.S. government intensified its campaign against polygamy.

 
 
In 1890 Taylor’s successor, Wilford Woodruff, announced the church’s abandonment of the practice in order to conform with U.S. law, and in 1896 the territory of Utah was admitted into the union as the 45th state. However, Woodruff’s pronouncement, the“Manifesto,” forbade polygamy only in the United States, and for a decade or so it continued in Mexico and other places outside the U.S. government’s jurisdiction.

In the history of Mormonism, more than 150 different independent groups have formed to follow new prophets, to defend polygamy, or to continue other practices that were discarded by the mainstream Mormon churches. An important minority of Mormons, for example, rejected Young’s leadership and remained in the Midwest. The largest of these groups, which gained the cooperation of Smith’s widow Emma and his son Joseph Smith III, formed the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (now known as the Community of Christ) in 1852–60. The Reorganized Church eventually settled in Independence, Missouri, which Smith had designated as the location of Zion.

Many smaller splinter groups also arose after Smith’s death. One faction moved to Independence and purchased the so-called Temple Lot, the site chosen by Smith for the new temple. The possession of this valued property embittered relations with the Reorganized Church, whose headquarters were on land immediately to the south.
 
 
Other factions that rejected Young’s leadership also appeared. Rigdon led one, and Apostle Lyman Wight took another to Texas. David Whitmer and Martin Harris, two early converts who, along with Joseph Smith, testified that they saw the golden plates and the angel Moroni, eventually set up a church in Kirtland. In 1847 James Jesse Strang established a polygamous community of about 3,000 people on Beaver Island in Lake Michigan whose members became known as Strangites.

Among the most significant of Latter-day Saints factions to emerge in the 20th century were groups that practice polygamy. The first such colony was established at Short Creek (now Colorado City), just south of the Utah border in northwestern Arizona, in 1902, shortly after the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints imposed excommunication as the penalty for entering into or officiating over a plural marriage; additional colonies were later founded in Mexico and Salt Lake City. Church and federal authorities have attempted to stamp out the polygamy-practicing groups, which nevertheless claim a membership of more than 30,000.

  Scriptures
The Community of Christ uses Smith’s unfinished translation of the Bible, which incorporates prophecies of his own coming and of the Book of Mormon. The church in Utah, however, prefers the King James Version. Of great importance to all Latter-day Saints is the Book of Mormon, which recounts the history of a group of Hebrews, led by the prophet Lehi, who migrated from Jerusalem to America about 600 bce. There they multiplied and split into two groups: the virtuous Nephites, who prospered for a time, and the hostile Lamanites, who eventually exterminated the Nephites.

Other revealed writings, including Smith’s translation of “Egyptian” texts that he declared to be the Book of Abraham, were incorporated into the Pearl of Great Price. The Doctrines and Covenants contains Smith’s ongoing revelations through 1844. The editions of the Utah church and of the Community of Christ add the revelations of their respective church presidents (who, like Smith, are regarded as prophets). The Community of Christ’s version of the Doctrines and Covenants omits several of Smith’s revelations that appear in the Utah edition.

 
 
Doctrines
Mormon beliefs are in some ways similar to those of orthodox Christian churches but also diverge markedly. The doctrinal statement, the Articles of Faith, for example, affirms the belief in God, the eternal Father, in his Son, Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Spirit. But the three are considered to be distinct entities (a doctrine known as tritheism) rather than united in a single person in the Trinity.

Although Mormons believe that Christ came to earth so that all might be saved and raised from the dead, they maintain that a person’s future is determined by his own actions as well as by the grace of God. They also stress faith, repentance, and acceptance of the ordinances of the church, including baptism by immersion and laying on of hands for the gifts of the Holy Ghost. Mormons administer the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper as a memorial of Christ’s death.

Mormons believe that faithful members of the church may receive God’s fullness and thus become gods themselves. Everyone who ever lived, save for a few who reject God having known his power, will receive some degree of glory in the afterlife.

At Christ’s return to earth, he will establish a millennial kingdom. After the millennium, the earth will become a celestial sphere and the inheritance of the righteous. Others will be assigned to lesser kingdoms named terrestrial and “telestial.”

Mormons regard Christian churches as apostate for lacking revelation and an authoritative priesthood, although they are thought to be positive institutions in other respects. Smith, they believe, came to restore the institutions of the early Christian church.

Although calling people to repent, Smith’s creed reflected contemporary American optimism in its emphasis on humanity’s inherent goodness and limitless potential for progress.

  Institutions and practices
The Utah branch of Mormonism dissolves the distinctions between the priesthood and the laity. At age 12, all worthy males (a category which until 1978 generally did not include black men) become deacons in the Aaronic priesthood; they become teachers at age 14 and priests at age 16. About two years later they may enter the Melchizedek priesthood as elders, and thereafter they may enter the upper ranks of the church priesthood hierarchy. In addition to service in the priesthood, many Mormons accept the call to missionary work. Young men, generally between the ages of 18 and 21, undertake a 24-month proselytizing mission, as do young women of age 19 and older. Many older married couples serve as missionaries for 18 months. This missionary work helped to make Mormonism one of the fastest-growing religions in the world.

Baptism, a rite signifying repentance and obedience, is understood as essential for salvation. Baptism is administered to children at age eight and to adult converts and may be undertaken by proxy for those who died without knowledge of the truth. The Mormons’ interest in genealogy proceeds from their concern to save the deceased population of the earth; meticulous genealogical information is compiled in order to identify candidates for baptism by proxy. In 2010, after complaints from some Jewish groups, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints changed its procedure for collecting genealogical information, in order to prevent the names of Jews who had died during the Holocaust from being proposed for baptism by proxy.

Baptism for the dead, endowment (a rite of adult initiation in which blessings and knowledge are imparted to the initiate), and the sealing of husbands, wives, and children (which may also be undertaken by proxy for the dead) are essential ceremonies that take place in the temple. During the endowment, the person is ritually washed, anointed with oil, and dressed in temple garments. This is followed by a dramatic performance of the story of creation, the Fall, and the return of God.

 
 
Structure of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The “General Authorities” of the church are the First Presidency (the church president and two councillors), the Council of the Twelve Apostles, the First Quorum of Seventy, and the presiding bishop and two councillors, who manage the church’s property and welfare programs. All are “sustained in office” by the regular and now ritualized vote of confidence at the semiannual General Conference, which is open to all Mormons and to outside observers as well. Until the year 2000, conferences were held in the dome-shaped tabernacle east of the temple in Salt Lake City. Constructed between 1864 and 1867, the tabernacle was unable to accommodate conference attendance as well as the new LDS Conference Center, which has a capacity of 22,000.
At the local level, members of the church are divided into “stakes” of 4,000 to 5,000 members under stake presidents and into wards, each of a few hundred members, under a bishop. The religious life of each member is focused on the ward, through which religious, economic, and social activities, tithing, and the operation of the church’s elaborate welfare plan are organized.

Community of Christ
The Community of Christ, which was known as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints until 2001, holds less firmly to the Book of Mormon than its sister church and rejects various teachings, especially baptism on behalf of the dead and tithing.

 
A depiction of Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery receiving priesthood authority from John the Baptist
 
 
It never practiced polygamy or sealing for the afterlife. It does not perform temple ceremonies at the Kirtland, Ohio, temple, which it owns, or at the temple in Independence. The office of church president was for many years passed to lineal descendants of Joseph Smith III. With the end of the presidency of Wallace B. Smith in 1996, however, no Smith descendant was available to take the reins of leadership. In that year, the church’s World Conference chose W. Grant McMurray as its new president.

John Gordon Melton

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1830
 
 
Pope Pius VIII d.
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Honore de Balzac (Balzac) states his intention to group together approx. 40 novels; beginnings of
"La Comedie humaine"
 
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
 
La Comédie humaine The Human Comedy) is the title of Honoré de Balzac's (Balzac) multi-volume collection of interlinked novels and stories depicting French society in the period of the Restoration and the July Monarchy (1815–1848).
 

The Comédie humaine consists of 91 finished works (stories, novels or analytical essays) and 46 unfinished works (some of which exist only as titles). It does not include Balzac's 5 theatrical plays or his collection of humorous tales, the "Contes drolatiques" (1832–37). The title of the series is usually considered an allusion to Dante's Divine Comedy; while Ferdinand Brunetière, the famous French literary critic, suggests that it may stem from poems by Alfred de Musset or Alfred de Vigny. While Balzac sought the comprehensive scope of Dante, his title indicates the worldly, human concerns of a realist novelist. The stories are placed in a variety of settings, with characters reappearing in multiple stories.

 
 

1901 edition of The Works of Honoré de Balzac, including the entire Comédie humaine
 
 
Evolution of the work
The Comédie humaine was the result of a slow evolution. The first works of Balzac were written without any global plan ("Les Chouans" is a historical novel; "Physiologie du mariage" is an analytical study of marriage), but by 1830 Balzac began to group his first novels (Sarrasine, Gobseck) into a series entitled "Scènes de la vie privée" ("Scenes from Private Life").

In 1833, with the publication of Eugénie Grandet, Balzac envisioned a second series entitled "Scènes de la vie de province" (Scenes from Provincial Life). Most likely in this same year Balzac came upon the idea of having characters reappear from novel to novel, and the first novel to use this technique was Le Père Goriot (1834-5).

In a letter written to Madame Hanska in 1834, Balzac decided to reorganize his works into three larger groups, allowing him (1) to integrate his "La physiologie du mariage" into the ensemble and (2) to separate his most fantastic or metaphysical stories — like La Peau de chagrin (1831) and Louis Lambert (1832) — into their own "philosophical" section. The three sections were:

-Etudes de Moeurs au XIXe siècle (Studies of Manners in the 19th Century) - including the various "Scènes de la vie..."
-Etudes philosophiques
-Etudes analytiques - including the "Physiologie du mariage"

In this letter, Balzac went on to say that the "Etudes de Moeurs" would study the effects of society and touch on all genders, social classes, ages and professions of people. Meanwhile, the "Etudes philosophiques" would study the causes of these effects. Finally, the third "analytical" section would study the principles behind these phenomena.

  Balzac also explained that while the characters in the first section would be "individualités typisées" ("individuals made into types"), the characters of the "Etudes philosophiques" would be "types individualisés" (types made into individuals").

