Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
     
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1829 Part III NEXT-1830 Part I    
 
 
     
1830 - 1839
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830-1839
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part I
Webster Daniel
Hayne Robert Young
Webster–Hayne debate
Blaine James
Gascoyne-Cecil Robert Arthur Talbot
French conquest of Algeria
French Revolution of 1830
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part II
Francis Joseph I
Elisabeth of Austria
Diaz Porfirio
Gran Colombia
Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig
Petar II Petrovic-Njegos
Grey Charles
November Uprising (1830–31)
Milos Obrenovic I
Mysore
Red Jacket
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part III
William Cobbett: "Rural Rides"
Coulanges Numa Denis
Smith Joseph
Mormon
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie humaine
Dickinson Emily
Emily Dickinson
"Poems"
Genlis Comtesse
Goncourt Jules
Hayne Paul Hamilton
Heyse Paul
Victor Hugo: "Hernani"
Mistral Frederic
Rossetti Christina
Smith Seba
Stendhal: "Le Rouge et le Noir"
Tennyson: "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part IV
Bierstadt Albert
Albert Bierstadt
Corot: "Chartres Cathedral"
Delacroix: "Liberty Guiding the People"
Leighton Frederic
Frederic Leighton
Pissarro Camille
Camille Pissarro
Impressionism Timeline
Ward John Quincy Adams
Waterhouse Alfred
Auber: "Fra Diavolo"
Bellini: "The Capulets and the Montagues"
Bulow Hans
Donizetti: "Anna Bolena"
Goldmark Karl
Karl Goldmark - Violin Concerto No 1
Karl Goldmark
Leschetizky Teodor
Remenyi Eduard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1830 Part V
Reclus Jean Jacques Elisee
Markham Clements Robert
Brown Robert
Hessel Johann Friedrich Christian
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Lyell Charles
Raoult Francois Marie
Reichenbach Karl
Royal Geographical Society
Thimonnier Barthelemy
Thomson Wyville
Lander Richard Lemon
Charting the Coastline
John Biscoe
Lockwood Belva Ann
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part I
Battle of Ostroleka
Caprivi Leo
Charles Albert
Leopold I of Belgium
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
Goschen George Joachim
Turner Nat
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Antonius
Labouchere Henry
Clausewitz Carl
Garfield James Abram
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33)
Russell John
Pedro II of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part II
Blavatsky Helena
Gregory XVI
Farrar Frederic William
Gilman Daniel Coit
Harrison Frederic
Miller William
Adventist
White Helen Gould Harmon
Roscoe William
Thomas Isaiah
Winsor Justin
Wright William Aldis
Rutherford Mark
Darby John Nelson
Plymouth Brethren
Balzac: "La Peau de chagrin"
Calverley Charles Stuart
Donnelly Ignatius
Victor Hugo: "Notre Dame de Paris"
Jackson Helen Hunt
Leskov Nikolai
Raabe Wilhelm
Sardou Victorien
Trumbull John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part III
Begas Reinhold
Reinhold Begas
Meunier Constantin
Constantin Meunier
Bellini: "La Sonnambula"
Bellini: "Norma"
Joachim Joseph
Joseph Joachim - Violin Concerto, Op 11
Joseph Joachim
Meyerbeer: "Robert le Diable"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1831 Part IV
Barry Heinrich Anton
Guthrie Samuel
Liebig Justus
Chloroform
Colomb Philip Howard
Darwin and the Beagle
Maxwell James Clerk
North Pole
Routh Edward John
Sauria Marc Charles
Great cholera pandemic
Garrison William Lloyd
Godkin Edwin Lawrence
Hirsch Moritz
Hood John Bell
French Foreign Legion
London Bridge
Pullman George Mortimer
Schofield John
Smith Samuel Francis
Stephan Heinrich
Whiteley William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part I
Reform Bill
Gentz Friedrich
Roberts Frederick Sleigh
Democratic Party
Clay Henry
Calhoun Caldwell John
"Italian Youth"
Falkland Islands
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe, 1815-1832
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part II
Bancroft Hubert Howe
Fowler Thomas
Krause Karl Christian Friedrich
Rask Rasmus
Stephen Leslie
Vaughan Herbert Alfred
White Andrew Dickson
Alcott Louisa May
Alger Horatio
Arnold Edwin
Balzac: "Le Colonel Chabert"
Bjornson Bjornstjerne Martinius
Busch Heinrich
Carroll Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll - photographer

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" 
"
Through the Looking-Glass" 
Delavigne Casimir
Echegaray Jose
Washington Irving: "Tales of the Alhambra"
Kennedy John Pendleton
Pellico Silvio
Aleksandr Pushkin: "Eugene Onegin"
Tennyson: "Lady of Shalott"
Watts-Dunton Theodore
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part III
Constable: "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs"
Dore Gustave
Gustave Dore
Manet Edouard
Edouard Manet
Orchardson William
William Orchardson
Hughes Arthur
Arthur Hughes
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique"
Damrosch Leopold
Donizetti: "L'Elisir d'Amore"
Garcia Manuel Vicente Rodriguez
Malibran Maria
Viardot Pauline
Garcia Manuel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1832 Part IV
Wundt Wilhelm
Crookes William
Hayes Isaac Israel
Bolyai Janos
Koenig Rodolph
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Reaching for the Pole
Nares George Strong
Scarpa Antonio
Vambery Armin
Conway Moncure Daniel
Declaration of Independence, 1776
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part I
Gordon Charles George
Otto of Greece
Amalia of Oldenburg
Randolph John
Harrison Benjamin
Isabella II
Santa Anna Antonio Lopez
Whig Party
Muhammad Ali dynasty
Zollverein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part II
Bopp Franz
Bradlaugh Charles
Dilthey Wilhelm
Fawcett Henry
Furness Horace Howard
Ingersoll Robert Green
Pusey Edward Bouverie
Alarcon Pedro Antonio
Balzac: "Eugenie Grandet"
Booth Edwin
Charles Dickens: "Sketches by Boz"
George Cruikshank. From Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 1836.
Gordon Adam Lindsay
Lamb: "Last Essays of Elia"
Longfellow: "Outre-Mer"
Morris Lewis
George Sand: "Lelia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part III
Burne-Jones Edward
Edward Burne-Jones
Rops Felicien
Felicien Rops
Guerin Pierre-Narcisse
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Herold Ferdinand
Ferdinand Herold - Piano Concerto No.2
Ferdinand Herold
Brahms Johannes
Brahms - Hungarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Chopin: Etudes Op.10 & 25
Heinrich Marschner: "Hans Heiling"
Mendelssohn: "Italian Symphony"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1833 Part IV
Weber Wilhelm Eduard
Muller Johannes Peter
Roscoe Henry Enfield
Wheatstone bridge
Back George
Factory Acts
Burnes Alexander
Home Daniel Dunglas
Nobel Alfred
SS "Royal William"
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
General Trades Union in New York
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part I
Grenville William Wyndham
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Quadruple Alliance
Peel Robert
South Australia Colonisation Act 1834
Xhosa Wars
Cape Colony
Carlism
First Carlist War
Battle of Alsasua
Battle of Alegria de Alava
Battle of Venta de Echavarri
Battle of Mendaza
First Battle of Arquijas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part II
Acton John Emerich
Eliot Charles William
Gibbons James
Seeley John Robert
Spurgeon Charles
Treitschke Heinrich
Maurier George
Balzac: "Le Pere Goriot"
Bancroft George
Blackwood William
Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii"
Dahn Felix
Frederick Marryat: "Peter Simple"
Alfred de Musset: "Lorenzaccio"
Pushkin: "The Queen of Spades"
Shorthouse Joseph Henry
Stockton Frank Richard
Browne Charles Farrar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part III
Perov Vasily
Vasily Perov
Bartholdi Frederic Auguste
Degas Edgar
Edgar Degas
Ingres: "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian"
Whistler James McNeill
James McNeill Whistler
Morris William
William Morris
Adolphe Adam: "Le Chalet"
Barnett John
John Barnett: "The Mountain Sylph"
John Barnett
Berlioz: "Harold en Italie"
Borodin Aleksandr
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin
Elssler Fanny
Kreutzer Conradin
Kreutzer - Das Nachtlager in Granada
Konradin Kreutzer
Santley Charles
Ponchielli Amilcare
 Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1834 Part IV
Haeckel Ernst
Arago Francois
Buch Leopold
Faraday: "Law of Electrolysis"
Langley Samuel Pierpont
McCormick Cyrus Hall
Mendeleyev Dmitry
Runge Friedlieb Ferdinand
Phenol
Steiner Jakob
Depew Chauncey Mitchell
Burning of Parliament
Gabelsberger Franz Xaver
Hansom Joseph Aloysius
Hunt Walter
Lloyd's Register
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part I
Ferdinand I of Austria
Bernstorff Christian Gunther
Brisson Henri
Masayoshi Matsukata
Olney Richard
Lee Fitzhugh
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Palma Tomas Estrada
Riyad Pasha
White George Stuart
Second Seminole War
Texas Revolution (1835 – 1836)
Battle of Gonzales
Siege of Bexar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part II
Leake William Martin
Abbott Lyman
Brooks Phillips
Caird Edward
Dahlmann Friedrich
Finney Charles Grandison
Harris William Torrey
Hensen Viktor
Jevons William Stanley
Skeat Walter William
Cousin Victor
Strauss David Friedrich
Giacomo Leopardi: "Canti"
Austin Alfred
Butler Samuel
Gaboriau Emile
Hemans Felicia Dorothea
Hogg James
Ireland William Henry
Mathews Charles
Menken Adah Isaacs
Simms William Gilmore
Mark Twain
Carducci Giosue
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part III
Constable: "The Valley Farm"
Corot: "Hagar in the Desert"
Defregger Franz
Kunichika Toyohara
Toyohara Kunichika
Cui Cesar
Cesar Cui "Orientale"
Cesar Cui
Donizetti: "Lucia di Lammermoor"
Halevy Fromental
Halevy: "La Juive"
Placido Domingo - Rachel, quand du Seigneur
Fromental Halevy
Saint-Saens Camille
Camille Saint-Saens - Danse Macabre
Camille Saint-Saens
Thomas Theodore
Wieniawski Henri
Wieniawski - Polonaise de Concert in D major No. 1, Op. 4
Henri Wieniawski
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1835 Part IV
Newcomb Simon
Schiaparelli Giovanni Virginio
Geikie Archibald
Chaillu Paul
Locomotive: Electric traction
Talbot Wiliam Henry Fox
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society
Sacher-Masoch Leopold Ritter
Masochism
Heth Joice
Bennett James Gordon
Carnegie Andrew
Chubb Charles
Colt Samuel
Field Marshall
Green Henrietta Howland
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part I
Crockett Davy
Houston Sam
Battle of the Alamo
Battle of San Jacinto
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
Cannon Joseph Gurney
Chartism
Arkansas
Chamberlain Joseph
Campbell-Bannerman Henry
Great Trek
Voortrekker
Xhosa
Inoue Kaoru