By 1836, the "Etudes de Moeurs" was already divided into six parts:

"Scènes de la vie privée"
"Scènes de la vie de province"
"Scènes de la vie parisienne"
"Scènes de la vie politique
"Scènes de la vie militaire"
"Scènes de la vie de campagne"


In 1839, in a letter to his publisher, Balzac mentioned for the first time the expression Comédie humaine, and this title is in the contract he signed in 1841. The publication of the Comédie humaine in 1842 was preceded by an important preface or "avant-propos" describing his major principles and the work's overall structure. For this edition, novels which had appeared in serial form were stricken of their chapter titles.

Balzac's intended collection was never finished. In 1845, Balzac wrote a complete catalogue of the ensemble which includes works he started or envisioned but never finished. In some cases, Balzac moved a work around between different sections as his overall plan developed; the catalogue given below represents that last version of that process.

Balzac's works were slow to be translated into English because they were perceived as unsuitable for female readers. Individual works appeared, but not until the 1890s did "complete" versions appear, from Ellen Marriage in London (1895-8, forty volumes edited by George Saintsbury, five omitted as too shocking) and from G. B. Ives and others in Philadelphia (1895-1900).

 
 
The "Avant-propos"
In 1842, Balzac wrote a preface (an "Avant-propos") to the whole ensemble in which he explained his method and the collection's structure.

Motivated by the work of biologists Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, Georges Cuvier and most importantly Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Balzac explains that he seeks to understand "social species" in the way a biologist would analyse "zoological species", and to accomplish this he intends to describe the interrelations of men, women and things. The importance of the woman is underlined by Balzac's contention that, while a biologist may gloss over the differences between a male and female lion, "in Society the woman is not simply the female of the man".

Balzac then gives an extensive list of writers and works that influenced him, including Sir Walter Scott, François Rabelais and Miguel de Cervantes.

He then describes his writer's role as a "secretary" who is transcribing society's "history"; moreover, he posits that he is interested in something that no previous historian has attempted: a history of "moeurs" (customs, manners and morals). He also notes his desire to go behind the surface of events, to show the reasons and causes for social phenomena. Balzac then professes his belief in two profound truths — religion and monarchy — and his concern for understanding the individual in the context of his family.

In the last half of his preface, Balzac explains the Comédie humaine's different parts (which he compares to "frames" and "galeries"), and which are more or less the final form of the collection.

 
 
Sources of the Comédie humaine
Because of its volume and complexity, the Comédie humaine touches on the major literary genres in fashion in the first half of the 19th century.

The historical novel
The historical novel was a European phenomenon in the first half of the 19th century — largely through the works of Sir Walter Scott, James Fenimore Cooper and, in France, Alexandre Dumas, père and Victor Hugo.
Balzac's first novel Les Chouans was inspired by this vogue and tells of the rural inhabitants of Brittany during the revolution with Cooper-like descriptions of their dress and manners.

Although the bulk of the Comédie humaine takes place during the Restoration and the July Monarchy, there are several novels which take place during the French Revolution and others which take place in the Middle Ages or the Renaissance, including "About Catherine de Medici" and "The Elixir of Long Life".

The popular novel
Balzac's later works are decidedly influenced by the popular "roman feuilleton" (especially in the works of Eugène Sue which concentrate on depicting the secret worlds of crime and vice that hide below the surface of French society) and by the melodrama.

Fantasy
Many of Balzac's shorter works have elements taken from the popular "roman noir" or gothic novel, but often the fantastic elements are used for very different purposes in Balzac's work.

His use of the magical ass' skin in La Peau de chagrin for example becomes a metaphor for diminished male potency and a key symbol of Balzac's conception of energy and will in the modern world.

In a similar way, Balzac undermines the character of Melmoth the Wanderer in his "Melmoth Reconciled": Balzac takes a character from a fantastic novel (by Charles Robert Maturin) who has sold his soul for power and long life and has him sell his own power to another man in Paris... this man then sells this gift in turn and very quickly the infernal power is traded from person to person in the Parisian stock exchange until it loses any of its original power.

Swedenborg
Several of Balzac's characters, particularly Louis Lambert, traverse mystical crises and/or develop syncretic spiritual philosophies about human energy and action that are largely modelled on the life and work of Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772).

As depicted in his works, Balzac's spiritual philosophy suggests that individuals have a limited quantity of spiritual energy and that this energy is dissipated through creative or intellectual work or through physical activity (including sex), and this is made emblematic in his philosophical tale La Peau de chagrin, in which a magical wild ass's skin confers on its owner unlimited powers, but shrinks each time it is used in science.

  Themes of the Comédie humaine
The following are some of the major themes that recur throughout the various volumes of the Comédie humaine:

France after the Revolution
Balzac frequently bemoans the loss of a pre-Revolutionary society of honor which has now become — especially after the fall of Charles X of France and the arrival of the July Monarchy — a society dominated by money.

Money and power
"At the origin of every fortune lies a crime" : this precept from the "Red Inn" recurs constantly in the Comédie humaine, both as a biographical truth (Taillefer's murderous fortune, Goriot's deals with the Revolutionary army), and as a sign of French collective guilt at the horrors of the Revolution (and most notably by the death of Louis XVI of France).

The other source of power is rank. People of good blood aspire to a title, while people with titles aspire to the peerage. The opening section of The Secrets of the Princess Cadignan provides an explanation of why the title of prince is not prevalent nor coveted in France (compared to contemporary Germany or Russia).

Social success
Two young men dominate the Comédie humaine: Lucien de Rubempré and Eugène de Rastignac. Both are talented but poor youths from the provinces, both attempt to achieve greatness in society through the intercession of women and both come into contact with Vautrin, but only Rastignac succeeds while Lucien de Rubempré ends his life by his own hand in a jail in Paris. The difference in outcome is partly explained by Balzac's views on heredity: Rastignac comes from a noble family, while only Rubempré's mother comes from a noble family (he had to obtain royal permission to use his mother's family name instead of his father's name Chardon). This deficit is compounded by the fact that his mother had not only married a commoner far beneath her in rank, but she had also performed menial labour to support herself when her husband died.

Another contrast is between Emile Blondet and Raoul Nathan. Both are multi-talented men-of-letters. Blondet is the natural son of the prefect of Alençon and is described as witty but lazy, incurably hesitant, non-partisan, a political atheist, a player of the game of political opinions (along with Rastignac), having the most judicious mind of the day. He marries Madame de Montcornet and eventually becomes a prefect. Nathan is described as half-Jewish and possessing a second-rate mind. Nathan succumbs to the flattery of unscrupulous financiers and does not see that they are prepared to bankrupt him to achieve their purposes. Blondet sees what is happening but does not enlighten Nathan. The downfall drives Nathan to attempt suicide by the method of "any poor work-girl". He then sells out to the government of the day (on Blondet's advice) to secure an income, and returns to living with the actress/courtesan Florine. In the end he accepts the cross of the Legion of Honour (which he formerly satirised) and becomes a defender of the doctrine of heredity.

 
 
Paternity
The Comédie humaine frequently portrays the complex emotional, social and financial relationships between fathers and their children, and between father-figures and their mentors, and these relationships are metaphorically linked as well with issues of nationhood (the king as father, regicide), nobility (bloodlines, family names), history (parental secrets), wealth (the origin of parental fortunes, dowries) and artistic creation (the writer or artist as father of the work of art). Father Goriot is perhaps the most famous — and most tragic — of these father figures, but in Le Père Goriot, Eugène de Rastignac also encounters two other paternal figures, Vautrin and Taillefer, whose aspirations and methods define different paternal paths. Other significant fathers in the series include Eugénie Grandet's abusive and money-hoarding father and César Birotteau, the doomed capitalist.
 
 
Maternity
At one end of the scale we have 100% maternal involvement - as depicted by the upbringing of the sisters de Granville (A Daughter of Eve) later Mesdames Felix de Vandenesse and du Tillet.

At the other end of the scale we have 0% maternal involvement - as depicted by the upbringing of Ursula Mirouet by four men: her half-uncle-in-law (an atheist and republican), the local priest (saintly), the district judge (learned) and a retired soldier (worldly). We are left in no doubt that it is the second option that produces what Balzac considers to be the ideal woman. Ursula is pious and prone to collapsing in tears at the slightest emotion.

  Women, society and sex
The representation of women in the Comédie humaine is extremely varied — spanning material from both the romantic and pulp traditions — and includes idealized women (like Pauline in La Peau de chagrin or Eugénie Grandet), the tragic prostitute Esther Gobsek (Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes), the worldly daughters of Goriot and other women in society who can help their lovers advance, the masculine and domineering Cousine Bette, and the alluring and impossible love object (Foedora in La Peau de chagrin or the heroine of La fille aux yeux d'or).

The latter category also includes several lesbian or bisexual characters.
 
 

Balzac by Auguste Rodin
 
 
Structure of La Comédie humaine

Balzac's final plan (1845) of the Comédie Humaine is as follows (projected works are not included; dates are those of initial publication, whether or not the work was initially conceived as part of the Comédie Humaine):

Studies of manners (Études de moeurs)
Scenes from private life (Scènes de la vie privée)

At the Sign of the Cat and Racket (La Maison du chat-qui-pelote, 1830)
The Ball at Sceaux (Le Bal de Sceaux, 1830)
Letters of Two Brides (Mémoires de deux jeunes mariées, 1842)
The Purse (La Bourse, 1832)
Modeste Mignon (1844)
A Start in Life (Un début dans la vie, 1845; first published as Le danger des mystifications, 1842)
Albert Savarus (1842)
The Vendetta (La Vendetta, 1830)
A Second Home (Une double famille, 1830)
Domestic Bliss (La Paix du ménage, 1830)
Madame Firmiani (1832)
Study of a Woman (Étude de femme, 1830)
The Imaginary Mistress (La fausse maîtresse, 1842)
A Daughter of Eve (Une fille d'Ève, 1838-39)
The Message (Le Message, 1832)
La Grande Bretèche (1832)
La Grenadière (1832)
The Deserted Woman (La Femme abandonnée, 1832)
Honorine (1843)
Béatrix (1839)
Gobseck (1830)
A Woman of Thirty (La Femme de trente ans, 1832)
Old Goriot (le Père Goriot, 1835)
Le Colonel Chabert (1844, first published as La transaction, 1832)
The Atheist's Mass (La Messe de l'athée, 1836)
L'Interdiction (1836)
A Marriage Contract (Le Contrat de mariage, 1835)
Another Study of a Woman (Autre étude de femme, 1842)
Scenes from provincial life (Scènes de la vie de province)[edit]
Ursule Mirouët (1841)
Eugénie Grandet (1834)
The Celibates (Les Célibataires)[edit]
Pierrette (1840)
The Vicar of Tours (Le Curé de Tours, first published as Les célibataires, 1832)
The Black Sheep (La Rabouilleuse, 1842, aka A Bachelor's Establishment)