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part II
Ralph Waldo Emerson: "Nature"
Ramakrishna
Aldrich Thomas Bailey
Besant Walter
Frederick Marryat: "Mr. Midshipman Easy"
Burnand Francis Cowley
Carlyle: "Sartor Resartus"
Dickens: "Pickwick Papers"
Eckermann Johann Peter
Gilbert William Schwenk
Gogol: "The Government Inspector"
Harte Bret
Newell Robert Henry
Reuter Fritz
Pusckin: "The Captain's Daughter"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part III
Alma-Tadema Lawrence
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Corot: "Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Fantin-Latour Henri
Henri Fantin-Latour
Homer Winslow
Winslow Homer
Lefebvre Jules Joseph
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Lenbach Franz
Franz von Lenbach
Poynter Edward
Edward Poynter
Tissot James
James Tissot
Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
Adolphe Adam: "Le Postilion de long jumeau"
Delibes Leo
Delibes - Lakme - Flower duet
Leo Delibes
Reicha Antoine
Glinka: "A Life for the Tzar"
Mendelssohn: "St. Paul"
Meyerbeer: "Les Huguenots"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1836 Part IV
Bergmann Ernst
Daniell John Frederic
Davy Edmund
Ericsson John
Gray Asa
Lockyer Norman
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Crushed stone
Schwann Theodor
Pepsin
Schimper Karl Friedrich
Gould Jay
"The Lancers"
Ross Betsy
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part I
William IV, King of Great Britain
Michigan
Van Buren Martin
Cleveland Grover
Itagaki Taisuke
Holstein Friedrich
Boulanger Georges
Carnot Sadi
Caroline affair
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Rebellions of 1837
Lafontaine Louis-Hippolyte
Baldwin Robert
Sitting Bull
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part II
Thomas Carlyle: "The French Revolution"
Green John Richard
Lyon Mary
Mount Holyoke College
Mann Horace
Moody Dwight
Murray James
Oxford English Dictionary
Old School–New School Controversy
Balzac: "Illusions perdues"
Nathaniel Hawthorne: "Twice-told Tales"
Braddon Mary Elizabeth
Eggleston Edward
Ebers Georg
Howells William Dean
Swinburne Algernon Charles
Wyndham Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part III
Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
Legros Alphonse
Alphonse Legros
Marees Hans
Hans von Marees
Auber: "Le Domino  noir"
Balakirev Mily
Balakirev - Symphony No.1
Mily Balakirev
Berlioz: "Requiem"
Dubois Theodore
Theodore Dubois - Piano Concerto No. 2
Theodore Dubois
Lesueur Jean-Francois
Lesueur: Coronation music for Napoleon I
Jean-François Lesueur
Lortzing: "Zar und Zimmermann"
Cosima Wagner
Waldteufel Emile
Emile Waldteufel - waltzes
Emile Waldteufel
Zingarelli Niccolo
Nicola Antonio Zingarelli - Tre ore dell'Agonia
Nicola Zingarelli
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1837 Part IV
Analytical Engine
Borsig August
Burroughs John
Cooke William
Telegraph
d'Urville Jules Dumont
Kuhne Wilhelm
Van der Waals Johannes Diderik
Fitzherbert Maria Anne
Hanna Mark
Lovejoy Elijah
Morgan John Pierpont
Pitman Isaac
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part I
Osceola
Gambetta Leon
Weenen Massacre
Battle of Blood River
Anti-Corn Law League
Cobden Richard
Bright John
Rodgers John
Weyler Valeriano
Wood Henry Evelyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part II
Adams Henry
Bowditch Nathaniel
Bryce Viscount
Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton
Lecky William Edward Hartpole
Lounsbury Thomas Raynesford
Mach Ernst
Mohler Johann Adam
Sacy Antoine Isaac Silvestre
Sidgwick Henry
Trevelyan George Otto
Lytton: "The Lady of Lyons"
Daly Augustin
Dickens: "Oliver Twist"
Victor Hugo: "Ruy Blas"
Irving Henry
Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Rachel Felix
Roe Edward Payson
Schwab Gustav Benjamin
Scudder Horace Elisha
Creevey Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part III
Dalou Jules
Jules Dalou
Mauve Anton
Anton Mauve
Richardson Hobson Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson
Fortuny Maria
Maria Fortuny
Berlioz: "Benvenuto Cellini"
Bizet Georges
Bizet - Carmen - Habanera
Georges Bizet
Bruch Max
Max Bruch - Violinkonzert Nr. 1
Max Bruch
Lind Johanna Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1838 Part IV
Abbe Cleveland
Cournot Antoine-Augustin
Daguerre-Niepce method of photography
Dulong Pierre-Louis
Hyatt Alpheus
Muir John
Perkin William Henry
Stevens John
Zeppelin Ferdinand
Belleny John
United States Exploring Expedition
Wilkes Charles
Hill Octavia
Wanamaker John
Woodhull Victoria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part I
Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851)
Rudini Antonio Starabba
Treaty of London
First Opium War (1839-1842)
Richter Eugen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII of Denmark
Natalia Republic
Abdulmecid I
Ranjit Singh
Van Rensselaer Stephen
Cervera Pascual
First Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan Wars
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part II
Fesch Joseph
Paris Gaston
Peirce Charles Sanders
Reed Thomas
Anzengruber Ludwig
Sparks Jared
Galt John
Herne James
Longfellow: "Hyperion"
De Morgan William
Ouida
Dickens:  "Nicholas Nickleby"
Pater Walter
Рое: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Praed Winthrop Mackworth
Smith James
Sully-Prudhomme Armand
Stendhal: "La Chartreuse de Parme"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part III
Beechey William
William Beechey
Cezanne Paul
Paul Cezanne
Sisley Alfred
Alfred Sisley
Thoma Hans
Hans Thoma
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Antonio Carlos Gomes - Il Guarany - Ouverture
Antonio Carlos Gomes
Moussorgsky Modest
Moussorgsky - Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Paine John Knowles
John Knowles Paine - Symphony No.1
John Knowles Paine
Randall James Rider
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1839 Part IV
Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira
Grey George
Into the Interior
Garnier Frangois
Goodyear Charles
Vulcanization
Jacobi Moritz
Mosander Carl Gustaf
Przhevalsky Nikolay
Smith William
Mond Ludwig
Stephens John Lloyd
Catherwood Frederick
George Henry
Kundt August
Schonbein Christian Friedrich
Steinheil Carl August
Doubleday Abner
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Cadbury George
Cunard Samuel
Cunard Line
Grand National
Lowell John
Lowell Institute
Rockefeller John
Stanhope Hester Lucy
Weston Edward Payson
Willard Frances
 