Parisians in the Country (Les Parisiens en province)

The Illustrious Gaudissart (L'Illustre Gaudissart, 1833)
The Muse of the Department (La Muse du département, 1843)

The Jealousies of a Country Town (Les Rivalités)

The Old Maid (La Vieille Fille, 1836)
The Collection of Antiquities (Le Cabinet des Antiques, 1839)

Lost Illusions (Illusions perdues)

The Two Poets (Les Deux poètes, 1837)
A Great Provincial in Paris (Un grand homme de province à Paris, 1839)
Eve and David (Ève et David, 1843)

Scenes from Parisian life (Scènes de la vie parisienne)

César Birotteau (Histoire de la grandeur et de la décadence de César Birotteau, 1837)
The Firm of Nucingen (La Maison Nucingen, 1838)
Splendors and Miseries of Courtesans (Splendeurs et Misères des courtisanes, 1847, aka A Harlot High and Low), comprising
Esther Happy (Esther heureuse, 1838)
What Love Costs an Old Man (À combien l’amour revient aux vieillards, 1843)
The End of Evil Ways (Où mènent les mauvais chemins, 1846)
The Last Incarnation of Vautrin (La Dernière incarnation de Vautrin, 1847)
The Secrets of the Princess Cadignan (Les Secrets de la princesse de Cadignan, 1840, first published as Une Princesse parisienne, 1839)
Facino Cane (1836)
Sarrasine (1830)
Pierre Grassou (1840)
A Man of Business (Un homme d'affaires, 1846; first published as les Roueries d’un créancier, 1845)
A Prince of Bohemia (Un prince de la Bohème, 1844; first published as les Fantaisies de Claudine, 1840)
Gaudissart II (1846; first published as un Gaudissart de la rue Richelieu; les Comédies qu'on peut voir gratis, 1844)
The Government Clerks (Les Employés, 1838; first published as la Femme supérieure, 1837))
The Unwitting Comedians (Les Comédiens sans le savoir, 1846)
The Lesser Bourgeoisie (Les Petits Bourgeois, 1854)
The Seamy Side of History (L'envers de l'histoire contemporaine, 1848, aka The Wrong Side of Paris aka The Brotherhood of Consolation)

The Thirteen (Histoire des Treize)

Ferragus (1833)
The Duchess of Langeais (La Duchesse de Langeais, 1834)
The Girl with the Golden Eyes (La fille aux yeux d'or, 1835)

Poor Relations (Les parents pauvres)

Cousin Bette (La Cousine Bette, 1846)
Cousin Pons (Le Cousin Pons, 1847)

Scenes from political life (Scènes de la vie politique)

An Episode Under the Terror (Un épisode sous la Terreur, 1830)
Murky Business (Une ténébreuse affaire, 1841, aka An Historical Mystery)
The Deputy for Arcis (the only part written by Balzac was published as l'Élection, 1847)
Z. Marcas (1840)

Scenes from military life (Scènes de la vie militaire)

The Chouans (Les Chouans, 1829)
A Passion in the Desert (Une passion dans le désert, 1830)

Scenes from country life (Scènes de la vie de campagne)

The Peasants (Les Paysans, 1855; first part published in 1844)
The Country Doctor (Le Médecin de campagne, 1833)
The Village Rector (Le Curé de Village, 1839)
The Lily of the Valley (Le Lys dans la vallée, 1836)

Philosophical studies (Études philosophiques)

The Wild Ass's Skin (La Peau de chagrin, 1831)
Christ in Flanders (Jésus-Christ en Flandre, 1831)
Melmoth Reconciled (Melmoth réconcilié, 1835)
The Unknown Masterpiece (Le Chef-d'oeuvre inconnu, 1831)
Gambara (1837)
Massimilla Doni (1839)
The Quest of the Absolute (La Recherche de l'Absolu, 1834)
The Hated Son (L'Enfant maudit, 1831)
Farewell (Adieu, 1830)
The Maranas (Les Marana, 1834)
The Conscript (Le Réquisitionnaire, 1831)
El Verdugo (1830)
A Drama on the Seashore (Un drame au bord de la mer, 1834)
Maître Cornélius (1831)
The Red Inn (L'Auberge rouge, 1831)
About Catherine de' Medici (Sur Catherine de Médicis, 1842)
The Elixir of Life (L'Élixir de longue vie, 1831)
The Exiles (Les Proscrits, 1831)
Louis Lambert (1832)
Séraphîta (1835)

Analytical studies (Études analytiques)

Physiology of Marriage (Physiologie du Mariage, 1829)
Little Miseries of Conjugal Life (Petites misères de la vie conjugale, 1846)


Characters

Recurring characters

Eugène de Rastignac - student, dandy, financier, politician (appears in 28 works)
Lucien Chardon de Rubempré (the use of "de Rubempré" is contested) - journalist, parvenu
Jacques Collin aka Abbé Carlos Herrera aka Vautrin aka Trompe-la-Mort - a criminal run away from forced labour
Camusot - examining magistrate (The Collection of Antiquities, A Commission in Lunacy, Scenes from a Courtesan's Life; his father also appears in A Distinguished Provincial at Paris)
Blondet, Emile - journalist, man of letters, prefect (The Collection of Antiquities, A Distinguished Provincial at Paris, Scenes from a Courtesan's Life). Compare and contrast with Raoul Nathan.
Raoul Nathan - in 19 works, writer, politician
Daniel d'Arthez
Delphine de Nucingen née Goriot
Roger de Granville
Louis Lambert
la duchesse de Langeais
la comtesse de Mortsauf
Jean-Jacques Bixiou - in 19 works, artist
Joseph Bridau - in 13 works, painter
Marquis de Ronquerolles - in 20 works
la comtesse Hugret de Sérisy - in 20 works
Félix-Amédée de Vandenesse
Horace Bianchon - in 24 works, doctor
des Lupeaulx - public servant
Salon leaders: the Duchesse de Maufrigneuse, the Marquise d'Espard
Dandies: Maxime de Trailles, Henri de Marsay
Courtesans: La Torpille (Esther van Gobseck), Madame du Val-Noble
Financiers: Ferdinand du Tillet, Frédérick de Nucingen, Keller brothers
Actresses: Florine (Sophie Grignault), Coralie,
Publishers/Journalists/Critics: Finot, Etienne Lousteau, Felicien Vernou
Money lenders: Jean-Esther van Gobseck, Bidault aka Gigonnet

Characters who appear in several titles but only significantly in one of them.

Birotteau
Goriot

Characters in a single volume

Raphaël de Valentin
le baron Hulot
Balthazar Claës
Grandet
le cousin Pons

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
     
 
Honore de Balzac

"Father Goriot"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Dickinson Emily
 

Emily Dickinson, in full Emily Elizabeth Dickinson (born Dec. 10, 1830, Amherst, Mass., U.S.—died May 15, 1886, Amherst), American lyric poet who lived in seclusion and commanded a singular brilliance of style and integrity of vision. With Walt Whitman, Dickinson is widely considered to be one of the two leading 19th-century American poets.

 
Only 10 of Emily Dickinson’s nearly 1,800 poems are known to have been published in her lifetime. Devoted to private pursuits, she sent hundreds of poems to friends and correspondents while apparently keeping the greater number to herself. She habitually worked in verse forms suggestive of hymns and ballads, with lines of three or four stresses. Her unusual off-rhymes have been seen as both experimental and influenced by the 18th-century hymnist Isaac Watts. She freely ignored the usual rules of versification and even of grammar, and in the intellectual content of her work she likewise proved exceptionally bold and original. Her verse is distinguished by its epigrammatic compression, haunting personal voice, enigmatic brilliance, and lack of high polish.
 
 
Early years
The second of three children, Dickinson grew up in moderate privilege and with strong local and religious attachments. For her first nine years she resided in a mansion built by her paternal grandfather, Samuel Fowler Dickinson, who had helped found Amherst College but then went bankrupt shortly before her birth. Her father, Edward Dickinson, was a forceful and prosperous Whig lawyer who served as treasurer of the college and was elected to one term in Congress. Her mother, Emily Norcross Dickinson, from the leading family in nearby Monson, was an introverted wife and hardworking housekeeper; her letters seem equally inexpressive and quirky. Both parents were loving but austere, and Emily became closely attached to her brother, Austin, and sister, Lavinia. Never marrying, the two sisters remained at home, and when their brother married, he and his wife established their own household next door. The highly distinct and even eccentric personalities developed by the three siblings seem to have mandated strict limits to their intimacy. “If we had come up for the first time from two wells,” Emily once said of Lavinia, “her astonishment would not be greater at some things I say.” Only after the poet’s death did Lavinia and Austin realize how dedicated she was to her art.

As a girl, Emily was seen as frail by her parents and others and was often kept home from school. She attended the coeducational Amherst Academy, where she was recognized by teachers and students alike for her prodigious abilities in composition. She also excelled in other subjects emphasized by the school, most notably Latin and the sciences.

 
From the daguerreotype taken at Mount Holyoke, December 1846 or early 1847.

The only authenticated portrait of Emily Dickinson later than childhood. The original is held by the Archives and Special Collections at Amherst College.
 
 
A class in botany inspired her to assemble an herbarium containing a large number of pressed plants identified by their Latin names. She was fond of her teachers, but when she left home to attend Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (now Mount Holyoke College) in nearby South Hadley, she found the school’s institutional tone uncongenial. Mount Holyoke’s strict rules and invasive religious practices, along with her own homesickness and growing rebelliousness, help explain why she did not return for a second year.

At home as well as at school and church, the religious faith that ruled the poet’s early years was evangelical Calvinism, a faith centred on the belief that humans are born totally depraved and can be saved only if they undergo a life-altering conversion in which they accept the vicarious sacrifice of Jesus Christ. Questioning this tradition soon after leaving Mount Holyoke, Dickinson was to be the only member of her family who did not experience conversion or join Amherst’s First Congregational Church. Yet she seems to have retained a belief in the soul’s immortality or at least to have transmuted it into a Romantic quest for the transcendent and absolute. One reason her mature religious views elude specification is that she took no interest in creedal or doctrinal definition. In this she was influenced by both the Transcendentalism of Ralph Waldo Emerson and the mid-century tendencies of liberal Protestant orthodoxy. These influences pushed her toward a more symbolic understanding of religious truth and helped shape her vocation as poet.