 
 

Eugene Delacroix. Liberty Leading the People
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1830-1839  History at a Glance
 
 

 
 
1830
 
 
1830 French Revolt Against King

The July Revolution of 1830 was a revolt against King Charles X of France and would bring Louis-Philippe, a bourgeois, to the throne. King Charles opposed the liberals, who had just won the majority in the recent legislature elections, and imposed his July Ordinances, which censored the press. He received about three-quarters of the electoral votes, and insisted on a new vote for the legislature positions. Workers, including middle-class professionals, revolted. Three days of uncontrolled fighting ensued, which forced King Charles to flee. Some of the insurrectionists wanted to form a republic, but Louis-Philippe, who was seen as more middle class than aristocratic, was named king. Workers were still disgruntled, but a more liberal constitution was instituted. The July Revolution was the start of a movement throughout Europe for social revolution. Belgium would become independent from the Netherlands in 1831, and Greece, which had already been fighting for independence from the Ottoman Empire, became a sovereign state in 1832.

FOOTNOTE The 1830 Revolution occurred in three days —July 27 through July 29 — by which date the red flags of the revolutionaries flew atop many buildings in Paris, including the Hotel de Ville, or City Hall, and the Louvre.
 
 

Louis-Phillipe going from the Palais Royal to the Hôtel de Ville, 31 July 1830, by Horace Vernet
 
 
EUROPE HAD SCARCELY RECOVERED from the unrest of the previous decade when France was convulsed by the July Revolution, an insurrection that forced the abdication of Charles X (r. 1824-30), who was replaced by Louis-Philippe, duke of Orleans (r. 1830-48). The rebellion had been triggered by Charles's attempt to enforce repressive ordinances, such as suspending the freedom of the press and modifying electoral law so many people lost their right to vote.
 

Louis-Philippe's succession to the throne signaled the arrival of power for the bourgeoisie, who were his chief support, rather than the aristocracy, and he remained in power until 1848.

 

Battle at the Rue de Rohan, by Hippolyte Lecomte
 
 
 

Around the same time, revolts were taking place in the Italian and German kingdoms; in the Netherlands; and in Russia, as the Polish living under Russian rule rose up against the czar.

 

Fighting between Polish insurgents and the Russian cuirassiers on bridge in Warsaw's Łazienki Park.
 
 
 
1830 Book of Mormon Published

The Book of Mormon, accepted as holy scripture alongside the Bible in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and other Mormon churches, marked the beginning of the Mormon religion when it was published in 1830. The founder of the religion, Joseph Smith, an American, said an angel named Moroni told him where to find buried gold plates that were engraved with God's revelation. Smith translated the plates and published them as the Book of Mormon. He and his followers believed in the second coming of Christ followed by 1,000 years of peace ruled by Jesus and that through spiritual practice, a person could evolve into a god. They moved from New York, to Ohio, to Missouri, to eventually Illinois, where Smith was killed in 1844 by a mob because of his religious beliefs. In 1846, under new leader Brigham Young, a group of Mormons began a 1,100-mile migration to Utah and established what is now Salt Lake City in order to practice their religion without persecution. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints now has nearly ten million members worldwide.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Also during this period, French troops arrived in Algiers, with the intention of taking control. A few years earlier, in 1827, the provincial Ottoman ruler, or dey, Husayn (r. 1818-38), had struck a French consul with a fly whisk, giving the French a pretext for war. The source of the tension was an unpaid debt between France and the dey. During a French blockade of Algiers, matters escalated. By July 5, the French had raised their flag over the kasbah in Algiers and this marked the start of French control over this North African territory.

 

Attack of Algiers from the sea, on 29 June 1830, by Théodore Gudin.
 
 
 

In South America, political alliances were also fragile. Before his death in 1830, Simon Bolivar had witnessed the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador from Gran Colombia, which ended his dream of political unity among the new republics.

 


Bolívar's death by Venezuelan painter Antonio Herrera Toro

 
 

Farther north, more settlers in the US were making their way west, and this was known as
the era of the wagon train.
Settlers, traveling in groups of horse-drawn wagons carrying all of their possessions, headed out to unknown territory to set up farms and settle the land.

 
 

Meanwhile, to facilitate settlement in the east, the US government passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830. This stripped American Indians of legal rights, and forced them to leave their desirable territory in the southeast of the country and relocate to sparsely populated land west of the Mississippi. The moves resulted in many deaths.

 
 
1830 Geological Evolution

British geologist Charles Lyell continued on the work of James Hutton in his textbook Principles of Geology, establishing the theory of uniformitarianism—that Earth is shaped by a gradual, yet constant, geological process over millions of years. The opposing view of the time was catastrophism—the idea that Earth is shaped by sudden, violent supernatural events. By studying an ordinary process like the erosion of land from rivers, Lyell believed that these sorts of changes are uniform through time, and over the long term are what shaped Earth. He believed valleys were created by slow erosion from water and wind, not huge floods. He recognized that the process worked on a geologic time line, and concluded that Earth must be extremely old. His work, read by Charles Darwin, helped influence the study of evolutionary biology and became the basis of modern geology.
 
 
 
1830 First Intercity Steam Railway

The world's first intercity passenger railway operated by a steam engine opened between Liverpool and Manchester in Britain. The 30-mile line was first powered by the Rocket, a steam locomotive designed by English engineers George Stephenson and his son Robert, which could reach speeds of up to 36 miles an hour and would become the model for later locomotives. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway was immediately deemed a success, and within 40 years Britain would have 13,500 miles of railways. This marked the beginning of the railway era, in which railways were built throughout the world, allowing people and goods to move quickly and efficiently. Railways were considered an impetus to the industrial revolution, and passenger railways, like the Liverpool-Manchester line, dominated transportation for nearly a century.
 
 
 
1830 First U.S. Steam Engine

Dubbed Tom Thumb, America's first steam locomotive pulled out from Baltimore and traveled 13 miles to Ellicott's Mills. Clocked at 18 miles an hour, the train was the first steam locomotive to travel the rails of the United States. On its return trip, Tom Thumb raced a horse—and lost. But the miniature locomotive signaled the first use of the growing Baltimore and Ohio line, which connected the city of Baltimore with Ohio and the growing West.

FOOTNOTE Tom Thumb was designed by Peter Cooper, who also invented the gelatin soon commercialized as Jell-O. In 1859 Cooper founded a school "for the advancement of science and art": NewYork City's Cooper Union.
 
 
 
1831
 
 

A depiction of the uprising that ted to the Belgian independence.
 
 

THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS was caught up in the turmoil across Europe. The Congress of Vienna had forced the Belgian territories, which had been under French control, to unite with the Dutch, thereby creating a buffer between Russia and France. This move proved unpopular and tensions grew over the intervening years.

 
 

By August 1830, inspired by events in France, the Belgian Revolution had begun. The result was a clear break from the kingdom of the Netherlands. Later that year a constitution was issued, which created a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. On January 20, 1831, the new state of Belgium was officially recognized by Britain and France, though not the Netherlands. The Belgians were forced to choose a monarch with no direct connection to other major European powers. They finally elected Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld—the uncle of Britain's Queen Victoria—and he ruled as Leopold I until 1865.

 
 

Charles Rogier leads the 250 revolutionary volunteers from Liège to Brussels (Charles Soubre, 1878)
 
 
 
The same year, Syria was annexed by Egypt until 1840, when the latter was finally forced to return the region to the Ottomans.
 
 
1831  Turner Leads Rebellion

In 1831, Nat Turner, who was born into slavery in Virginia, led his famous slave revolt. Turner, whose parents and grandparents encouraged him to resist slavery, was a deeply religious preacher, said to have had visions. He believed it was his calling to free slaves from bondage and take over the armory in Jerusalem, Virginia. Turner first killed his master and his family and then led a group of some 70 men on a two-day march, killing more than 50 whites on their way to Jerusalem. A Virginia militia of 3,000 men captured and hanged many of the insurrectionists. Turner was on the
run for six weeks but was eventually captured, tried, and then hanged. Some 100 slaves uninvolved with the march were murdered by angry mobs. As a result of the slave rebellion, the argument that slaves were content to be servants could no longer be used. At first the Virginia state legislature considered abolishing slavery, but the issue was defeated in a close vote. Word of Turner's slave rebellion spread throughout the South, igniting fear that it would happen again. As a result, legislation was drafted against free blacks and slaves, restricting their education, movement, and assembly. After Turner was executed, his lawyer, Thomas R. Gray, published The Confessions of Nat Turner, a pamphlet that was based on Gray's conversations with Turner before he went to trial.

FOOTNOTE Nat Turner said he heard voices and saw visions that encouraged him to rebel. When a full solar eclipse occurred in February 1831, he took it as a sign to mount his insurrection, which occurred six months later.
 
 
 
1831 McCormick Invents Reaper

In 1831, American Cyrus McCormick invented his first mechanical grain-reaping machine, allowing farmers to harvest far more grain with less labor. The previous harvesting method was handheld scythes wielded by large numbers of laborers, who were only able to work up to three acres a day. By reducing the number of laborers and increasing the speed of the reaping process, McCormick's machine drastically increased profits. Another key component to McCormick's success was his business skills: He traveled door to door to sell his machine and offered money-back guarantees, fixed prices, and interchangeable replacement parts. The mechanical reaper caught the world's attention at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, and would soon be used by European farmers. McCormick was elected to the French Academy of Sciences for "having done more for agriculture than any other living man."
 
 

A 20th-century lithograph depicts Cyrus McCormick (foreground) and his reaping machine.
 
 
 
1831 Darwin Makes Voyage

Charles Darwin embarked on a five-year voyage aboard the H.M.S. Beagle to South America and the Pacific, collecting plants, animals, and fossils and making observations that would lead to his theory of evolution by natural selection. Darwin, an English naturalist, spent most of his time off-ship. During his time on the Galapagos Islands, he noted that the largest islands were far enough apart from each other to have developed their own unique flora and fauna. For instance, he noticed that finches on the different islands had developed different beaks adapted to the food available. This observation and others from the voyage led to his breakthrough theory of natural selection: Species that were better adapted to their environments would survive and produce stronger offspring. Species that weren't as adept had less success at survival. Darwin came home with his diary filled with 800 pages of writing and began to reflect on his five years of research, which eventually led to his formation of the radical theory that species— including humans—were not immutable. Instead of being created in God's image, humans had evolved from ancient ancestors, just like other forms of life.

In 1839, Darwin published the results of his research during the voyage: Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited by HMS Beagle, 1832-1836.

 
 

An 1890 illustration of H.M.S. Beagle in the Strait of Magellan,
Mount Sarmiento in the background
 
 
 
1832
 
 
"NO MINISTER EVER STOOD, OR COULD STAND, AGAINST PUBLIC OPINION."

Robert Peel, British politician, on the Reform Act, 1834
 
 
BRITAIN ALSO SAW UPHEAVAL AND SOCIAL CHANGE in the 1830s. There had been growing public discontent over the outdated voting system. A bill was drafted, aimed at transferring votes and redistributing seats from small "rotten" boroughs controlled by the nobility to the more populous industrial towns.
 

The English Reform Act
A cartoon shows the reformers' attack on the "Old Rotten Tree," which symbolizes the corrupt "rotten" boroughs. They wanted a fairer distribution of parliamentary seats.
 