 
 
Development as a poet
Although Dickinson had begun composing verse by her late teens, few of her early poems are extant. Among them are two of the burlesque “Valentines”—the exuberantly inventive expressions of affection and esteem she sent to friends of her youth. Two other poems dating from the first half of the 1850s draw a contrast between the world as it is and a more peaceful alternative, variously eternity or a serene imaginative order. All her known juvenilia were sent to friends and engage in a striking play of visionary fancies, a direction in which she was encouraged by the popular, sentimental book of essays Reveries of a Bachelor: Or a Book of the Heart by Ik. Marvel (the pseudonym of Donald Grant Mitchell). Dickinson’s acts of fancy and reverie, however, were more intricately social than those of Marvel’s bachelor, uniting the pleasures of solitary mental play, performance for an audience, and intimate communion with another. It may be because her writing began with a strong social impetus that her later solitude did not lead to a meaningless hermeticism.

Until Dickinson was in her mid-20s, her writing mostly took the form of letters, and a surprising number of those that she wrote from age 11 onward have been preserved. Sent to her brother, Austin, or to friends of her own sex, especially Abiah Root, Jane Humphrey, and Susan Gilbert (who would marry Austin), these generous communications overflow with humour, anecdote, invention, and sombre reflection. In general, Dickinson seems to have given and demanded more from her correspondents than she received. On occasion she interpreted her correspondents’ laxity in replying as evidence of neglect or even betrayal. Indeed, the loss of friends, whether through death or cooling interest, became a basic pattern for Dickinson. Much of her writing, both poetic and epistolary, seems premised on a feeling of abandonment and a matching effort to deny, overcome, or reflect on a sense of solitude.

Dickinson’s closest friendships usually had a literary flavour. She was introduced to the poetry of Ralph Waldo Emerson by one of her father’s law students, Benjamin F. Newton, and to that of Elizabeth Barrett Browning by Susan Gilbert and Henry Vaughan Emmons, a gifted college student. Two of Barrett Browning’s works, “A Vision of Poets,” describing the pantheon of poets, and Aurora Leigh, on the development of a female poet, seem to have played a formative role for Dickinson, validating the idea of female greatness and stimulating her ambition. Though she also corresponded with Josiah G. Holland, a popular writer of the time, he counted for less with her than his appealing wife, Elizabeth, a lifelong friend and the recipient of many affectionate letters.

In 1855 Dickinson traveled to Washington, D.C., with her sister and father, who was then ending his term as U.S. representative. On the return trip the sisters made an extended stay in Philadelphia, where it is thought the poet heard the preaching of Charles Wadsworth, a fascinating Presbyterian minister whose pulpit oratory suggested (as a colleague put it) “years of conflict and agony.” Seventy years later, Martha Dickinson Bianchi, the poet’s niece, claimed that Emily had fallen in love with Wadsworth, who was married, and then grandly renounced him. The story is too highly coloured for its details to be credited; certainly, there is no evidence the minister returned the poet’s love. Yet it is true that a correspondence arose between the two and that Wadsworth visited her in Amherst about 1860 and again in 1880. After his death in 1882, Dickinson remembered him as “my Philadelphia,” “my dearest earthly friend,” and “my Shepherd from ‘Little Girl’hood.”

Always fastidious, Dickinson began to restrict her social activity in her early 20s, staying home from communal functions and cultivating intense epistolary relationships with a reduced number of correspondents. In 1855, leaving the large and much-loved house (since razed) in which she had lived for 15 years, the 25-year-old woman and her family moved back to the dwelling associated with her first decade: the Dickinson mansion on Main Street in Amherst. Her home for the rest of her life, this large brick house, still standing, has become a favourite destination for her admirers. She found the return profoundly disturbing, and when her mother became incapacitated by a mysterious illness that lasted from 1855 to 1859, both daughters were compelled to give more of themselves to domestic pursuits. Various events outside the home—a bitter Norcross family lawsuit, the financial collapse of the local railroad that had been promoted by the poet’s father, and a powerful religious revival that renewed the pressure to “convert”—made the years 1857 and 1858 deeply troubling for Dickinson and promoted her further withdrawal.

  Mature career
In summer 1858, at the height of this period of obscure tension, Dickinson began assembling her manuscript-books. She made clean copies of her poems on fine quality stationery and then sewed small bundles of these sheets together at the fold. Over the next seven years she created 40 such booklets and several unsewn sheaves, and altogether they contained about 800 poems. No doubt she intended to arrange her work in a convenient form, perhaps for her own use in sending poems to friends. Perhaps the assemblage was meant to remain private, like her earlier herbarium. Or perhaps, as implied in a poem of 1863, “This is my letter to the world,” she anticipated posthumous publication. Because she left no instructions regarding the disposition of her manuscript-books, her ultimate purpose in assembling them can only be conjectured.

Dickinson sent more poems to her sister-in-law, Susan Gilbert Dickinson, a cultivated reader, than to any other known correspondent. Repeatedly professing eternal allegiance, these poems often imply that there was a certain distance between the two—that the sister-in-law was felt to be haughty, remote, or even incomprehensible. Yet Susan admired the poetry’s wit and verve and offered the kind of personally attentive audience Dickinson craved.

On one occasion, Susan’s dissatisfaction with a poem, “Safe in their alabaster chambers,” resulted in the drafting of alternative stanzas. Susan was an active hostess, and her home was the venue at which Dickinson met a few friends, most importantly Samuel Bowles, publisher and editor of the influential Springfield Republican. Gregarious, captivating, and unusually liberal on the question of women’s careers, Bowles had a high regard for Dickinson’s poems, publishing (without her consent) seven of them during her lifetime—more than appeared in any other outlet. From 1859 to 1862 she sent him some of her most intense and confidential communications, including the daring poem “Title divine is mine,” whose speaker proclaims that she is now a “Wife,” but of a highly unconventional type.

In those years Dickinson experienced a painful and obscure personal crisis, partly of a romantic nature. The abject and pleading drafts of her second and third letters to the unidentified person she called “Master” are probably related to her many poems about a loved but distant person, usually male. There has been much speculation about the identity of this individual. One of the first candidates was George Henry Gould, the recipient in 1850 of a prose Valentine from Dickinson. Some have contended that Master was a woman, possibly Kate Scott Anthon or Susan Dickinson. Richard Sewall’s 1974 biography makes the case for Samuel Bowles. All such claims have rested on a partial examination of surviving documents and collateral evidence. Since it is now believed that the earliest draft to Master predates her friendship with Bowles, he cannot have been the person. On balance, Charles Wadsworth and possibly Gould remain the most likely candidates. Whoever the person was, Master’s failure to return Dickinson’s affection—together with Susan’s absorption in her first childbirth and Bowles’s growing invalidism—contributed to a piercing and ultimate sense of distress. In a letter, Dickinson described her lonely suffering as a “terror—since September—[that] I could tell to none.” Instead of succumbing to anguish, however, she came to view it as the sign of a special vocation, and it became the basis of an unprecedented creativity. A poem that seems to register this life-restoring act of resistance begins “The zeroes taught us phosphorus,” meaning that it is in absolute cold and nothingness that true brilliance originates.

Though Dickinson wrote little about the American Civil War, which was then raging, her awareness of its multiplied tragedies seems to have empowered her poetic drive. As she confided to her cousins in Boston, apropos of wartime bereavements, “Every day life feels mightier, and what we have the power to be, more stupendous.” In the hundreds of poems Dickinson composed during the war, a movement can be discerned from the expression of immediate pain or exultation to the celebration of achievement and self-command. Building on her earlier quest for human intimacy and obsession with heaven, she explored the tragic ironies of human desire, such as fulfillment denied, the frustrated search for the absolute within the mundane, and the terrors of internal dissolution.

She also articulated a profound sense of female subjectivity, expressing what it means to be subordinate, secondary, or not in control. Yet as the war proceeded, she also wrote with growing frequency about self-reliance, imperviousness, personal triumph, and hard-won liberty. The perfect transcendence she had formerly associated with heaven was now attached to a vision of supreme artistry.

 
 
In April 1862, about the time Wadsworth left the East Coast for a pastorate in San Francisco, Dickinson sought the critical advice of Thomas Wentworth Higginson, whose witty article of advice to writers, “A Letter to a Young Contributor,” had just appeared in The Atlantic Monthly. Higginson was known as a writer of delicate nature essays and a crusader for women’s rights. Enclosing four poems, Dickinson asked for his opinion of her verse—whether or not it was “alive.” The ensuing correspondence lasted for years, with the poet sending her “preceptor,” as she called him, many more samples of her work. In addition to seeking an informed critique from a professional but not unsympathetic man of letters, she was reaching out at a time of accentuated loneliness. “You were not aware that you saved my Life,” she confided years later.

Dickinson’s last trips from Amherst were in 1864 and 1865, when she shared her cousins Louisa and Frances Norcross’s boardinghouse in Cambridge and underwent a course of treatment with the leading Boston ophthalmologist. She described her symptoms as an aching in her eyes and a painful sensitivity to light. Of the two posthumous diagnoses, exotropia (a kind of strabismus, the inability of one eye to align with the other) and anterior uveitis (inflammation of the uvea, a part of the iris), the latter seems more likely. In 1869 Higginson invited the poet to Boston to attend a literary salon. The terms she used in declining his invitation—“I do not cross my Father’s ground to any House or town”—make clear her refusal by that time to leave home and also reveal her sense of paternal order. When Higginson visited her the next year, he recorded his vivid first impression of her “plain” features, “exquisitely” neat attire, “childlike” manner, and loquacious and exhausting brilliance. He was “glad not to live near her.”
 