The first Reform Bill failed to be passed in parliament. This caused serious riots in many cities, as well as a political crisis with the prime minister, Charles Grey (1764-1845), who threatened to step down over the matter. The bill finally became law on June 4, 1832. This legislation allowed more middle-class men the vote, but the working class and women were still excluded.
 
 
 
1833   
 
 

IN BRITAIN, INDUSTRIAL development and urban growth progressed rapidly. Laws were introduced to address exploitation of labour and the growing cost of providing for the poor. The 1833 Factory Act appointed inspectors to monitor factories and limited the hours that children could work.

 
 
In 1832, Egypt invaded Syria. Muhammad Ali, the pasha, was angered by a failed promise from the Ottoman sultan to give him I the territory. Ali took Gaza and Jerusalem in the First Turko-Egyptian War, and by 1833 the Ottoman government begged Russia for help, and 18,000 troops were sent to Constantinople. Britain and France got involved, demanding a settlement, in which Egypt was given Syria, and Russia withdrew.
 

Portrait of Muhammad Ali Pasha in the Cairo Citadel museum
 
 
 
1833 Penny Newspaper Hits Stands

In 1833, advances in printing and papermaking engendered the penny press—cheap, politically independent newspapers that sold for a penny rather than six cents and made news accessible to everyday people. The New York Sun, founded by publisher Benjamin Day, is credited as having been the first successful penny paper, but many more soon followed, creating competition for "scoops." Stories focused on crime and human interest, unlike previous newspapers, which had primarily served as mouthpieces for political parties. The immediate success of the penny press caused newspaper circulation numbers to skyrocket. Before the Sun, the most popular New York paper sold about 4,500 copies daily. By 1835, New Yorkers were buying 15,000 copies of the Sun every day.
 
 
 
1834
 
 


This engraving shows children working in an English mill. The size of the first cotton
spinning machines meant they were best operated by children.

 
 
In England, local parishes provided some relief for the elderly, ill, and impoverished. Out of this grew a system of workhouses, aiming to give employment to the able-bodied. The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 stipulated that the poor could only receive assistance if they went to workhouses, which were to be built in every parish. Conditions in the workhouses were deliberately harsh and the legislation immediately proved unpopular.
 
 

Commemorative coin
The Slave Emancipation Act outlawed the buying or selling of people, set free young children, and compensated planters in most of the British Empire.
 
 
In China, British merchants were granted permission to engage in trade after legislation ended the East India Company's monopoly. Although there had been private traders in Canton before the act, now more were allowed to sell their wares and export Chinese goods, such as tea, the imports of which rose 40 per cent after the beginning of free trade.
 
 
1834 Icemaker Invented

In 1834, Jacob Perkins, an American inventor working in London, patented the first practical vapor-compression refrigeration system used for icemaking. His machine, which used the evaporation of sulfuric ether, had the same basic components that are found in refrigerators today: a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, and an evaporator. The natural-ice industry was already rooted in the United States, so Perkins's machine did not generate much interest, but 14 years later an improved design was introduced by an American doctor, John Gorrie, who developed a machine that made ice and provided cool air to his Florida hospital. Ice was hard to come by in the South, but Gorrie believed cool air would cure his patients, who were suffering from a malaria pandemic. He put all his efforts into
making his machine, and although it had flaws, Gorrie's and Perkins's pioneering refrigeration efforts paved the way for modern ice and refrigeration.

FOOTNOTE Jacob Perkins also invented a way to plate buckles, a machine that cut nails and made nail heads in one action, tools to measure water depth and vessel speed through water, and steel engraving plates for banknotes.
 
 
 
1834 Analytical Engine Computes

In 1834, English mathematician Charles Babbage envisioned an "analytical engine"—a forerunner to the modern electronic computer. The device was to perform any mathematical function, based on programming from punch cards (similar to those of the Jacquard loom), and print the answer on paper. However, Babbage's governmental financial support to develop his machine—which, if built, would have been the size of a locomotive—was withdrawn in 1842. Even if Babbage had been granted the funds for his idea, modern computing was years away: Electronic switches had not been invented. The world would just have to wait for Babbage's idea to reach fruition.
 
 
 
1834 Braille Writes for Blind

In 1834, Louis Braille perfected a code of raised dots on paper, making it possible for the blind to be able to read and write. The code, which is named after him, is read by a person lightly running his fingers over the embossed dots. Braille became blind at the age of three as a result of an accident and attended a school for blind children in Paris. While there he learned of a military writing system using a system of 12 raised dots that allowed soldiers to communicate quietly and at night. Braille simplified the system by arranging six dots in two columns of three. Sixty-three different patterns represent letters, numbers, and punctuation and can be written by hand or with a machine. The system has been adopted around the world and is credited as bringing literacy to the blind.
 
 
 
1835
 
 
"IT SEEMS TO BE A LITTLE WORLD WITHIN ITSELF."

Charles Darwin, from Journal of Researches, September 1835
 
 

IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN, almost 600 miles (1,000km) from the coastline of South America, English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) took extensive notes on the nature of the Galapagos Islands. Darwin had accepted a post on a scientific voyage aboard the Beagle, which left England on December 27, 1831, arriving in the Galapagos in September 1835. It was in the Galapagos where Darwin first noticed the difference in the species of wildlife on the island compared with mainland South America. This discovery laid the foundation for his later scientific work on the evolution of different species.

 

A Galapagos cactus finch, one of the species
noted by Charles Darwin.
 
 
In Britain, the National Colonisation Society had been set up to facilitate the settlement in Australia of people who were not convicts. Founder Edward Gibbon Wakefield (1796-1862)-who had served time in prison—came up with a scheme for populating colonies based on the sale of land and a tax on the price, which would pay for the transportation to the colony. A fleet set off for South Australia, where the city of Melbourne was established in 1835, and Adelaide a year later.
 