 

Dickinson and her friend Kate Scott Turner
(ca. 1859)
  In her last 15 years Dickinson averaged 35 poems a year and conducted her social life mainly through her chiselled and often sibylline written messages. Her father’s sudden death in 1874 caused a profound and persisting emotional upheaval yet eventually led to a greater openness, self-possession, and serenity. She repaired an 11-year breach with Samuel Bowles and made friends with Maria Whitney, a teacher of modern languages at Smith College, and Helen Hunt Jackson, poet and author of the novel Ramona (1884). Dickinson resumed contact with Wadsworth, and from about age 50 she conducted a passionate romance with Otis Phillips Lord, an elderly judge on the supreme court of Massachusetts. The letters she apparently sent Lord reveal her at her most playful, alternately teasing and confiding. In declining an erotic advance or his proposal of marriage, she asked, “Dont you know you are happiest while I withhold and not confer—dont you know that ‘No’ is the wildest word we consign to Language?” After Dickinson’s aging mother was incapacitated by a stroke and a broken hip, caring for her at home made large demands on the poet’s time and patience. After her mother died in 1882, Dickinson summed up the relationship in a confidential letter to her Norcross cousins: “We were never intimate Mother and Children while she was our Mother—but…when she became our Child, the Affection came.” The deaths of Dickinson’s friends in her last years—Bowles in 1878, Wadsworth in 1882, Lord in 1884, and Jackson in 1885—left her feeling terminally alone.
 
 
But the single most shattering death, occurring in 1883, was that of her eight-year-old nephew next door, the gifted and charming Gilbert Dickinson. Her health broken by this culminating tragedy, she ceased seeing almost everyone, apparently including her sister-in-law. The poet died in 1886, when she was 55 years old. The immediate cause of death was a stroke. The attending physician attributed this to Bright’s disease, but a modern posthumous diagnosis points to severe primary hypertension as the underlying condition.
 
 
Assessment
Dickinson’s exact wishes regarding the publication of her poetry are in dispute. When Lavinia found the manuscript-books, she decided the poems should be made public and asked Susan to prepare an edition. Susan failed to move the project forward, however, and after two years Lavinia turned the manuscript-books over to Mabel Loomis Todd, a local family friend, who energetically transcribed and selected the poems and also enlisted the aid of Thomas Wentworth Higginson in editing. A complicating circumstance was that Todd was conducting an affair with Susan’s husband, Austin.
 
 
When Poems by Emily Dickinson appeared in 1890, it drew widespread interest and a warm welcome from the eminent American novelist and critic William Dean Howells, who saw the verse as a signal expression of a distinctively American sensibility. But Susan, who was well aware of her husband’s ongoing affair with Todd, was outraged at what she perceived as Lavinia’s betrayal and Todd’s effrontery. The enmity between Susan and Todd, and later between their daughters, Martha Dickinson Bianchi and Millicent Todd Bingham (each of whom edited selections of Dickinson’s work), had a pernicious effect on the presentation of Emily Dickinson’s work. Her poetic manuscripts are divided between two primary collections: the poems in Bingham’s possession went to Amherst College Library, and those in Bianchi’s hands to Harvard University’s Houghton Library. The acrimonious relationship between the two families has affected scholarly interpretation of Dickinson’s work into the 21st century.

In editing Dickinson’s poems in the 1890s, Todd and Higginson invented titles and regularized diction, grammar, metre, and rhyme. The first scholarly editions of Dickinson’s poems and letters, by Thomas H. Johnson, did not appear until the 1950s. A much improved edition of the complete poems was brought out in 1998 by R.W. Franklin. A reliable edition of the letters is not yet available.

In spite of her "modernism," Dickinson’s verse drew little interest from the first generation of “High Modernists.” Hart Crane and Allen Tate were among the first leading writers to register her greatness, followed in the 1950s by Elizabeth Bishop and others. The New Critics also played an important role in establishing her place in the modern canon. From the beginning, however, Dickinson has strongly appealed to many ordinary or unschooled readers. Her unmistakable voice, private yet forthright—"I’m Nobody! Who are you? / Are you—Nobody—too?"—establishes an immediate connection. Readers respond, too, to the impression her poems convey of a haunting private life, one marked by extremes of deprivation and refined ecstasies. At the same time, her rich abundance—her great range of feeling, her supple expressiveness—testifies to an intrinsic poetic genius. Widely translated into Japanese, Italian, French, German, and many other languages, Dickinson has begun to strike readers as the one American lyric poet who belongs in the pantheon with Sappho, Catullus, Saʿdī, the Shakespeare of the sonnets, Rainer Maria Rilke, and Arthur Rimbaud.

  Editions
The standard edition of the poems is the three-volume variorum edition, The Poems of Emily Dickinson:

Variorum Edition (1998), edited by R.W. Franklin. He also edited a two-volume work, The Manuscript Books of Emily Dickinson (1981), which provides facsimiles of the poems in their original groupings. The Letters of Emily Dickinson, in three volumes edited by Thomas H. Johnson and Theodora Ward (1958), was reissued in one volume in 1986, and it is still the standard source for the poet’s letters. Open Me Carefully: Emily Dickinson’s Intimate Letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson (1998), edited by Ellen Louise Hart and Martha Nell Smith, is a selection of the poet’s correspondence with her sister-in-law. Facsimiles of the letters to “Master” and Otis Phillips Lord are presented in The Master Letters of Emily Dickinson (1986), edited by R.W. Franklin, and Emily Dickinson’s Open Folios: Scenes of Reading, Surfaces of Writing (1995), edited by Marta L. Werner. Emily Dickinson’s Reception in the 1890s: A Documentary History (1989), edited by Willis J. Buckingham, reprints all known reviews from the first decade of publication.

Alfred Habegger


MAJOR WORKS
The basic text of the poems is The Poems of Emily Dickinson: Including Variant Readings Critically Compared with All Known Manuscripts, ed. by Thomas H. Johnson, 3 vol. (1955, reissued 1963). The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson, ed. by Thomas H. Johnson (1960, reissued 1976), is the sole one-volume edition of the poems in their standard form. Dickinson’s idiosyncratic manuscripts, with their unorthodox stanzas, line breaks, and punctuation, have become an important object of study in the critical literature; The Manuscript Books of Emily Dickinson, ed. by R.W. Franklin, 2 vol. (1981), reproduces all the manuscripts that Dickinson bound into fascicles and attempts to recover the order in which the poet placed them. The most complete edition of her letters is The Letters of Emily Dickinson, ed. by Thomas H. Johnson and Theodora Ward, 3 vol. (1958, reissued in 1 vol., 1986). Her letters to her sister-in-law, rendered in their distinctive original format, appear in Open Me Carefully: Emily Dickinson’s Intimate Letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson, ed. by Ellen Louise Hart and Martha Nell Smith (1998).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
     
 
Emily Dickinson

"Poems"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Genlis Comtesse
 
Stéphanie Félicité du Crest de Saint-Aubin, Comtesse de Genlis (25 January 1746 – 31 December 1830), known as Madame de Genlis, was a French writer, harpist and educator.
 

Madame de Genlis, by Adélaïde Labille-Guiard
  Life
Félicité de Genlis was born at the château of Champcéry in Issy-l'Évêque, Saône-et-Loire, of a noble but impoverished Burgundian family.

At six years old she was received as a canoness into the noble chapter of Alix near Lyon, with the title of Madame la Comtesse de Lancy, taken from the town of Bourbon-Lancy. Her entire education was conducted at home.

In 1758, in Paris, her skill as a harpist and her vivacious wit speedily attracted admiration.

At the age of sixteen she was married to Charles-Alexis Brûlart, Comte de Genlis (afterwards Marquis de Sillery), a colonel of grenadiers, but this was not allowed to interfere with her determination to remedy her incomplete education, and to satisfy a taste for acquiring and imparting knowledge.

Some years later, through the influence of her aunt, Madame de Montesson, who had been clandestinely married to the duc d'Orléans, Stéphanie-Félicité entered the Palais Royal as a lady-in-waiting to their daughter-in-law Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon, Duchess of Chartres as the wife of their heir Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Chartres.

 
 
She acted with great energy and zeal as governess to the daughters of the family, and in 1781 was appointed by the duke of Chartres to the responsible office of gouverneur of his sons – a bold step which led to the resignation of all the tutors as well as to much social scandal, though there is no reason to suppose that the intellectual interests of her pupils suffered on that account.

The better to carry out her ingenious theories of education, she wrote several works for their use, the best known of which are the Théâtre d'éducation (4 vols., 1779–1780), a collection of short comedies for young people, Les Annales de la vertu (2 vols., 1781) and Adèle et Théodore (3 vols., 1782). Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve tells how she anticipated many modern methods of teaching. History was taught with the help of magic lantern slides and her pupils learnt botany from a practical botanist during their walks.
 
 

Madame de Genlis
by Jacques-Antoine-Marie Lemoine
  In 1789, Madame de Genlis showed herself favourable to the French Revolution, but the fall of the Girondins in 1793 compelled her to take refuge in Switzerland along with her pupil Mademoiselle d'Orléans. In this year her husband, the marquis de Sillery, from whom she had been separated since 1782, was guillotined. An "adopted" (actually natural) daughter, Stephanie Caroline Anne Syms, called "Pamela", had been married to Lord Edward FitzGerald at Tournai on the preceding 27 December. (Another "adopted" (actually natural) daughter, Hermine Syms alias Compton, married Jacques Collard de Montjouy, and counted the convicted murderer Marie Lafarge among her grandchildren.)

In 1794 Madame de Genlis fixed her residence at Berlin, but, having been expelled by the orders of Frederick William II of Prussia, she afterwards settled in Hamburg, where she supported herself for some years by writing and painting. After the revolution of 18th Brumaire (1799) she was permitted to return to France, and was received with favour by Napoleon, who gave her apartments at the arsenal, and afterwards assigned her a pension of 6,000 francs.

During this period she wrote largely, and produced, in addition to some historical novels, her best romance: Mademoiselle de Clermont (1802).
Madame de Genlis had lost her influence over her old pupil Louis Philippe, who visited her but seldom, although he allowed her a small pension.

 
 
Her government pension was discontinued by Louis XVIII, and she supported herself largely by her pen.

Her later years were occupied largely with literary quarrels, notably with that which arose out of the publication of the Diners du Baron d'Holbach (1822), a volume in which she set forth with a good deal of sarcastic cleverness the intolerance, fanaticism, and eccentricities of the philosophes of the 18th century. She survived until 31 December 1830, and saw her former pupil, Louis Philippe, seated on the throne of France.

The numerous works of Madame de Genlis (which considerably exceed eighty), comprising prose and poetical compositions on a vast variety of subjects and of various degrees of merit, owed much of their success to advantageous causes which have long ceased to operate. They are useful, however (especially the voluminous Mémoires inédits sur le XVIII' siècle, 10 vols., 1825), as furnishing material for history.

 
 
Reception history
Britain

Madame de Genlis was and is best known for her children's works. In Britain, many readers who were sceptical of French philosophy in general, welcomed her books because they presented many of Rousseau's methods while at the same time attacking his principles. Moreover, they were relieved that her books did not promote the two concepts most associated with the French in the British mind: libertinism and Roman Catholicism. British audiences were also delighted with her innovative educational methods, particularly her morality plays.

According to Magdi Wahba, a third important reason for Madame de Genlis' popularity in Britain was a "misapprehension" regarding her character. British readers believed that she was as moral as the Baronne d'Almane in Adèle et Théodore, when in fact she was as fatally flawed as any other human. The British public discovered that Madame de Genlis was not a moral paragon when she fled there to escape the French Revolution in 1791. While she lost the esteem of some of her friends, such as Frances Burney, the sales of her books never slowed down. She was for example a familiar figure to Jane Austen, her family, her circle, and her readership.
  In (Emma), the heroine considered that her governess would raise her own daughter the better for having practised upon her, "like La Baronne d'Almane on La Countesse d'Ostalis in Madame de Genlis' Adelaide and Theodore". A few years earlier she had been reading aloud from de Genlis' 'Alphonsine', but found that it "did not do. We were disgusted in twenty pages, as, independent of a bad translation, it has indelicacies which disgrace a pen hitherto so pure". Austen continued to read (and lend out) her works however, complaining in 1816 for example that she couldn't "read Olimpe et Theophile without being in a rage. It is really too bad! – Not allowing them to be happy together when they are married." Austen's nieces Anna and Caroline also drew inspiration for their own writings from Madame de Genlis.

In literature
Félicité de Genlis appears as a character in the works of the following writers, among others: Honoré de Balzac (Illusions perdues), Leo Tolstoy (War and Peace), and Victor Hugo (Les Misérables). She is also mentioned in Our Village by Mary Russell Mitford, Oblomov by Ivan Goncharov and by Sartre in Nausea.

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1830
 
 
Goncourt Jules
 
Jules de Goncourt (17 December 1830 – 20 June 1870), born Jules Alfred Huot de Goncourt, was a French writer, who published books together with his brother Edmond.
 

Jules de Goncourt
  Jules was born and died in Paris. His death at the age of 39 was at Auteuil-Neuilly-Passy of a stroke brought on by syphilis.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



see also: Goncourt Edmond

see also: Edmond and Jules Goncourt
 
 
     
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1830
 
 
Hazlitt William, Eng. writer and critic, d. (b. 1778)
 
 

William Hazlitt
 
 
see also: William Hazlitt
 
 
     
  Western Literature

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1830
 
 
Hayne Paul Hamilton
 

Paul Hamilton Hayne (January 1, 1830 – July 6, 1886) was a nineteenth-century Southern American poet, critic, and editor.

 

Paul Hamilton Hayne
  Biography
Paul Hamilton Hayne was born in Charleston, South Carolina on January 1, 1830. After losing his father as a young child, Hayne was reared by his mother in the home of his prosperous and prominent uncle, Robert Y. Hayne, who was an orator and politician who served in the United States Senate.

Hayne was educated in Charleston city schools and graduated from the College of Charleston in 1852. He began the practice of law but soon abandoned it in order to pursue his literary interests and ambitions. Hayne served in the Confederate army in 1861 and remained in the army until his health failed. He lost all of his possessions — including his house and an extensive library — when Charleston was bombarded in 1862. In 1863, Hayne moved his family to Grovetown, Georgia, a wooded area about 16 miles from Augusta, Georgia. Here Hayne lived and worked until his death in 1886. Grovetown was also where his career as a literary critic and magazine editor began. He contributed to important magazines of the South during his era, including the Charleston Literary Gazette, the Southern Literary Messenger, the Home Journal, and Southern Bivouac. Hayne was also instrumental with Southern novelist William Gilmore Simms in the founding of Russell's Magazine, which Hayne edited.

Hayne is also noteworthy for his friendship with fellow Southern poet Henry Timrod, whom Hayne helped with both his life and his career.
Timrod was frail and ill throughout his life with tuberculosis, and Hayne helped to provide financially for Timrod and his wife and young son.

 
 
Most importantly for literature and history, Hayne preserved Timrod's poems and edited them into a collection that was published in 1872 and that presented such historically important poems as "The Cotton Boll" and "Ode Sung On The Occasion Of Decorating The Graves Of The Confederate Dead". Timrod now has the greater reputation as a poet, while Hayne is known more for his role as an editor and literary critic than as a poet. Timrod has continued to influence other modern Southern writers, including the poet Allen Tate, whose most famous poem, "Ode to the Confederate Dead", owes a great deal to Timrod's similarly titled poem.

Hayne died at his home, Copse Hill, at Grovetown, Georgia, on July 6, 1886. His papers are variously preserved in the libraries of the College of Charleston, Duke University, the University of Virginia, and the South Carolina Historical Society.

 
 
Writings
Hayne was an emerging poet and published various collections of poems, including a complete edition in 1882. His poetry emphasizes romantic verse, long narrative poems, and ballads. Like other fellow Southern poets of his day, his work was highly descriptive of nature. Some critics contend that his graceful lyrics reflect the influence of poet John Keats. Hayne's sonnets are considered his best work. He was appreciated even in the north and became known throughout the country as the unofficial poet laureate of the South.

The Paul Hayne School in Birmingham, Alabama was named for Hayne after he sent an original poem and book of verse to the school on the occasion of its dedication in 1886.

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1830
 
 
Heyse Paul
 

Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse, (born March 15, 1830, Berlin, Prussia [Germany]—died April 2, 1914, Munich, Ger.), German writer and prominent member of the traditionalist Munich school who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1910.

 

Paul Ludwig von Heyse by Adolph von Menzel
  Heyse studied classical and Romance languages and traveled for a year in Italy, supported by a research grant.

After completing his studies he became an independent scholar and was called to Munich by Maximilian II of Bavaria.

There, with the poet Emanuel Geibel, he became the head of the Munich circle of writers, who sought to preserve traditional artistic values from the encroachments of political radicalism, materialism, and realism.

He became a master of the carefully wrought short story, a chief example of which is L’Arrabbiata (1855).

He also published novels (Kinder der Welt, 1873; Children of the World) and many unsuccessful plays.

Among his best works are his translations of the works of Giacomo Leopardi and other Italian poets.

His poems provided the lyrics for many lieder by the composer Hugo Wolf.

Heyse, who was given to idealization and who refused to portray the dark side of life, became an embittered opponent of the growing school of Naturalism, and his popularity had greatly decreased by the time he received the Nobel Prize.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
     
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1830
 
 
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
 

Hernani (Full title: Hernani, ou l'Honneur Castillan) is a drama by the French romantic author Hugo Victor.

The play opened in Paris on 25 February 1830. Today, it is more remembered for the demonstrations which accompanied the première, and for being the inspiration of Verdi's opera Ernani, than it is for its own merits. Hugo had enlisted the support of fellow Romanticists such as Hector Berlioz and Théophile Gautier to combat the opposition of Classicists who recognised the play as a direct attack on their values.

It is used to describe the magnitude/ elegance of Prince Prospero's masquerade in Edgar Allan Poe's short story, "The Masque of the Red Death". Gillenormand in Les Misérables criticizes Hernani.

 
Characters
Doña Sol—Young noblewoman, object of desire for all three male characters.
Don Carlos—King of Spain (in whose court the play's events take place).
Hernani—Bandit, Doña Sol's true love.
Don Ruy Gomes de Silva—Doña Sol's uncle and fiancé. Protects Hernani on the condition that he kill himself later.
 
 

The "battle of Hernani".
 
 
Plot
Set in a fictitious version of the Spanish court of 1519, it is based on courtly romance and intrigues.

Act I
In the first scenes Hugo introduces Doña Sol, a young noblewoman of the court of Don Carlos, King of Spain (the future Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor). The King has come to her room to seduce her. They are interrupted by the arrival of Doña Sol's true love, the bandit Hernani, and the two argue over her and are about to duel. Her uncle (and fiancé) Don Ruy Gomez de Silva enters, and demands to know why both men are in Doña Sol's private chambers. Don Carlos asserts that he had come hoping to meet Ruy Gomez to discuss affairs of state, and Hernani does not reveal the King's true intent. In return for the bandit's discretion, Don Carlos claims to Don Ruy that Hernani is a member of his entourage. Thus, each has given the other an honorable excuse for his presence in the quarters of Doña Sol.

Thus, three men—two noblemen and a mysterious bandit—are in love with the same woman. What follows in the ensuing chaos of action prompted the biographer of Hugo, J.P. Houston, to write "... and a résumé [plot synopsis] will necessarily fail, as in the case of Notre-Dame de Paris, to suggest anything like the involution of its details".

Act II
Don Carlos learns of a midnight rendezvous between Doña Sol and Hernani. He decides to interrupt it in the hope of abducting her. Hernani becomes aware of the plot and has his men surround the King's guards. For the first time, the King becomes aware of Hernani's true identity as a bandit, rather than a nobleman, and refuses a duel. Hernani, although he could charge the King with a crime, allows him to go free.

  Act III
The (interrupted) wedding of Doña Sol to Ruy Gomez. Hernani arrives in disguise, and confronts her for agreeing, however reluctantly, to marry. He admits his criminal past to Ruy Gomez, and the fact that he is being pursued by the King. On the King's arrival, Ruy Gomez hides Hernani and refuses to surrender him, citing laws of hospitality, which, he asserts, protect his guests, even from the King.

While Ruy Gomez and Don Carlos argue, Doña Sol, alone with Hernani, reveals that she plans to commit suicide before her marriage can be consummated. The King, frustrated by Ruy Gomez' resistance, drops the pursuit of Hernani, and instead abducts Doña Sol. Ruy Gomez agrees to spare Hernani's life long enough to free Doña Sol, on condition that Hernani will die willingly at some point in the future. Hernani gives him a horn which Ruy Gomez is to blow to announce the moment of Hernani's death.

Acts IV–V
Don Carlos is elected Holy Roman Emperor. He resolves to live up to the requirements and responsibilities of his new title. Carlos pardons Hernani and gives him Doña Sol.