 
1835 Coriolis Explains Weather

Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis first published his theories on the Coriolis force in 1835, providing a better understanding of Earth's winds and ocean currents. Earth's rotation has an effect on the path of anything traveling across its surface—from water, to wind, to missiles. A missile flies straight, but when watched from the rotating Earth, it appears to curve. The force also applies to weather and oceanography. Earth rotates under the air and ocean's currents, causing them to follow a curved path. In the Northern Hemisphere, the wind and currents turn to the right of their direction of motion; and in the Southern Hemisphere, they turn to the left. Coriolis articulated principles of physics that demonstrate that this deflection is caused by the motion of the object (such as the water or air), the motion of Earth rotating, and latitude.

FOOTNOTE While Coriolis's name is most often associated with meteorology, his work was in mechanics. His most important paper developed equations to describe the relative motion in rotating systems like waterwheels.
 
 
 
1836
 
 

Battle of the Alamo
Texans were vastly outnumbered by Mexican forces in the battle fought between 23 February and 6 March and there were very few survivors.
 
 
AS SETTLERS IN THE US MOVED WEST, many decided to live in the Texas territory, which was part of Mexico. However, Mexican authorities wanted tighter control over this large territory and the settlers rebelled in October 1835, launching the Texas War of Independence. The following March, after months of unrest, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (1794-1876) marched into Texas with 5,000 Mexican troops Although massively outnumbered, the rebels managed to hold them off during a battle at a San Antonio fortress, called the Alamo.
 


The Alamo, the site of a key battle for
Texan independence.

 

The rebels were eventually defeated but the Alamo proved a rallying point for Texans bent on revenge. Soon after, General Samuel Houston (1793-1863) led a Texan army with the battle cry "Remember the Alamo!" and beat Santa Anna at the Battle of Jacinto on April 21, forcing Mexico to recognize the new republic of Texas.

 
 

Surrender of Santa Anna by William Henry Huddle shows the Mexican general Santa Anna surrendering to a wounded Sam Houston. It hangs in the Texas State Capitol.
 
 
 
1836 Labor Union Organized

The London Workingmen's Association was organized by radical William Lovett and others in 1836, creating an independent labor organization. Its core group was working-class men frustrated with the injustices that came with the industrial revolution in Britain. Out of this came a movement, called Chartism, named after the People's Charter, which was a bill drafted in 1838 demanding voting rights for all men and parliamentary reform. Slow economic times, high unemployment, and long factory hours were what stirred the working class to take action. An 1839 convention led to riots, and eventually many of the Chartist leaders were arrested. When the economy improved, the movement's momentum slowed, but most of the points in the original bill were eventually addressed. The Chartist movement showed that the working class could be organized on a massive scale, as would be proved in the following few decades.
 
 
 
1837
 
 
EXPERIMENTS had been taking place for decades over the question of how to transmit electric current through wires. In 1837, two British inventors, William Fothergill Cooke and Charles Wheatstone, made a breakthrough and secured a patent for an electric telegraph device that allowed for communication through wires and had needles that could point to specific letters and numbers. At the same time in the US, Samuel Morse received a patent on an electromagnetic transmitter that could transfer information using dots and dashes. Morse's telegraph was far simpler than the Cooke Wheatstone design, and soon became the standard instrument worldwide, revolutionizing the global movement of information.
 

Long-distance communicator
This is a single-needle electric telegraph machine,
which later developed into double-needle and
four-needle instruments.
 
 
When Britain's King William IV died on 20 June, he had no surviving legitimate heir, so the crown passed to Victoria, his niece. She was the daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent, and granddaughter of George III. Her reign was viewed as a time of growing prosperity, technological innovation, and colonial expansion.
 

Coronation of Queen Victoria
in Westminster Abbey.
 
 
Queen Victoria(1819-1901)

Ruling for 63 years and 216 days, Queen Victoria remains the longest-reigning monarch of Britain. In 184-0, she married her cousin, Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1819-61). She adored him and they had nine children together. The Victorian era contrasted sharply with the excesses of previous Hanoverian rulers, and Victoria's domestic life was held up as the model for families in this period.
 

Coronation portrait by George Hayter
 
 
1837 Victoria Crowned

In 1837, Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. She remained in power for 64 years, into the first year of the 20th century. During her reign, called the Victorian age, Britain was involved in the Opium War in China; the Crimean War in Russia; and the Boer War in South Africa. The Victorian age was also the time when the British Empire saw great expansion, including Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, large parts of Africa, and other regions around the globe. But it was the queen's prime ministers who were responsible for much of Britain's success, and Victoria realized that she needed to step back from power and take a more symbolic role as ruler. This was a change in the definition of the role of the queen (or king), but also allowed the British monarchy to remain in place to the present day.

FOOTNOTE Victoria was 18 years old when she became queen, and her reign lasted until her death in 1901 at the age of 81. Her 64-year reign is the longest in British history, celebrated with both a golden and a diamond jubilee.
 
 

Queen Victoria sits on her throne in royal pomp.
 
 
 
In Japan, Tokugawa leyoshi (1793-1853) became shogun. At the time of his rule Japan was experiencing social and economic decline. He introduced measures known as the Tempo Reforms, restricting migration to urban areas and instigating price controls—but they failed.
 
 
1837 Deere Designs Plow

In 1837, John Deere (a name that now conjures up images of green-and-yellow tractors) began designing plows that would perform well in the dense prairie soil of the Midwest. These new plows provided vast improvements over the previous East Coast-made wood and iron plows used in his native Vermont. Deere, trained as a blacksmith but possessed of an inventor's mind, had discovered when moving from Vermont to Illinois that his and the other homesteaders' cast-iron plows, which were productive with the sandy soils in New England, were useless on rich prairie soil. Plows had to be scraped clean of dirt constantly, making the work laborious and frustrating. In 1838, Deere developed a steel plow, using a broken saw blade that was self-scouring and easily cut through the soil. He named it the Grand Detour Plow. He immediately began manufacturing his plows and then taking them into the country to sell to farmers. In 1849 he and his business partners had a workforce that built more than 2,000 plows. By 1857, this number had risen to 10,000 plows per year.
His company would become a leader in making farm equipment, and his plow played a large role in opening up agricultural land in the western states.
 