The two are married, but, as they enjoy their wedding feast, Hernani hears the call of the horn blown by Ruy Gomez. As Hernani is about to drink poison, Doña Sol enters the room and tries to convince him that he is hers and he does not have to listen to her uncle.
She is unable to persuade him otherwise. Doña Sol, shocked by Hernani's decision to kill himself, drinks the half of the poison. Hernani drinks the other half and they die in each other's arms. Ruy Gomez de Silva kills himself.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
     
  Victor Hugo

"The Hunchback of Notre Dame" 

VOLUME I, VOLUME II
     
 
 
     
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1830
 
 
Lamartine Alphonse: "Harmonies poetiques et religieuses"
 
 

Lamartine: "Harmonies poetiques et religieuses"
 
 
see also: Alphonse de Lamartine
 
 
     
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1830
 
 
Mistral Frederic
 

Frédéric Mistral, (born Sept. 8, 1830, Maillane, France—died March 25, 1914, Maillane), poet who led the 19th-century revival of Occitan (Provençal) language and literature. He shared the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1904 (with José Echegaray y Eizaguirre) for his contributions in literature and philology.

 

Frédéric Mistral
  Mistral’s father was a well-to-do farmer in the former French province of Provence. He attended the Royal College of Avignon (later renamed the Frédéric Mistral School). One of his teachers was Joseph Roumanille, who had begun writing poems in the vernacular of Provence and who became his lifelong friend. Mistral took a degree in law at the University of Aix-en-Provence in 1851.

Wealthy enough to live without following a profession, he early decided to devote himself to the rehabilitation of Provençal life and language. In 1854, with several friends, he founded the Félibrige, an association for the maintenance of the Provençal language and customs, extended later to include the whole of southern France (le pays de la langue d’oc, “the country of the language of oc,” so called because the Provençal language uses oc for “yes,” in contrast to the French oui). As the language of the troubadours, Provençal had been the cultured speech of southern France and was used also by poets in Italy and Spain. Mistral threw himself into the literary revival of Provençal and was the guiding spirit and chief organizer of the Félibrige until his death in 1914.

Mistral devoted 20 years’ work to a scholarly dictionary of Provençal, entitled Lou Tresor dóu Félibrige, 2 vol. (1878). He also founded a Provençal ethnographic museum in Arles, using his Nobel Prize money to assist it. His attempts to restore the Provençal language to its ancient position did not succeed, but his poetic genius gave it some enduring masterpieces, and he is considered one of the greatest poets of France.

 
 
His literary output consists of four long narrative poems: Mirèio (1859; Mireio: A Provencal Poem), Calendau (1867), Nerto (1884), and Lou Pouèmo dóu Rose (1897; Eng. trans. The Song of the Rhône); a historical tragedy, La Reino Jano (1890; “Queen Jane”); two volumes of lyrics, Lis Isclo d’or (1876; definitive edition 1889) and Lis Oulivado (1912); and many short stories, collected in Prose d’Armana, 3 vol. (1926–29).
 
 

Frédéric Mistral
  Mistral’s volume of memoirs, Moun espelido (Mes origines, 1906; Eng. trans. Memoirs of Mistral), is his best-known work, but his claim to greatness rests on his first and last long poems, Mirèio and Lou Pouèmo dóu Rose, both full-scale epics in 12 cantos.

Mirèio, which is set in the poet’s own time and district, is the story of a rich farmer’s daughter whose love for a poor basketmaker’s son is thwarted by her parents and ends with her death in the Church of Les Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer.

Into this poem Mistral poured his love for the countryside where he was born. Mirèio skillfully combines narration, dialogue, description, and lyricism and is notable for the springy, musical quality of its highly individual stanzaic form. Under its French title, Mireille, it inspired an opera by Charles Gounod (1863).

Lou Pouèmo dóu Rose tells of a voyage on the Rhône River from Lyon to Beaucaire by the barge Lou Caburle, which is boarded first by a romantic young prince of Holland and later by the daughter of a poor ferryman.

The romance between them is cut short by disaster when the first steamboat to sail on the Rhône accidentally sinks Lou Caburle. Though the crew swims ashore, the lovers are drowned.

Although less musical and more dense in style than Mirèio, this epic is as full of life and colour. It suggests that Mistral, late in life, realized that his aim had not been reached and that much of what he loved was, like his heroes, doomed to perish.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
see also: Frederic Mistral
 
 
     
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1830
 
 
Rossetti Christina
 

Christina Rossetti, in full Christina Georgina Rossetti, pseudonym Ellen Alleyne (born Dec. 5, 1830, London, Eng.—died Dec. 29, 1894, London), one of the most important of English women poets both in range and quality. She excelled in works of fantasy, in poems for children, and in religious poetry.

 


Portrait of Christina Rossetti,
by her brother Dante Gabriel Rossetti

  Christina was the youngest child of Gabriele Rossetti and was the sister of the painter-poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti. In 1847 her grandfather, Gaetano Polidori, printed on his private press a volume of her Verses, in which signs of poetic talent are already visible. In 1850, under the pseudonym Ellen Alleyne, she contributed seven poems to the Pre-Raphaelite journal The Germ. In 1853, when the Rossetti family was in financial difficulties, Christina helped her mother keep a school at Frome, Somerset, but it was not a success, and in 1854 the pair returned to London, where Christina’s father died. In straitened circumstances, Christina entered on her life work of companionship to her mother, devotion to her religion, and the writing of her poetry. She was a firm High Church Anglican, and in 1850 she broke her engagement to the artist James Collinson, an original member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, because he had become a Roman Catholic. For similar reasons she rejected Charles Bagot Cayley in 1864, though a warm friendship remained between them.
 
 
In 1862 Christina published Goblin Market and Other Poems and in 1866 The Prince’s Progress and Other Poems, both with frontispiece and decorations by her brother Dante Gabriel. These two collections, which contain most of her finest work, established her among the poets of her day. The stories in her first prose work, Commonplace and Other Short Stories (1870), are of no great merit, but Sing-Song: a Nursery Rhyme Book (1872; enlarged 1893), with illustrations by Arthur Hughes, takes a high place among children’s books of the 19th century.
 
 

Christina Rossetti, by her brother Dante Gabriel Rossetti
  In 1871 Christina was stricken by Graves’ disease, a thyroid disorder that marred her appearance and left her life in danger.
She accepted her affliction with courage and resignation, sustained by religious faith, and she continued to publish, issuing one collection of poems in 1875 and A Pageant and Other Poems in 1881.

But after the onset of her illness she mostly concentrated on devotional prose writings. Time Flies (1885), a reading diary of mixed verse and prose, is the most personal of these works.

Christina was considered a possible successor to Alfred, Lord Tennyson, as poet laureate, but she developed a fatal cancer in 1891. New Poems (1896), published by her brother, contained unprinted and previously uncollected poems.

Though she was haunted by an ideal of spiritual purity that demanded self-denial, Christina resembled her brother Dante Gabriel in certain ways, for beneath her humility, her devotion, and her quiet, saintlike life lay a passionate and sensuous temperament, a keen critical perception, and a lively sense of humour.

Part of her success as a poet arises from the fact that, while never straining the limits of her sympathy and experience, she succeeded in uniting these two seemingly contradictory sides of her nature.

 
There is a vein of the sentimental and didactic in her weaker verse, but at its best her poetry is strong, personal, and unforced, with a metrical cadence that is unmistakably her own. The transience of material things is a theme that recurs throughout her poetry, and the resigned but passionate sadness of unhappy love is often a dominant note.

John Bryson

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 


Illustration for the cover of Christina Rossetti's Goblin Market
and Other Poems (1862), by her brother Dante Gabriel Rossetti

 
     
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1830
 
 
The fictional letters of Major Jack Downing by the Amer. humorist Seba Smith begin to appear
 
 
Smith Seba
 

Seba Smith (September 14, 1792 – July 28, 1868) was an American humorist and writer. He was married to Elizabeth Oakes Smith, also a major writer and feminist, and he was the father of Appleton Oaksmith.

 

Seba Smith
  Born in Buckfield, Maine, Smith graduated from Bowdoin College in 1818 and then lived in Portland, Maine. He edited various papers including the Eastern Argus and then founded the Portland Courier and edited it from 1830 to 1837.

He was one of the first writers to use American vernacular in humor. His series with the New England character Major Jack Downing was popular after its start in 1830.

Under date of November 26, 1833, John Quincy Adams records in his diary an encounter with Colonel David Crockett, newly returned to Congress, whom he quotes as saying that he (Crockett) "had taken for lodgings two rooms on the first floor of a boarding-house, where he expected to pass the winter and to have for a fellow-lodger Major Jack Downing, the only person in whom he had any confidence for information of what the Government was doing." Diary (New York: Longmans, Green, 1929), p. 445. His dry, satirical humor influenced other 19th century humorists, including Artemus Ward and Finley Peter Dunne. He is also credited as being a forerunner of other American humorists like Will Rogers. He also penned the American folk ballad Young Charlotte. Seba Smith is credited with the first recorded use of the word "scrumptious." He was also the originator of the saying "there is more than one way to skin a cat."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
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1830
 
 
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
 
Le Rouge et le Noir (French for The Red and the Black) is a historical psychological novel in two volumes by Stendhal, published in 1830. It chronicles the attempts of a provincial young man to rise socially beyond his modest upbringing through a combination of talent, hard work, deception, and hypocrisy—yet who ultimately allows his passions to betray him.
 

The novel’s full title, Le Rouge et le Noir: Chronique du XIXe siècle (The Red and the Black: A Chronicle of the 19th Century), indicates its two-fold literary purpose as both a psychological portrait of the romantic protagonist, Julien Sorel, and an analytic, sociological satire of the French social order under the Bourbon Restoration (1814–30). In English, Le Rouge et le Noir is variously translated as Red and Black, Scarlet and Black, and The Red and the Black, without the sub-title.

The title refers to the tension between the clerical and secular interests of the protagonist, which is a matter of some debate.

 
 
Background
Le Rouge et le Noir is the Bildungsroman of Julien Sorel, the intelligent and ambitious protagonist. He comes from a poor family and fails to understand much about the ways of the world he sets out to conquer. He harbours many romantic illusions, but becomes mostly a pawn in the political machinations of the ruthless and influential people about him.

The adventures of the hero satirize early 19th-century French society, especially the hypocrisy and materialism of the aristocracy and members of the Roman Catholic Church, foretelling the coming radical changes that will depose them from their leading role in French society.

The first volume’s epigraph is attributed to Danton: "La vérité, l’âpre vérité" (“The truth, the harsh truth”), but like most of the chapter epigraphs it is actually fictional. The first chapter of each volume repeats the title Le Rouge et le Noir and the Chronique de 1830 sub-title. The novel’s title refers to the contrasting uniforms of the Army and the Church.

Early in the story, Julien Sorel realistically observes that under the Bourbon restoration it is impossible for a man of his plebeian social class to distinguish himself in the army (as he might have done under Napoleon), hence only a Church career offers social advancement and glory.

 
 
 
In complete editions, the first book ("Livre premier", ending after Chapter XXX) concludes with the quotation "To the Happy Few", a dedication that refers to The Vicar of Wakefield by Oliver Goldsmith, parts of which he had memorized in the course of teaching himself English. In The Vicar of Wakefield, "the happy few" refers ironically to the small number of people who read the title character's obscure and pedantic treatise on monogamy.
 
 
Plot
In two volumes, The Red and the Black: A Chronicle of the 19th Century tells the story of Julien Sorel’s life in a monarchic society of fixed social class.
 
 
Book I
Book I presents Julien Sorel, the ambitious son of a carpenter in the fictional village of Verrières, in Franche-Comté, France. He would rather read and daydream about the glory days of Napoleon's long-disbanded army than work his father’s timber business with his brothers, who beat him for his intellectual affectations. He becomes an acolyte of the abbé Chélan, the local Catholic prelate, who later secures him a job tutoring the children of Monsieur de Rênal, the mayor of Verrières.

Although he appears to be a pious, austere cleric, Julien is uninterested in the Bible beyond its literary value and how he can use memorised passages (learnt in Latin) to impress important people.

He enters a love affair with Monsieur de Rênal’s wife, which ends when it is revealed to the village by her chambermaid, Elisa, who is also in love with Julien. The abbé Chélan orders Julien to a seminary in Besançon, which he finds intellectually stifling and pervaded with social cliques. The initially cynical seminary director, the abbé Pirard (a Jansenist even more hated than Jesuits within the diocese), likes Julien and becomes his protector. Disgusted by the Church’s political machinations, the abbé Pirard leaves the seminary, first rescuing Julien from the persecution he would have suffered as his protégé, by recommending him as private secretary to the diplomat Marquis de la Mole, a Roman Catholic legitimist.

 
 
 

Book II
Book II takes place in the years leading up to the July Revolution of 1830. During this time Julien Sorel lives in Paris as an employee of the de la Mole family. Despite his moving among high society and his intellectual talents, the family and their friends condescend to Julien for being an uncouth plebeian. Meanwhile, Julien is acutely aware of the materialism and hypocrisy that permeate the Parisian élite, and that the counter-revolutionary temper of the time renders it impossible for even well-born men of superior intellect and æsthetic sensibility to participate in the nation's public affairs.

The Marquis de la Mole takes Julien to a secret meeting, then despatches him on a dangerous mission to communicate a letter (Julien has it memorised) to the Duc d'Angouleme, who is exiled in England; however, the callow Julien is mentally distracted by an unsatisfying love affair, and thus only learns the message by rote, missing its political significance as a legitimist plot. Unwittingly, he risks his life in service to the right-wing monarchists he most opposes; to himself, he rationalises these actions as merely helping the Marquis, his employer, whom he respects.

 
 
Meanwhile, the Marquis’s bored daughter, Mathilde de la Mole, has become emotionally torn between her romantic attraction to Julien, for his admirable personal and intellectual qualities, and her social repugnance at becoming sexually intimate with a lower-class man. At first, he finds her unattractive, but his interest is piqued by her attentions and the admiration she inspires in others; twice, she seduces and rejects him, leaving him in a miasma of despair, self-doubt, and happiness (for having won her over her aristocratic suitors). Only during his secret mission does he gain the key to winning her affections: a cynical jeu d’amour (game of love) taught to him by Prince Korasoff, a Russian man-of-the-world. At great emotional cost, Julien feigns indifference to Mathilde, provoking her jealousy with a sheaf of love-letters meant to woo Madame de Fervaques, a widow in the social circle of the de la Mole family. Consequently, Mathilde sincerely falls in love with Julien, eventually revealing to him that she carries his child; despite this, whilst he is on diplomatic mission in England, she becomes officially engaged to Monsieur de Croisenois, an amiable, rich young man, heir to a duchy.

Learning of Julien’s romantic liaison with Mathilde, the Marquis de la Mole is angered, but relents before her determination and his affection for Julien, and bestows upon Julien an income-producing property attached to an aristocratic title, and a military commission in the army. Although ready to bless their marriage, he changes his mind after receiving the reply to a character-reference-letter he wrote to the abbé Chélan, Julien’s previous employer in the village of Verrières; the reply letter, written by Madame de Rênal—at the urging of her confessor priest—warns the Marquis that Julien Sorel is a social-climbing cad who preys upon emotionally vulnerable women.

 
 
 

On learning of the Marquis’s disapproval of the marriage, Julien Sorel travels back to Verrières and shoots Madame de Rênal during Mass in the village church; she survives, but Julien is imprisoned and sentenced to death. Mathilde tries to save him by bribing local officials, and Madame de Rênal, still in love with Julien, refuses to testify and asks for his acquittal. Despite this, along with the efforts of priests who have looked after him since his early childhood, Julien Sorel is determined to die because the materialist society of Bourbon Restoration France will not accommodate a low-born man of superior intellect and æsthetic sensibility who possesses neither money nor social connections.

Meanwhile, the presumptive duke, Monsieur de Croisenois, one of the fortunate few of Bourbon France, is killed in a duel fought over a slur upon the honour of Mathilde de la Mole. Her undiminished love for Julien, his imperiously intellectual nature, and its component romantic exhibitionism, render Mathilde’s prison visits to him a duty.

When Julien learns he did not kill Madame de Rênal, his genuine love for her is resurrected—having lain dormant throughout his Parisian time—and she continues to visit him in jail. After he is guillotined, Mathilde de la Mole re-enacts the cherished 16th-century French tale of Queen Margot, who visited her dead lover, Joseph Boniface de La Mole, to kiss the lips of his severed head. She makes a shrine of his tomb in the Italian fashion. Madame de Rênal, more quietly, dies in the arms of her children.

 
 
Structure and themes
Le Rouge et le Noir occurs in the latter years of the Bourbon Restoration (1814–30) and the days of the 1830 July Revolution that established the Kingdom of the French (1830–48).

Julien Sorel’s worldly ambitions are motivated by the emotional tensions, between his idealistic Republicanism (especially nostalgic allegiance to Napoleon), and the realistic politics of counter-revolutionary conspiracy, by Jesuit-supported legitimists, notably the Marquis de la Mole, whom Julien serves, for personal gain.

Presuming a knowledgeable reader, the novelist Stendhal only alludes to the historical background of Le Rouge et le Noir—yet did sub-title it Chronique de 1830 (“Chronicle of 1830”). Moreover, the reader wishing an exposé of the same historical background might wish to read Lucien Leuwen (1834), one of Stendhal’s un-finished novels, posthumously published in 1894.

Stendhal repeatedly questions the possibility, and the desirability, of “sincerity”, because most of the characters, especially Julien Sorel, are acutely aware of having to play a role to gain social approval.
In that 19th-century context, the word “hypocrisy” denoted the affectation of high religious sentiment; in The Red and the Black it connotes the contradiction between thinking and feeling.

 
 
 
In Mensonge romantique et vérité romanesque, 1961, (Deceit, Desire and the Novel) philosopher and critic René Girard identifies in Le Rouge et le Noir the triangular structure he denominates as “mimetic desire”, which reveals how a person’s desire for another is always mediated by a third party, i.e. one desires a person only when he or she is desired by someone else. Girard’s proposition accounts for the perversity of the Mathilde–Julien relationship, especially when he begins courting the widow Mme de Fervaques to pique Mathilde’s jealousy, but also for Julien’s fascination with and membership of the high society he simultaneously desires and despises. To help achieve a literary effect, Stendhal wrote some of the epigraphs—literary, poetic, historic quotations—that he attributed to others.
 
 
Literary and critical significance
André Gide said that The Red and the Black was a novel ahead of its time, that it was a novel for readers in the 20th century. In Stendhal’s time, prose novels included dialogue and omniscient narrator descriptions; his great contribution to literary technique was describing the psychologies (feelings, thoughts, interior monologues) of the characters, and as a result he is considered the creator of the psychological novel.

In Jean-Paul Sartre's play Les Mains Sales (1948), the protagonist Hugo Barine suggests pseudonyms for himself, including “Julien Sorel”, whom he resembles.

Joyce Carol Oates stated in the Afterword to her novel them that she originally titled the manuscript Love and Money as a nod to classic 19th century novels, among them, The Red and The Black "whose class-conscious hero Julien Sorel is less idealistic, greedier, and crueler than Jules Wendell but is clearly his spiritual kinsman".

  Translations
Le Rouge et le Noir, Chronique du XIXe siècle (1830) was first translated to English c. 1900; the best-known translation, The Red and the Black (1926), by Charles Kenneth Scott-Moncrieff, has been, like his other translations, characterised as one of his “fine, spirited renderings, not entirely accurate on minor points of meaning . . . Scott Moncrieff’s versions have not really been superseded”. The version by Robert M. Adams, for the Norton Critical Editions series, is also highly regarded; it “is more colloquial; his edition includes an informative section on backgrounds and sources, and excerpts from critical studies”; it is modernized compared to Moncrieff, but also contains many errors on detailed points. Burton Raffel’s 2006 translation for the Modern Library is sometimes criticized, but generally earned positive reviews, with Salon.com saying, “[Burton Raffel’s] exciting new translation of The Red and the Black blasts Stendhal into the twenty-first century.”

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
see also: Stendhal
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1830
 
 
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 

Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, collection of poems by Alfred, Lord Tennyson (Tennyson Alfred),
published in 1830.

 
Many of the poems contain experimental elements such as irregular metres and words employed for their musical or evocative powers rather than for their strict meanings. The collection includes the introspective “The Owl” and “The Kraken” and some of Tennyson’s best-known shorter poems, including “Claribel: A Melody,” “Mariana,” and “A Spirit Haunts the Year’s Last Hours.”

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
     
  Alfred Tennyson

"Idylls of the King"
"Lady of Shalott", "Sir Galahad"
 
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1830 Part II NEXT-1830 Part IV