 
 
1838
 
 
"HE'LL HAVE US GOING TO THE MOON YET."

Great Western Railway director, on Isambard Kingdom Brunei
 
 
TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY was rapidly changing. Along with the expansion in rail transport, travel by sea was also being revolutionized by many innovations. The power of steam was finally harnessed in an efficient way that allowed for much quicker sea crossings. On 8 April 1838, the Great Western left Bristol for its maiden transatlantic voyage, and arrived in New York 15 days later; the paddle-wheeled steamship had cut the voyage time in half and arrived with fuel to spare. The ship had been designed by leading British civil engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunei (1806-59), who had also been involved in other engineering projects, including the Great Western Railway. The idea for the steamship started as a suggestion by Brunei to Great Western Railway directors that the train line could be extended to New York by way of a regular transatlantic service. Soon after, the Great Western Steamship Company was set up to facilitate the construction of the ship.
 

Brunei's Great Western
The Great Western steamship shown off the west coast of England.
The sails helped to propel the ship and keep it on an even keel.
 
 
In the Americas, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua became independent nations.
 
 
1838 Cherokee Travel Trail of Tears

In 1838, after gold was discovered on their tribal lands in the southeastern United States, the Cherokee Indians were forced to embark on the Trail of Tears, a thousand-mile journey to Indian Territory, in what is
now known as Oklahoma. A minority of Cherokee had earlier agreed to the move and signed a treaty, but most did not want to leave their land and were forced out by U.S. Army soldiers. Some 16,000 Cherokee were gathered in camps while their homes were destroyed. The journey, which took place in fall and winter, was difficult, and about 4,000 died from inadequate food and shelter. About 1,000 Cherokee managed to escape the Army and established the Eastern Band of the Cherokee in the Great Smoky Mountains. Today's Cherokee Nation Indians of Oklahoma are considered the descendants of the Cherokee that moved west.

FOOTNOTE In the years just before their relocation west, leaders among the Cherokee had developed a written language, called Talking Leaves, and had begun to publish a newspaper, called the Cherokee Phoenix.
 
 

A caricature of the drawing and quartering of the Cherokee Nation
 
 
 
1838 Antarctica Is a Continent

In 1838, American naval officer Charles Wilkes set off on a four-year voyage to Antarctica. Others had previously sighted and charted parts of Antarctica, but because of its forbidding climate and icy waters it was difficult to reach, and explorers were unsure if it was a continent or a block of ice. In 1840, Wilkes sailed more than 1,500 miles along the
coast. Exploration of the continent by land, air, and sea continued into the next century, and in the 1950s many countries built bases on Antarctica in order to conduct scientific research. Although multiple countries have claimed sovereign rights to the continent, the Antarctic Treaty of 1961 put all territorial claims on hold so no one country owns Antarctica, but all may access it.
 
 
 
1839
 
 

The East India Company's steamer, Nemesis, attacks Chinese war
junks in Anson's Bay, at the mouth of the Peart River, China,
during the First Opium War.
 
 
WHILE BRITISH TRADE IN CHINA CONTINUED TO EXPAND, so too did the Chinese opium problem. Decades earlier, the East India Company had started exporting the drug, produced from poppies grown in Bengal, to China in order to trade it for tea, which it then sent to Britain. Despite numerous attempts to ban the importation of the substance, British ships continued to import it. On March 30, 1839, one frustrated Chinese commissioner ordered British warehouses and ships in Canton to be destroyed. Britain sent warships in retaliation, attacking China's coastline in the First Opium War.
 
 

View of the European factories in Canton
 
 
 
Meanwhile, tensions between Egypt and the Ottoman sultan erupted again in the Second Turko-Egyptian War. This time it was triggered by an Ottoman attempt to invade Syria, which it had previously ceded to Egypt.
 
 
At the same time, British political meddling in Afghanistan triggered the First Afghan War (to 1842). Worried about Russia's growing influence over the Afghan emir, Dost Muhammad Khan (1793-1863), Britain attempted to replace him with an emir more sympathetic to British interests in northern India, including the protection of overland trade routes through the region.
 


A British-Indian force attacks Ghazni fort during the First Afghan War, c.1839.

 
 
In England, naturalist Charles Darwin published an account of the diary he kept while on the Beagle. The journey had taken Darwin around the world. He had set off from Plymouth in 1831 for the Cape Verde Islands, then Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Tierra del Fuego. He then sailed north along the Pacific Coast of South America, stopping at the Galapagos Islands, before going onward to Tahiti, New Zealand, Australia, Mauritius, and finally back to England, arriving in October 1836. Darwin's account helped make his name in science.
 

Darwin's Beagle voyages
Charles Darwin's five-year voyage (1831-36) on the Beagle, a warship carrying ten cannons, led him to consider scientific evidence in new ways.
 
 
 
1839 Goodyear Invents Vulcanization

In 1839, Charles Goodyear invented the vulcanization process, which would eventually give the world countless usable rubber products ranging from vehicle tires to inflatable life rafts. Inventions using rubber, a chemical derived from a South American tree, had previously been limited by its temperature sensitivity. Goodyear, an American inventor,
solved the problem one day by accidentally dropping a combination of rubber and sulfur onto a hot stove. The heated rubber was not sticky, and later, when chilled, it was not brittle. Weatherproof rubber was born. Vulcanization became wildly successful, and though he patented it in 1844, Goodyear struggled with patent infringements and died a debtor.
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1829 Part III NEXT-1830 Part I